Science.gov

Sample records for drug tests

  1. Drug testing.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David A

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of sports samples for prohibited substances began in the 1960s and has developed since then using modern technologies close to the latest scientific discoveries. In this chapter the latest techniques and applications are described as well as the role of the World Anti-Doping Agency as the controlling body for the implementation of these tests. For small molecules, apart from the routine use of GC-MS, the newer techniques include the use of isotope ratio MS to detect testosterone and nandrolone administration and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem MS) to detect diuretics. For large molecules, several applications of LC-MS/MS are described as well as immunoprocedures for erythropoietin and human growth hormone. Finally, the latest method to detect homologous blood transfusion is briefly described.

  2. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Vernonia School District v. Acton Supreme Court decision in 1995, forever changed the landscape of the legality of drug testing in schools. This decision stated that students who were involved in athletic programs could be drug tested as long as the student's privacy was not invaded. According to some in the medical profession, there are two…

  3. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the United States Supreme Court confirmed that in the school's role of in loco parentis, drug testing of students who were involved in athletics and extracurricular activities was constitutional. In a state of the union address, George W. Bush stated that drug testing in schools had been effective and was part of "our aggressive…

  4. Is Drug Testing Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of the friend of the court, ("amicus curiae"), by discussing the filing of a brief in a drug testing case currently under consideration by the U.S. Supreme Court. Explores the issue of drug testing for employment; suggests possible outcomes; and provides 10 discussion questions for use with students. (KO)

  5. "Reasonable" Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the U.S. Supreme Court's recent decision in "Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls," wherein the Court held that random drug testing of students taking part in extracurricular activities is constitutional. (PKP)

  6. Drug Testing: A National Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Karen; Thompson, Judith R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses some of the controversies and illustrates the historical background of drug testing and what the different drug tests are. Also outlines some national statistics and opinions on drug testing and the results of a survey taken of a Louisiana population dealing with this issue. (NB)

  7. Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The majority of drug testings are first done with some kind of qualitative presumptive tests. After the qualitative presumptive tests are performed, a confirmatory test is necessary which demonstrates to the students the rigor needed to conclusively identify a substance.

  8. Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The majority of drug testings are first done with some kind of qualitative presumptive tests. After the qualitative presumptive tests are performed, a confirmatory test is necessary which demonstrates to the students the rigor needed to conclusively identify a substance.

  9. Drug testing in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Steven W

    2012-09-01

    Drug testing in newborns comes with analytical, therapeutic, and legal issues, and interpretation of results may be left to physicians, nurses, or social services workers. The unique analytical and legal caveats pose a variety of challenges and therapeutic issues. Positive drug screening results can allow for proper medical management of withdrawal symptoms for certain drug classes. Legal implications and involvement of social services for assessment of child safety surround positive urine or meconium drug samples. Because laboratory results can potentially remove newborns from their biological parents, the caveats and limitations of drug testing in this population are of utmost importance.

  10. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  11. The Drug-Testing Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    The recent decision of the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in "Miller," based on the school district's interest in preventing possible abuse, gave legal support for random, suspiciousless drug testing of students. Contends this is a "slippery slope" argument, that the key factor in deciding whether to adopt a policy of random drug testing should…

  12. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Fu, S

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health care organization drug testing.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J P; Dempsey, J

    1992-09-01

    Health care managers are being required to respond to the growing concerns of the public about alcohol and drug use in the health care workplace. To this end, the following recommendations are offered. A drug testing policy should be developed with input from and support of employees and unions. "For cause" testing should be used because it results in more definitive results and better employee acceptance. Unless there are compelling reasons for random testing, "for cause" testing is the preferable method. All levels of employees and the medical staff should be subject to the drug-testing policy. Rehabilitation rather than punishment should be emphasized in dealing with employees with alcohol and drug problems.

  14. Drugs of Abuse Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... and tissues that may be tested during a crime investigation; the goal may be to determine whether ... were a contributing factor to an accident or crime, such as DUI (driving under the influence) or ...

  15. Implications of Drug Testing Cheerleaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachsler, Tracy A.; Birren, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    With the untimely death of a University of Louisville cheerleader due to an accidental drug overdose in the summer of 2014, the athletic department representatives took steps to prevent future incidents by adding cheerleaders to the randomized drug testing protocols conducted at the university for the student-athletes involved in National…

  16. Think Twice about Drug Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    States that schools should think twice before adopting a random drug-testing program for students involved in extracurricular activities even though the U.S. Supreme Court's 5-4 decision in "Board of Education v. Earls" upheld its constitutionality. Briefly describes dissenting opinions in "Earls" and opposition to drug testing…

  17. Implications of Drug Testing Cheerleaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachsler, Tracy A.; Birren, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    With the untimely death of a University of Louisville cheerleader due to an accidental drug overdose in the summer of 2014, the athletic department representatives took steps to prevent future incidents by adding cheerleaders to the randomized drug testing protocols conducted at the university for the student-athletes involved in National…

  18. Student Drug Testing: Beyond Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2004-01-01

    Although the US Supreme Court approved testing student athletes in 1995, and two years ago upheld an Oklahoma school system's right to randomly test students in extracurricular activities, schools nationally have not rushed to do it. A 2003 University of Michigan study found just 19% of secondary schools do some form of drug testing and most limit…

  19. Student Drug Testing: Beyond Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2004-01-01

    Although the US Supreme Court approved testing student athletes in 1995, and two years ago upheld an Oklahoma school system's right to randomly test students in extracurricular activities, schools nationally have not rushed to do it. A 2003 University of Michigan study found just 19% of secondary schools do some form of drug testing and most limit…

  20. Common Interferences in Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    Interferences relating to laboratory toxicology testing refer to results which differ from their true value and are often encountered in the setting of a drug screen compared with confirmatory testing. Such interferences fall into two general categories; those that cause false positive results (when a drug screen is positive but confirmatory testing is negative) and those that cause false negative results (when a drug screen is negative when in reality the sample donor has ingested the tested substance). Such interferences can result from differences in laboratory testing methodology, reagent and analyte cross reactivity, limits of analyte detection, instrument resolution, reporting cutoff, sample processing, tissue type and sample adulteration among others. Awareness of the possible causes of such interferences are integral to proper laboratory result interpretation and patient management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Testing for Drug Hypersensitivity Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Rive, Craig M; Bourke, Jack; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Type B drug reactions comprise only 20% of all drug reactions but they tend to be primarily immunologically mediated and less dependent on the drug’s pharmacological action and dose. Common Type B reactions seen in clinical practice are those of the immediate, IgE, Gell-Coombs Type I reactions, and the delayed, T-cell mediated, Type IV reactions. Management of these types of reactions, once they have occurred, requires careful consideration and recognition of the utility of routine diagnostic tests followed by ancillary specialised diagnostic testing. For Type I, IgE mediated reactions this includes prick/intradermal skin testing and oral provocation. For Type IV, T-cell mediated reactions this includes a variety of in vivo (patch testing) and ex vivo tests, many of which are currently mainly used in highly specialised research laboratories. The recent association of many serious delayed (Type IV) hypersensitivity reactions to specific drugs with HLA class I and II alleles has created the opportunity for HLA screening to exclude high risk populations from exposure to the implicated drug and hence prevent clinical reactions. For example, the 100% negative predictive value of HLA-B*5701 for true immunologically mediated abacavir hypersensitivity and the development of feasible, inexpensive DNA-based molecular tests has led to incorporation of HLA-B*5701 screening in routine HIV clinical practice. The mechanism by which drugs specifically interact with HLA has been recently characterised and promises to lead to strategies for pre-clinical screening to inform drug development and design. PMID:23592889

  2. Objective Testing: Urine and Other Drug Tests.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Scott E; Levy, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    Drug testing, when carefully collected and thoughtfully interpreted, offers a critical adjunct to clinical care and substance use treatment. However, because test results can be misleading if not interpreted in the correct clinical context, clinicians should always conduct a careful interview with adolescent patients to understand what testing is likely to show and then use testing to validate or refute their expectations. Because of the ease with which samples can be tampered, providers should also carefully reflect on their own collection protocols and sample validation procedures to ensure optimal accuracy." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Workplace drug testing in Europe.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, A G; Pierce, A

    2001-09-15

    Not much information is available on workplace drug testing (WDT) in Europe. There is no specific legislation and there are no generally accepted guidelines. Many companies establish a drug policy with little or no provisions for drug testing. Often, testing is performed on-site by occupational physicians, with little or no quality control, no systematic confirmation of positives, no chain of custody and no adulteration testing. In some parts of Europe, e.g. in the United Kingdom and some Scandinavian countries, WDT is increasing in importance, but it is not as widespread as in USA. The most frequently performed tests are amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates and alcohol. The percentage of positives is variable, but seems to decrease with the years following the introduction of WDT. Cannabis is the drug that is most frequently found.Recently, the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) was founded, with the aims to ensure that WDT in Europe is performed to a defined quality standard and in a legally secured way and to provide an independent forum for all aspects of WDT.A working group in the United Kingdom has recently finalised the United Kingdom laboratory guidelines for legally defensible WDT and discussions are under way with the EWDTS to establish common guidelines. Many efforts will be needed to establish WDT as an accepted part of a company policy on drugs: establishing and maintaining the confidence in the results of the laboratory, establishing the legal status of WDT, preserving the privacy and rights of the employees, proving the cost-effectiveness of WDT in a European context, finding a balance between strict guidelines and enough flexibility to tailor testing to the changing needs. It is hoped that the exchange of experience between different countries will contribute to reaching these goals.

  4. Who Tests which Athletes for What Drugs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Sarah L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews trends in sports organizations' drug testing policies and procedures for its members, including which drugs are tested, who gets tested within the organizations, when tests are conducted, and penalties for those who test positive. (CB)

  5. Developing a corporate drug testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrath, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Management reaction to employee drug abuse at a gas distribution company resulted in the development and implementation of a corporate drug testing program before DOT mandated drug testing. The author explains the background, planning, operation and communication work involved.

  6. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  7. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  8. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  9. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  10. 49 CFR 655.21 - Drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug testing. 655.21 Section 655.21 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Drug Use § 655.21 Drug testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides testing for...

