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Sample records for drug tests

  1. Drug testing.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David A

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of sports samples for prohibited substances began in the 1960s and has developed since then using modern technologies close to the latest scientific discoveries. In this chapter the latest techniques and applications are described as well as the role of the World Anti-Doping Agency as the controlling body for the implementation of these tests. For small molecules, apart from the routine use of GC-MS, the newer techniques include the use of isotope ratio MS to detect testosterone and nandrolone administration and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem MS) to detect diuretics. For large molecules, several applications of LC-MS/MS are described as well as immunoprocedures for erythropoietin and human growth hormone. Finally, the latest method to detect homologous blood transfusion is briefly described.

  2. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the United States Supreme Court confirmed that in the school's role of in loco parentis, drug testing of students who were involved in athletics and extracurricular activities was constitutional. In a state of the union address, George W. Bush stated that drug testing in schools had been effective and was part of "our aggressive…

  3. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Vernonia School District v. Acton Supreme Court decision in 1995, forever changed the landscape of the legality of drug testing in schools. This decision stated that students who were involved in athletic programs could be drug tested as long as the student's privacy was not invaded. According to some in the medical profession, there are two…

  4. Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The majority of drug testings are first done with some kind of qualitative presumptive tests. After the qualitative presumptive tests are performed, a confirmatory test is necessary which demonstrates to the students the rigor needed to conclusively identify a substance.

  5. Drug testing in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Steven W

    2012-09-01

    Drug testing in newborns comes with analytical, therapeutic, and legal issues, and interpretation of results may be left to physicians, nurses, or social services workers. The unique analytical and legal caveats pose a variety of challenges and therapeutic issues. Positive drug screening results can allow for proper medical management of withdrawal symptoms for certain drug classes. Legal implications and involvement of social services for assessment of child safety surround positive urine or meconium drug samples. Because laboratory results can potentially remove newborns from their biological parents, the caveats and limitations of drug testing in this population are of utmost importance.

  6. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  7. Health care organization drug testing.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J P; Dempsey, J

    1992-09-01

    Health care managers are being required to respond to the growing concerns of the public about alcohol and drug use in the health care workplace. To this end, the following recommendations are offered. A drug testing policy should be developed with input from and support of employees and unions. "For cause" testing should be used because it results in more definitive results and better employee acceptance. Unless there are compelling reasons for random testing, "for cause" testing is the preferable method. All levels of employees and the medical staff should be subject to the drug-testing policy. Rehabilitation rather than punishment should be emphasized in dealing with employees with alcohol and drug problems.

  8. Implications of Drug Testing Cheerleaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachsler, Tracy A.; Birren, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    With the untimely death of a University of Louisville cheerleader due to an accidental drug overdose in the summer of 2014, the athletic department representatives took steps to prevent future incidents by adding cheerleaders to the randomized drug testing protocols conducted at the university for the student-athletes involved in National…

  9. Student Drug Testing: Beyond Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2004-01-01

    Although the US Supreme Court approved testing student athletes in 1995, and two years ago upheld an Oklahoma school system's right to randomly test students in extracurricular activities, schools nationally have not rushed to do it. A 2003 University of Michigan study found just 19% of secondary schools do some form of drug testing and most limit…

  10. Drugs of Abuse Testing

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  11. Who Tests which Athletes for What Drugs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Sarah L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews trends in sports organizations' drug testing policies and procedures for its members, including which drugs are tested, who gets tested within the organizations, when tests are conducted, and penalties for those who test positive. (CB)

  12. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  13. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  14. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  15. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  16. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  17. Random Drug Tests: What Are the Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, William E.

    1993-01-01

    American Trucking Association conducted survey of 1,655 motor carriers 2 years ago concerning drug use in trucking industry. Based on responses from 540 carriers (32%) costs of drug testing ranged between $30 and $70 per test. Of 153,000 truck drivers tested, 1.95% were verified "positive" for illegal drug use. Delaware study of school…

  18. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  19. 76 FR 59574 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 RIN 2105-AE13 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form; Technical Amendment AGENCY... of a new Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF) in its drug testing program. Use of...

  20. [Workplace testing of drugs of abuse and psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Mura, P; Saussereau, E; Brunet, B; Goullé, J-P

    2012-05-01

    In France, workplace testing of drugs of abuse and psychotropic drugs is rarely performed; meanwhile it is a major public health problem. Furthermore, France is the European country that has been associated with the highest increase of the use of drugs of abuse, particularly cannabis. So workplace biological screening of drugs of abuse and of psychotropic drugs exposure is of major concern. New analytical techniques have been developed during the last years. The authors will consider analytical screening of drugs of abuse and particularly the comparison of analytical techniques applied to urine and saliva. The advantages and the disadvantages of these two matrices will be considered. Urinary and blood quantification will be reviewed, but also the interest of hair testing to explore chronic exposure. The research of psychotropic drugs in biological fluids is also a part of this paper. New analytical trends are promising and complete analysis of these substances will be soon routinely possible in blood using a single spot test.

  1. A Model for Random Student Drug Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judith A.; Rose, Nancy L.; Lutz, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine random student drug testing in one school district relevant to: (a) the perceptions of students participating in competitive extracurricular activities regarding drug use and abuse; (b) the attitudes and perceptions of parents, school staff, and community members regarding student drug involvement; (c)…

  2. Drug-Free Schools: A National Challenge. Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The ERIC Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    "The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This inaugural issue contains two principal articles: "Drug-Free Schools: A National Challenge," by Samuel Y. Fustukjian, and "Drug Testing," by Amy Klauke and Margaret Hadderman. In addition, the following major features concerned…

  3. The subversion of urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Berge, Keith H; Bush, Donna M

    2010-08-01

    Since government and private industry have instituted urine drug testing to ensure a drug-free work force, an industry dedicated to subverting the results of those tests has developed. This article describes that industry, the types of products it markets, and efforts to curb the sale of those products.

  4. Random Drug Testing of Federal Employees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    providing urine specimens must allow individual privacy,unless the agency has reason to believe that a particular individual may alter or substitute...technical requirements regarding the drugs to be tested for, the procedures for collecting urine samples, and the tests and procedures for chemically...analyzing the collected urine samples. Congress has also required HHS to review and certify agency drug testing programs for compliance "with applicable

  5. Hair Testing for Drugs - Challenges for Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Stout, P R

    2007-07-01

    While testing hair for drugs of abuse has become more widely used in the past 30 years, significant challenges still remain to the interpretation of the results from these tests. Of primary concern is the likelihood of unwitting contamination from the environment producing a result indicative of drug use. It is imperative that this possibility be controlled and understood so that results from hair testing can be appropriately interpreted. Presently, truly unique metabolites are needed for many drugs (THC-COOH being a notable exception) since the mechanisms of decontamination processes used for hair are still poorly understood. While there is evidence that many drugs preferentially bind to melanin and that darker hair contains more drug, it is unclear how this translates into the interpretation of results for a population. Cosmetic treatments likely reduce the amount of drug systemically incorporated into hair and thus present a challenge of inappropriately negative interpretation. In addition, hair damaged as a result of cosmetic treatment may be at increased risk for environmental contamination. The asynchronous nature of human hair growth can also complicate results by obscuring the timeline of drug deposition. Lastly, the analytical variation of quantitative values has been demonstrated by several proficiency testing systems throughout the world to be high and method specific. Thus, while hair testing may be able to provide information about exposure to drugs, it is difficult at present to obtain reproducible results that can be unquestionably related to drug ingestion or to infer that the absence of drug in a hair sample is positive proof of no drug usage. Many questions still remain to be addressed by mechanistic understanding of drug deposition and retention in hair.

  6. Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gail A A; Kronstrand, Robert; Kintz, Pascal

    2012-05-10

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Guidelines for Drug Testing in Hair provide laboratories with recommended best practice guidelines whether they are currently offering drug testing in hair, or plan to offer a hair testing service in the future. The guidelines include reference to recommended sample collection and storage procedures, through sample preparation, pre-treatment and analysis and the use of cut-offs.

  7. Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bosker, Wendy M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) is an exciting alternative matrix for monitoring drugs of abuse in workplace, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. During the last 5 years, scientific and technological advances in OF collection, point-of-collection testing devices, and screening and confirmation methods were achieved. Guidelines were proposed for workplace OF testing by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DUID testing by the European Union’s Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) program, and standardization of DUID research. Although OF testing is now commonplace in many monitoring programs, the greatest current limitation is the scarcity of controlled drug administration studies available to guide interpretation. CONTENT This review outlines OF testing advantages and limitations, and the progress in OF that has occurred during the last 5 years in collection, screening, confirmation, and interpretation of cannabinoids, opioids, amphetamines, cocaine, and benzodiazepines. We examine controlled drug administration studies, immunoassay and chromatographic methods, collection devices, point-of-collection testing device performance, and recent applications of OF testing. SUMMARY Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration approval of OF testing was delayed because questions about drug OF disposition were not yet resolved, and collection device performance and testing assays required improvement. Here, we document the many advances achieved in the use of OF. Additional research is needed to identify new bio-markers, determine drug detection windows, characterize OF adulteration techniques, and evaluate analyte stability. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that OF offers multiple advantages as an alternative matrix for drug monitoring and has an important role in DUID, treatment, workplace, and criminal justice programs. PMID:19745062

  8. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug tests required. 199.105 Section 199.105... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.105 Drug tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following drug tests for the presence...

  9. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug tests required. 199.105 Section 199.105... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.105 Drug tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following drug tests for the presence...

  10. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug testing laboratory. 199.107 Section 199.107... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.107 Drug testing laboratory. (a) Each operator shall use for the drug testing required by...

  11. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug tests required. 199.105 Section 199.105... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.105 Drug tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following drug tests for the presence...

  12. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug testing laboratory. 199.107 Section 199.107... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.107 Drug testing laboratory. (a) Each operator shall use for the drug testing required by...

  13. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug testing laboratory. 199.107 Section 199.107... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.107 Drug testing laboratory. (a) Each operator shall use for the drug testing required by...

  14. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug tests required. 199.105 Section 199.105... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.105 Drug tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following drug tests for the presence...

  15. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug testing laboratory. 199.107 Section 199.107... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.107 Drug testing laboratory. (a) Each operator shall use for the drug testing required by...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs...

  1. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  2. Microengineered liver tissues for drug testing.

    PubMed

    Khetani, Salman R; Berger, Dustin R; Ballinger, Kimberly R; Davidson, Matthew D; Lin, Christine; Ware, Brenton R

    2015-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of drug attrition. Significant and well-documented differences between animals and humans in liver pathways now necessitate the use of human-relevant in vitro liver models for testing new chemical entities during preclinical drug development. Consequently, several human liver models with various levels of in vivo-like complexity have been developed for assessment of drug metabolism, toxicity, and efficacy on liver diseases. Recent trends leverage engineering tools, such as those adapted from the semiconductor industry, to enable precise control over the microenvironment of liver cells and to allow for miniaturization into formats amenable for higher throughput drug screening. Integration of liver models into organs-on-a-chip devices, permitting crosstalk between tissue types, is actively being pursued to obtain a systems-level understanding of drug effects. Here, we review the major trends, challenges, and opportunities associated with development and implementation of engineered liver models created from primary cells, cell lines, and stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells. We also present key applications where such models are currently making an impact and highlight areas for improvement. In the future, engineered liver models will prove useful for selecting drugs that are efficacious, safer, and, in some cases, personalized for specific patient populations.

  3. Respect versus Surveillance: Drug Testing Our Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Martin, Gordon A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This launches a new periodic feature in Reclaiming Children and Youth. "Justice Alerts" examines current laws and policies against the twofold standards of solid science and moral values. This inaugural article explores the legal issues and political rhetoric surrounding random drug testing in schools and describes how science is being…

  4. Why We Test Students for Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    With 10 years of experience leading schools through random drug testing programs, the author, a superintendent, is convinced she's on the right track. At Hunterdon Central Regional High School District in Flemington, New Jersey, a school where she works as a superintendent, the author relates that they have seen a significant and well-documented…

  5. 75 FR 9018 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY... Percentage Rate for Random Drug Testing. SUMMARY: PHMSA has determined that the minimum random drug testing... percentage of covered employees for random drug testing. Pursuant to 49 CFR 199.105(c)(2), (3), and (4),...

  6. 77 FR 2606 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY... Percentage Rate for Random Drug Testing. SUMMARY: PHMSA has determined that the minimum random drug testing... percentage of covered employees for random drug testing. Pursuant to 49 CFR 199.105(c)(2), (3), and (4),...

  7. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...-drug program. (b) MRO qualifications. Each MRO must be a licensed physician who has the...

  8. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence).

  9. The Development of a Test to Assess Drug Using Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Michael E.

    The objective of the study was to develop a test which could measure both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-using behavior, including such factors as attitudes toward drugs, experience with drugs, and knowledge about drugs. The Drug Use Scale was developed containing 134 items and dealing with five classes of drugs: marijuana,…

  10. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution and drug release testing. 343.90 Section 343.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  11. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  12. Drug Development Against Viral Diseases (Biological Testing)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    any. sip of infection or disese (11. Also, laboratory work with CCHF has beeni limited because accidental infections which have had serious or even fata...were unldrgoir. i,,¢rois. No leb’ons were found in submaxillary or sublingual salivary gland, kidney , heart, eye, lacrimal gland, thyroid, trachea, or...examined including kidney , lung, liver and brain. e. Active chemotherapeutic agents in the vaccinia tail lesion model. Most drugs tested in thit model gave

  13. Employee Drug Testing Policies in Police Departments. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, J. Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of drug testing policies and the implementation of drug testing procedures involve legal, ethical, medical, and labor relations issues. To learn how police departments are addressing the problem of drug use and drug testing of police officers, the National Institute of Justice sponsored a telephone survey of 33 major police…

  14. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  15. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  16. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary to... control areas of the DOE reactors listed in § 707.7(c), for the use of illegal drugs, if the behavior...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Drug Testing in Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... urine samples to test for drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, PCP, and opioids (both heroin and ...

  18. The Relationship between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The purposes of this study are (1) to provide descriptive information on drug testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and (2) to examine the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by…

  19. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  20. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  1. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  2. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  3. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  4. Medication monitoring and drug testing ethics project.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard; Moe, Jeffrey L; Sevier, Catherine Harvey; Sevier, David; Waitzkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Duke University initiated a research project, funded by an unrestricted research grant from Millennium Laboratories, a drug testing company. The project focused on assessing the frequency and nature of questionable, unethical, and illegal business practices in the clinical drug testing industry and assessing the potential for establishing a business code of ethics. Laboratory leaders, clinicians, industry attorneys, ethicists, and consultants participated in the survey, were interviewed, and attended two face-to-face meetings to discuss a way forward. The study demonstrated broad acknowledgment of variations in the legal and regulatory environment, resulting in inconsistent enforcement of industry practices. Study participants expressed agreement that overtly illegal practices sometimes exist, particularly when laboratory representatives and clinicians discuss reimbursement, extent of testing, and potential business incentives with medical practitioners. Most respondents reported directly observing probable violations involving marketing materials, contracts, or, in the case of some individuals, directly soliciting people with offers of clinical supplies and other "freebies." While many study respondents were skeptical that voluntary standards alone would eliminate questionable business practices, most viewed ethics codes and credentialing as an important first step that could potentially mitigate uneven enforcement, while improving quality of care and facilitating preferred payment options for credentialed parties. Many were willing to participate in future discussions and industry-wide initiatives to improve the environment.

  5. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  6. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  8. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  10. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing... of records, at any time, by the operator, the Administrator, and if the operator is subject to...

  11. 78 FR 37231 - Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug Substances and Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing...

  12. 76 FR 1448 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2011 minimum random drug testing rate at 50 percent of covered crewmembers. DATES: The minimum random...

  13. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 120 RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs... commercial air tour operations to combine the drug and alcohol testing required for each operation into one... while maintaining the level of safety intended by the current drug and alcohol testing regulations....

  14. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  15. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre-employment drug testing. (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered service for...

  16. 76 FR 79204 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2012 minimum random drug testing rate at 50 percent of covered crewmembers. DATES: The minimum random...

  17. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping... General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted... should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized....

  18. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... are subject to this part shall implement drug and alcohol testing programs for individuals who...

  19. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... are subject to this part shall implement drug and alcohol testing programs for individuals who...

  20. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping... General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted... should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized....

  1. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  2. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre-employment drug testing. (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered service for...

  3. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping... General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted... should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized....

  4. 78 FR 4855 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2013 minimum random drug testing rate at 25 percent of covered crewmembers. The Coast Guard will continue...

  5. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping... General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted... should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized....

  6. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... are subject to this part shall implement drug and alcohol testing programs for individuals who...

  7. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping... General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted... should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized....

  8. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  9. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  10. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 120 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing...: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations... definitions; added wording to the sections describing refusals to submit to drug or alcohol tests;...

  11. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre-employment drug testing. (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered service for...

  12. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  13. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  14. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  15. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  16. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  17. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall perform drug and alcohol testing that...

  18. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees...

  19. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees...

  20. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees...

  1. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall perform drug and alcohol testing that...

  2. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall perform drug and alcohol testing that...

  3. What You Need To Know about Drug Testing in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    The Office of National Drug Control policy has put together this guide to assist educators, parents, and community leaders in determining whether student drug testing is appropriate for their schools. The aim is to provide anyone considering a drug-testing program in his or her community with a broad understanding of the issue and solid,…

  4. European guidelines for workplace drug and alcohol testing in hair.

    PubMed

    Salomone, A; Tsanaclis, L; Agius, R; Kintz, P; Baumgartner, M R

    2016-10-01

    Guidelines for Legally Defensible Workplace Drug Testing have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). They are based on the 2010 version published by Pascal Kintz and Ronald Agius (Guidelines for European workplace drug and alcohol testing in hair. Drug Test. Anal. 2010, 2, 367) and in concordance with the Society of Hair Testing guidelines (Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair. Forensic Sci. Int. 2012, 218, 20-24). The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Scientific issues in drug testing: council on scientific affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-12

    Testing for drugs in biologic fluids, especially urine, is a practice that has become widespread. The technology of testing for drugs in urine has greatly improved in recent years. Inexpensive screening techniques are not sufficiently accurate for forensic testing standards, which must be met wihen a person's employment or reputation may be affected by results. This is particularly a concern during screening of a population in which the prevalence of drug use is very low, in which the predictive value of a positive result would be quite low. Physicians should be aware that results from drug testing can yield accurate evidence of prior exposure to drugs, but they do not provide information about patterns of drug use, about abuse of or dependence on drugs, or about mental or physical impairments that may result from drug use.

  6. 78 FR 52931 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug Substances and Products, Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``ANDAs: Stability Testing of...

  7. Drug Combinations: Tests and Analysis with Isoboles

    PubMed Central

    Tallarida, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Described in this unit are experimental and computational methods to detect and classify drug interactions. In most cases this relates to two drugs or compounds with overtly similar effects, e.g., two analgesics or two anti-hypertensives. From the dose-response data of the individual drugs it is possible to generate a curve, the isobole, that defines all dose combinations that are expected to yield a specified effect. The theory underlying the isobole involves the calculation of doses of drug A that are effectively equivalent to doses of drug B with that equivalence determining whether the isobole is linear or nonlinear. In either case the isobole allows for a comparison with actual combination effects making it possible to determine whether the interaction is synergistic, additive or sub-additive. Actual as well as illustrative data are employed to illustrate experimental design and data analysis. PMID:26995550

  8. Testing for drugs of abuse in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Levy, Sharon; Siqueira, Lorena M; Ammerman, Seth D; Gonzalez, Pamela K; Ryan, Sheryl A; Siqueira, Lorena M; Smith, Vincent C

    2014-06-01

    Drug testing is often used as part of an assessment for substance use in children and adolescents. However, the indications for drug testing and guidance on how to use this procedure effectively are not clear. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure and limitations to the information derived from drug testing all affect its utility. The objective of this clinical report is to provide guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians on the efficacy and efficient use of drug testing on the basis of a review of the nascent scientific literature, policy guidelines, and published clinical recommendations.

  9. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591... Inspector or register with the FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800... contractor who has your own drug testing program Register with the FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine,...

  10. Virologic Tools for HCV Drug Resistance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Fourati, Slim; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the development of new antiviral drugs that target specific steps of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) lifecycle. These drugs, collectively termed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), include non-structural (NS) HCV protein inhibitors, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (nucleotide analogues and non-nucleoside inhibitors), and NS5A inhibitors. Due to the high genetic variability of HCV, the outcome of DAA-based therapies may be altered by the selection of amino-acid substitutions located within the targeted proteins, which affect viral susceptibility to the administered compounds. At the drug developmental stage, preclinical and clinical characterization of HCV resistance to new drugs in development is mandatory. In the clinical setting, accurate diagnostic tools have become available to monitor drug resistance in patients who receive treatment with DAAs. In this review, we describe tools available to investigate drug resistance in preclinical studies, clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:26690198

  11. Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

    PubMed Central

    Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

    1990-01-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. PMID:2190418

  12. An Assessment of Drug Testing within the Construction Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Jonathan K.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation.…

  13. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  14. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  15. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  16. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219.603 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  17. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... evaluation procedures, including, but not limited to, determinations of fitness. These personal...

  18. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... evaluation procedures, including, but not limited to, determinations of fitness. These personal...