  11. Laboratory tests of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, R J

    1975-01-01

    The procedures evolved in the author's laboratory over the past 20 years for the microbiological assessment of antifungal drugs are described; methods are detailed for the estimation of the sensitivity of pathogenic fungi to therapeutic agents and for the assay of those agents in body fluids. The preparation and maintenance of stock reference solutions of the drugs, the culture media used, and the incubation temperature and time are discussed. Sensitivity tests by paper disc and by liquid titration for minimal inhibitory and cidal concentrations estimated are described, and the importance of standardized initial inocula is emphasized. Two groups of assay procedures are given, the liquid dilution and the agar diffusion methods, and suitable indicator organisms for both methods are named. The paper concludes with a discussion on the problem of differential assays when two antimycotic agents are in simultaneous clinical use. Images PMID:765359

  12. The Drug Testing of College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Todd A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the state of drug testing of college athletes and the challenges faced by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and university testing programs. State and federal litigation on drug testing is reviewed along with other issues in the drug-testing debate. Practical recommendations are offered to educational institutions.…

  13. Drug Testing of Public Employees: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Government has pushed employers to establish programs to test applicants and employees for drug use. The accompanying articles discuss legal barriers to drug testing and test administration and practical problems that limit the feasibility of drug testing and carry with them potential legal problems. (MLF)

  14. Random Drug Tests: What Are the Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, William E.

    1993-01-01

    American Trucking Association conducted survey of 1,655 motor carriers 2 years ago concerning drug use in trucking industry. Based on responses from 540 carriers (32%) costs of drug testing ranged between $30 and $70 per test. Of 153,000 truck drivers tested, 1.95% were verified "positive" for illegal drug use. Delaware study of school…

  15. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  16. Random Drug Tests: What Are the Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, William E.

    1993-01-01

    American Trucking Association conducted survey of 1,655 motor carriers 2 years ago concerning drug use in trucking industry. Based on responses from 540 carriers (32%) costs of drug testing ranged between $30 and $70 per test. Of 153,000 truck drivers tested, 1.95% were verified "positive" for illegal drug use. Delaware study of school…

  17. [Workplace testing of drugs of abuse and psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Mura, P; Saussereau, E; Brunet, B; Goullé, J-P

    2012-05-01

    In France, workplace testing of drugs of abuse and psychotropic drugs is rarely performed; meanwhile it is a major public health problem. Furthermore, France is the European country that has been associated with the highest increase of the use of drugs of abuse, particularly cannabis. So workplace biological screening of drugs of abuse and of psychotropic drugs exposure is of major concern. New analytical techniques have been developed during the last years. The authors will consider analytical screening of drugs of abuse and particularly the comparison of analytical techniques applied to urine and saliva. The advantages and the disadvantages of these two matrices will be considered. Urinary and blood quantification will be reviewed, but also the interest of hair testing to explore chronic exposure. The research of psychotropic drugs in biological fluids is also a part of this paper. New analytical trends are promising and complete analysis of these substances will be soon routinely possible in blood using a single spot test.

  18. A Model for Random Student Drug Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judith A.; Rose, Nancy L.; Lutz, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine random student drug testing in one school district relevant to: (a) the perceptions of students participating in competitive extracurricular activities regarding drug use and abuse; (b) the attitudes and perceptions of parents, school staff, and community members regarding student drug involvement; (c)…

  19. Drug-Free Schools: A National Challenge. Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The ERIC Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    "The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This inaugural issue contains two principal articles: "Drug-Free Schools: A National Challenge," by Samuel Y. Fustukjian, and "Drug Testing," by Amy Klauke and Margaret Hadderman. In addition, the following major features concerned…

  20. Patch testing for adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Sahil; Nedorost, Susan T

    2017-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions result in a substantial number of hospital admissions and inpatient events. Diagnosis usually is made with clinical judgment and circumstantiality without diagnostic testing. Furthermore, even in situations where diagnostic testing is performed, no safe gold standard tests exist. Oral rechallenge is currently the gold standard but carries the risk of recrudescence of severe allergic symptoms. Other tests include skin prick tests, the lymphocyte transformation test, immunohistochemistry, and patch testing. This article provides a review of patch testing in cases of adverse drug reactions and presents new data on this topic.

  1. The subversion of urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Berge, Keith H; Bush, Donna M

    2010-08-01

    Since government and private industry have instituted urine drug testing to ensure a drug-free work force, an industry dedicated to subverting the results of those tests has developed. This article describes that industry, the types of products it markets, and efforts to curb the sale of those products.

  2. Legal Forum: Drug Testing in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Janet M; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews court decisions concerning drug testing among prisoners, military personnel, public employees, and school employees. Fourth Amendment considerations of unreasonable search and seizure are discussed. In developing drug testing policies school districts must review these decisions in order to both protect individual rights and…

  3. Hair Testing for Drugs - Challenges for Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Stout, P R

    2007-07-01

    While testing hair for drugs of abuse has become more widely used in the past 30 years, significant challenges still remain to the interpretation of the results from these tests. Of primary concern is the likelihood of unwitting contamination from the environment producing a result indicative of drug use. It is imperative that this possibility be controlled and understood so that results from hair testing can be appropriately interpreted. Presently, truly unique metabolites are needed for many drugs (THC-COOH being a notable exception) since the mechanisms of decontamination processes used for hair are still poorly understood. While there is evidence that many drugs preferentially bind to melanin and that darker hair contains more drug, it is unclear how this translates into the interpretation of results for a population. Cosmetic treatments likely reduce the amount of drug systemically incorporated into hair and thus present a challenge of inappropriately negative interpretation. In addition, hair damaged as a result of cosmetic treatment may be at increased risk for environmental contamination. The asynchronous nature of human hair growth can also complicate results by obscuring the timeline of drug deposition. Lastly, the analytical variation of quantitative values has been demonstrated by several proficiency testing systems throughout the world to be high and method specific. Thus, while hair testing may be able to provide information about exposure to drugs, it is difficult at present to obtain reproducible results that can be unquestionably related to drug ingestion or to infer that the absence of drug in a hair sample is positive proof of no drug usage. Many questions still remain to be addressed by mechanistic understanding of drug deposition and retention in hair.

  4. Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gail A A; Kronstrand, Robert; Kintz, Pascal

    2012-05-10

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Guidelines for Drug Testing in Hair provide laboratories with recommended best practice guidelines whether they are currently offering drug testing in hair, or plan to offer a hair testing service in the future. The guidelines include reference to recommended sample collection and storage procedures, through sample preparation, pre-treatment and analysis and the use of cut-offs.

  5. Testing the Limits on Drug Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    In an Oklahoma case, absence of a documented drug problem among students in nonathletic extracurricular activities led the10th Circuit Court to strike down the district's policy as unreasonable and unconstitutional. Imposing random, suspicionless drug-testing policies for all students attending school might violate the Fourth Amendment. (MLH)

  6. Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bosker, Wendy M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) is an exciting alternative matrix for monitoring drugs of abuse in workplace, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. During the last 5 years, scientific and technological advances in OF collection, point-of-collection testing devices, and screening and confirmation methods were achieved. Guidelines were proposed for workplace OF testing by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DUID testing by the European Union’s Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) program, and standardization of DUID research. Although OF testing is now commonplace in many monitoring programs, the greatest current limitation is the scarcity of controlled drug administration studies available to guide interpretation. CONTENT This review outlines OF testing advantages and limitations, and the progress in OF that has occurred during the last 5 years in collection, screening, confirmation, and interpretation of cannabinoids, opioids, amphetamines, cocaine, and benzodiazepines. We examine controlled drug administration studies, immunoassay and chromatographic methods, collection devices, point-of-collection testing device performance, and recent applications of OF testing. SUMMARY Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration approval of OF testing was delayed because questions about drug OF disposition were not yet resolved, and collection device performance and testing assays required improvement. Here, we document the many advances achieved in the use of OF. Additional research is needed to identify new bio-markers, determine drug detection windows, characterize OF adulteration techniques, and evaluate analyte stability. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that OF offers multiple advantages as an alternative matrix for drug monitoring and has an important role in DUID, treatment, workplace, and criminal justice programs. PMID:19745062

  7. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug testing laboratory. 199.107 Section 199.107... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.107 Drug testing laboratory. (a) Each operator shall use for the drug testing required by this...

  8. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing... a prohibited drug: (a) Pre-employment testing. No operator may hire or contract for the use of any... likely that a drug test would reveal whether the performance was affected by drug use. (c) Random testing...

  9. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug tests required. 199.105 Section 199.105... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.105 Drug tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following drug tests for the presence...

  10. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug tests required. 199.105 Section 199.105... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.105 Drug tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following drug tests for the presence...

  11. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug testing laboratory. 199.107 Section 199.107... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.107 Drug testing laboratory. (a) Each operator shall use for the drug testing required by...

  12. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug tests required. 199.105 Section 199.105... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.105 Drug tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following drug tests for the presence...

  13. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug testing laboratory. 199.107 Section 199.107... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.107 Drug testing laboratory. (a) Each operator shall use for the drug testing required by...

  14. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug testing laboratory. 199.107 Section 199.107... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.107 Drug testing laboratory. (a) Each operator shall use for the drug testing required by...

  15. 49 CFR 199.105 - Drug tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug tests required. 199.105 Section 199.105... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.105 Drug tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following drug tests for the presence of...

  16. Workplace drug testing in Italy - critical considerations.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Collo, Giancarlo; Groppi, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Workplace drug testing (WDT) was established in Italy on 30 October 2007. Two tiers of survey are required: the first tier concerns drug testing on urine samples, the second involves both urine and hair analysis. Between July 2008 and December 2011, 10 598 workers' urine samples and 72 hair samples for opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methylenedioxyamphetamines, methadone, and buprenorphine were tested in our laboratory. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); hair analysis and confirmation tests in urine were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Employees tested positive in urine for drugs of abuse numbered 2.8% in 2008, 2.03% in 2009, 1.62% in 2010, and 1.43% in 2011. As regards the second level of analysis, we observed that only one-third of the workers who had been tested positive for drugs of abuse were referred to an Addiction Treatment Unit in order to verify drug addiction. Our experience shows that, four years after approval of the law on WDT, the percentage of workers positive for drugs of abuse in urine has reduced in comparison to the first year. Moreover, our data show that most of the times employees who tested positive are tardily referred or not referred at all to a Public Addiction Treatment Unit to verify drug addiction. This makes us believe that the legal provisions are widely disregarded not paying the right tribute to the fact that Italy is one of few European countries with legislation on WDT. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Testing drug additivity based on monotherapies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Harry; Novick, Steven J; Zhao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Under the Loewe additivity, constant relative potency between two drugs is a sufficient condition for the two drugs to be additive. Implicit in this condition is that one drug acts like a dilution of the other. Geometrically, it means that the dose-response curve of one drug is a copy of another that is shifted horizontally by a constant over the log-dose axis. Such phenomenon is often referred to as parallelism. Thus, testing drug additivity is equivalent to the demonstration of parallelism between two dose-response curves. Current methods used for testing parallelism are usually based on significance tests for differences between parameters in the dose-response curves of the monotherapies. A p-value of less than 0.05 is indicative of non-parallelism. The p-value-based methods, however, may be fundamentally flawed because an increase in either sample size or precision of the assay used to measure drug effect may result in more frequent rejection of parallel lines for a trivial difference. Moreover, similarity (difference) between model parameters does not necessarily translate into the similarity (difference) between the two response curves. As a result, a test may conclude that the model parameters are similar (different), yet there is little assurance on the similarity between the two dose-response curves. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian approach to directly test the hypothesis that the two drugs have a constant relative potency. An important utility of our proposed method is in aiding go/no-go decisions concerning two drug combination studies. It is illustrated with both a simulated example and a real-life example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sports drug testing--an analyst's perspective.

    PubMed

    Trout, Graham J; Kazlauskas, Rymantas

    2004-01-10

    Sport plays a major role in the lives of many people, both for active participation and as entertainment. Sport is now a huge nationally and internationally based industry. The desire to win has led some athletes to resort to the use of performance enhancing drugs. With huge financial rewards now available in some sports the pressure to excel has grown. Some have argued that drug use should be given free rein, however most people are of the view that it is athletic prowess that should be applauded not the efficacy of various performance enhancing drugs. Apart from the obvious aspects of equality and fair play, the use of drugs is associated with significant health risks. In the 1960's the use of stimulants in sports such as cycling led to the death of at least one cyclist. Since 1968 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has required all Olympic Games' host cities to provide laboratory facilities for the analysis and detection of performance enhancing drugs. There are now 29 IOC accredited laboratories throughout the world that routinely test samples from athletes for the presence of such drugs. The purpose of this tutorial review is to give an overview of drug testing procedures, including those that were used at the last summer Olympic Games in Sydney 2000, and the incorporation of the latest developments in analytical chemistry technology in the drug testing process. More recently, developments in biotechnology mean that the use of whole new classes of drugs are banned in sport, often requiring new methodologies and techniques for their analysis. The contest between those who wish to cheat and those who wish to maintain fair play in sport is an ongoing one.

  19. Fixed drug eruption and intradermal provocation tests.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Atiya; Haroon, Tahir Saeed; Iqbal, Zafar; Saleemi, Munir Akhtar; Munir, Asma

    2008-12-01

    To determine the role of Intradermal Provocation (IDP) tests in Fixed Drug Eruption (FDE). Quasi-experimental study. Dermatology Unit, Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, from August 2004 to July 2006. The tests were performed in 96 patients in two stages. At stage I, suspected drugs were given intradermally. Changes at injection site in FDE lesions or any systemic effects were observed. In patients showing no response to IDP, Oral Provocation (OP) was performed (stage II) and its effects in FDE lesions or any systemic effect were observed. The positive response of FDE lesions after IDP and OP were compared with local changes at injection site. Control intradermal tests were repeated in normal persons with drugs and in FDE patients with distilled water on normal skin. At stage I, 46 positive cases had local signs of erythematous indurated nodule with or without hemorrhagic centre, urticarial weal with hemorrhagic centre and erythematous indurated nodule with central vesicle. At stage II, 41 patients had similar local signs. The changes at injection site to those of FDE lesions were compared. Z-test for proportions showed no significant difference between groups (p-value > 0.05). Control tests were negative. The drug producing erythematous indurated nodule with or without hemorrhagic centre, vesicle or urticarial weal with hemorrhagic centre at injection site was the most likely drug causing fixed eruption.

  20. 77 FR 58999 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug Substances and Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  1. Drug Testing. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    The issue of drug testing is the focus of this ERIC Digest. Several aspects of drug testing discussed in question-and-answer format: (1) What is the current status of drug use in the schools? (2) What legal questions arise when schools consider drug testing? (3) How might drug testing be applied in a fair, economical, and legally safe manner? (4)…

  2. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs in...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs in...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs in...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs in...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3910 - Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3910 Tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system. (a) Identification. A tricyclic antidepressant drugs test system is a device intended to measure any of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs in...

  7. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  8. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  9. Microengineered liver tissues for drug testing.

    PubMed

    Khetani, Salman R; Berger, Dustin R; Ballinger, Kimberly R; Davidson, Matthew D; Lin, Christine; Ware, Brenton R

    2015-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of drug attrition. Significant and well-documented differences between animals and humans in liver pathways now necessitate the use of human-relevant in vitro liver models for testing new chemical entities during preclinical drug development. Consequently, several human liver models with various levels of in vivo-like complexity have been developed for assessment of drug metabolism, toxicity, and efficacy on liver diseases. Recent trends leverage engineering tools, such as those adapted from the semiconductor industry, to enable precise control over the microenvironment of liver cells and to allow for miniaturization into formats amenable for higher throughput drug screening. Integration of liver models into organs-on-a-chip devices, permitting crosstalk between tissue types, is actively being pursued to obtain a systems-level understanding of drug effects. Here, we review the major trends, challenges, and opportunities associated with development and implementation of engineered liver models created from primary cells, cell lines, and stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells. We also present key applications where such models are currently making an impact and highlight areas for improvement. In the future, engineered liver models will prove useful for selecting drugs that are efficacious, safer, and, in some cases, personalized for specific patient populations.

  10. Why We Test Students for Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    With 10 years of experience leading schools through random drug testing programs, the author, a superintendent, is convinced she's on the right track. At Hunterdon Central Regional High School District in Flemington, New Jersey, a school where she works as a superintendent, the author relates that they have seen a significant and well-documented…

  11. Respect versus Surveillance: Drug Testing Our Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Martin, Gordon A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This launches a new periodic feature in Reclaiming Children and Youth. "Justice Alerts" examines current laws and policies against the twofold standards of solid science and moral values. This inaugural article explores the legal issues and political rhetoric surrounding random drug testing in schools and describes how science is being…

  12. Respect versus Surveillance: Drug Testing Our Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Martin, Gordon A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This launches a new periodic feature in Reclaiming Children and Youth. "Justice Alerts" examines current laws and policies against the twofold standards of solid science and moral values. This inaugural article explores the legal issues and political rhetoric surrounding random drug testing in schools and describes how science is being…

  13. Why We Test Students for Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    With 10 years of experience leading schools through random drug testing programs, the author, a superintendent, is convinced she's on the right track. At Hunterdon Central Regional High School District in Flemington, New Jersey, a school where she works as a superintendent, the author relates that they have seen a significant and well-documented…

  14. HIV-1 drug resistance and resistance testing.

    PubMed

    Clutter, Dana S; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Shafer, Robert W

    2016-12-01

    The global scale-up of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) has led to dramatic reductions in HIV-1 mortality and incidence. However, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a potential threat to the long-term success of ART and is emerging as a threat to the elimination of AIDS as a public health problem by 2030. In this review we describe the genetic mechanisms, epidemiology, and management of HIVDR at both individual and population levels across diverse economic and geographic settings. To describe the genetic mechanisms of HIVDR, we review the genetic barriers to resistance for the most commonly used ARVs and describe the extent of cross-resistance between them. To describe the epidemiology of HIVDR, we summarize the prevalence and patterns of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and acquired drug resistance (ADR) in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We also review to two categories of HIVDR with important public health relevance: (i) pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR), a World Health Organization-recommended HIVDR surveillance metric and (ii) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-related drug resistance, a type of ADR that can impact clinical outcomes if present at the time of treatment initiation. To summarize the implications of HIVDR for patient management, we review the role of genotypic resistance testing and treatment practices in both high-income and LMIC settings. In high-income countries where drug resistance testing is part of routine care, such an understanding can help clinicians prevent virological failure and accumulation of further HIVDR on an individual level by selecting the most efficacious regimens for their patients. Although there is reduced access to diagnostic testing and to many ARVs in LMIC, understanding the scientific basis and clinical implications of HIVDR is useful in all regions in order to shape appropriate surveillance, inform treatment algorithms, and manage difficult cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  15. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence).

  16. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...-drug program. (b) MRO qualifications. Each MRO must be a licensed physician who has the...

  17. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  18. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  19. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  20. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  1. OBJECTIVE TESTING – URINE AND OTHER DRUG TESTS

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Levy, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Drug testing, when carefully collected and thoughtfully interpreted, offers a critical adjunct to clinical care and substance use treatment. However, because test results can be misleading if not interpreted in the correct clinical context, clinicians should always conduct a careful interview with adolescent patients to understand what testing is likely to show and then use testing to validate or refute their expectations. Due to the ease with which samples can be tampered, providers should also carefully reflect on their own collection protocols and sample validation procedures to ensure optimal accuracy. PMID:27338974

  2. The Development of a Test to Assess Drug Using Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Michael E.

    The objective of the study was to develop a test which could measure both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-using behavior, including such factors as attitudes toward drugs, experience with drugs, and knowledge about drugs. The Drug Use Scale was developed containing 134 items and dealing with five classes of drugs: marijuana,…

  3. Drug Development Against Viral Diseases (Biological Testing)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    any. sip of infection or disese (11. Also, laboratory work with CCHF has beeni limited because accidental infections which have had serious or even fata...were unldrgoir. i,,¢rois. No leb’ons were found in submaxillary or sublingual salivary gland, kidney , heart, eye, lacrimal gland, thyroid, trachea, or...examined including kidney , lung, liver and brain. e. Active chemotherapeutic agents in the vaccinia tail lesion model. Most drugs tested in thit model gave

  4. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  5. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  6. Employee Drug Testing Policies in Police Departments. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, J. Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of drug testing policies and the implementation of drug testing procedures involve legal, ethical, medical, and labor relations issues. To learn how police departments are addressing the problem of drug use and drug testing of police officers, the National Institute of Justice sponsored a telephone survey of 33 major police…

  7. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  8. 76 FR 1448 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2011 minimum random drug testing rate at 50 percent of covered crewmembers. DATES: The minimum random drug...

  9. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  10. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  11. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  12. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  13. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  14. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  15. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in this...

  16. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  17. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in this...

  18. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  19. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in...

  20. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation in drug testing. 219.603 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in this...

  1. Relationship between student illicit drug use and school drug-testing policies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2003-04-01

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The study provides descriptive information on drug-testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and examines the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by students. School-level data on drug testing were obtained through the Youth, Education, and Society study, and student-level survey data were obtained from the same schools participating in the Monitoring the Future study. A relatively small percentage of schools (about 18%) reported testing students for drug use, with more high schools than middle schools reporting drug testing. Drug testing was not associated with students' reported illicit drug use, or with rate of use among experienced marijuana users. Drug testing of athletes was not associated with illicit drug use among male high school athletes. Policy implications are discussed.

  2. Medication monitoring and drug testing ethics project.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard; Moe, Jeffrey L; Sevier, Catherine Harvey; Sevier, David; Waitzkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Duke University initiated a research project, funded by an unrestricted research grant from Millennium Laboratories, a drug testing company. The project focused on assessing the frequency and nature of questionable, unethical, and illegal business practices in the clinical drug testing industry and assessing the potential for establishing a business code of ethics. Laboratory leaders, clinicians, industry attorneys, ethicists, and consultants participated in the survey, were interviewed, and attended two face-to-face meetings to discuss a way forward. The study demonstrated broad acknowledgment of variations in the legal and regulatory environment, resulting in inconsistent enforcement of industry practices. Study participants expressed agreement that overtly illegal practices sometimes exist, particularly when laboratory representatives and clinicians discuss reimbursement, extent of testing, and potential business incentives with medical practitioners. Most respondents reported directly observing probable violations involving marketing materials, contracts, or, in the case of some individuals, directly soliciting people with offers of clinical supplies and other "freebies." While many study respondents were skeptical that voluntary standards alone would eliminate questionable business practices, most viewed ethics codes and credentialing as an important first step that could potentially mitigate uneven enforcement, while improving quality of care and facilitating preferred payment options for credentialed parties. Many were willing to participate in future discussions and industry-wide initiatives to improve the environment.