  19. Why We Test Students for Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Today, there is a collective national awareness that an unacceptable number of teens are involved in the use of dangerous drugs such as methamphetamine, ecstasy, and heroin, and they have access to high-grade marijuana. Alcohol use, even more pervasive, results in risky sexual behaviors, automobile accidents, and even death. To the dismay of many…

  20. Drug testing in Europe: monitoring results of the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; Nagy, Constanze; Bücheli, Alexander; Martins, Daniel; Ugarte, Miren; Beduwe, Cécile; Ventura Vilamala, Mireia

    2017-02-01

    Drug testing is a harm reduction strategy that has been adopted by certain countries in Europe. Drug users are able to hand in their drugs voluntarily for chemical analysis of composition and dose. Drug users will be alerted about dangerous test results by the drug testing systems directly and through warning campaigns. An international collaborative effort was launched to combine data of drug testing systems, called the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project. Drug testing systems of Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, and the Netherlands participated in this project. This study presents results of some of the main illicit drugs encountered: cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine and also comments on new psychoactive substances (NPS) detected between 2008 and 2013. A total of 45 859 different drug samples were analyzed by TEDI. The drug markets of the distinct European areas showed similarities, but also some interesting differences. For instance, purity of cocaine and amphetamine powders was generally low in Austria, whilst high in Spain and the Netherlands. And the market for ecstasy showed a contrast: whereas in the Netherlands and Switzerland there was predominantly a market for ecstasy tablets, in Portugal and Spain MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) crystals were much more prevalent. Also, some NPS appearing in ecstasy seemed more specific for one country than another. In general, prevalence of NPS clearly increased between 2008 and 2013. Drug testing can be used to generate a global picture of drug markets and provides information about the pharmacological contents of drugs for the population at risk. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients: licit and illicit drug patterns.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Moser, Frank

    2008-10-01

    Chronic pain patients are frequently maintained on one or more powerful opioid medications in combination with other psychoactive medications. Urine tests provide objective information regarding patient compliance status. Little information is available on testing this unique population. The goal of this study was to characterize drug disposition patterns in urine specimens collected from a large population of pain patients. Confirmation data for 10,922 positive specimens were collated into 11 drug Classes. The number of drug/metabolites tested (#) and number of confirmed positive specimens were as follows: amphetamines (7), 160; barbiturates (5), 308; benzodiazepines (6), 2397; cannabinoids (1), 967; carisoprodol (2), 611; cocaine (1), 310; fentanyl (1), 458; meperidine (2), 58; methadone (2), 1209; opiates (7), 8996; and propoxyphene (2), 385. Subdivision into 19 distinct drug Groups allowed characterization of drug use patterns. Of the 10,922 positive specimens, 15,859 results were reported as positive in various drug Classes, and 27,197 drug/metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The frequency of illicit drug use (cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy) was 10.8%. Being the first study of this type, these data present a large array of information on licit and illicit drug use, drug detection frequencies, drug/metabolite patterns, and multi-drug use combinations in pain patients.

  2. Drugs of abuse testing in meconium.

    PubMed

    Gareri, Joey; Klein, Julia; Koren, Gideon

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal substance abuse is an ongoing concern with significant impact on neonatal health and development across socioeconomic lines. Meconium, passed by neonates during their first post-natal bowel movements, is a matrix unique to the developing fetus and contains a long history of prenatal metabolism. Over the last two decades, the use of meconium as a matrix for assessing prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse has yielded methods exhibiting higher sensitivity, easier collection, and a larger window of detection than traditional matrices. Recently, a method has been developed for the analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium as a biomarker of fetal alcohol exposure, potentially facilitating the future diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in situations where gestational alcohol consumption history is unknown. Screening for prenatal exposure to illicit and abused licit drugs in meconium is possible by use of a variety of immunoassay methods with conformational analysis usually occurring by GCMS or LCMS. In spite of increased sample preparation time relative to blood and urine, the long metabolic history, coupled with the ease and wide window of collection of meconium make it the ideal matrix for determining fetal drug exposure.

  3. Drug Testing of Student-Athletes: Another Weapon in the War against Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Morse, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    In "Acton," the Supreme Court upheld a local school board policy calling for the random, suspicionless drug testing of interscholastic student-athletes. Reviews the Court's holdings. Concludes that a drug-testing policy that is consistent with "Acton" and enjoys broad-based community support probably would be worth its expense.…

  4. Regulatory aspects of workplace drug testing in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anya

    2012-02-01

    Workplace drug testing in Europe is governed by a patchwork of legislation--or lack of it. Other difficulties are caused by language, currency and a host of other factors, including the difficulty in defining 'safety critical'. The European Workplace Drug Testing Society's (EWDTS) history and objectives are briefly outlined. Some of the problems peculiar to testing in Europe are discussed. Finally, some of the legislation in the different countries is described.

  5. Interpretation of Oral Fluid Tests for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CONE, EDWARD J.; HUESTIS, MARILYN A.

    2009-01-01

    Oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse offers significant advantages over urine as a test matrix. Collection can be performed under direct observation with reduced risk of adulteration and substitution. Drugs generally appear in oral fluid by passive diffusion from blood, but also may be deposited in the oral cavity during oral, smoked, and intranasal administration. Drug metabolites also can be detected in oral fluid. Unlike urine testing, there may be a close correspondence between drug and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid and in blood. Interpretation of oral fluid results for drugs of abuse should be an iterative process whereby one considers the test results in the context of program requirements and a broad scientific knowledge of the many factors involved in determining test outcome. This review delineates many of the chemical and metabolic processes involved in the disposition of drugs and metabolites in oral fluid that are important to the appropriate interpretation of oral fluid tests. Chemical, metabolic, kinetic, and analytic parameters are summarized for selected drugs of abuse, and general guidelines are offered for understanding the significance of oral fluid tests. PMID:17332074

  6. The future of genetic testing for drug response

    PubMed Central

    Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J.; Fiebich, Bernd L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of variation in genes coding for drug targets and for the enzymes involved in drug metabolism has highlighted the genetic component of drug response. Drug response can be likened to a complex, multifactorial genetic trait, and the study of its genetic variation, termed pharmacogenetics, is analogous to the study of complex genetic disease in terms of the questions posed and the analytical possibilities. Just as DNA variants are associated with specific disease predispositions, so will they be associated with individual response to certain drugs. The testing for drug response is following the same route as the genetic testing for inherited disorders, and has reached the stage where genome-wide analysis, as opposed to the analysis of single genes, is a reality. In this article, we will discuss some of the technical advances that facilitate such analyses, leading to faster and more extensive diagnostic capabilities. PMID:22034216

  7. Drug susceptibility testing by dilution methods.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Katy; Plésiat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Serial twofold dilution methods are widely used to assess the bacteriostatic activities of antibiotics. This can be achieved by dilution of considered drugs in agar medium or in culture broth, and inoculation by calibrated inoculums. Although seemingly simple, these methods are greatly influenced by the experimental conditions used and may lead to discrepant results, in particular with untrained investigators. The present step-by-step protocol has been validated for Pseudomonas species, including P. aeruginosa. Introduction of appropriate control strains is crucial to ascertain minimal inhibitory concentration values and compare the results of independent experiments.

  8. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  9. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  10. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  11. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  12. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Abatement Division at FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800...

  13. Validity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-31

    drug-testing programs. Personnel Psvcholo-a, , 745-763. Gough, H. G. (1948). A Sociological theory of psychopathy . American Journal of Sociology, 5a...Personal Outlook Inventory. Parkridge, IL: Author. Simpson, D. D., Curtis, B., & Butler, M. C. ý1975,. Description of drug users in treatment : 1971-1972

  14. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... licensee or other entity to perform the suitability and fitness evaluations required under § 26.419....

  15. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... suitability and fitness evaluations required under § 26.419....

  16. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 120 RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Federal Aviation... or on-demand operators that also conduct commercial air tour operations to combine the drug and... 13, 2013. Any currently held exemptions allowing part 121 or part 135 operators to combine their...

  17. Meconium drug testing in multiple births in the USA.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kelly E; Krasowski, Matthew D; Strathmann, Frederick G; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2014-09-01

    Little is published about newborn drug testing in multiple gestations. The objective of this study was to review the results of meconium drug screening in multiple births to compare drug(s) and/or drug metabolite(s) detected. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from a national reference laboratory and an academic medical center. The data were de-identified for the reference laboratory dataset. For the academic center data, a detailed chart review of the newborn and mother's medical record was performed on cases for which one or more drug(s) and/or metabolites(s) were identified and confirmed in meconium. Meconium was analyzed for amphetamine, methamphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoid metabolites, cocaine metabolites, methadone, opiates, oxycodone, phencyclidine and propoxyphene. One hundred and forty-two of 1,084 sets of twins and 2 of 20 sets of triplets had mismatched results. The incidence of mismatched results among the individual drug or drug classes tested was 0.9% (208 of 23,848 total results). For the panel of drug testing performed, mismatches were seen in 13% (142 of 1,084) sets of twins and 10% (2 of 20) sets of triplets. Barbiturates (33%), opiates (30%) and benzodiazepines (28%) were the most common mismatches in the national reference laboratory dataset. Benzodiazepines (89%) and opiates (51%) were most common in the academic medical center dataset with most explained by iatrogenic medications administered to one infant but not the other. Mismatches for cannabinoids most often occurred when tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites were present at a low concentration (near lower reporting limit) in one infant but not the other. Mismatched results of meconium drug testing in multiples not explainable by differences in prescribed medications are uncommon and most often occur when an analyte is barely above reporting cutoff in only one infant. Administration of iatrogenic medications to one infant but not the other(s) is another

  18. Perceptions of Genetic Testing and Genomic Medicine among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, David C.; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jordan, Ashly E.; Hagan, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic testing will soon enter care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and for addiction. There is a paucity of data on how to disseminate genetic testing into healthcare for marginalized populations. We explored drug users’ perceptions of genetic testing. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 34 drug users recruited from syringe exchange programs and an HIV clinic between May and June 2012. Individual interviews were conducted with participants reporting previous genetic testing. Results All participants expressed acceptance of genetic testing to improve care, but most had concerns regarding confidentiality and implications for law enforcement. Most expressed more comfort with genetic testing based on individual considerations rather than testing based on race/ethnicity. Participants expressed comfort with genetic testing in medical care rather than drug treatment settings and when specifically asked permission, with peer support, and given a clear rationale. Conclusions Although participants understood the potential value of genetic testing, concerns regarding breaches in confidentiality and discrimination may reduce testing willingness. Safeguards against these risks, peer support, and testing in medical settings based on individual factors and with clear rationales provided may be critical in efforts to promote acceptance of genetic testing among drug users. PMID:25037119

  19. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana,...

  20. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana,...

  1. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana,...

  2. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana,...

  3. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana,...

  4. In utero drugs of abuse exposure testing for newborn twins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Molina, Claudia P; Maldonado, Joyce E; Bernard, David W

    2010-03-01

    This report describes testing of a case of in utero drugs of abuse exposure in which discordant results were seen between urine and meconium, and between twin meconium samples. The discordance between urine and meconium could be explained by the differences in detection window, threshold concentration and screening technology, and the discordance between dizygotic twin meconium samples could be explained by the differences in drug diffusion and placental and fetal biotransformation of drugs. The meconium sample of one twin screened negative for benzodiazepines was reported positive in the confirmation assay with higher sensitivity and a lower cut-off concentration. Negative screening results of drugs of abuse should be interpreted with caution, taking into account matrix type, reactivity of drugs in the assay and cut-off concentration. If screening results are inconsistent with each other or with the clinical scenario, confirmation testing using more sensitive and specific methods with lower cut-offs is warranted.

  5. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    .... According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive... notice of determination is effective December 26, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elizabeth...

  6. Cellular Tests for the Evaluation of Drug Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Adriana; Montanez, Maria I; Fernandez, Tahia D; Perkins, James R; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) is complex, with many potential pitfalls. Although the use of clinical history and skin testing can be valuable, drug provocation testing (DPT) remains the gold standard for many DHR. However, DPT carries some potential risk and should not be performed for severe reactions. There is therefore a general consensus on the need to improve in vitro tests to achieve safe and accurate diagnosis of DHR. A range of in vitro approaches can be applied depending on the type of reaction and the immunological mechanism involved, i.e. IgE- or T-cell-mediated. However, commercially available tests only exist for a handful of drugs, and only for drugs that provoke IgEmediated DHR. Of the cellular tests that focus on the identification of the culprit drug, the best validated is the basophil activation test used for evaluating IgE-mediated reactions. For T-cell-mediated DHR, the lymphocyte transformation test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot appear to be the most promising. However, these tests often show low sensitivity. Despite their current drawbacks, in vitro tests can complement in vivo testing and further work in this area will be crucial to improve our current arsenal of tools for the detection and assessment of DHR. For this, the use of appropriate and relevant drug metabolites as well as other factors that can amplify the cell response as well as the use of multiple tests in concert key to improving in vitro diagnosis. Such improvements will be crucial to diagnose patients with severe reactions for whom DPT cannot be performed.

  7. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of... CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25...-6313); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955)....

  8. 49 CFR 40.85 - What drugs do laboratories test for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test. You must not test “DOT specimens” for any other drugs. (a) Marijuana metabolites. (b) Cocaine... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What drugs do laboratories test for? 40.85 Section... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.85 What drugs do...

  9. 49 CFR 40.85 - What drugs do laboratories test for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test. You must not test “DOT specimens” for any other drugs. (a) Marijuana metabolites. (b) Cocaine... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What drugs do laboratories test for? 40.85 Section... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.85 What drugs do...

  10. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  11. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  12. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  13. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  14. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  15. Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association with Student Drug Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…

  16. Army Drug Development Program. Phase I. Clinical Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    34floaters" could be related to the phototoxocity testing. Following an explanation of phototoxicity testing, the subject no longer noted an increase in the...the infusion, does not permit attribution of orthostatic intolerance to drug effect. No changes related to infusion of WR 149,024 . were observed in...considered related to the infusion of WR 149,024. Orthostatic Tolerance Testing: Orthostatic intolerance test results for all subjects are pre- sented

  17. Pharmacogenetics and Predictive Testing of Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Ruwen; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions adverse drug reaction (ADR) occur in approximately 17% of patients. Avoiding ADR is thus mandatory from both an ethical and an economic point of view. Whereas, pharmacogenetics changes of the pharmacokinetics may contribute to the explanation of some type A reactions, strong relationships of genetic markers has also been shown for drug hypersensitivity belonging to type B reactions. We present the classifications of ADR, discuss genetic influences and focus on delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions, i.e., drug-induced liver injury, drug-induced agranulocytosis, and severe cutaneous ADR. A guidance how to read and interpret the contingency table is provided as well as an algorithm whether and how a test for a pharmacogenetic biomarker should be conducted. PMID:27818635

  18. Therapeutic disasters that hastened safety testing of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Paine, M F

    2017-04-01

    New drugs were not required to undergo premarket safety testing in the United States until 1938, when a therapeutic disaster-the Elixir Sulfanilamide tragedy-prompted Congress to pass a bill mandating this now-routine process. History repeated itself nearly 25 years later, when another therapeutic disaster-the thalidomide tragedy-led to passage of new amendments in 1962 to ensure drug efficacy and greater drug safety. As is typical with historical events, critical information was gained that led to novel approaches for understanding, predicting, diagnosing, and managing drug-induced toxicities. Continued refinement of current, along with development of new, approaches will mitigate future drug-related catastrophes, with the goal of avoiding them entirely.

  19. The implications of urine drug testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Chen, Isabel L; Kodumudi, Vijay; Ortigosa, Esperanza; Gudin, Maria Teresa

    2010-07-02

    In the treatment of pain management, physicians employ a variety of drugs, ranging from low-impact to highly potent, and to maximize patient health, urine toxicology analyses can significantly improve the delivery of pain treatment. Drugs such as opioids that are used for pain management are peculiar in that they provide effective pain relief and have a high risk of addiction. The use of illicit drugs in the general population has been on the rise; however, self-reporting and close monitoring of patient behavior are insufficient means to detect drug abuse and confirm compliance. Therefore, in order to create more effective drug treatment plans, physicians must understand and account for the implications of patient drug use history. Urine toxicology analysis is an important tool for pain physicians because it is more sensitive than most alternative blood tests, more efficient and cost-effective. Urine testing in addition to improving patient pain management also has forensic and legal implications. There are however limitations to urine toxicology methods as they can produce false-positive and false-negative results and are prone to human error and sample contamination There is also a need for more specific and rapid urine drug testing. Healthcare professionals should therefore be familiar with the limitations of various urine drug testing methods, and possess skills necessary to properly interpret these results. This review suggests that the overall benefits incurred by both the patient's short-term and long-term health support the routine integration of urine toxicology analysis in routine clinical care. In addition to improving health care and patient health, it has a strong potential to improve patient-physician relationships and protects the interest of involved healthcare practitioners.

  20. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  1. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  2. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  3. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  4. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  5. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test*

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Soares; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction. PMID:27828643

  6. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Aline Soares de; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction.

  7. Legal Review for Testing of Drugs in Hair.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, R T

    2007-07-01

    The legal issues associated with hair drug testing in general have significant differences from issues associated with urine drug testing. Discussed are cases that illuminate these differences. The issues in hair testing are not yet settled and legal precedent has not been forthcoming. Among the issues discussed is the admissibility of hair testing results based on its acceptance as scientific evidence. Some state jurisdictions still require that scientific evidence must be generally accepted in the scientific discipline where it belongs. The federal courts and an increasing number of state courts are using a less stringent standard and do not require majority acceptance by the scientific community. In some cases hair testing has been shown to be less intrusive than the use of other body samples, thus avoiding Fourth Amendment issues. However, a racial bias issue still exists based on the higher melanin content in the hair of African-Americans. A substantial issue is also whether environmental contamination of hair can be differentiated from the internal administration of a drug. The courts are also increasingly utilizing the differences between the time required for a drug or its metabolite to appear in a hair sample or urine sample in adjudicating cases.

  8. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... in order for collectors, laboratories, and Medical Review Officers to know how to use the new form...'' after ``Marijuana Metabolite'' and ``BZE'' after ``Cocaine Metabolite'' to specify the drug analytes; (3) In Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF, a line has been included on which the Medical Review Officer...

  9. Random Student Drug Testing as a School-Based Drug Prevention Strategy

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Robert L.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Arria, Amelia M.; Shea, Corinne L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This article describes the goals and current practice of school-based random student drug testing (RSDT) as part of an overall drug prevention strategy, briefly explores the available literature evaluating its effectiveness, and discusses the controversies related to RSDT. Method Authors describe the rationale for RSDT programs and the prevalence of RSDT and other drug testing programs in schools. Eight major criticisms and controversies in RSDT are discussed including those related to acceptance of RSDT, program effectiveness, costs, legality, and effects of drug testing on students. The limitations of the current literature are explored. Findings Although there is limited empirical evidence to support or refute the efficacy of RSDT in schools, there remains substantial opposition to such programs, which may contribute to the paucity of empirical studies of RSDT. Conclusions Rigorous long-term evaluations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of various versions of RSDT programs to prevent drug use and identify students in need of assistance to become and stay drug-free. PMID:22906236

  10. 21 CFR 355.70 - Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 355.70 Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug products. (a) A fluoride dentifrice...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section 862.3645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section 862.3645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification....

  13. NCAA Drug-Testing Program 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Drug-Testing Program was created to protect the health and safety of student-athletes and to ensure that no one participant might have an artificially induced advantage or be pressured to use chemical substances. This publication describes this program in the following chapters: (1) NCAA…

  14. NCAA[R] Drug-Testing Program, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Ty, Ed.

    The drug testing program supports NCAA's goal to protect the health and safety of student-athletes competing for their institutions, while reaffirming the organization's commitment to fair and equitable competition. Proposal Nos. 30 and 52-54 provide a program for the NCAA's members to ensure that no one athlete has a chemically-induced advantage…

  15. Nonweekend schedule for BACTEC drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J E

    1986-01-01

    Determination of the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by conventional methods using an agar-based medium may take 3 weeks or more to complete. On the other hand, results on positive cultures are generally available in 4 to 7 days with the radiometric (BACTEC, Johnston Laboratories, Towson, Md.) procedure. One disadvantage to the latter is the requirement to determine the quantity of 14CO2 in each test vial on a daily basis from the day of inoculation. Growth index readings often must be made over weekends, adding to the work load of clinical laboratories during periods of reduced staff or necessitating compensatory pay or time. Susceptibility tests with streptomycin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and rifampin against 104 M. tuberculosis strains were performed by the submerged disk method, the recommended BACTEC method with daily growth index readings, and the radiometric procedure with readings delayed for 2 days after inoculation. Criteria for interpretation of "delayed" tests were established. Drug concentrations tested included some modifications of those available commercially. Overall agreement for the four drugs by the three methods was greater than 90%. We conclude that under our test conditions a schedule of inoculation of radiometric test vials on Friday with growth index readings commencing on Monday gives susceptibility results that correlate well with the daily BACTEC method and with a conventional 7H10 agar method. PMID:3086371

  16. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    .... SUMMARY: According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug... the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below 0.5 percent for the last... determination is effective December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug...

  17. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System... alcohol program data taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator... percent for drugs and 0.15 percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing...