  3. The Relationship between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The purposes of this study are (1) to provide descriptive information on drug testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and (2) to examine the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by…

  4. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  5. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  6. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  7. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  8. 10 CFR 707.8 - Applicant drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicant drug testing. 707.8 Section 707.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.8 Applicant drug testing. An applicant for a testing designated position will be tested for the use of illegal drugs...

  9. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted...

  10. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted...

  11. Drug Testing and Searches in Public Schools: A Legal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota House of Representatives, St. Paul. Research Dept.

    This document examines the Fourth Amendment as the source of search and seizure law; drug testing of school employees; and drug testing searches of students. The United States Supreme Court case that established the two-part test to determine the legality of a student search is discussed, three separate student drug testing programs that have been…

  12. To Test or Not to Test? Drug Testing Teachers: The View of the Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.; Kossakoski, Stephen; Baldasaro, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: School superintendents are charged with maintaining the safety and security of the schools in their district. One major recognized threat to the security and safety of students and staff is the use of illegal drugs. Superintendents are responding to the constitutionality of student drug-testing policies by implementing drug-testing…

  13. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  15. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  16. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  17. 49 CFR 199.107 - Drug testing laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing... of records, at any time, by the operator, the Administrator, and if the operator is subject to...

  18. Frequently Asked Questions about Drug Testing in Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... the utility of random drug tests in schools? Study findings in this area show mixed results, but researchers generally agree that student drug testing should not be a stand-alone strategy for reducing substance use in students and that ...

  19. Photoscratch testing in systemic drug-induced photosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Conilleau, V; Dompmartin, A; Michel, M; Verneuil, L; Leroy, D

    2000-04-01

    Because of numerous false-negative results, photopatch testing is seldom relevant in systemic drug-induced photosensitivity. These false-negative photopatch test results can be attributed to the inability of the drug to penetrate into the epidermis. In order to enhance the penetration of the tested drug into the epidermis, some authors proposed to breach the cutaneous barrier. We performed a prospective study comparing photopatch and photoscratch testing. Fifteen patients presenting with a systemic drug-induced photosensitivity, proved by a favourable outcome after discontinuing the drug, were tested. For each drug, photopatch and photoscratch tests were performed. Two-thirds of the patients had negative photopatch and photoscratch tests with the suspected drugs. Photopatch and photoscratch tests were positive and relevant, respectively, in 3 and 4 patients. Photoscratch tests induced more false-positive results due to irritation confirmed on control subjects. Our study proves that photoscratch tests do not change the sensitivity of phototesting.

  20. Proposed Policy: Drug Testing of Hawaii's Public School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bebi

    2007-01-01

    Because of a proposed policy, public school teachers in Hawaii are facing the possibility of being randomly tested for illegal drugs. Random drug testing has many implications and its impact is questionable. In this article, the author scrutinizes the controversial drug-testing policy for both troubling and promising aspects and how educators may…

  1. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219...-employment drug testing. (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered service for a railroad, the employee must undergo testing for drugs. No railroad may allow a covered employee to perform...

  2. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219...-employment drug testing. (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered service for a railroad, the employee must undergo testing for drugs. No railroad may allow a covered employee to perform...

  3. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  4. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping... General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted... should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized....

  5. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping... General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted... should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized....

  6. 46 CFR 16.113 - Chemical drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical drug testing. 16.113 Section 16.113 Shipping... General § 16.113 Chemical drug testing. (a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted... should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized....

  7. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre-employment drug testing. (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered service for...

  8. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre-employment drug testing. (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered service for...

  9. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 120 RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs... commercial air tour operations to combine the drug and alcohol testing required for each operation into one... while maintaining the level of safety intended by the current drug and alcohol testing regulations....

  10. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  11. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  12. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee...

  13. 76 FR 79204 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2012 minimum random drug testing rate at 50 percent of covered crewmembers. DATES: The minimum random...

  14. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 120 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing...: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations... definitions; added wording to the sections describing refusals to submit to drug or alcohol tests;...

  15. 49 CFR 655.41 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 655.41 Section 655.41..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.41 Pre-employment drug testing. (a)(1) Before allowing a covered employee or...

  16. 49 CFR 219.501 - Pre-employment drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment drug testing. 219.501 Section 219... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.501 Pre-employment drug testing. (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered service for a...

  17. 78 FR 37231 - Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug Substances and Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing...

  18. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  19. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  20. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  1. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  2. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  3. What You Need To Know about Drug Testing in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    The Office of National Drug Control policy has put together this guide to assist educators, parents, and community leaders in determining whether student drug testing is appropriate for their schools. The aim is to provide anyone considering a drug-testing program in his or her community with a broad understanding of the issue and solid,…

  4. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605 Section 219.605 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing...

  5. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be kept...

  6. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be kept...

  7. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be kept...

  8. Adolescent Attitudes toward Random Drug Testing in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brenda L.; Jennings, Brian; Classey, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    The current research examined students' perceptions of random drug testing for students participating in after-school activities. Results found students were more likely to endorse drug testing at their school if they are already engaged in after-school activities and not currently using drugs and/or alcohol. While middle and high school students'…

  9. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be kept...

  10. 49 CFR 219.903 - Retention of drug testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of drug testing records. 219.903 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.903 Retention of drug testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be kept...

  11. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees...

  12. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees...

  13. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees...

  14. The Curious Rejection of Drug Testing by America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses (1) school drug testing and reasons why schools should have embraced it; (2) educational systems' responses to student drug testing and reasons schools have not adopted it; and (3) school social organization and politics accounting for schools' deploring drug use yet ignoring potentially useful technology. Four responses are appended.…

  15. Experiences with drug testing at a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    After more than 2 yr of operation of a drug testing program at the San Onofre nuclear power plant site, the Southern California Edison Co. has had a number of experiences and lessons considered valuable. The drug testing program at San Onofre, implemented in September of 1984, continues in essentially the same form today. Prior to describing the program, the paper reviews several underlying issues that believed to be simultaneously satisfied by the program: trustworthiness, fitness and safety, public trust, and privacy and search. The overall drug testing program, periodic drug monitoring program, and unannounced drug testing program are described. In addition to the obvious features of a good drug testing program, which are described in the EEI guide, it is essential to consider such issues as the stated program rationale, employee relations, and disciplinary action measures when contemplating or engaging in drug testing at nuclear power plants.

  16. European guidelines for workplace drug and alcohol testing in hair.

    PubMed

    Salomone, A; Tsanaclis, L; Agius, R; Kintz, P; Baumgartner, M R

    2016-10-01

    Guidelines for Legally Defensible Workplace Drug Testing have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). They are based on the 2010 version published by Pascal Kintz and Ronald Agius (Guidelines for European workplace drug and alcohol testing in hair. Drug Test. Anal. 2010, 2, 367) and in concordance with the Society of Hair Testing guidelines (Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair. Forensic Sci. Int. 2012, 218, 20-24). The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Scientific issues in drug testing: council on scientific affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-12

    Testing for drugs in biologic fluids, especially urine, is a practice that has become widespread. The technology of testing for drugs in urine has greatly improved in recent years. Inexpensive screening techniques are not sufficiently accurate for forensic testing standards, which must be met wihen a person's employment or reputation may be affected by results. This is particularly a concern during screening of a population in which the prevalence of drug use is very low, in which the predictive value of a positive result would be quite low. Physicians should be aware that results from drug testing can yield accurate evidence of prior exposure to drugs, but they do not provide information about patterns of drug use, about abuse of or dependence on drugs, or about mental or physical impairments that may result from drug use.

  18. Drug Combinations: Tests and Analysis with Isoboles

    PubMed Central

    Tallarida, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Described in this unit are experimental and computational methods to detect and classify drug interactions. In most cases this relates to two drugs or compounds with overtly similar effects, e.g., two analgesics or two anti-hypertensives. From the dose-response data of the individual drugs it is possible to generate a curve, the isobole, that defines all dose combinations that are expected to yield a specified effect. The theory underlying the isobole involves the calculation of doses of drug A that are effectively equivalent to doses of drug B with that equivalence determining whether the isobole is linear or nonlinear. In either case the isobole allows for a comparison with actual combination effects making it possible to determine whether the interaction is synergistic, additive or sub-additive. Actual as well as illustrative data are employed to illustrate experimental design and data analysis. PMID:26995550

  19. Drug Testing High School Athletes and the Fourth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent court decisions regarding the legality of drug-testing programs aimed at student athletes. Concludes the drug-testing programs will be upheld if the program is narrowly drawn with regard to the student population; aims at limited and achievable goals; involves random selection of students for testing; and imposes penalties…

  20. An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Jonathan K; Yacoubian, George S

    2002-01-01

    Drug testing in the workplace has gone from virtual nonexistence to widespread employer acceptance during the past two decades. This growth is particularly significant for the construction industry. High rates of alcohol and other drug use, coupled with the high-risk, safety-sensitive nature of the industry, have prompted the development of a variety of drug surveillance and prevention strategies. Despite this growing vigilance, no scholarly works have examined the impact of drug-related policies in the construction industry. To address this limitation, we investigate the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors (MODs) within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation. Moreover, companies that drug test their employees experienced a significant reduction in their MODs. Policy implications are discussed in light of the current findings.

  1. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  2. Utility of patch testing for patients with drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ohtoshi, S; Kitami, Y; Sueki, H; Nakada, T

    2014-04-01

    Patch testing is less dangerous than oral provocation testing for identification of the causative drug for patients with drug eruption; however, its usefulness for such identification is controversial. To clarify the rates of positive patch testing for patients with drug eruption, classified by causative drugs and clinical features. We analysed results during the period 1990-2010 for 444 patients (151 men, 293 women; mean ± SD age 49.9 ± 18.6 years) who were tested for drug eruption. In the patient group, there were 309 people (69.1%) with maculopapular eruption and 31 (6.9%) with severe drug eruption. The test materials were applied to the back and left for 2 days under occlusion, then results were assessed by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) scoring system 3 days after application. Reactions of + to +++ were regarded as positive. Of the 444 patients, 100 (22.4%) had a positive patch test result to a suspected drug. Positive rates were 23.6% and 20.0% for maculopapular eruption and fixed drug eruption, respectively. The class of materials to which most patients reacted positively was contrast medium (n = 53; 41.1%), followed by drugs acting on the central nervous system (n = 18; 28.6%). In the latter group, 16 of the 18 patients were positive to antiepileptics. Positive rates depend on the causative drug rather than the clinical features of the drug eruption. Patch testing is useful when contrast medium or antiepileptics are suspected to be the causative drugs. However, standardization of patch test materials and method of reading is needed, as well as guidelines regarding when testing should be performed. Although patch testing for drug eruption has significant potential, it requires further validation. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Testing for drugs of abuse in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Levy, Sharon; Siqueira, Lorena M; Ammerman, Seth D; Gonzalez, Pamela K; Ryan, Sheryl A; Siqueira, Lorena M; Smith, Vincent C

    2014-06-01

    Drug testing is often used as part of an assessment for substance use in children and adolescents. However, the indications for drug testing and guidance on how to use this procedure effectively are not clear. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure and limitations to the information derived from drug testing all affect its utility. The objective of this clinical report is to provide guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians on the efficacy and efficient use of drug testing on the basis of a review of the nascent scientific literature, policy guidelines, and published clinical recommendations.

  4. Virologic Tools for HCV Drug Resistance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Fourati, Slim; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the development of new antiviral drugs that target specific steps of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) lifecycle. These drugs, collectively termed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), include non-structural (NS) HCV protein inhibitors, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (nucleotide analogues and non-nucleoside inhibitors), and NS5A inhibitors. Due to the high genetic variability of HCV, the outcome of DAA-based therapies may be altered by the selection of amino-acid substitutions located within the targeted proteins, which affect viral susceptibility to the administered compounds. At the drug developmental stage, preclinical and clinical characterization of HCV resistance to new drugs in development is mandatory. In the clinical setting, accurate diagnostic tools have become available to monitor drug resistance in patients who receive treatment with DAAs. In this review, we describe tools available to investigate drug resistance in preclinical studies, clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:26690198

  5. Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

    PubMed Central

    Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

    1990-01-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. PMID:2190418

  6. 49 CFR 40.85 - What drugs do laboratories test for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.85 What drugs do laboratories test for? As a laboratory, you must test for the following five drugs or classes of drugs in a DOT drug... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What drugs do laboratories test for? 40.85 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 40.85 - What drugs do laboratories test for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.85 What drugs do laboratories test for? As a laboratory, you must test for the following five drugs or classes of drugs in a DOT drug... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What drugs do laboratories test for? 40.85 Section...

  8. 49 CFR 40.85 - What drugs do laboratories test for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.85 What drugs do laboratories test for? As a laboratory, you must test for the following five drugs or classes of drugs in a DOT drug... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What drugs do laboratories test for? 40.85 Section...

  9. 49 CFR 40.85 - What drugs do laboratories test for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.85 What drugs do laboratories test for? As a laboratory, you must test for the following five drugs or classes of drugs in a DOT drug... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What drugs do laboratories test for? 40.85 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 40.85 - What drugs do laboratories test for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.85 What drugs do laboratories test for? As a laboratory, you must test for the following five drugs or classes of drugs in a DOT drug... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What drugs do laboratories test for? 40.85 Section...

  11. Experiences with urine drug testing by police among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Buxton, Jane A; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Thailand has relied on drug law enforcement in an effort to curb illicit drug use. While anecdotal reports suggest that Thai police frequently use urine toxicology to identify drug users, little is known about the prevalence or impacts of this practice among people who inject drugs (IDU). Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with urine drug testing by police among IDU in Bangkok. Data were derived from a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project between July and October 2011. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of being subjected to urine toxicology testing by police using multivariate Poisson regression. In total, 438 IDU participated in this study, with 293 (66.9%) participants reporting having been tested for illicit drugs by police. In multivariate analyses, reports of drug testing by police were independently and positively associated with younger age (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]: 1.28), a history of methamphetamine injection (APR: 1.22), a history of incarceration (APR: 1.21), having been in compulsory drug detention (APR: 1.43), avoiding healthcare (APR: 1.15), and HIV seropositivity (APR: 1.19), and negatively associated with access to voluntary drug treatment (APR: 0.82) (all p<0.05). A high proportion of IDU in Bangkok were subjected to drug testing by police. Young people and methamphetamine injectors were more likely to have been tested. The findings indicate that drug testing by police is associated with the compulsory drug detention system and may be interfering with IDU's access to healthcare and voluntary drug treatment. These findings raise concern about the widespread practice of drug testing by police and its associated impacts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An Assessment of Drug Testing within the Construction Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Jonathan K.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation.…

  13. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Part 119 Certificate Holders Authorized To Conduct Operations under Part 121 or...

  14. The Effectiveness of Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Goesling, Brian; Deke, John; Einspruch, Eric

    2011-01-01

    One approach some U.S. schools now use to combat high rates of adolescent substance use is school-based mandatory-random student drug testing (MRSDT). Under MRSDT, students and their parents sign consent forms agreeing to the students' participation in random drug testing as a condition of participating in athletics and other school-sponsored…

  15. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Part 119 Certificate Holders Authorized To Conduct Operations under Part 121 or...

  16. Supreme Court Docket: Drug Testing and the Fourth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charlotte C., Ed.; Williams, Charles, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses upon classroom presentation of issues related to the Fourth Amendment of U.S. Constitution. Presents a description of a drug test case simulation (D. Hess); a case involving drug testing in the public sector which is to be heard by the Supreme Court (L. Mandell); and other teaching strategies (D. Hess). Provides a guide for finding Supreme…

  17. Constitutional Concerns in Drug Testing of Public Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Examines Fourth Amendment legal issues involved in drug testing of public employees. Discusses several recent court cases involving probable cause and reasonable suspicion to determine appropriate standards for individual situations. Outlines implications for public employers. Blanket drug testing is not permissable, though job applicants have…

  18. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  19. An Assessment of Drug Testing within the Construction Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Jonathan K.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation.…

  20. Why We Test Students for Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Today, there is a collective national awareness that an unacceptable number of teens are involved in the use of dangerous drugs such as methamphetamine, ecstasy, and heroin, and they have access to high-grade marijuana. Alcohol use, even more pervasive, results in risky sexual behaviors, automobile accidents, and even death. To the dismay of many…

  1. Why We Test Students for Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Today, there is a collective national awareness that an unacceptable number of teens are involved in the use of dangerous drugs such as methamphetamine, ecstasy, and heroin, and they have access to high-grade marijuana. Alcohol use, even more pervasive, results in risky sexual behaviors, automobile accidents, and even death. To the dismay of many…

  2. Guidelines for European workplace drug testing in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gail; Moore, Christine; George, Claire; Pichini, Simona

    2011-05-01

    Over the past decade, oral fluid has established itself as a robust testing matrix for monitoring drug use or misuse. Commercially available collection devices provide opportunities to collect and test oral fluid by the roadside and near-patient testing with both clinical and criminal justice applications. One of the main advantages of oral fluid relates to the collection of the matrix which is non-invasive, simple, and can be carried out under direct observation making it ideal for workplace drug testing. Laboratories offering legally defensible oral fluid workplace drug testing must adhere to national and international quality standards (ISO/IEC 17025); however, these standards do not address issues specific to oral fluid testing. The European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) recognizes the importance of providing best practice guidelines to organizations offering testing and those choosing to use oral fluid drug testing to test their employees. The aim of this paper is to present the EWDTS guidelines for oral fluid workplace drug testing. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. European Guidelines for Workplace Drug Testing in Oral Fluid.

    PubMed

    Brcak, Michaela; Beck, Olof; Bosch, Tessa; Carmichael, Duncan; Fucci, Nadia; George, Claire; Piper, Mark; Salomone, Alberto; Schielen, Wim; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Taskinen, Sanna; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-28

    These guidelines for Legally Defensible Workplace Drug Testing have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing should use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. These guidelines are relevant to laboratory-based testing only. These guidelines follow current best practices and are constantly under review. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Drugs of abuse testing in meconium.

    PubMed

    Gareri, Joey; Klein, Julia; Koren, Gideon

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal substance abuse is an ongoing concern with significant impact on neonatal health and development across socioeconomic lines. Meconium, passed by neonates during their first post-natal bowel movements, is a matrix unique to the developing fetus and contains a long history of prenatal metabolism. Over the last two decades, the use of meconium as a matrix for assessing prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse has yielded methods exhibiting higher sensitivity, easier collection, and a larger window of detection than traditional matrices. Recently, a method has been developed for the analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium as a biomarker of fetal alcohol exposure, potentially facilitating the future diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in situations where gestational alcohol consumption history is unknown. Screening for prenatal exposure to illicit and abused licit drugs in meconium is possible by use of a variety of immunoassay methods with conformational analysis usually occurring by GCMS or LCMS. In spite of increased sample preparation time relative to blood and urine, the long metabolic history, coupled with the ease and wide window of collection of meconium make it the ideal matrix for determining fetal drug exposure.

  5. Drug testing in Europe: monitoring results of the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; Nagy, Constanze; Bücheli, Alexander; Martins, Daniel; Ugarte, Miren; Beduwe, Cécile; Ventura Vilamala, Mireia

    2017-02-01

    Drug testing is a harm reduction strategy that has been adopted by certain countries in Europe. Drug users are able to hand in their drugs voluntarily for chemical analysis of composition and dose. Drug users will be alerted about dangerous test results by the drug testing systems directly and through warning campaigns. An international collaborative effort was launched to combine data of drug testing systems, called the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project. Drug testing systems of Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, and the Netherlands participated in this project. This study presents results of some of the main illicit drugs encountered: cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine and also comments on new psychoactive substances (NPS) detected between 2008 and 2013. A total of 45 859 different drug samples were analyzed by TEDI. The drug markets of the distinct European areas showed similarities, but also some interesting differences. For instance, purity of cocaine and amphetamine powders was generally low in Austria, whilst high in Spain and the Netherlands. And the market for ecstasy showed a contrast: whereas in the Netherlands and Switzerland there was predominantly a market for ecstasy tablets, in Portugal and Spain MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) crystals were much more prevalent. Also, some NPS appearing in ecstasy seemed more specific for one country than another. In general, prevalence of NPS clearly increased between 2008 and 2013. Drug testing can be used to generate a global picture of drug markets and provides information about the pharmacological contents of drugs for the population at risk. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients: licit and illicit drug patterns.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Moser, Frank

    2008-10-01

    Chronic pain patients are frequently maintained on one or more powerful opioid medications in combination with other psychoactive medications. Urine tests provide objective information regarding patient compliance status. Little information is available on testing this unique population. The goal of this study was to characterize drug disposition patterns in urine specimens collected from a large population of pain patients. Confirmation data for 10,922 positive specimens were collated into 11 drug Classes. The number of drug/metabolites tested (#) and number of confirmed positive specimens were as follows: amphetamines (7), 160; barbiturates (5), 308; benzodiazepines (6), 2397; cannabinoids (1), 967; carisoprodol (2), 611; cocaine (1), 310; fentanyl (1), 458; meperidine (2), 58; methadone (2), 1209; opiates (7), 8996; and propoxyphene (2), 385. Subdivision into 19 distinct drug Groups allowed characterization of drug use patterns. Of the 10,922 positive specimens, 15,859 results were reported as positive in various drug Classes, and 27,197 drug/metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The frequency of illicit drug use (cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy) was 10.8%. Being the first study of this type, these data present a large array of information on licit and illicit drug use, drug detection frequencies, drug/metabolite patterns, and multi-drug use combinations in pain patients.