  18. Drug Testing in Children with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness During Multiple Sleep Latency Testing

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eliot S.; Maski, Kiran; Jenkins, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the incidence of positive drug screens in children undergoing a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) for evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in children evaluated at the Boston Children's Hospital Sleep Center between 1998 and 2013 who underwent MSLT for EDS with a concurrent urine and/or serum drug screen. Results: A total of 210 MSLTs were accompanied by drug testing. Children were 12.7 ± 3.7 years old (mean ± SD), 43% were female, and 24% had narcolepsy. Positive tests were obtained in 32% for caffeine, 5% for prescription medications, and 4% for over-the-counter drugs. No drugs of abuse were identified. Children testing positive for caffeine were older (13.8 ± 3.5 vs. 12.4 ± 3.7) and more likely female (59% vs. 36%), but did not differ in MSLT or overnight polysomnographic parameters compared to children without caffeine detected. Overall, only 14% had specific documentation regarding caffeine intake, though 90% were referred from a sleep clinic. Of the children testing positive for caffeine, 5% acknowledged use, 3% denied use, and 92% did not have a documented caffeine intake history during their sleep clinic visit. Conclusions: Routine drug testing for drugs of abuse during an MSLT for EDS yielded no positive results over a 15-year period, indicating that this routine practice is unnecessary in our pediatric population without specific concerns. However, objective evidence for caffeine exposure was found in 32% of tested children undergoing an MSLT. Sleep physicians rarely documented the caffeine intake history during clinic visits for EDS. Citation: Katz ES, Maski K, Jenkins AJ. Drug testing in children with excessive daytime sleepiness during multiple sleep latency testing. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):897-901. PMID:25126037

  19. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing

    PubMed Central

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. Methods The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Results Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Conclusions Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. PMID:27344042

  20. The Sociological and Mathematical Implications of Mandatory Urine Tests for Drug Use in the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janell; Campbell, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Mandatory drug testing of workers will create problems due to the low predictive ability of urinalysis. The predictive value of drug testing in populations of low drug incidence is illustrated using Bayes' Theorem. (MT)

  1. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions. 707.7 Section 707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing...

  2. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions. 707.7 Section 707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing...

  3. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions. 707.7 Section 707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing...

  4. The effects of distraction on symptoms during drug provocation test

    PubMed Central

    CILDAG, SONGUL; SENTURK, TASKIN; SARGIN, GOKHAN

    2017-01-01

    Background Some patients may have psychosomatic complaints due to their previous experiences during the drug hypersensitivity reaction. Worry about being hurt due to an administered drug is termed nocebo effect, which is the opposite of the placebo effect. In our study, we investigated the effect of distraction on symptoms during drug provocation test. Methods Our study included 112 patients who underwent DPTs for alternative purposes in our clinic. Previous hypersensitivity reactions of all the patients had objective signs. Patients were divided into two groups for the DPT. Sixty-three patients were kept busy during the test, performing tasks such as filling questionnaires, arranging files in alphabetical and numerical order, and doing archiving (Group 1). Forty-nine patients did not perform any tasks during the test (Group 2). Reactions that occurred during the test were recorded. Results During the DPT, 5 patients in Group 1 (5/63, 7.9%) and 17 patients in Group 2 (17/49, 34.7%), i.e. a total of 22 patients (22/112, 19.6%), had a reaction. There was a statistically significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 according to the frequency of the reaction development. Conclusions Patient psychosomatic complaints during DPTs are proportional to their association with previous allergic reactions. In order to prevent such reactions, it may be beneficial to keep the patients busy with an activity in order to distract them during the test. PMID:28246492

  5. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 49 CFR 199.119 - Reporting of anti-drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of anti-drug testing results. 199.119... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.119 Reporting of anti-drug testing results. (a) Each large...

  7. Synergy testing of FDA-approved drugs identifies potent drug combinations against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Planer, Joseph D; Hulverson, Matthew A; Arif, Jennifer A; Ranade, Ranae M; Don, Robert; Buckner, Frederick S

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 8 million persons, mainly in Latin America, are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Existing antiparasitic drugs for Chagas disease have significant toxicities and suboptimal effectiveness, hence new therapeutic strategies need to be devised to address this neglected tropical disease. Due to the high research and development costs of bringing new chemical entities to the clinic, we and others have investigated the strategy of repurposing existing drugs for Chagas disease. Screens of FDA-approved drugs (described in this paper) have revealed a variety of chemical classes that have growth inhibitory activity against mammalian stage Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. Aside from azole antifungal drugs that have low or sub-nanomolar activity, most of the active compounds revealed in these screens have effective concentrations causing 50% inhibition (EC50's) in the low micromolar or high nanomolar range. For example, we have identified an antihistamine (clemastine, EC50 of 0.4 µM), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine, EC50 of 4.4 µM), and an antifolate drug (pyrimethamine, EC50 of 3.8 µM) and others. When tested alone in the murine model of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, most compounds had insufficient efficacy to lower parasitemia thus we investigated using combinations of compounds for additive or synergistic activity. Twenty-four active compounds were screened in vitro in all possible combinations. Follow up isobologram studies showed at least 8 drug pairs to have synergistic activity on T. cruzi growth. The combination of the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, plus the antifungal drug, posaconazole, was found to be more effective at lowering parasitemia in mice than either drug alone, as was the combination of clemastine and posaconazole. Using combinations of FDA-approved drugs is a promising strategy for developing new treatments for Chagas disease.

  8. Signify ER Drug Screen Test evaluation: comparison to Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus tricyclic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jane Ellen; Bogema, Stuart; Fu, Paul; Furmaga, Wieslaw; Wu, Alan H B; Zic, Vlasta; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine

    2003-02-01

    Signify ER Drug Screen Test (Signify ER) and Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus TCA (Triage DOA Panel) rapid drug screening devices were compared at four laboratories. Both assay systems are point of care immunoassays, measuring phencyclidine, barbiturates, amphetamine, cocaine metabolite, methamphetamine, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, marijuana metabolite, and benzodiazepines in human urine. The performance of these two assay systems, including a cutoff verification and cross-reactivity using spiked urine specimens and accuracy using clinical urine samples, was investigated. The cutoff verification study showed that the Signify ER had 95.4% precision for all drugs tested at concentrations of 50%, 75%, 125%, 150%, and 200% of cutoffs compared to 90% precision obtained with Triage DOA Panel. Accuracy studies testing 53 negative urine samples demonstrated that both Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have 100% specificity. Testing of 693 positive urine samples demonstrated that Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have sensitivities of 99.8% and 99.3%, respectively, with an accuracy of 99.9% and 99.6%. A total of 527 compounds were tested for the cross-reactivity study. Eighty-seven structurally related drugs and metabolites were found to cross-react with at least one of the nine tests of the Signify ER. Four hundred forty structurally unrelated compounds that can be found in human urine were shown not to cross-react with the Signify ER. In terms of operating characteristics, the Signify ER device is simpler since only a single pipetting step is required, and reaction completed within 8 min.

  9. Segmental hair testing to disclose chronic exposure to psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    Marchei, Emilia; Palmi, Ilaria; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Anton Airaldi, Ileana-Rita; Costa Orvay, Juan Antonio; García Serra, Joan; Bonet Serra, Bartolomé; García-Algar, Óscar

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the case of a 4-year-old healthy child admitted to the paediatric ward for suspected accidental intoxication due to ingestion of narcoleptic drugs (methylphenidate, sertraline and quetiapine), taken on a regular basis by his 8-year-old brother affected by Asperger syndrome.Intoxication can be objectively assessed by measurements of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices with short-term (blood and urine) or long-term (hair) detection windows. At the hospital, the child's blood and urine were analysed by immunoassay (confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sertraline and quetiapine and their metabolites were identified. The suspicion that the mother administered drugs chronically prompted the analysis of six, consecutive 2-cm segments of the child's hair, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, thereby accounting for ingestion over the previous 12 months. Quetiapine was found in the first four segments with a mean concentration of 1.00 ng/mg ± 0.94 ng/mg hair while sertraline and its metabolite, desmethyl-sertraline, were found in all segments with a mean concentration of 2.65 ± 0.94 ng/mg and 1.50 ± 0.94 ng/mg hair, respectively. Hair analyses were negative for methylphenidate and its metabolite (ritalinic acid). Biological matrices testing for psychoactive drugs disclosed both acute and chronic intoxication with quetiapine and sertraline administered by the mother.

  10. Animal models for testing anti-prion drugs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Eraña, Hasier; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases belong to a group of fatal infectious diseases with no effective therapies available. Throughout the last 35 years, less than 50 different drugs have been tested in different experimental animal models without hopeful results. An important limitation when searching for new drugs is the existence of appropriate models of the disease. The three different possible origins of prion diseases require the existence of different animal models for testing anti-prion compounds. Wild type, over-expressing transgenic mice and other more sophisticated animal models have been used to evaluate a diversity of compounds which some of them were previously tested in different in vitro experimental models. The complexity of prion diseases will require more pre-screening studies, reliable sporadic (or spontaneous) animal models and accurate chemical modifications of the selected compounds before having an effective therapy against human prion diseases. This review is intended to put on display the more relevant animal models that have been used in the search of new antiprion therapies and describe some possible procedures when handling chemical compounds presumed to have anti-prion activity prior to testing them in animal models.

  11. Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair.

    PubMed

    Tsanaclis, Lolita; Wicks, John F C

    2008-03-21

    The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the hair before analysis, the second is the detection of the relevant metabolites in the hair samples and the third is the use of cut-off levels. Difficulty in the interpretation arises when metabolites are not detected either due to external contamination of the hair or low doses of the drugs used. A wash protocol needs to be practical and ideally remove any drug deposited on the external portion of the hair. We propose an additional step that helps considerably in the interpretation of the results with the aim to establish a consensus: the analysis of the wash residue (W) and its comparison with the levels detected in hair (H). The wash residue is the remainder of a quick wash with methanol which is dried and reconstituted in buffer before analysis. The detection of small quantities of analytes that are not susceptible to external contamination in the wash residue, such as metabolites or drugs such as dihydrocodeine, indicates that the washing procedure is in fact able to remove drugs from the hair shaft. Where the W/H ratio is less then 0.1 or null, it would tend to indicate drug use as opposed to environmental contamination. Where the W/H ratio is above 0.1 but less than 0.5, it is likely to indicate possible use possibly combined with a level of external contamination. A W/H ratio greater than 0.5 is likely to indicate that the source of most of the drug in the wash residue is from external contamination. In this last case, the source of levels detected in the hair is questionable, as it is not possible to be absolutely sure that all external contamination was removed

  12. 21 CFR 211.110 - Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products. 211.110 Section 211.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  13. MOEs for Drug Interdiction: Simple Tests Expose Critical Flaws

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    DTIC gN In MOEs for Drug Interdiction: Simple Tests Expose Critical Flaws Michael R. Anderberg 92-15393 92 6 1 2 0 5 3 U CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Center for Naval Analyses CRM 91-48 4401 Ford Avenue Alexandria, Virginia 22302-0268 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...S%& 2MS.18 ECENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES 4401 Ford Avenue • Post Office Box 16268 • Alexandria, Virginia 22302-0268 * (703) 824-2000 10 October 1991

  14. Likelihood ratio based tests for longitudinal drug safety data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Zalkikar, Jyoti; Tiwari, Ram

    2014-06-30

    This article presents longitudinal likelihood ratio test (LongLRT) methods for large databases with exposure information. These methods are applied to a pooled large longitudinal clinical trial dataset for drugs treating osteoporosis with concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). When the interest is in the evaluation of a signal of an adverse event for a particular drug compared with placebo or a comparator, the special case of the LongLRT, referred to as sequential LRT (SeqLRT), is also presented. The results show that there is some possible evidence of concomitant use of PPIs leading to more adverse events associated with osteoporosis. The performance of the proposed LongLRT and SeqLRT methods is evaluated using simulated datasets and shown to be good in terms of (conditional) power and control of type I error over time. The proposed methods can also be applied to large observational databases with exposure information under the US Food and Drug Administration Sentinel Initiative for active surveillance. Published 2014. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Testing cardiovascular drug safety and efficacy in randomized trials.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Garret A

    2014-03-28

    Randomized trials provide the gold standard evidence on which rests the decision to approve novel therapeutics for clinical use. They are large and expensive and provide average but unbiased estimates of efficacy and risk. Concern has been expressed about how unrepresentative populations and conditions that pertain in randomized trials might be of the real world, including concerns about the homogeneity of the biomedical and adherence characteristics of volunteers entered into such trials, the dose and constancy of drug administration and the mixture of additional medications that are restricted in such trials but might influence outcome in practice. A distinction has been drawn between trials that establish efficacy and those that demonstrate effectiveness, drugs that patients actually consume in the real world for clinical benefit. However, randomized controlled trials remain the gold standard for establishing efficacy and the testing of effectiveness with less rigorous approaches is a secondary, albeit important consideration. Despite this, there is an appreciation that average results may conceal considerable interindividual variation in drug response, leading to a failure to appreciate clinical value or risk in subsets of patients. Thus, attempts are now being made to individualize risk estimates by modulating those derived from large randomized trials with the individual baseline risk estimates based on demographic and biological criteria-the individual Numbers Needed to Treat to obtain a benefit, such as a life saved. Here, I will consider some reasons why large phase 3 trials-by far the most expensive element of drug development-may fail to address the unmet medical needs, which should justify such effort and investment.

  16. Evaluation of antibiotic allergy: the role of skin tests and drug challenges.

    PubMed

    Solensky, Roland; Khan, David A

    2014-09-01

    Antibiotic allergies are frequently reported in both adult and pediatric populations. While a detailed drug history is essential in the evaluation of antibiotic allergy, the history is typically insufficient to determine the presence of a drug allergy. The most readily available diagnostic testing for evaluating antibiotic allergies are drug skin testing and drug challenges. This review will focus on updates in the evaluation of antibiotic allergy utilizing immediate skin tests, delayed intradermal testing, drug patch tests, and drug challenges for both adults and children with histories of antibiotic allergies.

  17. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    .... SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System annual reports, FRA has determined that the 2009... taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator publishes a.... Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0 percent for the...

  18. 78 FR 39190 - Revisions to Fitness for Duty Programs' Drug Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...-2009-0225] RIN 3150-AI67 Revisions to Fitness for Duty Programs' Drug Testing Requirements AGENCY... regulations regarding drug testing requirements in NRC licensees' fitness for duty programs. The...

  19. Pumpless microfluidic platform for drug testing on human skin equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Gledhill, Karl; Guo, Zongyou; Christiano, Angela M.; Shuler, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in bio-mimetic in vitro human skin models increase the efficiency of drug screening studies. In this study, we designed and developed a microfluidic platform that allows for long-term maintenance of full thickness human skin equivalents (HSE) which are comprised of both the epidermal and dermal compartments. The design is based on the physiologically relevant blood residence times in human skin tissue and allows for the establishment of an air-epidermal interface which is crucial for maturation and terminal differentiation of HSEs. The small scale of the design reduces the amount of culture medium and the number of cells required by 36 fold compared to conventional transwell cultures. Our HSE-on-a-chip platform has the capability to recirculate the medium at desired flow rates without the need for pump or external tube connections. We demonstrate that the platform can be used to maintain HSEs for three weeks with proliferating keratinocytes similar to conventional HSE cultures. Immunohistochemistry analyses show that the differentiation and localization of keratinocytes was successfully achieved, establishing all sub-layers of the epidermis after one week. Basal keratinocytes located at the epidermal-dermal interface remain in a proliferative state for three weeks. We use a transdermal transport model to show that the skin barrier function is maintained for three weeks. We also validate the capability of the HSE-on-a-chip platform to be used for drug testing purposes by examining the toxic effects of doxorubucin on skin cells and structure. Overall, the HSE-on-a-chip is a user-friendly and cost-effective in vitro platform for drug testing of candidate molecules for skin disorders. PMID:25490891

  20. Pumpless microfluidic platform for drug testing on human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Gledhill, Karl; Guo, Zongyou; Christiano, Angela M; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-02-07

    Advances in bio-mimetic in vitro human skin models increase the efficiency of drug screening studies. In this study, we designed and developed a microfluidic platform that allows for long-term maintenance of full thickness human skin equivalents (HSE) which are comprised of both the epidermal and dermal compartments. The design is based on the physiologically relevant blood residence times in human skin tissue and allows for the establishment of an air-epidermal interface which is crucial for maturation and terminal differentiation of HSEs. The small scale of the design reduces the amount of culture medium and the number of cells required by 36 fold compared to conventional transwell cultures. Our HSE-on-a-chip platform has the capability to recirculate the medium at desired flow rates without the need for pump or external tube connections. We demonstrate that the platform can be used to maintain HSEs for three weeks with proliferating keratinocytes similar to conventional HSE cultures. Immunohistochemistry analyses show that the differentiation and localization of keratinocytes was successfully achieved, establishing all sub-layers of the epidermis after one week. Basal keratinocytes located at the epidermal-dermal interface remain in a proliferative state for three weeks. We use a transdermal transport model to show that the skin barrier function is maintained for three weeks. We also validate the capability of the HSE-on-a-chip platform to be used for drug testing purposes by examining the toxic effects of doxorubucin on skin cells and structure. Overall, the HSE-on-a-chip is a user-friendly and cost-effective in vitro platform for drug testing of candidate molecules for skin disorders.

  1. [Analysis and test of piezoelectric micropump for drug delivery].

    PubMed

    Kan, Junwu; Xuan, Ming; Yang, Zhigang; Wu, Yihui; Wu, Boda; Cheng, Guangming

    2005-08-01

    With a microsystem or micropump, the release rate of drug delivery is able to be controlled easily to maintain the therapeutic efficacy. A piezoelectric membrane-valve micropump for implantable and carryhome drug delivery system is developed and tested. The influence elements of dynamic performance of the PZT actuator and valve were analyzed, and the calculation method of resonant frequency of the membrane valve was provided. Study results showed that the output performance of the micropump depended on the coupling effect of the actuator and valve. For a given actuator, the output value and the optimal frequency of a micropump could be enhanced only by valve design. Two micropumps with different valve dimensions were fabricated for comparing examination. The smaller -valve micropump obtained higher output values (the maximum flow rate and backpressure being 3.5 ml/min and 27 KPa, respectively) and two optimal frequencies (800 Hz and 3 000 Hz). The larger -valve micropump achieved lower output values (the maximum flow rate and backpressure being 3.0 ml/min and 9 KPa, respectively) and one optimal frequency (about 200 Hz). The test results suggest that the output values and optimal frequency of micropump can be improved by changing the valve dimension, and the viewpoint that checkvalve micropump works only with low acting frequency is wrong.

  2. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  3. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  4. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  5. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  6. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  7. Future applications of high-resolution MS to meet the demands for pain management drug testing.

    PubMed

    Crews, Bridgit O

    2014-01-01

    Urine specimens submitted for pain management drug testing often contain multiple psychotherapeutic drugs, in addition to opioids. Immunoassay-based screen-and-confirm approaches typically used for clinical drug testing have limited sensitivity to detect therapeutic concentrations of many drugs prescribed in pain management and do not differentiate between drugs in the same class. In addition, screening for all the various illicit and prescription drugs that may be present in the pain management population requires as many as 10-20 individual immunoassays. High-resolution MS approaches have the potential to transform the way clinical drug testing is performed for pain management.

  8. Drug Testing Guidelines and Practices for Juvenile Probation and Parole Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Probation and Parole Association, Lexington, KY.

    This document, intended as a resource manual, provides guidelines on drug testing. These topics are covered: (1) National Institute on Drug Abuse guidelines applicability; (2) introduction to legal issues, drug testing in juvenile probation and parole, and juvenile law; (3) mission of a juvenile parole agency; (4) purpose of testing; (5) drug…

  9. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  11. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  13. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  14. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  15. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  16. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  18. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drug testing program? 40.123 Section 40.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an...

  20. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drug testing program? 40.123 Section 40.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an...

  1. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drug testing program? 40.123 Section 40.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an...

  2. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drug testing program? 40.123 Section 40.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an...

  3. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  4. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  5. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  6. 76 FR 34086 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information Regarding Specific Issues Related to the Use of the Oral Fluid Specimen for Drug Testing AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services... Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (oral fluid specimen). DATES: Comment...

  7. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  8. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  9. An Alternative to the Physiological Psychology Laboratory: Identification of an Unknown Drug Through Behavioral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Susan J.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory project introduced physiological psychology students to research by requiring them to identify an unknown drug given to laboratory animals. Students read material about drugs and animal drug studies, designed behavioral tests, constructed the testing apparatus, conducted the tests, and wrote progress reports. (SR)

  10. Double Flow Bioreactor for In Vitro Test of Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pavia, Francesco Carfì; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Ghersi, Giulio; Greco, Silvia; Brucato, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    In this work, double-structured polymeric scaffolds were produced, and a double flow bioreactor was designed and set up in order to create a novel system to carry out advanced in vitro drug delivery tests. The scaffolds, consisting of a cylindrical porous matrix, are able to host cells, thus mimicking a three-dimensional tumor mass: moreover, a "pseudo-vascular" structure was embedded into the matrix, with the aim of allowing a flow circulation. The structure that emulates a blood vessel is a porous tubular-shaped scaffold prepared by Diffusion Induced Phase Separation (DIPS), with an internal lumen of 2 mm and a wall thickness of 200 micrometers. The as-prepared vessel was incorporated into a three-dimensional matrix, prepared by Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS), characterized by a high porosity (about 95%) and pore size adequate to accommodate tumor cells and/or mesenchymal cells. The morphology of the multifunctional scaffolds is easy-tunable in terms of pore size, porosity and thickness and therefore adaptable to various cell or tissue types. At the same time, a double flow bioreactor was designed and built up, in order to be able to carry out biological tests on the scaffold under dynamic conditions. The device allows a separate control of the two flows (one for the tubular scaffold, one for the porous matrix) through the scaffolds. Preliminary characterizations and tests carried out suggest the presented system as a candidate to suitably "in vitro" assess the effects of different drugs on various cell populations.