  7. Regulatory aspects of workplace drug testing in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anya

    2012-02-01

    Workplace drug testing in Europe is governed by a patchwork of legislation--or lack of it. Other difficulties are caused by language, currency and a host of other factors, including the difficulty in defining 'safety critical'. The European Workplace Drug Testing Society's (EWDTS) history and objectives are briefly outlined. Some of the problems peculiar to testing in Europe are discussed. Finally, some of the legislation in the different countries is described.

  8. Drug Testing of Student-Athletes: Another Weapon in the War against Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Morse, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    In "Acton," the Supreme Court upheld a local school board policy calling for the random, suspicionless drug testing of interscholastic student-athletes. Reviews the Court's holdings. Concludes that a drug-testing policy that is consistent with "Acton" and enjoys broad-based community support probably would be worth its expense.…

  9. Drug Testing of Student-Athletes: Another Weapon in the War against Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Morse, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    In "Acton," the Supreme Court upheld a local school board policy calling for the random, suspicionless drug testing of interscholastic student-athletes. Reviews the Court's holdings. Concludes that a drug-testing policy that is consistent with "Acton" and enjoys broad-based community support probably would be worth its expense.…

  10. Drug susceptibility testing by dilution methods.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Katy; Plésiat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Serial twofold dilution methods are widely used to assess the bacteriostatic activities of antibiotics. This can be achieved by dilution of considered drugs in agar medium or in culture broth, and inoculation by calibrated inoculums. Although seemingly simple, these methods are greatly influenced by the experimental conditions used and may lead to discrepant results, in particular with untrained investigators. The present step-by-step protocol has been validated for Pseudomonas species, including P. aeruginosa. Introduction of appropriate control strains is crucial to ascertain minimal inhibitory concentration values and compare the results of independent experiments.

  11. Interpretation of Oral Fluid Tests for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CONE, EDWARD J.; HUESTIS, MARILYN A.

    2009-01-01

    Oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse offers significant advantages over urine as a test matrix. Collection can be performed under direct observation with reduced risk of adulteration and substitution. Drugs generally appear in oral fluid by passive diffusion from blood, but also may be deposited in the oral cavity during oral, smoked, and intranasal administration. Drug metabolites also can be detected in oral fluid. Unlike urine testing, there may be a close correspondence between drug and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid and in blood. Interpretation of oral fluid results for drugs of abuse should be an iterative process whereby one considers the test results in the context of program requirements and a broad scientific knowledge of the many factors involved in determining test outcome. This review delineates many of the chemical and metabolic processes involved in the disposition of drugs and metabolites in oral fluid that are important to the appropriate interpretation of oral fluid tests. Chemical, metabolic, kinetic, and analytic parameters are summarized for selected drugs of abuse, and general guidelines are offered for understanding the significance of oral fluid tests. PMID:17332074

  12. Drug violations and aviation accidents: findings from the US mandatory drug testing programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Zhao, Qi; Brady, Joanne E; Lang, Barbara H; Rebok, George W; DiMaggio, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To assess the role of drug violations in aviation accidents. Case-control analysis. Commercial aviation in the United States. Aviation employees who were tested for drugs during 1995-2005 under the post-accident testing program (cases, n = 4977) or under the random testing program (controls, n = 1 129 922). Point prevalence of drug violations, odds ratio of accident involvement and attributable risk in the population. A drug violation was defined as a confirmed positive test for marijuana (≥50 ng/ml), cocaine (≥300 ng/ml), amphetamines (≥1000 ng/ml), opiates (≥2000 ng/ml) or phencyclidine (≥25 ng/ml). The prevalence of drug violations was 0.64% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62-0.65%] in random drug tests and 1.82% (95% CI: 1.47-2.24%) in post-accident tests. The odds of accident involvement for employees who tested positive for drugs was almost three times the odds for those who tested negative (odds ratio 2.90, 95% CI: 2.35-3.57), with an estimated attributable risk of 1.2%. Marijuana accounted for 67.3% of the illicit drugs detected. The proportion of illicit drugs represented by amphetamines increased progressively during the study period, from 3.4% in 1995 to 10.3% in 2005 (P < 0.0001). Use of illicit drugs by aviation employees is associated with a significantly increased risk of accident involvement. Due to the very low prevalence, drug violations contribute to only a small fraction of aviation accidents. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Drug Violations and Aviation Accidents: Findings from the U.S. Mandatory Drug Testing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P.; Zhao, Qi; Brady, Joanne E.; Lang, Barbara H.; Rebok, George W.; DiMaggio, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Aims To assess the role of drug violations in aviation accidents. Design Case-control analysis. Setting Commercial aviation in the United States. Participants Aviation employees who were tested for drugs during 1995 through 2005 under the post-accident testing program (cases, n=4,977) or under the random testing program (controls, n=1,129,922). Measurements Point prevalence of drug violations, odds ratio of accident involvement, and attributable risk in the population. A drug violation was defined as a confirmed positive test for marijuana (≥ 50 ng/ml), cocaine (≥ 300 ng/ml), amphetamines (≥1000 ng/ml), opiates (≥ 2000 ng/ml), or phencyclidine (≥ 25 ng/ml). Findings The prevalence of drug violations was 0.64% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62–0.65%] in random drug tests and 1.82% (95% CI, 1.47–2.24%) in post-accident tests. The odds of accident involvement for employees who tested positive for drugs was almost three times the odds for those who tested negative (odds ratio 2.90, 95% CI, 2.35–3.57), with an estimated attributable risk of 1.2%. Marijuana accounted for 67.3% of the illicit drugs detected. The proportion of illicit drugs represented by amphetamines increased progressively during the study period, from 3.4% in 1995 to 10.3% in 2005 (p<0.0001). Conclusions Use of illicit drugs by aviation employees is associated with a significantly increased risk of accident involvement. Due to the very low prevalence, drug violations contribute to only a small fraction of aviation accidents. PMID:21306594

  14. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  15. Epicutaneous patch testing in drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DRESS).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Felicidade; Gonçalo, Margarida; Vieira, Ricardo; Coelho, Sónia; Figueiredo, Américo

    2010-01-01

    In some patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions, and depending on the culprit drug, patch testing has been helpful in confirming its cause. Its value in Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has not been established in a large cohort of patients. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the safety and usefulness of patch testing in DRESS. Between January 1998 and December 2008, we studied 56 patients with DRESS induced by antiepileptic agents in 33 patients (59%), allopurinol in 19 (34%) and sulfasalazine, cotrimoxazole, tenoxicam, and amoxicillin in 1 patient each (7%). A positive patch test reaction was observed in 18 patients (32.1%), of which 17 were with antiepileptics and 1 with tenoxicam. In the antiepileptic group, carbamazepine alone was responsible for 13 of 17 positive reactions (76.5%). Patch tests with allopurinol and its metabolite were negative in all cases attributed to this drug. In this study, patch testing was a safe and useful method in confirming the culprit drug in DRESS induced by antiepileptic drugs, whereas it had no value in DRESS induced by allopurinol. The pathogenesis of DRESS is not yet entirely clarified, but positive patch tests suggest a drug-dependent delayed hypersensitivity mechanism.

  16. Validity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-31

    drug-testing programs. Personnel Psvcholo-a, , 745-763. Gough, H. G. (1948). A Sociological theory of psychopathy . American Journal of Sociology, 5a...Personal Outlook Inventory. Parkridge, IL: Author. Simpson, D. D., Curtis, B., & Butler, M. C. ý1975,. Description of drug users in treatment : 1971-1972

  17. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Abatement Division at FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800...

  18. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  19. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  20. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  1. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC...

  2. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 120 RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Federal Aviation... or on-demand operators that also conduct commercial air tour operations to combine the drug and... 13, 2013. Any currently held exemptions allowing part 121 or part 135 operators to combine their...

  3. Meconium drug testing in multiple births in the USA.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kelly E; Krasowski, Matthew D; Strathmann, Frederick G; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2014-09-01

    Little is published about newborn drug testing in multiple gestations. The objective of this study was to review the results of meconium drug screening in multiple births to compare drug(s) and/or drug metabolite(s) detected. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from a national reference laboratory and an academic medical center. The data were de-identified for the reference laboratory dataset. For the academic center data, a detailed chart review of the newborn and mother's medical record was performed on cases for which one or more drug(s) and/or metabolites(s) were identified and confirmed in meconium. Meconium was analyzed for amphetamine, methamphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoid metabolites, cocaine metabolites, methadone, opiates, oxycodone, phencyclidine and propoxyphene. One hundred and forty-two of 1,084 sets of twins and 2 of 20 sets of triplets had mismatched results. The incidence of mismatched results among the individual drug or drug classes tested was 0.9% (208 of 23,848 total results). For the panel of drug testing performed, mismatches were seen in 13% (142 of 1,084) sets of twins and 10% (2 of 20) sets of triplets. Barbiturates (33%), opiates (30%) and benzodiazepines (28%) were the most common mismatches in the national reference laboratory dataset. Benzodiazepines (89%) and opiates (51%) were most common in the academic medical center dataset with most explained by iatrogenic medications administered to one infant but not the other. Mismatches for cannabinoids most often occurred when tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites were present at a low concentration (near lower reporting limit) in one infant but not the other. Mismatched results of meconium drug testing in multiples not explainable by differences in prescribed medications are uncommon and most often occur when an analyte is barely above reporting cutoff in only one infant. Administration of iatrogenic medications to one infant but not the other(s) is another

  4. European guidelines for workplace drug testing in urine.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, Sanna; Beck, Olof; Bosch, Tessa; Brcak, Michaela; Carmichael, Duncan; Fucci, Nadia; George, Claire; Piper, Mark; Salomone, Alberto; Schielen, Wim; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    These European Guidelines for Workplace Drug Testing in Urine have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). The first version of these urine guidelines was published in 2002. Since then, the guidelines have been followed by many laboratories in different European countries and their role has been essential particularly in countries lacking legislation for workplace drug testing. In 2014, the EWDTS started a guidelines updating project and published a new version of the urine guidelines in 2015. Here we represent this updated version of the urine guidelines. The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing should use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Creating and evaluating genetic tests predictive of drug response

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Scott T.; McLeod, Howard L.; Flockhart, David A.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Benowitz, Neal L.; Johnson, Julie A.; Ratain, Mark J.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    A key goal of pharmacogenetics — the use of genetic variation to elucidate inter-individual variation in drug treatment response — is to aid the development of predictive genetic tests that could maximize drug efficacy and minimize drug toxicity. The completion of the Human Genome Project and the associated HapMap Project, together with advances in technologies for investigating genetic variation, have greatly advanced the potential to develop such tests; however, many challenges remain. With the aim of helping to address some of these challenges, this article discusses the steps that are involved in the development of predictive tests for drug treatment response based on genetic variation, and factors that influence the development and performance of these tests. PMID:18587383

  6. Drug Testing of Students in Extracurricular Activities: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Russo, Charles J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews recent federal appellate court cases dealing with legal issues involving random drug testing of students participating in extracurricular activities. Draws implications for school business officials and other educators. (PKP)

  7. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana, cocaine...

  8. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana, cocaine...

  9. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana, cocaine...

  10. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual... shall test each employee who performs a safety-sensitive function for the presence of marijuana, cocaine...

  11. Perceptions of Genetic Testing and Genomic Medicine among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, David C.; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jordan, Ashly E.; Hagan, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic testing will soon enter care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and for addiction. There is a paucity of data on how to disseminate genetic testing into healthcare for marginalized populations. We explored drug users’ perceptions of genetic testing. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 34 drug users recruited from syringe exchange programs and an HIV clinic between May and June 2012. Individual interviews were conducted with participants reporting previous genetic testing. Results All participants expressed acceptance of genetic testing to improve care, but most had concerns regarding confidentiality and implications for law enforcement. Most expressed more comfort with genetic testing based on individual considerations rather than testing based on race/ethnicity. Participants expressed comfort with genetic testing in medical care rather than drug treatment settings and when specifically asked permission, with peer support, and given a clear rationale. Conclusions Although participants understood the potential value of genetic testing, concerns regarding breaches in confidentiality and discrimination may reduce testing willingness. Safeguards against these risks, peer support, and testing in medical settings based on individual factors and with clear rationales provided may be critical in efforts to promote acceptance of genetic testing among drug users. PMID:25037119

  12. Perceptions of genetic testing and genomic medicine among drug users.

    PubMed

    Perlman, David C; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Friedman, Samuel R; Jordan, Ashly E; Hagan, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Genetic testing will soon enter care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and for addiction. There is a paucity of data on how to disseminate genetic testing into healthcare for marginalized populations. We explored drug users' perceptions of genetic testing. Six focus groups were conducted with 34 drug users recruited from syringe exchange programmes and an HIV clinic between May and June 2012. Individual interviews were conducted with participants reporting previous genetic testing. All participants expressed acceptance of genetic testing to improve care, but most had concerns regarding confidentiality and implications for law enforcement. Most expressed more comfort with genetic testing based on individual considerations rather than testing based on race/ethnicity. Participants expressed comfort with genetic testing in medical care rather than drug treatment settings and when specifically asked permission, with peer support, and given a clear rationale. Although participants understood the potential value of genetic testing, concerns regarding breaches in confidentiality and discrimination may reduce testing willingness. Safeguards against these risks, peer support, and testing in medical settings based on individual factors and with clear rationales provided may be critical in efforts to promote acceptance of genetic testing among drug users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pro and Contra: Provocation Tests in Drug Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Soyer, Ozge; Sahiner, Umit Murat; Sekerel, Bulent Enis

    2017-01-01

    Drug provocation test (DPT) is the controlled administration of a drug to diagnose immune- or non-immune-mediated drug hypersensitivity and the last step for accurate recognition of drug hypersensitivity reactions when the previous diagnostic evaluations are negative or unavailable. A DPT is performed only if other conventional tests fail to yield conclusive results. In each clinical presentation, “to provoke or not to provoke” a patient should be decided after careful assessment of the risk–benefit ratio. Well-defined benefits of DPT include confirmative exclusion of diagnoses of drug hypersensitivity and provision of safe alternatives. However, disadvantages such as safety, difficulty in interpretations of results, lack of objective biomarkers, risks of resensitization, efficiency in daily practice, and lack of standardized protocols, are poorly debated. This review summarizes the current published research concerning DPT, with particular emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of DPT in an evidence-based manner. PMID:28677662

  14. In utero drugs of abuse exposure testing for newborn twins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Molina, Claudia P; Maldonado, Joyce E; Bernard, David W

    2010-03-01

    This report describes testing of a case of in utero drugs of abuse exposure in which discordant results were seen between urine and meconium, and between twin meconium samples. The discordance between urine and meconium could be explained by the differences in detection window, threshold concentration and screening technology, and the discordance between dizygotic twin meconium samples could be explained by the differences in drug diffusion and placental and fetal biotransformation of drugs. The meconium sample of one twin screened negative for benzodiazepines was reported positive in the confirmation assay with higher sensitivity and a lower cut-off concentration. Negative screening results of drugs of abuse should be interpreted with caution, taking into account matrix type, reactivity of drugs in the assay and cut-off concentration. If screening results are inconsistent with each other or with the clinical scenario, confirmation testing using more sensitive and specific methods with lower cut-offs is warranted.

  15. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    .... According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive... notice of determination is effective December 26, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elizabeth...

  16. Cellular Tests for the Evaluation of Drug Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Adriana; Montanez, Maria I; Fernandez, Tahia D; Perkins, James R; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) is complex, with many potential pitfalls. Although the use of clinical history and skin testing can be valuable, drug provocation testing (DPT) remains the gold standard for many DHR. However, DPT carries some potential risk and should not be performed for severe reactions. There is therefore a general consensus on the need to improve in vitro tests to achieve safe and accurate diagnosis of DHR. A range of in vitro approaches can be applied depending on the type of reaction and the immunological mechanism involved, i.e. IgE- or T-cell-mediated. However, commercially available tests only exist for a handful of drugs, and only for drugs that provoke IgEmediated DHR. Of the cellular tests that focus on the identification of the culprit drug, the best validated is the basophil activation test used for evaluating IgE-mediated reactions. For T-cell-mediated DHR, the lymphocyte transformation test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot appear to be the most promising. However, these tests often show low sensitivity. Despite their current drawbacks, in vitro tests can complement in vivo testing and further work in this area will be crucial to improve our current arsenal of tools for the detection and assessment of DHR. For this, the use of appropriate and relevant drug metabolites as well as other factors that can amplify the cell response as well as the use of multiple tests in concert key to improving in vitro diagnosis. Such improvements will be crucial to diagnose patients with severe reactions for whom DPT cannot be performed.

  17. Army Drug Development Program. Phase I. Clinical Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    34floaters" could be related to the phototoxocity testing. Following an explanation of phototoxicity testing, the subject no longer noted an increase in the...the infusion, does not permit attribution of orthostatic intolerance to drug effect. No changes related to infusion of WR 149,024 . were observed in...considered related to the infusion of WR 149,024. Orthostatic Tolerance Testing: Orthostatic intolerance test results for all subjects are pre- sented

  18. Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association with Student Drug Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…

  19. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. (a) An operator may not knowingly use as an employee any person who— (1) Fails a drug test required by... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199...

  20. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. (a) An operator may not knowingly use as an employee any person who— (1) Fails a drug test required by... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199...

  1. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. (a) An operator may not knowingly use as an employee any person who— (1) Fails a drug test required by... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199...

  2. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. (a) An operator may not knowingly use as an employee any person who— (1) Fails a drug test required by... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199...

  3. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. (a) An operator may not knowingly use as an employee any person who— (1) Fails a drug test required by... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199...

  4. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  5. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  6. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  7. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  8. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither positive nor negative. (1) As...

  9. Appropriate Use of Drug Testing in Clinical Addiction Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Margaret; Williams, Jessica; Hurford, Matthew; Lindsay, Dawn; Lincoln, Piper; Giles, Leila; Luongo, Peter; Safarian, Taleen

    : Biological drug testing is a tool that provides information about an individual's recent substance use. Like any tool, its value depends on using it correctly; that is, on selecting the right test for the right person at the right time. This document is intended to clarify appropriate clinical use of drug testing in addiction medicine and aid providers in their decisions about drug testing for the identification, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of patients with, or at risk for, addiction. The RAND Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method (RAM) process for combining scientific evidence with the collective judgment of experts was used to identify appropriate clinical practices and highlight areas where research is needed. Although consensus panels and expert groups have offered guidance on the use of drug testing for patients with addiction, very few addressed considerations for patients across settings and in different levels of care. This document will focus primarily on patients in addiction treatment and recovery, where drug testing is used to assess patients for a substance use disorder, monitor the effectiveness of a treatment plan, and support recovery. Inasmuch as the scope includes the recognition of addiction, which often occurs in general healthcare settings, selected special populations at risk for addiction visiting these settings are briefly included.

  10. Clinical evidence supporting pharmacogenomic biomarker testing provided in US Food and Drug Administration drug labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Canestaro, William J; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2014-12-01

    Genetic biomarkers that predict a drug's efficacy or likelihood of toxicity are assuming increasingly important roles in the personalization of pharmacotherapy, but concern exists that evidence that links use of some biomarkers to clinical benefit is insufficient. Nevertheless, information about the use of biomarkers appears in the labels of many prescription drugs, which may add confusion to the clinical decision-making process. To evaluate the evidence that supports pharmacogenomic biomarker testing in drug labels and how frequently testing is recommended. Publicly available US Food and Drug Administration databases. We identified drug labels that described the use of a biomarker and evaluated whether the label contained or referenced convincing evidence of its clinical validity (ie, the ability to predict phenotype) and clinical utility (ie, the ability to improve clinical outcomes) using guidelines published by the Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Working Group. We graded the completeness of the citation of supporting studies and determined whether the label recommended incorporation of biomarker test results in therapeutic decision making. Of the 119 drug-biomarker combinations, only 43 (36.1%) had labels that provided convincing clinical validity evidence, whereas 18 (15.1%) provided convincing evidence of clinical utility. Sixty-one labels (51.3%) made recommendations about how clinical decisions should be based on the results of a biomarker test; 36 (30.3%) of these contained convincing clinical utility data. A full description of supporting studies was included in 13 labels (10.9%). Fewer than one-sixth of drug labels contained or referenced convincing evidence of clinical utility of biomarker testing, whereas more than half made recommendations based on biomarker test results. It may be premature to include biomarker testing recommendations in drug labels when convincing data that link testing to patient outcomes do not exist.

  11. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page 132. (c) Aspirin delayed-release capsules and aspirin...

  12. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page 132. (c) Aspirin delayed-release capsules and aspirin...

  13. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page 132. (c) Aspirin delayed-release capsules and aspirin...

  14. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page 132. (c) Aspirin delayed-release capsules and aspirin...

  15. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 343.90 Dissolution and drug release testing. (a) (b) Aspirin capsules. Aspirin capsules must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin capsules as contained in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 23 at page 132. (c) Aspirin delayed-release capsules and aspirin...

  16. Therapeutic disasters that hastened safety testing of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Paine, M F

    2017-04-01

    New drugs were not required to undergo premarket safety testing in the United States until 1938, when a therapeutic disaster-the Elixir Sulfanilamide tragedy-prompted Congress to pass a bill mandating this now-routine process. History repeated itself nearly 25 years later, when another therapeutic disaster-the thalidomide tragedy-led to passage of new amendments in 1962 to ensure drug efficacy and greater drug safety. As is typical with historical events, critical information was gained that led to novel approaches for understanding, predicting, diagnosing, and managing drug-induced toxicities. Continued refinement of current, along with development of new, approaches will mitigate future drug-related catastrophes, with the goal of avoiding them entirely.