  11. Army Drug Development Program. Phase 1. Clinical Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    of a possible drug related SGPT elevation is required. 3. Optimal dose schedules for Sodium Stibogluconate can be...subject also had a nightmare following drug administration. The gastrointestinal signs and symptoms are considered drug related ...The neurologic symptoms are considered possibly drug related . No physical changes were observed. All subjects had two

  12. Understanding drug testing in the neonate and the role of meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Ostrea, E M

    2001-03-01

    The use of illicit drugs during pregnancy is a problem that affects a significant number of pregnant women or women of childbearing age. For many reasons, the identification of the drug exposed mother and her infant is a necessary, albeit difficult, task. This article will discuss drug testing to detect the antenatal exposure of the newborn infant to illicit drugs and review the different laboratory methods that are used and the role of meconium analysis in neonatal drug testing.

  13. Fatal Crashes from Drivers Testing Positive for Drugs in the U.S., 1993–2010

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Pagán, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Illegal drug use is a persistent problem, prescription drug abuse is on the rise, and there is clinical evidence that drug use reduces driving performance. This study describes trends in characteristics of drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes who test positive for drugs. Methods We used the Fatality Analysis Reporting System—a census of motor vehicle crashes resulting in at least one fatality on U.S. public roads—to investigate suspected drug use for the period 1993–2010. Results Drugged drivers who were tested for drug use accounted for 11.4% of all drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes in 2010. Drugged drivers are increasingly likely to be older drivers, and the percentage using multiple drugs increased from 32.6% in 1993 to 45.8% in 2010. About half (52.4%) of all drugged drivers used alcohol, but nearly three-quarters of drivers testing positive for cocaine also used alcohol. Prescription drugs accounted for the highest fraction of drugs used by drugged drivers in fatal crashes in 2010 (46.5%), with much of the increase in prevalence occurring since the mid-2000s. Conclusions The profile of a drugged driver has changed substantially over time. An increasing share of these drivers is now testing positive for prescription drugs, cannabis, and multiple drugs. These findings have implications for developing interventions to address the changing nature of drug use among drivers in the U.S. PMID:24982537

  14. Plaque inhibition assay for drug susceptibility testing of influenza viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, F G; Cote, K M; Douglas, R G

    1980-01-01

    The relative antiviral activities of four drugs against contemporary strains of influenza A and B viruses were determined in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers with a plaque inhibition assay. This assay proved to be a reliable, rapid method of determining 50% inhibitory concentrations that correlated well with clinically achievable drug levels and the results of clinical trials. Contemporary strains of influenza A viruses (subtypes H1N1, H3N2, HSW1N1) required amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride 50% inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 microgram/ml, whereas 50% inhibitory concentrations ranged from approximately 50 to 100 micrograms/ml against influenza B viruses. Ribavirin was approximately 10-fold less active than amantadine hydrochloride against influenza A viruses, and the ribavirin 50% inhibitory concentrations against both influenza A and B viruses ranged from 2.6 to 6.8 micrograms/ml. Inosiplex had no antiviral activity in this test system. PMID:7396473

  15. Genetically Defined Strains in Drug Development and Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern about the poor quality and lack of repeatability of many pre-clinical experiments involving laboratory animals. According to one estimate as much as $28 billion is wasted annually in the USA alone in such studies. A decade ago the FDA's "Critical path" white paper noted that "The traditional tools used to assess product safety-animal toxicology and outcomes from human studies-have changed little over many decades and have largely not benefited from recent gains in scientific knowledge. The inability to better assess and predict product safety leads to failures during clinical development and, occasionally, after marketing." Repeat-dose 28-days and 90-days toxicity tests in rodents have been widely used as part of a strategy to assess the safety of drugs and chemicals but their repeatability and power to detect adverse effects have not been formally evaluated.The guidelines (OECD TG 407 and 408) for these tests specify the dose levels and number of animals per dose but do not specify the strain of animals which should be used. In practice, almost all the tests are done using genetically undefined "albino" rats or mice in which the genetic variation, a major cause of inter-individual and strain variability, is unknown and uncontrolled. This chapter suggests that a better strategy would be to use small numbers of animals of several genetically defined strains of mice or rats instead of the undefined animals used at present. Inbred strains are more stable providing more repeatable data than outbred stocks. Importantly their greater phenotypic uniformity should lead to more powerful and repeatable tests. Any observed strain differences would indicate genetic variation in response to the test substance, providing key data. We suggest that the FDA and other regulators and funding organizations should support research to evaluate this alternative.

  16. The significance of mitochondrial toxicity testing in drug development.

    PubMed

    Dykens, James A; Will, Yvonne

    2007-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly implicated in the etiology of drug-induced toxicities. Members of diverse drug classes undermine mitochondrial function, and among the most potent are drugs that have been withdrawn from the market, or have received Black Box warnings from the FDA. To avoid mitochondrial liabilities, routine screens need to be positioned within the drug-development process. Assays for mitochondrial function, cell models that better report mitochondrial impairment, and new animal models that more faithfully reflect clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction are discussed in the context of how such data can reduce late stage attrition of drug candidates and can yield safer drugs in the future.

  17. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  18. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  19. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  20. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  1. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  2. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  3. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  4. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  5. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  6. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  7. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  8. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  9. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  10. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  11. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility...

  12. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  13. Study: Gene Test Needed Before Using Alzheimer's Drug 'Off-Label'

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease should not be prescribed to people with milder mental impairment without first giving them a genetic test, a new study urges. The drug is ...

  14. Field testing of the Alere DDS2 Mobile Test System for drugs in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John

    2013-06-01

    A preliminary field evaluation of a second-generation handheld oral fluid testing device, the Alere DDS2 Mobile Test System (DDS2), is described. As part of a larger study, drivers were randomly stopped at various locations across California (in 2012) and asked to submit voluntarily to a questionnaire regarding their drug and alcohol use, a breath alcohol test and collection of oral fluid with the Quantisal device. The Quantisal-collected oral fluid samples were sent for laboratory-based analyses. At one location, 50 drivers were asked to submit an additional oral fluid sample using the DDS2 collection device; these samples were analyzed by using the DDS2 mobile test system. Thirty-eight donors (76%) provided specimens that were successfully run on the mobile system; in 12 cases (24%), the device failed to provide a valid result. Thirty-two of the 38 collected samples were negative for all drugs; five were positive for tetrahydrocannabinol and one was positive for methamphetamine using the mobile device. These results corresponded exactly with the laboratory-based results from the Quantisal oral fluid collection.

  15. 76 FR 35678 - SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements and Drug Facts Labeling for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310 SPF Labeling and Testing... solicits comments on SPF labeling and testing requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen products... of information technology. SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements for OTC Sunscreen...

  16. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting...

  17. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting...

  18. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting...

  19. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting...

  20. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting...

  1. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs...

  2. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs...

  3. Legal, workplace, and treatment drug testing with alternate biological matrices on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Cone, E J

    2001-09-15

    Global trends in drug trafficking and drug usage patterns indicate a continuing pattern of escalation throughout the world. Over the last two decades, urinalysis has evolved into a highly accurate means for determining whether individuals have been exposed to illicit drugs of abuse. Advances have also been made in the use of alternate biological matrices such as hair, oral fluids and sweat for drug testing. Often, these new matrices demonstrate some distinct advantages over urinalysis, e.g. less invasive procedures, different time course of drug detection. They may even indicate impairment. National and local laws of each country provide the underpinnings of drug-testing programs, but most countries have not addressed use of these alternate matrices. Currently, only a few countries have statutes that specifically mention use of alternate biological matrices, e.g. United States (Florida state law), Germany, Ireland, Poland and the Czech Republic. Conversely, few countries have prohibited collection of alternate biological specimens or drug test devices that utilize such specimens. In addition, guidelines for implementing drug testing programs have been slow to emerge and most deal primarily with workplace drug testing programs, e.g. United States. Currently, scientific technology utilized in drug testing is advancing rapidly, but there is a clear need for parallel development of guidelines governing the use of alternate matrices for drug testing. This article provides an overview of global drug trafficking patterns and drug use, and results from a survey of legal statutes in 20 countries covering use of alternate matrices for drug testing. In addition, elements needed for the development of guidelines for alternate matrices testing for drugs of abuse are discussed, and specific examples of use of alternate matrices in treatment monitoring are provided.

  4. Test-Retest Stability and Concurrent Validity of Two Reading Tests with a Drug-Abusing Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark E.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Rhodes, Fen; Booth, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised were administered twice to 269 current drug abusers over an average time interval of 204.2 days. Overall, the study demonstrates that the two instruments have strong psychometric properties and that results from current drug abusers are reliable. (SLD)

  5. Hair Drug Testing Results and Self-reported Drug Use among Primary Care Patients with Moderate-risk Illicit Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P.; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study sought to examine the utility of hair testing as a research measure of drug use among individuals with moderate-risk drug use based on the internationally-validated Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Methods This study is a secondary analysis using baseline data from a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug misuse, in which 360 adults with moderate-risk drug use were recruited from two community clinics in New Mexico, USA. The current study compared self-reported drug use on the ASSIST with laboratory analysis of hair samples using a standard commercially-available 5-panel test with assay screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) confirmation. Both self-report and hair testing covered a 3 month period. Results Overall concordance between hair testing and self-report was 57.5% (marijuana), 86.5% (cocaine), 85.8% (amphetamines), and 74.3% (opioids). Specificity of hair testing at standard laboratory cut-offs exceeded 90% for all drugs, but sensitivity of hair testing relative to self-report was low, identifying only 52.3% (127/243) of self-disclosed marijuana users, 65.2% (30/46) of cocaine users, 24.2% (8/33) of amphetamine users, and 2.9% (2/68) of opioid users. Among participants who disclosed using marijuana or cocaine in the past 3 months, participants with a negative hair test tended to report lower-frequency use of those drugs (p< .001 for marijuana and cocaine). Conclusions Hair testing can be useful in studies with moderate-risk drug users, but the potential for under-identification of low-frequency use suggests that researchers should consider employing low detection cut-offs and using hair testing in conjunction with self-report. PMID:24932945

  6. An implantable microdevice to perform high-throughput in vivo drug sensitivity testing in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Oliver; Landry, Heather M.; Fuller, Jason E.; Santini, John T.; Baselga, Jose; Tepper, Robert I.; Cima, Michael J.; Langer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Current anticancer chemotherapy relies on a limited set of in vitro or indirect prognostic markers of tumor response to available drugs. A more accurate analysis of drug sensitivity would involve studying tumor response in vivo. To this end, we have developed an implantable device that can perform drug sensitivity testing of several anticancer agents simultaneously inside the living tumor. The device contained reservoirs that released microdoses of single agents or drug combinations into spatially distinct regions of the tumor. The local drug concentrations were chosen to be representative of concentrations achieved during systemic treatment. Local efficacy and drug concentration profiles were evaluated for each drug or drug combination on the device, and the local efficacy was confirmed to be a predictor of systemic efficacy in vivo for multiple drugs and tumor models. Currently, up to 16 individual drugs or combinations can be assessed independently, without systemic drug exposure, through minimally invasive biopsy of a small region of a single tumor. This assay takes into consideration physiologic effects that contribute to drug response by allowing drugs to interact with the living tumor in its native microenvironment. Because these effects are crucial to predicting drug response, we envision that these devices will help identify optimal drug therapy before systemic treatment is initiated and could improve drug response prediction beyond the biomarkers and in vitro and ex vivo studies used today. These devices may also be used in clinical drug development to safely gather efficacy data on new compounds before pharmacological optimization. PMID:25904741

  7. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.11 When is testing for alcohol or drugs... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug... admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and...

  8. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  9. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  10. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  11. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  12. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  13. The Interactive Seminar: An Educational Approach for Voluntary HIV Testing in a Drug Dependence Treatment Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedhom, Laila; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 118 male patients in a drug dependence treatment unit before and after an interactive seminar with a nonjudgmental professional showed that seminar participants, especially intravenous drug users, had higher rates of voluntary HIV testing than nonparticipants. Drug users who completed detoxification and attended the seminar also had…

  14. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  15. FDA, companies test RFID tracking to prevent drug counterfeiting.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. has an apparently growing problem with fake, counterfeit drugs entering the mainstream drug supply, and being fraudulently sold at full price in regular pharmacies and hospitals; some have no active ingredient, or too little, or substitute a cheap drug for an expensive one. The FDA has asked drug manufacturers to develop technology to track all shipments electronically as they move through the distribution chain; currently, RFID (radio frequency identification) is the preferred method for doing so. This article explains what is happening, and why we do not believe that this use of RFID is a privacy threat--though other privacy issues are among the most important questions we face today.

  16. Identification of Substances Interfering with Illicit Drug Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    several concentrations to 222 EIA positive specimens confirmed by gas chromotography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for illicit drugs. Specimens were...specimens confirmed by gas chromotography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for illicit drugs. Specimens were reanalyzed by the EIA screening procedures...studies reported herein, these substances were introduced into EIA-positive urine specimens which had also been confirmed positive by gas chromotography and

  17. Influence of the cosmetic treatment of hair on drug testing.

    PubMed

    Jurado, C; Kintz, P; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1997-01-01

    An important issue of concern for drug analysis in hair is the change in the drug concentration induced by the cosmetic treatment of hair. The products used for this treatment are strong bases and they are expected to cause hair damage. As a result drugs may be lost from the hair matrix or, under conditions of environmental contamination, be more easily incorporated into the hair matrix. We investigated the effects of cosmetic treatment in vivo by analysing hair samples selected from people who had treated their hair by bleaching or dyeing before sample collection. All of the subjects admitted a similar drug consumption during the time period for which the strands were analysed. Samples were viewed under a microscope to establish the degree of hair damage. Treated and untreated portions from each lock of hair were then selected, separated and analysed by standard detection procedures for cocaine, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine. In all cases the drug content in hair that had undergone cosmetic treatment decreased in comparison to untreated hair. The majority of the mean differences were in the range of 40%-60% (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine and THC-COOH). For morphine the mean difference was higher than 60%, and two cases (THC and nicotine) differed by approx. 30%. These differences depended not only on the type of cosmetic treatment, as bleaching produced higher decreases than dyeing, but also on the degree of hair damage i.e. the more damaged the hair, the larger the differences in the concentration levels of drugs.

  18. A case of allopurinol-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed with a lymphocyte transformation test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hye; Shim, Eun-Jin; Jung, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2012-09-01

    Allopurinol is one of the causative drugs that induce fixed drug eruption (FDE). The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is a safe and reliable diagnostic procedure for drug allergy, but is reported to be rarely positive in patients with FDE. In the current case, we performed an LTT and successfully confirmed allopurinol as the offending drug. This case report suggests that an LTT should be an optional diagnostic tool for FDE or delayed reaction due to allopurinol.

  19. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  20. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  1. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  2. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  3. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  4. Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia: incidence, clinical features, laboratory testing, and pathogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DIIT) is a relatively uncommon adverse reaction caused by drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) that react with platelet membrane glycoproteins only when the implicated drug is present. Although more than 100 drugs have been associated with causing DIIT, recent reviews of available data show that carbamazepine, eptifibatide, ibuprofen, quinidine, quinine, oxaliplatin, rifampin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and vancomycin are probably the most frequently implicated. Patients with DIIT typically present with petechiae, bruising, and epistaxis caused by an acute, severe drop in platelet count (often to <20,000 platelets/pL). Diagnosis of DIIT is complicated by its similarity to other non-drug-induced immune thrombocytopenias, including autoimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and platelet transfusion refractoriness, and must be differentiated by temporal association of exposure to a candidate drug with an acute, severe drop in platelet count. Treatment consists of immediate withdrawal of the implicated drug. Criteria for strong evidence of DIIT include (1) exposure to candidate drug-preceded thrombocytopenia; (2) sustained normal platelet levels after discontinuing candidate drug; (3) candidate drug was only drug used before onset of thrombocytopenia or other drugs were continued or reintroduced after resolution of thrombocytopenia, and other causes for thrombocytopenia were excluded; and (4) reexposure to the candidate drug resulted in recurrent thrombocytopenia. Flow cytometry testing for DDAbs can be useful in confirmation of a clinical diagnosis, and monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing can be used to determine the platelet glycoprotein target(s), usually GPIIb/IIIa or GPIb/IX/V, but testing is not widely available. Several pathogenic mechanisms for DIIT have been proposed, including hapten, autoantibody, neoepitope, drug-specific, and quinine-type drug mechanisms. A recent proposal

  5. 77 FR 58999 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug... regulation (21 CFR 10.115). The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent the Agency's current...

  6. [Selection of drugs suitable for the treatment of intractable chronic pain patients by using drug challenge tests].

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Kazuo; Arita, Hideko; Nagase, Masaki; Ide, Yasuo; Tagami, Megumi; Hayashida, Masakazu

    2008-05-01

    Intractable chronic pain is very difficult to treat. Nowadays, small amounts of drugs, that have different actions on the mechanism of pain relief are administered intravenously, and the effects of the test drugs on individual chronic pain patients are investigated by using the evaluation method of the visual analogue scale (VAS). This will enable elucidation of the mechanisms of pain in each chronic pain patient. Based on this information, drugs that are effective for the treatment of individual chronic pain patients can be prescribed. Drugs that are used for the drug challenge tests are phentolamine, barbiturate, morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, benzodiazepine, adenosine-3-phosphate (ATP), neurotropine, and prostaglandine E1. Phentolamine is effective for the management of sympathetically maintained pain. Barbiturate and morphine are effective for the treatment of deafferentation pain and nociceptive pain, respectively. Lidocaine is effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain; ketamine, for allodynia; and benzodiazepine, for anxiety-related pain. ATP exerts a positive effect in total pain management. Neurotropine and prostaglandine E1 are effective for the management of neuropathic pain and ischemic pain, respectively. These tests aid in the selection of drugs that maybe useful for the treatment of intractable chronic pain in patients.

  7. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  8. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  9. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  10. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  11. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  12. 21 CFR 211.110 - Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.110 Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug... production process, e.g., at commencement or completion of significant phases or after storage for long... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sampling and testing of in-process materials...

  13. Developing a Drug Testing Policy at a Public University: Participant Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Stephen O.; Keller, Adrienne; Cohn, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Although employee drug testing is widespread among private employers, the development of programs in the public sector has been slower due to constitutional law constraints. A qualitative approach presenting various participant perspectives may aid in developing an employee drug testing program. (Contains 41 references/notes.) (JOW)

  14. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  15. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  16. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  17. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  18. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  19. NCAA Sets Drug-Test Procedures and Selects Labs; Program Seen Costing More than Colleges Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association's plan for randomly testing athletes at championships for performance-enhancing and illegal drugs will cost about $950,000, more than anticipated, and will be accompanied by a drug education program and loans to laboratories to speed the testing. (MSE)

  20. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  1. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  2. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  3. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  4. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  5. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  6. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  7. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  8. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  9. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  10. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  11. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  12. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  13. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  14. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  15. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  16. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  17. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  18. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  19. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  20. Meconium drug testing reveals maternal misuse of medicinal opioids among addicted mothers.

    PubMed

    Launiainen, Terhi; Nupponen, Irmeli; Halmesmäki, Erja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-07-01

    Meconium drug testing is a non-invasive method to detect prenatal drug exposure, which can cause severe problems for the infant, indicating the need for follow-up measures to ensure the welfare of the child. Meconium samples for drug testing were collected from 143 infants as part of routine clinical work among addicted mothers. The drug testing findings were combined with medical records including clinical background and follow-up data. The substances screened for included medicinal opioids, 6-monoacetylmorphine (a metabolite of heroin), amphetamines and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. At least one of the 13 target drugs was detected in 57 (40%) meconium samples. In 21 cases, the findings were unexpected on the basis of clinical data or denied by the mother. Medicinal opioids, especially the opioid substitution treatment drugs buprenorphine and methadone, comprised the majority of the findings of both admitted and unexpected drug misuse. Meconium drug testing methods should target not just traditional illicit drugs but also prescription drugs with misuse potential.

  1. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... testing rate is based on the reported random drug test positive rate for the entire aviation industry. If... minimum random drug testing rate at 25%. In 2012, the random drug test positive rate was 0.456%. Therefore... random alcohol test violation rate. If the violation rate remains less than 0.50%, the Administrator...

  2. Development, implementation and management of a drug testing program in the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    To combat the rising use of drugs in the workplace many American companies have implemented drug testing programs and are testing employees and job applicants for use of illegal drugs. In addition, on September 15, 1986, Executive Order No.12564 was issued by President Reagan, which requires all federal agencies to develop programs and policies, one of the goals of which is to achieve a drug-free federal workplace. Included in this Executive Order is the requirement that federal agencies implement drug testing has become a prevalent practice as a means to detect and deter drug use in the workplace. Before a drug testing program is implemented, it is imperative that policies and procedures are developed that (1) ensure the accuracy of test results, (2) protect the validity and integrity of the specimen, (3) guarantee due process, and (4) maintain confidentiality. To make certain that these prerequisites were met in the government drug testing programs, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was directed to develop technical and scientific guidelines for conducting such programs. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Army Drug Development Program. Phase I. Clinical Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    clinical facililty. A microscope, UV light for phototoxicity studies * and both a table-top and a floor model refrigerated centrifuge are included. The...experience and expertise, he advised on all medical matters related to the qualification of subjects, including the need for obtaining specialized...reasons, none related to drug effect. Review of records at the end of the study when treatment codes were broken showed identical study days of

  4. 75 FR 22809 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... requirements for certification of Instrumented Initial Test Facilities (IITF), and the role of and standards... (CFR) Part 40. This DOT regulation requires the drug and alcohol testing of safety-sensitive employees... required to maintain a dual system for testing using the revised Mandatory Guidelines, and testing for...

  5. Testing for drugs of abuse in meconium of newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moriya, F; Chan, K M; Noguchi, T T; Wu, P Y

    1994-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive screening procedure has been developed for drugs of abuse (amphetamines, cocaine metabolites, opiates, and phencyclidine [PCP]) in meconium from infants. The substances in meconium were extracted with chloroform-isopropanol (3:1) and screened by enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT). The lower detection limits of the EMIT for benzoylecgonine, d-methamphetamine, morphine, and PCP were 250 ng/g, 730 ng/g, 110 ng/g, and 100 ng/g, respectively. This method was applied to meconium from 50 infants born to mothers suspected of using the drugs of abuse during pregnancy. Of the 50, 12 were positive for benzoylecgonine, seven for opiates, and one for PCP. The presence of benzoylecgonine and PCP in meconium was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and that of opiates by thin-layer chromatography. The routine analysis of meconium for drugs of abuse is recommended in cases where (A) urine can not be obtained or (B) urinalysis is negative for the substances despite a strong suspicion of maternal use of the substances during pregnancy.

  6. In vitro tests for drug hypersensitivity reactions: an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, C; Celik, G; Rouzaire, P; Whitaker, P; Bonadonna, P; Rodrigues-Cernadas, J; Vultaggio, A; Brockow, K; Caubet, J C; Makowska, J; Nakonechna, A; Romano, A; Montañez, M I; Laguna, J J; Zanoni, G; Gueant, J L; Oude Elberink, H; Fernandez, J; Viel, S; Demoly, P; Torres, M J

    2016-08-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are a matter of great concern, both for outpatient and in hospital care. The evaluation of these patients is complex, because in vivo tests have a suboptimal sensitivity and can be time-consuming, expensive and potentially risky, especially drug provocation tests. There are several currently available in vitro methods that can be classified into two main groups: those that help to characterize the active phase of the reaction and those that help to identify the culprit drug. The utility of these in vitro methods depends on the mechanisms involved, meaning that they cannot be used for the evaluation of all types of DHRs. Moreover, their effectiveness has not been defined by a consensus agreement between experts in the field. Thus, the European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has organized a task force to provide data and recommendations regarding the available in vitro methods for DHR diagnosis. We have found that although there are many in vitro tests, few of them can be given a recommendation of grade B or above mainly because there is a lack of well-controlled studies, most information comes from small studies with few subjects and results are not always confirmed in later studies. Therefore, it is necessary to validate the currently available in vitro tests in a large series of well-characterized patients with DHR and to develop new tests for diagnosis.

  7. Formation of the diuretic chlorazanil from the antimalarial drug proguanil--implications for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Thomas, Andreas; Tretzel, Laura; Bailloux, Isabelle; Buisson, Corinne; Lasne, Francoise; Schaefer, Maximilian S; Kienbaum, Peter; Mueller-Stoever, Irmela; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-11-10

    Chlorazanil (Ordipan, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a diuretic agent and as such prohibited in sport according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Despite its introduction into clinical practice in the late 1950s, the worldwide very first two adverse analytical findings were registered only in 2014, being motive for an in-depth investigation of these cases. Both individuals denied the intake of the drug; however, the athletes did declare the use of the antimalarial prophylactic agent proguanil due to temporary residences in African countries. A structural similarity between chlorazanil and proguanil is given but no direct metabolic relation has been reported in the scientific literature. Moreover, chlorazanil has not been confirmed as a drug impurity of proguanil. Proguanil however is metabolized in humans to N-(4-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, which represents a chemical precursor in the synthesis of chlorazanil. In the presence of formic acid, formaldehyde, or formic acid esters, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-biguanide converts to chlorazanil. In order to probe for potential sources of the chlorazanil detected in the doping control samples, drug formulations containing proguanil and urine samples of individuals using proguanil as antimalarial drug were subjected to liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. In addition, in vitro simulations with 4-chlorophenyl-biguanide and respective reactants were conducted in urine and resulting specimens analyzed for the presence of chlorazanil. While no chlorazanil was found in drug formulations, the urine samples of 2 out of 4 proguanil users returned findings for chlorazanil at low ng/mL levels, similar to the adverse analytical findings in the doping control samples. Further, in the presence of formaldehyde, formic acid and related esters, 4-chlorophenyl-biguanide was found to produce chlorazanil in human urine, suggesting that the detection of the obsolete diuretic

  8. Perceived fairness of employee drug testing as a predictor of employee attitudes and job performance.

    PubMed

    Konovsky, M A; Cropanzano, R

    1991-10-01

    Although management of drug testing programs is becoming a critical organizational issue, no systematic conceptual framework has been applied to the study of employee reactions to drug testing. In this study an organizational justice framework was used to explain and predict the relationships among two types of justice (procedural justice and outcome fairness) employee attitudes (job satisfaction, commitment, and management trust), and behavior (turnover intentions and performance). Survey data from 195 employees in a pathology laboratory indicated that justice predicts employee attitudes and performance. Specifically, procedural justice, but not outcome fairness, predicted all 5 criterion variables. These results demonstrate the importance of procedural justice perceptions for predicting employee reactions to drug testing programs.

  9. Testing therapeutic potency of anticancer drugs in animal studies: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Den Otter, Willem; Steerenberg, Peter A; Van der Laan, Jan Willem

    2002-04-01

    Regulatory authorities for medicines in European countries deal with many applications for admission to the market of anticancer drugs. Each application must be supported by preclinical and clinical data, among which testing of the therapeutic activity of drugs in animals is important. Recently, the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) has released a note for guidance on the preclinical evaluation of anticancer medicinal products. This note provides only general statements regarding tests of anticancer drugs in rodents. This stimulates considerations on how to organize and how to evaluate these tests. In this article we describe our considerations regarding these items based on our experience with applications in The Netherlands since 1993.

  10. (Automation in the clinical laboratory and drug testing programs in the workplace)

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.

    1990-10-17

    The traveler chaired a session on Laboratory Robotics at 4th International Congress on Automation in the Clinical Laboratory. In addition, the traveler chaired a session on Drugs-of-Abuse at 2nd International Congress of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Toxicology. In this session, the traveler also presented a paper entitled Development, Implementation and Management of a Drug Testing Program in the Workplace.'' These two Congress were run concurrently in the Congress Center in Barcelona, Spain.

  11. 49 CFR 40.321 - What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.321 What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test... DOT drug or alcohol testing process, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results...

  12. 49 CFR 40.321 - What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.321 What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test... DOT drug or alcohol testing process, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results...

  13. 49 CFR 40.321 - What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.321 What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test... DOT drug or alcohol testing process, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results...

  14. 49 CFR 40.321 - What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.321 What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test... DOT drug or alcohol testing process, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results...

  15. 21 CFR 211.84 - Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.84 Section 211.84 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD...

  16. 21 CFR 211.84 - Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.84 Section 211.84 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD...

  17. 21 CFR 211.84 - Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.84 Section 211.84 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD...

  18. 21 CFR 211.84 - Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.84 Section 211.84 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD...

  19. The evaluation of drug provocation tests in pediatric allergy clinic: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Vezir, Emine; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Civelek, Ersoy; Kaya, Aysenur; Azkur, Dilek; Akan, Aysegül; Ozcan, Celal; Toyran, Muge; Ginis, Tayfur; Misirlioglu, Emine Dibek; Kocabas, Can Naci

    2014-01-01

    Drug provocation tests (DPTs) are gold standard to diagnose drug allergy. Our goal was to evaluate the results and safety of diagnostic methods including DPTs during childhood. Between January 2010 and February 2013 DPTs were performed and evaluated, prospectively, in children who attended our pediatric allergy clinic with a suspected drug hypersensitivity reaction. One hundred ninety-eight suspected drug reactions in 175 patients (88 boys and 87 girls) were evaluated. The median age of the subjects at the time of the suspected drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction and at the time of the study was 56 (interquartile range [IQR] = 24-120 months) months and 76 (IQR = 35-149 months) months, respectively. Suspected drugs were beta-lactam antibiotics in 108 cases (54.5%), non-beta-lactam antibiotics in 22 cases (11.1%), and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs in 52 cases (26.3%). The history was compatible with immediate-type reactions in 69 cases (34.8%). Skin-prick tests were not positive in any of the cases. Intradermal tests were positive in three cases (4%). DPTs were positive in 13 (6.8%) of 191 provocation cases, which were performed with culprit drugs. Our results suggest that a positive clinical history is not enough to make a diagnosis of drug allergy, which highlights the significance of undertaking further diagnostic evaluation especially for DPTs.

  20. Pre-employment urine drug testing of hospital employees: future questions and review of current literature

    PubMed Central

    Levine, M; Rennie, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patient safety and optimisation of worker performance are high current priorities. Arguments over employee drug testing have been debated over the past two decades. Aims: To review prior information to reveal how current principles and practices regarding pre-employment drug testing of health care workers evolved, and to explore pressing current and future issues. Methods: A literature search of Medline from 1980 to 1999 was performed. This yielded seven citations that reported results of pre-employment drug testing of health care workers, which we critically reviewed. Results: The process by which a rational testing process was developed for pre-employment urine drug screening in the health care field is illustrated. Also depicted are some important principles, inequities, and shortcomings of the system. The range of positive tests was wide, from 0.25% to 12%. Testing was not always applied uniformly to all health care workers. It became apparent that positive tests also require medical review to determine if they were truly due to illicit substance use. Conclusions: Although pre-employment drug testing programmes in the health care industry have been firmly in place for many years, it is unclear whether such strategies have achieved their stated purposes. The next step is to study whether such programmes are effective at accomplishing specific goals, such as decreasing absenteeism, turnover, accidents, and medical errors, in order to justify continuing pre-employment testing versus changing to an alternative testing strategy. PMID:15031389

  1. FDA review of viral load test kits. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    1996-03-01

    Viral load testing, which quantifies the amount of HIV in the blood plasma of infected individuals, may dramatically shorten the time necessary to test drugs prior to approval and marketing. Two manufacturers have applied for approval of their test kits. Hoffman-LaRoche (Roche Molecular Systems) developed a test kit called quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (quantitative PCR). Chiron Corporation's product is called branched chain DNA, or bDNA. Both tests give similar results. Viral load is an indicator of the effectiveness of drug therapy, and high viral load is an indicator of disease progression and clinical decline.

  2. Technical, Scientific and Procedural Issues of Employee Drug Testing: Consensus Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkle, Bryan S., Ed.; And Others

    The Division of Applied Research of the National Institute on Drug Abuse sponsored a Consensus Conference at which key technical, scientific, and procedural issues of employee drug testing could be discussed. The conference, which included politicians and government officials; representatives of business, industry, and labor; and laboratory…

  3. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  4. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  5. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  6. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  7. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  8. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false New entrant registration driver's license and drug... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements. (a) A non-North America-domiciled motor carrier must use only drivers who possess...

  9. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false New entrant registration driver's license and drug... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements. (a) A non-North America-domiciled motor carrier must use only drivers who possess...

  10. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New entrant registration driver's license and drug... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements. (a) A non-North America-domiciled motor carrier must use only drivers who possess...

  11. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New entrant registration driver's license and drug... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements. (a) A non-North America-domiciled motor carrier must use only drivers who possess...

  12. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false New entrant registration driver's license and drug... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements. (a) A non-North America-domiciled motor carrier must use only drivers who possess...

  13. Drug Testing in Schools: A Brief Review and Analysis of Recent Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasquez, James

    2010-01-01

    Random drug testing (RSDT) in schools is a controversial topic. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that RSDT is constitutional for certain groups of students. Moreover, funding has been made available for schools to implement RSDT programs through the U.S. Department of Education and the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. This…

  14. Black/White Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: A Test of Six Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine M.; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    Six specific hypotheses have been developed to account for why Caucasians have higher rates of drug use compared to African-Americans. This article utilizes data from a South Florida-based community study of 893 young adults (1998-2002) to test these hypotheses. Specifically, Caucasians (1) initiate drug use at younger ages than African-Americans…

  15. Performance-Enhancing Drugs I: Understanding the Basics of Testing for Banned Substances.

    PubMed

    Cadwallader, Amy B; Murray, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Whenever athletes willfully or accidentally ingest performance-enhancing drugs or other banned substances (such as drugs of abuse), markers of those drugs can be detected in biological samples (e.g., biofluids: urine, saliva, blood); in the case of some drugs, that evidence can be apparent for many weeks following the last exposure to the drug. In addition to the willful use of prohibited drugs, athletes can accidentally ingest banned substances in contaminated dietary supplements or foods and inadvertently fail a drug test that could mean the end of an athletic career and the loss of a good reputation. The proliferation of performance-enhancing drugs and methods has required a corresponding increase in the analytical tools and methods required to identify the presence of banned substances in biofluids. Even though extraordinary steps have been taken by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency to limit the use of prohibited substances and methods by athletes willing to cheat, it is apparent that some athletes continue to avoid detection by using alternative doping regimens or taking advantage of the limitations in testing methodologies. This article reviews the testing standards and analytical techniques underlying the procedures used to identify banned substances in biological samples, setting the stage for future summaries of the testing required to establish the use of steroids, stimulants, diuretics, and other prohibited substances.

  16. 21 CFR 310.103 - New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distributor by a practitioner licensed by law to administer such drugs, and the use of such drugs for patch... other labeling provisions of the act: (i) “Rx only”; and (ii) “For use only in patch testing”. (4) The quantity shipped is limited to an amount reasonable for the purpose of patch testing in the normal...

  17. 21 CFR 310.103 - New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distributor by a practitioner licensed by law to administer such drugs, and the use of such drugs for patch... other labeling provisions of the act: (i) “Rx only”; and (ii) “For use only in patch testing”. (4) The quantity shipped is limited to an amount reasonable for the purpose of patch testing in the normal...

  18. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... operators and operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol... Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities. Subject: Post-Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing. Advisory... INFORMATION: I. Background On September 9, 2010, a 30-inch-diameter segment of an intrastate natural...

  19. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  20. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  1. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  2. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  3. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  4. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  5. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  7. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 40 - DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to DOT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Uncorrected Flaw (number) 4. Positive Results Reported (total number) By Drug (a) Marijuana Metabolite (number... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. C Appendix C to Part 40—DOT Drug...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 40 - DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... number) By Drug (a) Marijuana Metabolite (number) (b) Cocaine Metabolite (number) (c) Opiates (number) (1... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. B Appendix B to Part 40—DOT Drug...

  11. Selection of solid dosage form composition through drug-excipient compatibility testing.

    PubMed

    Serajuddin, A T; Thakur, A B; Ghoshal, R N; Fakes, M G; Ranadive, S A; Morris, K R; Varia, S A

    1999-07-01

    A drug-excipient compatibility screening model was developed by which potential stability problems due to interactions of drug substances with excipients in solid dosage forms can be predicted. The model involved storing drug-excipient blends with 20% added water in closed glass vials at 50 degrees C and analyzing them after 1 and 3 weeks for chemical and physical stability. The total weight of drug-excipient blend in a vial was usually kept at about 200 mg. The amount of drug substance in a blend was determined on the basis of the expected drug-to-excipient ratio in the final formulation. Potential roles of several key factors, such as the chemical nature of the excipient, drug-to-excipient ratio, moisture, microenvironmental pH of the drug-excipient mixture, temperature, and light, on dosage form stability could be identified by using the model. Certain physical changes, such as polymorphic conversion or change from crystalline to amorphous form, that could occur in drug-excipient mixtures were also studied. Selection of dosage form composition by using this model at the outset of a drug development program would lead to reduction of "surprise" problems during long-term stability testing of drug products.

  12. Hair Testing for Drugs of Abuse and New Psychoactive Substances in a High-Risk Population.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Alberto; Palamar, Joseph J; Gerace, Enrico; Di Corcia, Daniele; Vincenti, Marco

    2017-03-04

    Hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have emerged in the drug market over the last decade. Few drug surveys in the USA, however, ask about use of NPS, so prevalence and correlates of use are largely unknown. A large portion of NPS use is unintentional or unknown as NPS are common adulterants in drugs like ecstasy/Molly, and most NPS are rapidly eliminated from the body, limiting efficacy of urine, blood and saliva testing. We utilized a novel method of examining prevalence of NPS use in a high-risk population utilizing hair-testing. Hair samples from high-risk nightclub and dance music attendees were tested for 82 drugs and metabolites (including NPS) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eighty samples collected from different parts of the body were analyzed, 57 of which detected positive for at least one substance-either a traditional or new drug. Among these, 26 samples tested positive for at least one NPS-the most common being butylone (25 samples). Other new drugs detected include methylone, methoxetamine, 5/6-APB, α-PVP and 4-FA. Hair analysis proved a powerful tool to gain objective biological drug-prevalence information, free from possible biases of unintentional or unknown intake and untruthful reporting of use. Such testing can be used actively or retrospectively to validate survey responses and inform research on consumption patterns, including intentional and unknown use, polydrug-use, occasional NPS intake and frequent or heavy use.

  13. Army Drug Development Program. Phase I. Clinical Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    34 " Donald Giancoli 457 Physical 7 Interview -:1 ’p Vital signs 100 Lab tests < Dose 750mg -3- ZA9-2~ ~ j~I l ~~I~Ii Assay ,-9 .- 2 ’ii Stuart Varner 458...3 9 2 -2J 2 ~ J~~~ Donald Giancoli 7 Physical // Interview___j/ <- Vital signs__- /7 Lab tests ZEN-/ f Dose 1500mng ~4,~747~/ Assay 91 _-L’ 2 A_ XJ I_...12.5 mg/kg) developed nausea and/or vomiting. Although these subjects developed no abnormal physical findings or laboratory val- ues, it was

  14. The Fourth Amendment and random drug testing of people with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Collen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    It is common for physicians who prescribe opioids for chronic pain to drug test their patients. This practice may soon be mandated by the State of Washington as a result of passage of their new law ESHB 2876. Random drug testing of people simply because they seek treatment for chronic pain arguably constitutes a suspicionless and warrantless search that violates both the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments. Issues discussed include consent, circumstantial coercion, and "special needs" searches.

  15. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    PubMed

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  16. Precursor medications as a source of methamphetamine and/or amphetamine positive drug testing results.

    PubMed

    Cody, John T

    2002-05-01

    Medical Review Officer interpretation of laboratory results is an important component of drug testing programs. The clinical evaluation of laboratory results to assess the possibility of appropriate medical use of a drug is a task with many different facets, depending on the drug class considered. This intercession prevents the reporting of positive results unless it is apparent that drugs were used illicitly. In addition to the commonly encountered prescribed drugs that yield positive drug testing results, other sources of positive results must be considered. This review describes a series of compounds referred to as "precursor" drugs that are metabolized by the body to amphetamine and/or methamphetamine. These compounds lead to positive results for amphetamines even though neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine were used, a possibility that must be considered in the review of laboratory results. Description of the drugs, their clinical indications, and results seen following administration are provided. This information allows for the informed evaluation of results with regard to the potential involvement of these drugs.

  17. In vitro drug testing based on contractile activity of C2C12 cells in an epigenetic drug model

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Kazushi; Ito, Akira; Imada, Ryusuke; Sato, Masanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering holds great promise for pharmacological studies. Herein, we demonstrated an in vitro drug testing system using tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs. In response to epigenetic drugs, myotube differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells was promoted in two-dimensional cell cultures, but the levels of contractile force generation of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs prepared by three-dimensional cell cultures were not correlated with the levels of myotube differentiation in two-dimensional cell cultures. In contrast, sarcomere formation and contractile activity in two-dimensional cell cultures were highly correlated with contractile force generation of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs. Among the epigenetic drugs tested, trichostatin A significantly improved contractile force generation of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs. Follistatin expression was also enhanced by trichostatin A treatment, suggesting the importance of follistatin in sarcomere formation of muscular tissues. These observations indicate that contractility data are indispensable for in vitro drug screening. PMID:28300163

  18. Drug Target Mining and Analysis of the Chinese Tree Shrew for Pharmacological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research. PMID:25105297

  19. Analytical evaluation of four on-site oral fluid drug testing devices.

    PubMed

    Vanstechelman, Sylvie; Isalberti, Cristina; Van der Linden, Trudy; Pil, Kristof; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Verstraete, Alain G

    2012-03-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) as an alternative matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse has increased over the last decade, leading to the need for a rapid, simple, and reliable on-site OF testing device. Four on-site OF drug testing devices (Dräger DrugTest 5000, Cozart DDS, Mavand Rapid STAT, and Innovacon OrAlert) were evaluated on 408 volunteers at drug treatment centers. UPLC-MS-MS results were used as reference to determine sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each device, applying Belgian legal confirmation cutoffs for benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and THC (10 ng/mL); morphine and 6-acetylmorphine (5 ng/mL); and amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (25 ng/mL). Sensitivity for cocaine was 50%, 50%, 27%, and 11% for DrugTest, OrAlert, Rapid STAT, and DDS 806, respectively. For opiates, sensitivities were 84%, 73%, 77%, and 65%, respectively. For THC, the sensitivities were 81%, 23%, 43%, and 28%, respectively. For amphetamines, the sensitivities were 75%, 33%, 17%, and 67%, respectively. Specificity was >88% for opiates and THC, > 90% for amphetamines, and > 97% for cocaine. All tests showed good specificity. DrugTest had the highest sensitivity, although it was still low for some analytes.

  20. Hypothesis testing in high-throughput screening for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Prummer, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Following the success of small-molecule high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, other large-scale screening techniques are currently revolutionizing the biological sciences. Powerful new statistical tools have been developed to analyze the vast amounts of data in DNA chip studies, but have not yet found their way into compound screening. In HTS, characterization of single-point hit lists is often done only in retrospect after the results of confirmation experiments are available. However, for prioritization, for optimal use of resources, for quality control, and for comparison of screens it would be extremely valuable to predict the rates of false positives and false negatives directly from the primary screening results. Making full use of the available information about compounds and controls contained in HTS results and replicated pilot runs, the Z score and from it the p value can be estimated for each measurement. Based on this consideration, we have applied the concept of p-value distribution analysis (PVDA), which was originally developed for gene expression studies, to HTS data. PVDA allowed prediction of all relevant error rates as well as the rate of true inactives, and excellent agreement with confirmation experiments was found.

  1. Skin models for the testing of transdermal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Abd, Eman; Yousef, Shereen A; Pastore, Michael N; Telaprolu, Krishna; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Namjoshi, Sarika; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of percutaneous permeation of molecules is a key step in the evaluation of dermal or transdermal delivery systems. If the drugs are intended for delivery to humans, the most appropriate setting in which to do the assessment is the in vivo human. However, this may not be possible for ethical, practical, or economic reasons, particularly in the early phases of development. It is thus necessary to find alternative methods using accessible and reproducible surrogates for in vivo human skin. A range of models has been developed, including ex vivo human skin, usually obtained from cadavers or plastic surgery patients, ex vivo animal skin, and artificial or reconstructed skin models. Increasingly, largely driven by regulatory authorities and industry, there is a focus on developing standardized techniques and protocols. With this comes the need to demonstrate that the surrogate models produce results that correlate with those from in vivo human studies and that they can be used to show bioequivalence of different topical products. This review discusses the alternative skin models that have been developed as surrogates for normal and diseased skin and examines the concepts of using model systems for in vitro–in vivo correlation and the demonstration of bioequivalence. PMID:27799831

  2. Toxicity testing and drug screening using iPSC-derived hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, and neural cells.

    PubMed

    Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Polák, Štefan; Danišovič, L'uboš

    2016-07-01

    Unexpected toxicity in areas such as cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a serious complication of clinical therapy and one of the key causes for failure of promising drug candidates in development. Animal studies have been widely used for toxicology research to provide preclinical security evaluation of various therapeutic agents under development. Species differences in drug penetration of the blood-brain barrier, drug metabolism, and related toxicity contribute to failure of drug trials from animal models to human. The existing system for drug discovery has relied on immortalized cell lines, animal models of human disease, and clinical trials in humans. Moreover, drug candidates that are passed as being safe in the preclinical stage often show toxic effects during the clinical stage. Only around 16% drugs are approved for human use. Research on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) promises to enhance drug discovery and development by providing simple, reproducible, and economically effective tools for drug toxicity screening under development and, on the other hand, for studying the disease mechanism and pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of basic information about iPSCs, and discuss efforts aimed at the use of iPSC-derived hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, and neural cells in drug discovery and toxicity testing.

  3. Testing Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy in a Zebrafish High-Throughput Translational Medicine Screen

    PubMed Central

    Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J.; Wiweger, Malgorzata I.; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H.; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

  4. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  5. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and alcohol... drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in Washington, DC, on December 1,...

  6. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a)...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  8. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  11. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?...

  13. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?...

  16. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?...

  17. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?...

  1. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?...

  2. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a)...

  3. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in Washington, DC on November 1, 2012... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug...

  4. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a)...

  9. Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools…

  10. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  11. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  12. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  13. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  14. Rapid Test for Infliximab Drug Concentration Allows Immediate Dose Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Van Stappen, Thomas; Bollen, Lize; Vande Casteele, Niels; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Van Assche, Gert; Ferrante, Marc; Vermeire, Séverine; Gils, Ann

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab improves treatment outcomes, but available assays to monitor infliximab lack speed to implement treatment algorithms immediately. Our aim is to validate a rapid, lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for quantitative determination of infliximab and to assess thresholds associated with mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Samples (n=190) from 29 anti-tumor necrosis factor naive patients with ulcerative colitis starting infliximab induction therapy between June 2010 and February 2012 were prospectively collected. All patients had a Mayo endoscopic sub-score ≥2 at baseline. Mucosal healing (MH), defined as a Mayo endoscopic sub-score ≤1, was evaluated at week 10–14. Infliximab trough concentrations (TC) were determined with a novel LFA, which was benchmarked with the RIDASCREEN infliximab Monitoring (ELISA). RESULTS: The LFA showed an excellent agreement with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of infliximab, as observed from Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.95 during induction and 0.93 and 0.87 during maintenance therapy, respectively. In total, 45% of patients achieved MH. Using the LFA, week 14 TC ≥2.1 μg/ml (AUROC: 0.819, P=0.008) were associated with MH. After 2 years follow-up, 77% of patients with MH were still receiving infliximab therapy vs. 25% of patients without MH. CONCLUSIONS: We validated a LFA for quantification of infliximab and identified TC associated with MH. With a time-to-result of 20 min, individual sample analysis and user-friendliness, the LFA outplays ELISA as a rapid, accurate tool to monitor infliximab concentrations. PMID:27929524

  15. The effects of adulterants and selected ingested compounds on drugs-of-abuse testing in urine.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2007-09-01

    Household chemicals such as bleach, table salt, laundry detergent, toilet bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice, and eyedrops are used for adulterating urine specimens. Most of these adulterants except eyedrops can be detected by routine specimen integrity tests (creatinine, pH, temperature, and specific gravity); however, certain adulterants such as Klear, Whizzies, Urine Luck, and Stealth cannot. These adulterants can successfully mask drug testing if the concentrations of certain abused drugs are moderate. Several spot tests have been described to detect the presence of such adulterants in urine. Urine dipsticks are commercially available for detecting the presence of such adulterants, along with performance of tests for creatinine, pH, and specific gravity. Certain hair shampoo and saliva-cleaning mouthwashes are available to escape detection in hair or saliva samples, but the effectiveness of such products in masking drugs-of-abuse testing has not been demonstrated. Ingestion of poppy seed cake may result in positive screening test results for opiates, and hemp oil exposure can cause positive results for marijuana. These would be identified as true-positive results in drugs-of-abuse testing even though they do not represent the actual drug of abuse.

  16. Mutagenicity testing of doxylamine succinate, an antinauseant drug.

    PubMed

    Müller, L; Korte, A; Madle, S

    1989-10-01

    Doxylamine succinate (DA), a compound which was formerly used as an antinauseant during pregnancy, showed no substantial mutagenicity in mouse embryos following transplacental exposure. A small dose-dependent induction of chromosomal aberrations was found in mouse embryos on day 11 of gestation. No induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was found in embryos on day 11 of gestation. A micronucleus test with fetal blood on day 17 of gestation was negative. Additionally, DA was negative in Chinese hamster bone marrow in vivo (micronuclei) and in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro (SCE).

  17. Zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test for drug safety signal detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Zheng, Dan; Zalkikar, Jyoti; Tiwari, Ram

    2017-02-01

    In recent decades, numerous methods have been developed for data mining of large drug safety databases, such as Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Adverse Event Reporting System, where data matrices are formed by drugs such as columns and adverse events as rows. Often, a large number of cells in these data matrices have zero cell counts and some of them are "true zeros" indicating that the drug-adverse event pairs cannot occur, and these zero counts are distinguished from the other zero counts that are modeled zero counts and simply indicate that the drug-adverse event pairs have not occurred yet or have not been reported yet. In this paper, a zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method is proposed to identify drug-adverse event pairs that have disproportionately high reporting rates, which are also called signals. The maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters of zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test are obtained using the expectation and maximization algorithm. The zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test is also modified to handle the stratified analyses for binary and categorical covariates (e.g. gender and age) in the data. The proposed zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method is shown to asymptotically control the type I error and false discovery rate, and its finite sample performance for signal detection is evaluated through a simulation study. The simulation results show that the zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method performs similar to Poisson model based likelihood ratio test method when the estimated percentage of true zeros in the database is small. Both the zero-inflated Poisson model based likelihood ratio test and likelihood ratio test methods are applied to six selected drugs, from the 2006 to 2011 Adverse Event Reporting System database, with varying percentages of observed zero-count cells.

  18. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nitrate reductase assay.

    PubMed

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Birinci, Asuman; Ekinci, Bora; Durupinar, Belma

    2004-09-01

    The nitrate reductase assay (NRA) was evaluated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using 80 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and H37Rv as a control strain. All isolates were tested by the proportion method and the NRA for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (ETM). The proportion method was carried out according to NCCLS on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and the NRA on LJ medium containing 1000 microg/ml potassium nitrate (KNO(3)). After incubation for 7, 10, 14 and 21 days, Griess reagent was added to each LJ medium and nitrate reduction was determined by a colour change. Comparing the NRA with the proportion method, sensitivities were 100, 100, 82.1 and 92.2% for INH, RIF, STR and ETM, respectively. Specificities were 100, 100, 92.3 and 100% for INH, RIF, STR and ETM, respectively. The results of 2, 22 and 56 isolates were obtained after 7, 10 and 14 days, respectively. The proportion method result were read at 21-28 days. The NRA is rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform. Our results indicated that the NRA is suitable for the early determination of INH and RIF resistance in countries where sophisticated procedures are not always available.

  19. Drug-excipient compatibility testing using a high-throughput approach and statistical design.

    PubMed

    Wyttenbach, Nicole; Birringer, Christian; Alsenz, Jochem; Kuentz, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our research was to develop a miniaturized high throughput drug-excipient compatibility test. Experiments were planned and evaluated using statistical experimental design. Binary mixtures of a drug, acetylsalicylic acid, or fluoxetine hydrochloride, and of excipients commonly used in solid dosage forms were prepared at a ratio of approximately 1:100 in 96-well microtiter plates. Samples were exposed to different temperature (40 degrees C/ 50 degrees C) and humidity (10%/75%) for different time (1 week/4 weeks), and chemical drug degradation was analyzed using a fast gradient high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Categorical statistical design was applied to identify the effects and interactions of time, temperature, humidity, and excipient on drug degradation. Acetylsalicylic acid was least stable in the presence of magnesium stearate, dibasic calcium phosphate, or sodium starch glycolate. Fluoxetine hydrochloride exhibited a marked degradation only with lactose. Factor-interaction plots revealed that the relative humidity had the strongest effect on the drug excipient blends tested. In conclusion, the developed technique enables fast drug-excipient compatibility testing and identification of interactions. Since only 0.1 mg of drug is needed per data point, fast rational preselection of the pharmaceutical additives can be performed early in solid dosage form development.

  20. IFDAT-International forum for drug and alcohol testing, 12-14 April 2010, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Kenney J D, Josephine Elizabeth; Björklöv, Per

    2011-03-01

    The second programme of its kind globally, the highly successful, collaborative, productive and energizing IFDAT-International Forum for Drug and Alcohol Testing, was held in Barcelona, Spain, from 12-14 April. IFDAT was attended by over 100 delegates, conference sponsors and exhibitors from the international workplace drug and alcohol testing industry. Representing over 20 countries, the delegate professionals, speakers, and presenters included employers, service agents, an international publisher, and workplace testing suppliers. The purpose of the forum was to exchange knowledge, learn about new technology, and support the evolution and growth of the emerging international workplace drug and alcohol testing industry. This purpose was accomplished. Delegates from around the globe exchanged their experiences and thoughts about effective workplace drug testing programmes over two days of intensive presentations and panel discussions. The presenters and panelists included drug and alcohol testing professionals, authorities, and intellectuals from around the world. IFDAT conferences are planned for every 18 months, and the next Forum, to be held in Houston, Texas, USA is in the planning process for 2011.

  1. The current status of sweat testing for drugs of abuse: a review.

    PubMed

    De Giovanni, N; Fucci, N

    2013-01-01

    Sweat is an alternative biological matrix useful to detect drugs of abuse intake. It is produced by eccrine and apocrine glands originating in the skin dermis and terminating in secretory canals that flow into the skin surface and hair follicles. Since many years it has been demonstrated that endogenous and exogenous chemicals are secreted in this biological sample hence its collection and analysis could show the past intake of xenobiotics. From the seventies the excretion of drugs of abuse has been investigated in human skin excretion; later in nineties forensic scientists began to experiment some techniques to trap sweat for analyses. Even if the use of skin excretions for drug testing has been restricted mainly by difficulties in sample recovery, the marketing of systems for the sample collection has allowed successful sweat testing for several drugs of abuse. In the recent years sweat testing developed a noninvasive monitoring of drug exposure in various contexts as criminal justice, employment and outpatient clinical settings. This paper provides an overview of literature data about sweat drug testing procedures for various xenobiotics especially cocaine metabolites, opiates, cannabis and amphetamines. Issues related to collection, analysis and interpretation of skin excretions as well as its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Moreover the chance to apply the technique to some particular situation such as workplace drug testing, drivers, doping or prenatal diagnosis, the comparison between sweat and other non conventional matrices are also reviewed. According to literature data the analysis of sweat may be usefully alternative for verifying drug history and for monitoring compliance.

  2. Proficiency test for the analysis of hair for drugs of abuse, organized by the Society of Hair Testing.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Carmen; Sachs, Hans

    2003-04-23

    Eighteen laboratories interested in the analysis of human hair for drugs of abuse participated in a proficiency test (PT) organized by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) in 2001. Samples sent to the participants included one drug-free hair sample and two samples from drug users, sent in the form of short segments previously checked for homogeneity by three reference laboratories. Participants were requested to analyze the samples following the standard procedure used routinely in their laboratories.The compounds present in the samples included opiates, cocaine and metabolite, cannabinoids and amphetamines. All the laboratories analyzed opiates, cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE); only 10 analyzed amphetamines, and 9 cannabinoids. Various methods were used to extract drugs from the hair-enzyme treatment, acidic, basic and methanol extractions. All the laboratories employed GC-MS, with the exception of two which used GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. Six laboratories performed initial screening tests by RIA, ELISA or EMIT. Results show that the laboratories performed well qualitatively, since they successfully identified all the analytes that they tested, with the exception of eight false results. However, the scatter of quantitative results was high.

  3. Urine Trouble: Drug Testing of Students and Teachers in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Non-individualized (so-called "random") drug testing in public schools presents issues of Constitutional law on both the federal and state levels, particularly with regard to citizens' freedom from "unreasonable searches and seizures." The trend toward increasing acceptance of such testing by the courts (and particularly the U.S. Supreme Court)…

  4. Drug Testing US Student-Athletes for Performance-Enhancing Substance Misuse: A Flawed Process.

    PubMed

    Bahrke, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that drug testing of U.S. high school students for performance-enhancing substance misuse is invasive, expensive, and the low number of positive test results do not justify the costs, especially in financially strapped school districts where this money would be better spent on injury prevention for athletes and the education of all students.

  5. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... the Alcohol Testing Form (ATF) and Management Information System (MIS) form Federal Register and... ] TR25FE10.005 ] 0 4. Appendix H to Part 40--DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS... Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form The following form is the MIS Data Collection...

  6. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... for Random Drug Testing Operators of gas, hazardous liquid, and carbon dioxide pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must randomly select and test a percentage of covered employees...://opsweb.phmsa.dot.gov/portal_message/PHMSA_Portal_Registration.pdf . Pursuant to Sec. Sec. 199.119(a)...

  7. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation published a final rule authorizing the use of an updated Alcohol Testing Form with... INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and...

  8. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... our recently updated Alcohol Testing Form (ATF) to January 1, 2011. The revised ATF went into effect... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy...

  9. Predictive Value of Molecular Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García, Pamela K.; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases. PMID:23658272

  10. Confirmatory tests for drugs in the workplace by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, B A; Cone, E J

    1994-07-15

    The Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs require the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the confirmation of presumptive positive urine specimens. This review focuses upon GC-MS methods developed specifically for forensic confirmation of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid), benzoylecgonine, morphine, codeine and phencyclidine in urine for purposes of workplace drug testing. In addition, current laboratory issues pertaining to each drug class are reviewed. Generally, drug assays utilized either liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction methods, derivatization if necessary, and GC-MS detection operating in the selected ion monitoring mode or by full scan acquisition.

  11. Validation of microscopic observation drug susceptibility testing for rapid, direct rifampicin and isoniazid drug susceptibility testing in patients receiving tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Coronel, J; Roper, M H; Herrera, C; Bonilla, C; Jave, O; Gianella, C; Sabogal, I; Huancaré, V; Leo, E; Tyas, A; Mendoza-Ticona, A; Caviedes, L; Moore, D A J

    2014-06-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) is often needed in patients clinically failing tuberculosis (TB) therapy. Most studies of phenotypic direct drug susceptibility tests, such as microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) tests, have been performed in patients not receiving TB treatment. The effect of ongoing TB treatment on the performance of MODS direct DST has not been previously explored, but patients failing such therapy constitute an important target group. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of MODS direct rifampicin and isoniazid DST in patients clinically failing first-line TB treatment, and to compare MODS direct DST with indirect proportion method DST. Sputa from 264 TB patients were cultured in parallel in Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) and MODS assays; strains were tested for rifampicin and isoniazid susceptibility by the proportion method at the national reference laboratory. Ninety-three samples were culture-positive by LJ and MODS (concordance of 96%; kappa 0.92). With conventional MODS plate DST reading (performed on the same day as the sample is classified as culture-positive), the isoniazid DST concordance was 96.8% (kappa 0.89), and the concordance for rifampicin susceptibility testing was 92.6% (kappa 0.80). Reading of MODS DST plates 1 week after cultures had been determined to be culture-positive improved overall performance marginally-the isoniazid DST concordance was 95.7% (kappa 0.85); and the rifampicin DST concordance was 96.8% (kappa 0.91). Sensitivity for detection of multidrug-resistant TB was 95.8%. MODS testing provided reliable rifampicin and isoniazid DST results for samples obtained from patients receiving TB therapy. A modified DST reading schedule for such samples, with a final reading 1 week after a MODS culture turns positive, marginally improves the concordance with reference DST.

  12. [Drug information for patients (Package Leaflets), and user testing in EU].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Michiko; Doi, Hirohisa; Furukawa, Aya

    2015-01-01

    Patients and consumers have desired high quality drug information in their pharmacotherapy, and are entitled to receive it. It is desirable that the information should be aimed at shared decision-making between patients and healthcare professionals about medications. The quality of drug information available to patients should also be assured. With an aim to improve the quality of "Drug Guide for Patients", we investigated Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) which are approved by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) in the United Kingdom (UK) with regard to the criteria of development and user testing for assuring the quality of the PILs. In the European Union (EU), these are called Package Leaflets (PLs). PILs have been a legal requirement in the UK since 1999 for all medications. The user testing of PILs has been implemented as evidence since 2005 so that people can rely on the information provided in the leaflet. Execution of PILs which follow the guidance of the user testing, according to the guidance of this user testing, would reflect the views of patients. Here, we introduce the development process and implementation of user testing of PILs. In terms of readability, accessibility and understandability of drug information for patients, we need to discuss involving the public in decisions on how its quality should be assured and how it can be made easily be comprehensible for patients, in order to make effective use of "Drug Guide for Patients" in the future in Japan.

  13. [Drug resistance testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from sputum in Chad].

    PubMed

    Abdelhadi, O; Ndokaïn, J; Ali, M Moussa; Friocourt, V; Mortier, E; Heym, B

    2012-02-01

    Culture and resistance testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are not regularly performed in Chad. Sputa were obtained from three different categories of hospitals (district, regional and national) in Chad. All examined sputa were smear-positive and were investigated by culture and drug resistance testing for first-line antituberculosis drugs. From 232 sputa positive for acid-fast bacilli, 135 isolates of M. tuberculosis from different patients (46 women, 89 men, mean age 34 years) were analyzed. All the patients except one corresponded to new cases of tuberculosis. In total, 27 out of 135 isolates (20%) were resistant to at least one major antituberculosis drug. Resistance to isoniazid was the most frequent resistance observed, with 18 isolates (13%) presenting at least this resistance. Three isolates (2.2%) were resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin (multidrug resistance MDR) including one isolate being concomitantly resistant to streptomycin and ethambutol. The resistance rate differed in relation to the category of the hospital; the most important resistance rate was observed in regional hospitals (33%), while it was 16% and 14% in the national and district hospitals, respectively. HIV serology was performed in 81 patients, among whom 20 (25%) were positive. This is the first study that shows that drug resistance of M. tuberculosis is present in Chad. Besides single drug-resistant isolates, multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis could also be identified. This result highlights the urgency of initiating actions to detect drug resistance and limit the spread of drug-resistant strains.

  14. Effects of Fluid Load on Human Urine Characteristics Related to Workplace Drug testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Human Urine Characteristics Related to Workplace Drug Testing 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. Chaturvedi AK, 1 Sershon JL, 1 ...specimens from 12 males and 12 females were tested . These specimens were: 1 in the morning, 1 prior to drinking 800-mL of a beverage, and at 3 time...carbonated drink. Of the 480 samples collected, 376 were in sufficient amounts for validity testing . Of these 376 samples, 36 (10%) had creatinine

  15. The Influence of Drug Testing Attributes, Participation, and Personality on Potential Applicant's Attitudes and Job Pursuit Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffey, Ronald W.

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the importance of job applicants' reactions to the personnel selection process. This study examines three variables in connection with drug testing policies: (1) the potential applicant's reactions to two different drug testing policies which varied in terms of drug policy characteristics and their impact on…

  16. Development and model testing of anti-mortem screening methodology to predict prescribed drug withholds in heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animal fluids would provide useful information for tissue drug residue avoidance programs. Live animal tests have the potential to allow verification that an individual animal is free of drug residues before sale for h...

  17. Development and model testing of anti-mortem screening methodology to predict prescribed drug withholds in heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animal fluids would provide useful information for tissue drug residue avoidance programs. This work describes adaptation and evaluation of rapid screening tests to detect drug residues in serum and urine. Medicated herd animals had...

  18. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain...

  19. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain...

  20. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain...

  1. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain...

  2. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain...

  3. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  4. Impact of the emergence of designer drugs upon sports doping testing.

    PubMed

    Teale, P; Scarth, J; Hudson, S

    2012-01-01

    Historically, dope-testing methods have been developed to target specific and known threats to the integrity of sport. Traditionally, the source of new analytical targets for which testing was required were derived almost exclusively from the pharmaceutical industry. More recently, the emergence of designer drugs, such as tetrahydrogestrinone that are specifically intended to evade detection, or novel chemicals intended to circumvent laws controlling the sale and distribution of recreational drugs, such as anabolic steroids, stimulants and cannabinoids, have become a significant issue. In this review, we shall consider the emergence of designer drugs and the response of dope-testing laboratories to these new threats, in particular developments in analytical methods, instrumentation and research intended to detect their abuse, and we consider the likely future impact of these approaches.

  5. Poppy seed foods and opiate drug testing--where are we today?

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sproll, Constanze; Musshoff, Frank

    2010-02-01

    Seeds of the opium poppy plant are legally sold and widely consumed as food. Due to contamination during harvesting, the seeds can contain morphine and other opiate alkaloids. The objective of this study is to review the toxicology of poppy seed foods regarding influence on opiate drug tests. Computer-assisted literature review resulted in 95 identified references. Normal poppy seed consumption is generally regarded as safe. During food processing, the morphine content is considerably reduced (up to 90%). The possibility of false-positive opiate drug tests after poppy food ingestion exists. There are no unambiguous markers available to differentiate poppy food ingestion from heroin or pharmaceutical morphine use. This is also a problem in heroin-assisted maintenance programs. A basic requirement in such substitution programs is the patients' abstinence from any other drugs, including additional illicit heroin. Also a lack of forensic ingestion trials was detected that consider all factors influencing the morphine content in biologic matrices after consumption. Most studies did not control for the losses during food processing, so that the initial morphine dosage was overestimated. The large reduction of the morphine content during past years raises questions about the validity of the "poppy seed defence." However, a threshold of food use that would not lead to positive drug tests with certainty is currently unavailable. Research is needed to prove if the morphine contents in today's foods still pose the possibility of influencing drug tests. Future trials should consider processing-related morphine losses.

  6. Comparative studies evaluating mouse models used for efficacy testing of experimental drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Mary A; Gilliland, Janet C; Wells, Colby L; Brooks, Elizabeth J; Woolhiser, Lisa K; Gruppo, Veronica; Peloquin, Charles A; Orme, Ian M; Lenaerts, Anne J

    2011-03-01

    Methodologies for preclinical animal model testing of drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis vary from laboratory to laboratory; however, it is unknown if these variations result in different outcomes. Thus, a series of head-to-head comparisons of drug regimens in three commonly used mouse models (intravenous, a low-dose aerosol, and a high-dose aerosol infection model) and in two strains of mice are reported here. Treatment with standard tuberculosis (TB) drugs resulted in similar efficacies in two mouse species after a low-dose aerosol infection. When comparing the three different infection models, the efficacies in mice of rifampin and pyrazinamide were similar when administered with either isoniazid or moxifloxacin. Relapse studies revealed that the standard drug regimen showed a significantly higher relapse rate than the moxifloxacin-containing regimen. In fact, 4 months of the moxifloxacin-containing combination regimen showed similar relapse rates as 6 months of the standard regimen. The intravenous model showed slower bactericidal killing kinetics with the combination regimens tested and a higher relapse of infection than either aerosol infection models. All three models showed similar outcomes for in vivo efficacy and relapse of infection for the drug combinations tested, regardless of the mouse infection model used. Efficacy data for the drug combinations used also showed similar results, regardless of the formulation used for rifampin or timing of the drugs administered in combination. In all three infection models, the dual combination of rifampin and pyrazinamide was less sterilizing than the standard three-drug regimen, and therefore the results do not support the previously reported antagonism between standard TB agents.

  7. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel.

  8. Prevalence of tuberculosis infection and comparison of multiple-puncture liquid tuberculin test and Mantoux test among drug users.

    PubMed

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Lugoboni, Fabio; Talamini, Giorgio; Lechi, Alessandro; Mezzelani, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of latent infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in drug users and to provide centres for drug users with a practical tool for tuberculosis screening, 237 drug users were subjected to the Monotest and, for reference purposes, to the Mantoux test. The overall prevalence of subjects with a tuberculin skin reaction size > or = 5 mm in the Mantoux test was 25.7%; utilizing a cut-off of > or = 10 mm, the prevalence was 11.4%. Irrespective of cut-off, the Monotest showed a sensitivity of > 90% and a specificity of > 80%. At a prevalence of 25.7%, and with cut-offs of > or = 5 or > or = 10 mm, the positive predictive value was 83% or 62.2%, respectively. Irrespective of cut-off, the negative predictive value was > 97%. In conclusion, the Monotest proved satisfactory as a tool for epidemiological screening in a population with a high prevalence for latent tuberculosis, namely drug users.

  9. Is There a Space-Based Technology Solution to Problems with Preclinical Drug Toxicity Testing?

    PubMed

    Hammond, Timothy; Allen, Patricia; Birdsall, Holly

    2016-07-01

    Even the finest state-of-the art preclinical drug testing, usually in primary hepatocytes, remains an imperfect science. Drugs continue to be withdrawn from the market due to unforeseen toxicity, side effects, and drug interactions. The space program may be able to provide a lifeline. Best known for rockets, space shuttles, astronauts and engineering, the space program has also delivered some serious medical science. Optimized suspension culture in NASA's specialized suspension culture devices, known as rotating wall vessels, uniquely maintains Phase I and Phase II drug metabolizing pathways in hepatocytes for weeks in cell culture. Previously prohibitively expensive, new materials and 3D printing techniques have the potential to make the NASA rotating wall vessel available inexpensively on an industrial scale. Here we address the tradeoffs inherent in the rotating wall vessel, limitations of alternative approaches for drug metabolism studies, and the market to be addressed. Better pre-clinical drug testing has the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of one of the most common problems in modern medicine: adverse events related to pharmaceuticals.

  10. Drug Testing for Newborn Exposure to Illicit Substances in Pregnancy: Pitfalls and Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Farst, Karen J.; Valentine, Jimmie L.; Hall, R. Whit

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of drug usage during pregnancy vary by region and survey tool used. Clinicians providing care to newborns should be equipped to recognize a newborn who has been exposed to illicit drugs during pregnancy by the effects the exposure might cause at the time of delivery and/or by drug testing of the newborn. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature and assess the clinical role of drug testing in the newborn. Accurate recognition of a newborn whose mother has used illicit drugs in pregnancy cannot only impact decisions for healthcare in the nursery around the time of delivery, but can also provide a key opportunity to assess the mother for needed services. While drug use in pregnancy is not an independent predictor of the mother's ability to provide a safe and nurturing environment for her newborn, other issues that often cooccur in the life of a mother with a substance abuse disorder raise concerns for the safety of the discharge environment and should be assessed. Healthcare providers in these roles should advocate for unbiased and effective treatment services for affected families. PMID:21785611

  11. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  12. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Shin; Forbes, Thomas P; van Asten, Arian C; Gillen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal intensity to the amount of drug deposited on the surface were generated from inkjet-printed arrays of cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin with a deposited-mass ranging nominally from 10 pg to 50 ng per spot. These curves were used to construct concentration maps that visualized the spatial distribution of the drugs on top of a fingerprint, as well as being able to quantify the amount of drugs in a given area within the map. For the drugs on the fingerprint on silicon, ToF-SIMS showed great success, as it was able to generate concentration maps of all three drugs. On the fingerprint on paper, only the concentration map of cocaine could be constructed using ToF-SIMS and DESI-MS, as the signals of methamphetamine and heroin were completely suppressed by matrix and substrate effects. Spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs using imaging mass spectrometry is possible, but the choice of substrates could significantly affect the results.

  13. Correlation of Drug-Testing Results - Immunoassay versus Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, M H; Liu, R H; Chen, Y L; Rhodes, S L

    2006-01-01

    The need for and prevalence of workplace drug-testing programs mandate the development of an effective and efficient two-step test strategy. Successful implementation of the two-step test strategy relies on the establishment of a reasonable correlation between the preliminary and the confirmatory test data and the selection of an appropriate cutoff for each test step. Correlations of test data derived form these two test steps were most commonly studied qualitatively by comparing the positive/negative test result concluded by these two test steps; however, when instrument-based immunoassays (IA) are used in the preliminary test step, the resulting "semiquantitative" and "apparent" concentration of the targeted analyte can be quantitatively correlated to the analyte concentration as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Specimens selected for quantitative correlation studies should be clinical specimens with the distributions of metabolites similar to that present in test specimens; if the resulting correlation data are to be used for selecting appropriate/corresponding cutoffs for these two test steps, the concentrations of the targeted analyte in these specimens should also be within a narrow range centering on the proposed GC-MS cutoff concentration. Among the very significant number of reports correlating IA and GC-MS test data, cannabis and urine are the most common drug category and test specimen studied. The degree of correlation between IA and the GC-MS test data varies with the IA reagent manufacturers, and even with manufacture dates/lots of those supplied by the same manufacturer. The most important factors underlying the observed degree of correlation are undoubtedly the cross-reacting characteristics of the antibody and the metabolite distribution pattern of the drug of concern. Over time, specificities of IA reagents have been optimized so that the two-step test strategy can be most effectively and efficiently applied using the

  14. Reliability of antimalarial sensitivity tests depends on drug mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wein, Sharon; Maynadier, Marjorie; Tran Van Ba, Christophe; Cerdan, Rachel; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri

    2010-05-01

    In vitro antimalarial activity tests play a pivotal role in malaria drug research or for monitoring drug resistance in field isolates. We applied two isotopic tests, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and the SYBR green I fluorescence-based assay, to test artesunate and chloroquine, the metabolic inhibitors atovaquone and pyrimethamine, our fast-acting choline analog T3/SAR97276, and doxycycline, which has a delayed death profile. Isotopic tests based on hypoxanthine and ethanolamine incorporation are the most reliable tests provided when they are applied after one full 48-h parasite cycle. The SYBR green assay, which measures the DNA content, usually requires 72 h of incubation to obtain reliable results. When delayed death is suspected, specific protocols are required with increasing incubation times up to 96 h. In contrast, both ELISA tests used (pLDH and HRP2) appear to be problematic, leading to disappointing and even erroneous results for molecules that do not share an artesunatelike profile. The reliability of these tests is linked to the mode of action of the drug, and the conditions required to get informative results are hard to predict. Our results suggest some minimal conditions to apply these tests that should give rise to a standard 50% inhibitory concentration, regardless of the mechanism of action of the compounds, and highlight that the most commonly used in vitro antimalarial activity tests do not have the same potential. Some of them might not detect the antimalarial potential of new classes of compounds with innovative modes of action, which subsequently could become promising new antimalarial drugs.

  15. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Nanostructured SERS-electrochemical biosensors for testing of anticancer drug interactions with DNA.

    PubMed

    Ilkhani, Hoda; Hughes, Taylor; Li, Jing; Zhong, Chuan Jian; Hepel, Maria

    2016-06-15

    Widely used anti-cancer treatments involving chemotherapeutic drugs result in cancer cell damage due to their strong interaction with DNA. In this work, we have developed laboratory biosensors for screening chemotherapeutic drugs and to aid in the assessment of DNA modification/damage caused by these drugs. The sensors utilize surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods to monitor sensory film modification and observe the drug-DNA reactivity. The self-assembled monolayer protected gold-disk electrode (AuDE) was coated with a reduced graphene oxide (rGO), decorated with plasmonic gold-coated Fe2Ni@Au magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), a sequence of the breast cancer gene BRCA1. The nanobiosensors AuDE/SAM/rGO/Fe2Ni@Au/dsDNA were then subjected to the action of a model chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), to assess the DNA modification and its dose dependence. The designed novel nanobiosensors offer SERS/electrochemical transduction, enabling chemically specific and highly sensitive analytical signals generation. The SERS measurements have corroborated the DOX intercalation into the DNA duplex whereas the electrochemical scans have indicated that the DNA modification by DOX proceeds in a concentration dependent manner, with limit of detection LOD=8 µg/mL (S/N=3), with semilog linearity over 3 orders of magnitude. These new biosensors are sensitive to agents that interact with DNA and facilitate the analysis of functional groups for determination of the binding mode. The proposed nanobiosensors can be applied in the first stage of the drug development for testing the interactions of new drugs with DNA before the drug efficacy can be assessed in more expensive testing in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Tuberculosis screening and compliance with return for skin test reading among active drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Malotte, C K; Rhodes, F; Mais, K E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the independent and combined effects of different levels of monetary incentives and a theory-based educational intervention on return for tuberculosis (TB) skin test reading in a sample of active injection drug and crack cocaine users. Prevalence of TB infection in this sample was also determined. METHODS: Active or recent drug users (n = 1004), recruited via street outreach techniques, were skin tested for TB. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 levels of monetary incentive ($5 and $10) provided at return for skin test reading, alone or in combination with a brief motivational education session. RESULTS: More than 90% of those who received $10 returned for skin test reading, in comparison with 85% of those who received $5 and 33% of those who received no monetary incentive. The education session had no impact on return for skin test reading. The prevalence of a positive tuberculin test was 18.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives dramatically increase the return rate for TB skin test reading among drug users who are at high risk of TB infection. PMID:9585747

  18. Opioid contracts and random drug testing for people with chronic pain - think twice.

    PubMed

    Collen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The use of opioid contracts, which often require patients to submit to random drug screens, have become widespread amongst physicians using opioids to treat chronic pain. The main purpose of the contract is to improve care through better adherence to opioid therapy but there is little evidence as to its efficacy. The author suggests the use of opioid contracts and random drug testing destroys patients' trust which impacts health outcomes, and that physicians' motivation for their use are concerns about prosecution, medication abuse and misuse, and addiction. Statistics are provided to counter fears, and evidence is offered suggesting opioid contracts are unenforceable and lack efficacy; random drug testing is often inconclusive, and a patient's trust improves adherence to treatment.

  19. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT... Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an MRO, you have the following basic responsibilities: (a) Acting as an independent and impartial...

  20. The Right to Privacy at the Workplace, Part 3: Employee Alcohol- and Drug-Testing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Susan R.; Libbin, Anne E.

    1988-01-01

    The third in a series of four articles, this discusses the legal implications of the use of medical tests to prevent drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace and to reduce absenteeism, tardiness, reduced productivity, and accidents that result from employee substance abuse. Cites recent cases. (JOW)

  1. 10 CFR 707.11 - Drugs for which testing is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drugs for which testing is performed. 707.11 Section 707.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.11... Substances Act....

  2. 10 CFR 707.11 - Drugs for which testing is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drugs for which testing is performed. 707.11 Section 707.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.11... Substances Act....

  3. 10 CFR 707.11 - Drugs for which testing is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drugs for which testing is performed. 707.11 Section 707.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.11... Substances Act....

  4. 10 CFR 707.11 - Drugs for which testing is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drugs for which testing is performed. 707.11 Section 707.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.11... Substances Act....

  5. 10 CFR 707.11 - Drugs for which testing is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drugs for which testing is performed. 707.11 Section 707.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.11... Substances Act....

  6. Interlaboratory drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a radiometric procedure and two conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hawkins, J.E.; Laszlo, A.

    1985-12-01

    A total of 224 recent isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 163 patients selected to have multidrug resistance were tested against streptomycin (SM), isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol (EMB) by the rapid radiometric BACTEC method and two conventional proportion methods: the World Health Organization (WHO) method, using Lowenstein-Jensen medium; and the Veterans Administration reference laboratory for mycobacteria (VA) method, using Middlebrook 7H10 agar medium. The results were compared, focusing on the concentrations of the drugs in all three methods. Among the four drugs tested, most of the discrepancies in measured activity were observed with SM and EMB, generally because of differences in the drug concentrations used by the three methods. A 4-micrograms amount of SM in the BACTEC method was found to be slightly less active than 10 micrograms in the VA method and significantly more active than 4 micrograms of dihydrostreptomycin in the WHO method. With EMB, 2.5 micrograms in BACTEC was similar to 5 micrograms in the VA method and 2 micrograms in the WHO method, while 10 micrograms in the BACTEC method was found to be more active than 10 and 2 micrograms in the VA and WHO methods, respectively. To attain close agreement, drug concentrations used in the BACTEC method should be carefully selected when a comparison is to be made with any conventional method employed in a laboratory. Standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing is greatly needed to achieve uniformity among the test methods used to evaluate tuberculosis therapeutics.

  7. Anti-Emetic Drug Effects on Pilot Performance, Phase 2: Simulation Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two anti-emetic drugs, granisetron (2 mg oral dose) and ondansetron (8 mg oral dose), on...and preduce no cognitive, psychomotor or subjective state changes. In this study, there was no evidence of performance degradation caused by either granisetron or ondansetron when tested in a complex military task environment.

  8. The "Anatomy" of a Performance-Enhancing Drug Test in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, T. C.

    2012-01-01

    The components of a performance-enhancing drug (PED) test in sports include sample selection, collection, establishing sample integrity, sample pretreatment, analyte detection, data evaluation, reporting results, and action taken based on the result. Undergraduate curricula generally focus on the detection and evaluation steps of an analytical…

  9. 76 FR 18072 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 99, revised as...

  10. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue...

  11. Interlaboratory drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a radiometric procedure and two conventional methods.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, S H; Hawkins, J E; Laszlo, A

    1985-01-01

    A total of 224 recent isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 163 patients selected to have multidrug resistance were tested against streptomycin (SM), isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol (EMB) by the rapid radiometric BACTEC method and two conventional proportion methods: the World Health Organization (WHO) method, using Lowenstein-Jensen medium; and the Veterans Administration reference laboratory for mycobacteria (VA) method, using Middlebrook 7H10 agar medium. The results were compared, focusing on the concentrations of the drugs in all three methods. Among the four drugs tested, most of the discrepancies in measured activity were observed with SM and EMB, generally because of differences in the drug concentrations used by the three methods. A 4-micrograms amount of SM in the BACTEC method was found to be slightly less active than 10 micrograms in the VA method and significantly more active than 4 micrograms of dihydrostreptomycin in the WHO method. With EMB, 2.5 micrograms in BACTEC was similar to 5 micrograms in the VA method and 2 micrograms in the WHO method, while 10 micrograms in the BACTEC method was found to be more active than 10 and 2 micrograms in the VA and WHO methods, respectively. To attain close agreement, drug concentrations used in the BACTEC method should be carefully selected when a comparison is to be made with any conventional method employed in a laboratory. Standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing is greatly needed to achieve uniformity among the test methods used to evaluate tuberculosis therapeutics. PMID:3934209

  12. Arbitration of Drug Testing Cases: Second Hand Smoke Screen: A Search for Science & A Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    author then examines common defenses to a positive drug test: attacking the laboratory, passive inhalation, external contamination of hair , innocent...ingestion of an illegal substance, ingestion of a legal substance that produces the same metabolite, racial bias in hair testing, employer process...employee’s use of adulterants and public policy challenges to arbitrator’s awards in this area. The paper concludes with a recommendation that all parties be more knowledgeable about the scientific studies in this area.

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 40 - DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Employers B Appendix B to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. B Appendix B to Part 40—DOT Drug Testing.... Specimen Results Reported (total number) By Test Reason (a) Pre-employment (number) (b)...

  14. Survey of Aviation Medical Examiners: Information and Attitudes about the Pre-Employment and Pre-Appointment Drug Testing Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    urine specimens fbr pre - employment or pre -appointment drug testing for FAA employees’? A...Federal guidelines for the FAA pre - employment / pre -appointment drug testing program. A B C D E A3 SOME AMES HAVE EXPERIENCED PROBLEMS WITH LAB ...COMMENTS BY ITEM 1. ARE YOU AN AVIATION MEDICAL EXAMINER WHO COLLECTS URINE SPECIMENS FOR PRE - EMPLOYMENT OR PRE -APPOINTMENT DRUG TESTING FOR FAA

  15. Guidance for clinical and public health laboratories testing for influenza virus antiviral drug susceptibility in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Francisco; Lina, Bruno; Andrade, Helena Rebelo de; Enouf, Vincent; Kossyvakis, Athanasios; Broberg, Eeva; Daniels, Rod; Lackenby, Angie; Meijer, Adam

    2013-05-01

    Two classes of antiviral drugs are licensed in Europe for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza; the M2 ion-channel blockers amantadine and rimantadine acting against type A influenza viruses only and the neuraminidase enzyme inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir acting against type A and type B influenza viruses. This guidance document was developed for but not limited to the European Union (EU) and other European Economic Area (EEA) countries on how and when to test for influenza virus antiviral drug susceptibility. It is aimed at clinical and influenza surveillance laboratories carrying out antiviral drug susceptibility testing on influenza viruses from patients suspected of harbouring viruses with reduced susceptibility or for the monitoring of the emergence of such among circulating viruses, respectively. Therefore, the guidance should not be read as a directive or an algorithm for treatment. Monitoring for emergence of influenza viruses with reduced drug susceptibility in hospitalized cases is crucial for decision making on possible changes to antiviral treatment. Therefore, it is important to test for antiviral susceptibility in certain patient groups, such as patients treated with influenza antiviral drugs. It is also important to determine the frequency of viruses with natural (not related to drug use) reduced susceptibility among community and hospitalized cases, as this knowledge is essential for making empirical antiviral treatment decisions. Furthermore, testing of specimens from community influenza patients is needed to determine the frequency of viruses with reduced susceptibility and good viral fitness that are readily transmissible, as they may become dominant among circulating viruses. Phenotypic neuraminidase enzyme inhibition assays are recommended to determine the level of inhibition of the neuraminidase enzyme by antiviral drugs as a measure of drug susceptibility of the virus. Genotypic assays are recommended to identify amino acid

  16. Liquid chromatographic determination and identification tests for dexamethasone in bulk drugs and elixirs: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Bunch, E A

    1987-01-01

    A normal phase liquid chromatographic method for the determination of dexamethasone in bulk drugs and elixirs was collaboratively studied by 6 laboratories. The method uses a silica column, water-modified acetic acid-methanol-methylene chloride mobile phase, cortisone internal standard, and photometric detection at 254 nm. Collaborators were supplied blind duplicate samples of 3 bulk drugs, 2 commercial elixirs, and 1 authentic elixir. Dexamethasone elixir dosage level is 0.5 mg/5 mL. Mean recovery of dexamethasone from the authentic elixir formulated to contain 0.471 mg/5 mL was 94.5%. (Authentic elixirs were found to stabilize about 6% below the theoretical concentration.) Mean recovery for the bulk drugs was between 97.1 and 100.1%. Mean coefficients of variation for bulk drug and elixir samples were less than 0.8% and 3.6%, respectively. Identification tests for dexamethasone by thin-layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, and relative LC retention times, as well as the gas chromatographic determination of alcohol in the elixirs were also collaboratively studied. Mean recovery of alcohol from the synthetic elixir was 98.6%. The mean coefficient of variation for alcohol for all samples analyzed was less than 1.4%. The LC method for dexamethasone in drug substance and elixirs, the identification tests, and the GC method for alcohol in dexamethasone elixirs have been adopted official first action.

  17. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  18. Evaluation of the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test in epileptic mice as surrogate model for drug testing against pharmacoresistant seizures.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Kathrin; Twele, Friederike; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy therapy, so that development of more effective AEDs is an unmet clinical need. Several rat and mouse models of epilepsy with spontaneous difficult-to-treat seizures exist, but because testing of antiseizure drug efficacy is extremely laborious in such models, they are only rarely used in the development of novel AEDs. Recently, the use of acute seizure tests in epileptic rats or mice has been proposed as a novel strategy for evaluating novel AEDs for increased antiseizure efficacy. In the present study, we compared the effects of five AEDs (valproate, phenobarbital, diazepam, lamotrigine, levetiracetam) on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice that were made epileptic by pilocarpine. Experiments were started 6 weeks after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. At this time, control seizure threshold was significantly lower in epileptic than in nonepileptic animals. Unexpectedly, only one AED (valproate) was less effective to increase seizure threshold in epileptic vs. nonepileptic mice, and this difference was restricted to doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, whereas the difference disappeared at 400mg/kg. All other AEDs exerted similar seizure threshold increases in epileptic and nonepileptic mice. Thus, induction of acute seizures with PTZ in mice pretreated with pilocarpine does not provide an effective and valuable surrogate method to screen drugs for antiseizure efficacy in a model of difficult-to-treat chronic epilepsy as previously suggested from experiments with this approach in rats.

  19. Urine Toxicology Screen in Multiple Sleep Latency Test: The Correlation of Positive Tetrahydrocannabinol, Drug Negative Patients, and Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Stolfi, Adrienne; Splaingard, Deborah; Earley, Elizabeth; Onadeko, Oluwole; Splaingard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Drugs can influence results of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We sought to identify the effect of marijuana on MSLT results in pediatric patients evaluated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: This is a retrospective study of urine drug screens performed the morning before MSLT in 383 patients < 21 years old referred for EDS. MSLT results were divided into those with (1) (−) urine drug screens, (2) urine drug screens (+) for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or THC plus other drugs, and (3) urine drug screens (+) for drugs other than THC. Groups were compared with Fisher exact tests or one-way ANOVA. Results: 38 (10%) urine drug tests were (+): 14 for THC and 24 for other drugs. Forty-three percent of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy, 0% consistent with idiopathic hypersomnia, 29% other, and 29% normal. This was statistically different from those with (−) screens (24% narcolepsy, 20% idiopathic hypersomnia, 6% other, 50% normal), and those (+) for drugs other than THC (17% narcolepsy, 33% idiopathic hypersomnia, 4% other, 46% normal (p = 0.01). Six percent (6/93) of patients with MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy were drug screen (+) for THC; 71% of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had multiple sleep onset REM periods (SOREMS). There were no (+) urine drug screens in patients < 13 years old. Conclusion: Many pediatric patients with (+) urine drug screens for THC met MSLT criteria for narcolepsy or had multiple SOREMs. Drug screening is important in interpreting MSLT findings for children ≥ 13 years. Citation: Dzodzomenyo S, Stolfi A, Splaingard D, Earley E, Onadeko O, Splaingard M. Urine toxicology screen in multiple sleep latency test: the correlation of positive tetrahydrocannabinol, drug negative patients, and narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):93–99. PMID:25348245

  20. Current practices in preclinical drug development: gaps in hemostasis testing to assess risk of thromboembolic injury.

    PubMed

    Schultze, A Eric; Walker, Dana B; Turk, James R; Tarrant, Jacqueline M; Brooks, Marjory B; Pettit, Syril D

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Cardiac Biomarkers Working Group surveyed the pharmaceutical development community to investigate practices in assessing hemostasis, including detection of hypocoagulable and hypercoagulable states. Scientists involved in discovery, preclinical, and clinical research were queried on laboratory evaluation of endothelium, platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis during safety assessment studies. Results indicated that laboratory assessment of hemostasis is inconsistent among institutions and not harmonized between preclinical and clinical studies. Hemostasis testing in preclinical drug safety studies primarily focuses on the risk of bleeding, whereas the clinical complication of thrombosis is seldom assessed. Our results reveal the need for broader utilization of biomarkers to detect altered hemostasis (e.g., endothelial and platelet activation) to improve preclinical safety assessments early in the drug development process. Survey respondents indicated a critical lack of validated markers of hypercoagulability and subclinical thrombosis in animal testing. Additional obstacles included limited blood volume, lack of cross-reacting antibodies for hemostasis testing in laboratory species, restricted availability of specialized hemostasis analyzers, and few centers of expertise in animal hemostasis testing. Establishment of translatable biomarkers of prothrombotic states in multiple species and strategic implementation of testing on an industry-wide basis are needed to better avert untoward drug complications in patient populations.

  1. Towards automated production and drug sensitivity testing using scaffold-free spherical tumor microtissues.

    PubMed

    Drewitz, Maren; Helbling, Marianne; Fried, Nicole; Bieri, Manuela; Moritz, Wolfgang; Lichtenberg, Jan; Kelm, Jens M

    2011-12-01

    Although the relevance of three-dimensional (3-D) culture has been recognized for years and exploited at an academic level, its translation to industrial applications has been slow. The development of reliable high-throughput technologies is clearly a prerequisite for the industrial implementation of 3-D models. In this study the robustness of spherical microtissue production and drug testing in a 96-well hanging-drop multiwell plate format was assessed on a standard 96-well channel robotic platform. Microtissue models derived from six different cell lines were produced and characterized according to their growth profile and morphology displaying high-density tissue-like reformation and growth over at least 15 days. The colon cancer cell line HCT116 was chosen as a model to assess microtissue-based assay reproducibility. Within three individual production batches the size variations of the produced microtissues were below 5%. Reliability of the microtissue-based assay was tested using two reference compounds, staurosporine and chlorambucil. In four independent drug testings the calculated IC(50) values were benchmarked against 2-D multiwell testings displaying similar consistency. The technology presented here for the automated production of a variety of microtissues for efficacy testing in a standard 96-well format will aid the implementation of more organotypic models at an early time point in the drug discovery process.

  2. Effects of psychoactive drugs in the Vogel conflict test in mice.

    PubMed

    Umezu, T

    1999-06-01

    This study examined effects of various psychoactive drugs on the Vogel conflict test, where drinking behavior is punished by electric shocks, in ICR mice to clarify the pharmacological features of this method in mice. A benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam and a barbiturate pentobarbital produced significant anticonflict effects, which mean that these drugs increased the number of electric shocks mice received during 40-min test session. On the other hand, yohimbine (alpha2-receptor antagonist), caffeine (adenosine-receptor antagonist), scopolamine (muscarinic cholinergic antagonist), cyclazocine (sigma-receptor antagonist), cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist), baclofen (GABA(B)-receptor agonist), MK-801 (NMDA-receptor antagonist), buspirone (5-HT1A-receptor agonist), chlorpromazine (dopamine-receptor antagonist) and haloperidol (dopamine-receptor and sigma-receptor antagonist) all did not produce anticonflict effects in this test using ICR mice. The results suggest that the Vogel conflict test is applicable to ICR mice and that this test in mice is appropriate as a screening method for drugs that have apparent anti-anxiety actions.

  3. Evaluation of two immunoassay procedures for drug testing in hair samples.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Kirschbaum, K M; Graumann, K; Herzfeld, C; Sachs, H; Madea, B

    2012-02-10

    A preliminary initial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LUCIO-Direct ELISA kit) and a preliminary DRI enzyme immunoassay were evaluated for drug detection in head hair with respect to lowered cutoff values recommended in Germany for the control of abstinence in cases of re-granting of drivers' licences. Following drug classes were included: cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine like substances, amphetamine, methamphetamine (and methylenedioxyamphetamines), methadone, and benzodiazepines. 759 analyses were performed using LUCIO-Direct ELISA kits and 936 analyses using DRI enzyme immunoassay tests. Sample size for each drug group and immunoassay test reached from 74 to 178. The LUCIO-Direct ELISA kit revealed a sensitivity of 91% for amphetamine up to 98% for methadone (methamphetamine 92%, cocaine 94%, opiates 94%, benzodiazepines 96%) and values of specificity of 72% for methadone up to 89% for amphetamine and benzodiazepines. The test was not useful for a preliminary screening for tetrahydrocannabinol (sensitivity of 65%) in consideration of a suggested cutoff of 0.02 ng/mg. The DRI enzyme immunoassay test was only useful for morphine and cocaine testing at low recommended new cutoff values (0.1 ng/mg) revealing sensitivities of 94% and 99%, respectively.

  4. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., maintenance, or operation of nuclear reactors; or (v) Personnel directly engaged in production, use, storage... employee, who is allowed unescorted access to the control areas of the following DOE reactors: Advanced Test Reactor (ATR); C Production Reactor (C); Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II); Fast Flux...

  5. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., maintenance, or operation of nuclear reactors; or (v) Personnel directly engaged in production, use, storage... employee, who is allowed unescorted access to the control areas of the following DOE reactors: Advanced Test Reactor (ATR); C Production Reactor (C); Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II); Fast Flux...

  6. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; Van Zyl, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; De Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in areas with rising transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and enable care-providers to determine which individuals with virological failure (VF) on a first- or second-line ART regimen require a change in treatment. An inexpensive near point-of-care (POC) genotypic resistance test would be useful in settings where the resources, capacity, and infrastructure to perform standard genotypic drug resistance testing are limited. Such a test would be particularly useful in conjunction with the POC HIV-1 viral load tests that are currently being introduced in LMICs. A POC genotypic resistance test is likely to involve the use of allele-specific point mutation assays for detecting drug-resistance mutations (DRMs). This study proposes that two major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated DRMs (M184V and K65R) and four major NNRTI-associated DRMs (K103N, Y181C, G190A, and V106M) would be the most useful for POC genotypic resistance testing in LMIC settings. One or more of these six DRMs was present in 61.2% of analyzed virus sequences from ART-naïve individuals with intermediate or high-level TDR and 98.8% of analyzed virus sequences from individuals on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen with intermediate or high-level acquired drug resistance. The detection of one or more of these DRMs in an ART-naïve individual or in a individual with VF on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen may be considered an indication for a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimen or closer virological monitoring based on cost-effectiveness or country policy. PMID:26717411

  7. Hypothesis driven drug design: improving quality and effectiveness of the design-make-test-analyse cycle.

    PubMed

    Plowright, Alleyn T; Johnstone, Craig; Kihlberg, Jan; Pettersson, Jonas; Robb, Graeme; Thompson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    In drug discovery, the central process of constructing and testing hypotheses, carefully conducting experiments and analysing the associated data for new findings and information is known as the design-make-test-analyse cycle. Each step relies heavily on the inputs and outputs of the other three components. In this article we report our efforts to improve and integrate all parts to enable smooth and rapid flow of high quality ideas. Key improvements include enhancing multi-disciplinary input into 'Design', increasing the use of knowledge and reducing cycle times in 'Make', providing parallel sets of relevant data within ten working days in 'Test' and maximising the learning in 'Analyse'.

  8. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Air Force Drug Testing Program and Four Potential Modifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    analgesics, e.g., Darvon, Demerol and Codeine, these tests are not routinely performed. In fiscal year 1992, the USAF Drug Testing Program tested almost...9,965 / 0 Steroids 0/0 5/0 5/0 10/0 Benzodiazepine 0/0 5/0 2/1 7/1 Demerol 0/0 0/0 1 / 1 1 / 1 Ecstasy 0/0 0/0 1/0 1/0 Orphendrine 0/0 0/0 1 / 1/0

  9. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery. PMID:26917964

  10. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery.

  11. Basophil activation test for investigation of IgE-mediated mechanisms in drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Markus; Harrer, Andrea; Lang, Roland; Schneider, Michael; Ferreira, Tima; Hawranek, Thomas; Himly, Martin

    2011-09-16

    Hypersensitivity reactions against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like propyphenazone (PP) and diclofenac (DF) can manifest as Type I-like allergic reactions (1). In clinical practice, diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity is mainly performed by patient history, as skin testing is not reliable and oral provocation testing bears life-threatening risks for the patient (2). Hence, evidence for an underlying IgE-mediated pathomechanism is hard to obtain. Here, we present an in vitro method based on the use of human basophils derived from drug-hypersensitive patients that mimics the allergic effector reaction in vivo. As basophils of drug-allergic patients carry IgE molecules specific for the culprit drug, they become activated upon IgE receptor crosslinking and release allergic effector molecules. The activation of basophils can be monitored by the determination of the upregulation of CD63 surface expression using flow cytometry (3). In the case of low molecular weight drugs, conjugates are designed to enable IgE receptor crosslinking on basophils. As depicted in Figure 1, two representatives of NSAIDs, PP and DF, are covalently bound to human serum albumin (HSA) via a carboxyl group reacting with the primary amino group of lysine residues. DF carries an intrinsic carboxyl group and, thus, can be used directly (4), whereas a carboxyl group-containing derivative of PP had to be organochemically synthesized prior to the study (1). The coupling degree of the low molecular weight compounds on the protein carrier molecule and their spatial distribution is important to guarantee crosslinking of two IgE receptor molecules. The here described protocol applies high performance-size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with a sequential refractive index (RI) and ultra violet (UV) detection system for determination of the coupling degree. As the described methodology may be applied for other drugs, the basophil activation test (BAT) bears the potential to be

  12. Changes in gene expression induced by aromatic amine drugs: testing the danger hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Winnie; Uetrecht, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all drugs that contain a primary aromatic amine are associated with a high incidence of idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs), suggesting that this functional group has biological effects that may be used as biomarkers to predict IDR risk. Most IDRs exhibit evidence of immune involvement and the ability of aromatic amines to form reactive metabolites and redox cycle may be responsible for initiation of an immune response through induction of cell stress, as postulated by the Danger Hypothesis. If true, danger signals could be biomarkers of IDR risk. A previous attempt to test the Danger Hypothesis found that sulfamethoxazole (SMX), the only aromatic amine tested, was also the only drug not associated with an increase of cell stress genes in mice. To ensure that these observations were not species-specific, and to determine biomarkers of IDR risk common to aromatic amines, rats were treated with SMX and two other aromatic amine drugs, dapsone (DDS) and aminoglutethimide (AMG), and hepatic gene expression was determined using microarrays. As in mice, SMX induced minimal gene changes in the rat, and none indicated cell stress, whereas DDS and AMG induced several changes including up-regulation of enzymes such as aldo-keto reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase, which may represent danger signals. Early insulin-induced hepatic gene (Eiih) was up-regulated by all three drugs. Some mRNA changes were observed in the Keap-1-Nrf2-ARE pathway; however, the pattern was significantly different for each drug. Overall, the most salient finding was that the changes in the liver were minimal, even though aromatic amines cause a high incidence of IDRs. The liver generates a large number of reactive species; however, the ability of aromatic amines to be bioactivated by cells of the immune system may be why they cause a high incidence of IDRs.

  13. The evolving landscape of HIV drug resistance diagnostics for expanding testing in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Inzaule, Seth C; Hamers, Raph L; Paredes, Roger; Yang, Chunfu; Schuurman, Rob; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F

    2017-02-09

    Global scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has dramatically changed the prospects of HIV/AIDS disease rendering life-long chronic care and treatment a reality for millions of HIV-infected patients. Affordable technologies to monitor ART are needed to ensure long-term durability of limited available drug regimens. HIV drug resistance tests can complement existing strategies in optimizing clinical decision-making for patients with treatment failure, in addition to facilitating population-based surveillance of HIV drug resistance. This review assesses the current landscape of HIV drug resistance technologies and discuss the strengths and limitations of existing assays available for expanding testing in resource limited settings (RLS). These include sequencing-based assays (Sanger sequencing assays and next-generation sequencing), point mutation assays and genotype-free data-based prediction systems. The Sanger assays are currently considered gold standard genotyping technology, though available at a limited number of RLS reference and regional laboratories, but high capital and test cost have limited their wide expansion. The point mutation assays present opportunities for simplified laboratory assays, but HIV genetic variability, extensive codon redundancy at or near the mutation target sites with limited multiplexing capability have restricted their utility. Next-generation sequencing (despite high cost) may have potential to reduce the testing cost significantly through multiplexing in high-throughput facilities, although the level of bioinformatics expertise required for data analysis is currently still complex and expensive and lacks standardization. Web-based genotype-free prediction systems may provide enhanced ART decision-making without the need for laboratory testing, but require further clinical field evaluation and implementation science research in resource-limited settings.

  14. Drug Discovery Testing Compounds in Patients Samples by Automated Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Pilar; Gorrochategui, Julián; Primo, Daniel; Robles, Alicia; Rojas, José Luis; Espinosa, Ana Belén; Gómez, Cristina; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Bennett, Teresa A; Ballesteros, Joan

    2017-03-01

    Functional ex vivo assays that predict a patient's clinical response to anticancer drugs for guiding cancer treatment have long been a goal, but few have yet proved to be reliable. To address this, we have developed an automated flow cytometry platform for drug screening that evaluates multiple endpoints with a robust data analysis system that can capture the complex mechanisms of action across different compounds. This system, called PharmaFlow, is used to test peripheral blood or bone marrow samples from patients diagnosed with hematological malignancies. Functional assays that use the whole sample, retaining all the microenvironmental components contained in the sample, offer an approach to ex vivo testing that may give results that are clinically relevant. This new approach can help to predict the patients' response to existing treatments or to drugs under development, for hematological malignancies or other tumors. In addition, relevant biomarkers can be identified that determine the patient's sensitivity, resistance, or toxicity to a given treatment. We propose that this approach, which better recapitulates the human microenvironment, constitutes a more predictive assay for personalized medicine and preclinical drug discovery.

  15. Human engineered heart tissue as a model system for drug testing.

    PubMed

    Eder, Alexandra; Vollert, Ingra; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-01-15

    Drug development is time- and cost-intensive and, despite extensive efforts, still hampered by the limited value of current preclinical test systems to predict side effects, including proarrhythmic and cardiotoxic effects in clinical practice. Part of the problem may be related to species-dependent differences in cardiomyocyte biology. Therefore, the event of readily available human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CM) has raised hopes that this human test bed could improve preclinical safety pharmacology as well as drug discovery approaches. However, hiPSC-CM are immature and exhibit peculiarities in terms of ion channel function, gene expression, structural organization and functional responses to drugs that limit their present usefulness. Current efforts are thus directed towards improving hiPSC-CM maturity and high-content readouts. Culturing hiPSC-CM as 3-dimensional engineered heart tissue (EHT) improves CM maturity and anisotropy and, in a 24-well format using silicone racks, enables automated, multiplexed high content readout of contractile function. This review summarizes the principal technology and focuses on advantages and disadvantages of this technology and its potential for preclinical drug screening.

  16. People who Inject Drugs, HIV Risk, and HIV Testing Uptake in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Alice K.; Hahn, Judith A.; Couture, Marie-Claude; Maher, Kelsey; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic rises in injection drug use (IDU) in sub-Saharan Africa account for increasingly more infections in a region already overwhelmed by the HIV epidemic. There is no known estimate of the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) in the region, or the associated HIV prevalence in PWID. We reviewed literature with the goal of describing high-risk practices and exposures in PWID in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as current HIV prevention activities aimed at drug use. The literature search looked for articles related to HIV risk, injection drug users, stigma, and HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. This review found evidence demonstrating high rates of HIV in IDU populations in sub-Saharan Africa, high-risk behaviors of the populations, lack of knowledge regarding HIV, and low HIV testing uptake. There is an urgent need for action to address IDU in order to maintain recent decreases in the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23164598

  17. 49 CFR 40.159 - What does the MRO do when a drug test result is invalid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process... must contact the laboratory. (2) If you and the laboratory have determined that no further testing...

  18. 49 CFR 40.159 - What does the MRO do when a drug test result is invalid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process... must contact the laboratory. (2) If you and the laboratory have determined that no further testing...

  19. 49 CFR 40.159 - What does the MRO do when a drug test result is invalid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process... must contact the laboratory. (2) If you and the laboratory have determined that no further testing...

  20. 49 CFR 40.159 - What does the MRO do when a drug test result is invalid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process... must contact the laboratory. (2) If you and the laboratory have determined that no further testing...