  17. Pharmacogenetics and Predictive Testing of Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Ruwen; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions adverse drug reaction (ADR) occur in approximately 17% of patients. Avoiding ADR is thus mandatory from both an ethical and an economic point of view. Whereas, pharmacogenetics changes of the pharmacokinetics may contribute to the explanation of some type A reactions, strong relationships of genetic markers has also been shown for drug hypersensitivity belonging to type B reactions. We present the classifications of ADR, discuss genetic influences and focus on delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions, i.e., drug-induced liver injury, drug-induced agranulocytosis, and severe cutaneous ADR. A guidance how to read and interpret the contingency table is provided as well as an algorithm whether and how a test for a pharmacogenetic biomarker should be conducted. PMID:27818635

  18. 21 CFR 355.70 - Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 355.70 Testing procedures for fluoride dentifrice drug products. (a) A fluoride dentifrice drug...

  19. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The rapid eye test to detect drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Tennant, F

    1988-07-01

    Because the current epidemic of drug abuse has touched all levels of society, the primary care physician is increasingly called on to identify, monitor, and treat persons with drug abuse problems. All of the major drugs of abuse, including cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine, phencyclidine, heroin, and alcohol, may produce typical eye signs that can be easily detected by a rapid eye test. These signs include ptosis, abnormal pupil size, nonreactivity of the pupil to a light challenge, nystagmus, and non-convergence. When eye signs are detected, drug use should be confirmed by analysis of body fluids. The rapid eye test is suitable for routine use when screening adolescents, athletes, and employees with jobs where safety is essential.

  1. [Drug allergy assessed by modified Shelley's test. A case series].

    PubMed

    Mora Nieto, Alejandra; Segura Méndez, Nora Hilda; Almeida Arvizu, Victor; Díaz Torres, Maria Teresa; Martínez Pérez, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of allergy to drugs is 5-10% in the general population, The Shelley's test is a method in vitro for its diagnosis and it is considered positive when it is equal o greater than 20%. To show the allergy to drugs frequency evaluated by the Shelley's Modified Test. We included 165 patients with clinical diagnosis of allergy to drugs to those who the test of Shelley's was applied modified test for one or several medicines. The study was made in the period of January 1st to December 3st 2002. 88% (145 patients) were positive, and 12% (20 patients) were negative in correlation with clinical findings. The female was more determinant (2:1 relation), with an average age of 45 years. The drugs that caused reactions of allergy in were the antibiotics (sulfas, penicillin, quinolones), analgesic (ASA, naproxen, diclofenac), antihypertensive (enalapril, captopril, verapamil) and others with 95, 170, 48 and 97 cases respectively. The most frequent clinical features were urticaria, angioedema, anaphylactic shock and erythema. The Shelley's test is useful to support the diagnosis of allergy to drugs, although does not exclude it. The antibiotics intake is the most common cause and the most common clinical manifestation was urticaria.

  2. The implications of urine drug testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Chen, Isabel L; Kodumudi, Vijay; Ortigosa, Esperanza; Gudin, Maria Teresa

    2010-07-02

    In the treatment of pain management, physicians employ a variety of drugs, ranging from low-impact to highly potent, and to maximize patient health, urine toxicology analyses can significantly improve the delivery of pain treatment. Drugs such as opioids that are used for pain management are peculiar in that they provide effective pain relief and have a high risk of addiction. The use of illicit drugs in the general population has been on the rise; however, self-reporting and close monitoring of patient behavior are insufficient means to detect drug abuse and confirm compliance. Therefore, in order to create more effective drug treatment plans, physicians must understand and account for the implications of patient drug use history. Urine toxicology analysis is an important tool for pain physicians because it is more sensitive than most alternative blood tests, more efficient and cost-effective. Urine testing in addition to improving patient pain management also has forensic and legal implications. There are however limitations to urine toxicology methods as they can produce false-positive and false-negative results and are prone to human error and sample contamination There is also a need for more specific and rapid urine drug testing. Healthcare professionals should therefore be familiar with the limitations of various urine drug testing methods, and possess skills necessary to properly interpret these results. This review suggests that the overall benefits incurred by both the patient's short-term and long-term health support the routine integration of urine toxicology analysis in routine clinical care. In addition to improving health care and patient health, it has a strong potential to improve patient-physician relationships and protects the interest of involved healthcare practitioners.

  3. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test*

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Soares; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction. PMID:27828643

  4. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Aline Soares de; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction.

  5. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts B...

  6. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts B...

  7. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts B...

  8. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  9. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  10. Road-Side Drug Testing: An Evaluation of the Alere DDS®2 Mobile Test System.

    PubMed

    Rohrig, Timothy P; Moore, Christine M; Stephens, Kimberly; Cooper, Kelsey; Coulter, Cynthia; Baird, Tyson; Garnier, Margaux; Miller, Samuel; Tuyay, James; Osawa, Kei; Chou, Joshua; Nuss, Carson; Collier, Jeff; Wittman, Karen Cudlin

    2017-09-06

    The number of drivers using drugs has increased over the last few years, and is likely to continue its upward trend. Testing drivers for alcohol use is routine and standardized, but the same is not true for the identification of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The Drug Evaluation and Classification Program (DECP) was developed to train police officers to recognize the signs and symptoms of recent drug use and remains an invaluable program; however there are insufficient numbers of these highly trained drug recognition experts (DRE's) who are available to attend every potential drug involved traffic incident. While blood and urine samples are used to test for drugs in a driver, both have disadvantages particularly as it pertains to the length of time required after a traffic stop to sample collection. Therefore, the development of oral fluid testing devices which can be operated at the roadside and have the potential to assist officers in the identification of drug use is a major advancement in DUID cases. This project evaluated the performance of one instrumental oral fluid roadside testing device (Alere DDS®2) compared to DRE opinion, oral fluid laboratory based analysis and routine blood testing. The results showed that there was a good correlation with DRE observations and the device performance was >80% in all drug categories compared to laboratory-based analytical testing; both in oral fluid and blood, with few exceptions. The instrument can be considered a useful tool to assist law enforcement in identifying a drugged driver. Because the device does not test for all potentially impairing drugs, the opinion of the police officer regarding the condition of a driver should still be considered the most important aspect for arrest and further action. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions with Antimalarials and Allergological Skin Tests.

    PubMed

    Soria, Angèle; Barbaud, Annick; Assier, Haudrey; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Tétart, Florence; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Amarger, Stéphanie; Girardin, Pascal; Francès, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Currently used antimalarial drugs (AM) are hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which are prescribed for many autoimmune disorders. The value of skin tests on cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) with AM remains unknown. The main objective of this retrospective study is to know whether skin tests for AM are useful and how to manage the recovery of AM therapy in these patients. All patients referred for suspected CADR secondary to AM between 2001 and 2014 in eight French dermatology centers were retrospectively reviewed. We report herein a retrospective series of 20 patients with CADR and AM involvement. Skin tests, performed in 14/20 patients, were negative in all cases. Six patients had an oral provocation test with recurrence of CADR in 1 case. We encourage dermatologists to perform oral provocation tests in nonsevere CADR in order to allow AM rechallenge at progressive doses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Pathology consultation on urine compliance testing and drug abuse screening.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael B; Hackenmueller, Sarah A; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2014-11-01

    Compliance testing in pain management requires a distinct approach compared with classic clinical toxicology testing. Differences in the patient populations and clinical expectations require modifications to established reporting cutoffs, assay performance expectations, and critical review of how best to apply the available testing methods. Although other approaches to testing are emerging, immunoassay screening followed by mass spectrometry confirmation remains the most common testing workflow for pain management compliance and drug abuse testing. A case-based approach was used to illustrate the complexities inherent to and uniqueness of pain management compliance testing for both clinicians and laboratories. A basic understanding of the inherent strengths and weaknesses of immunoassays and mass spectrometry provides the clinician a better understanding of how best to approach pain management compliance testing. Pain management compliance testing is a textbook example of an emerging field requiring open communication between physician and performing laboratory to fully optimize patient care. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  13. Dissolution testing for generic drugs: an FDA perspective.

    PubMed

    Anand, Om; Yu, Lawrence X; Conner, Dale P; Davit, Barbara M

    2011-09-01

    In vitro dissolution testing is an important tool used for development and approval of generic dosage forms. The objective of this article is to summarize how dissolution testing is used for the approval of safe and effective generic drug products in the United States (US). Dissolution testing is routinely used for stability and quality control purposes for both oral and non-oral dosage forms. The dissolution method should be developed using an appropriate validated method depending on the dosage form. There are several ways in which dissolution testing plays a pivotal role in regulatory decision-making. It may be used to waive in vivo bioequivalence (BE) study requirements, as BE documentation for Scale Up and Post Approval Changes (SUPAC), and to predict the potential for a modified-release (MR) drug product to dose-dump if co-administered with alcoholic beverages. Thus, in vitro dissolution testing plays a major role in FDA's efforts to reduce the regulatory burden and unnecessary human studies in generic drug development without sacrificing the quality of the drug products.

  14. Legal Review for Testing of Drugs in Hair.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, R T

    2007-07-01

    The legal issues associated with hair drug testing in general have significant differences from issues associated with urine drug testing. Discussed are cases that illuminate these differences. The issues in hair testing are not yet settled and legal precedent has not been forthcoming. Among the issues discussed is the admissibility of hair testing results based on its acceptance as scientific evidence. Some state jurisdictions still require that scientific evidence must be generally accepted in the scientific discipline where it belongs. The federal courts and an increasing number of state courts are using a less stringent standard and do not require majority acceptance by the scientific community. In some cases hair testing has been shown to be less intrusive than the use of other body samples, thus avoiding Fourth Amendment issues. However, a racial bias issue still exists based on the higher melanin content in the hair of African-Americans. A substantial issue is also whether environmental contamination of hair can be differentiated from the internal administration of a drug. The courts are also increasingly utilizing the differences between the time required for a drug or its metabolite to appear in a hair sample or urine sample in adjudicating cases.

  15. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... in order for collectors, laboratories, and Medical Review Officers to know how to use the new form...'' after ``Marijuana Metabolite'' and ``BZE'' after ``Cocaine Metabolite'' to specify the drug analytes; (3) In Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF, a line has been included on which the Medical Review Officer...

  16. Random Student Drug Testing as a School-Based Drug Prevention Strategy

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Robert L.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Arria, Amelia M.; Shea, Corinne L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This article describes the goals and current practice of school-based random student drug testing (RSDT) as part of an overall drug prevention strategy, briefly explores the available literature evaluating its effectiveness, and discusses the controversies related to RSDT. Method Authors describe the rationale for RSDT programs and the prevalence of RSDT and other drug testing programs in schools. Eight major criticisms and controversies in RSDT are discussed including those related to acceptance of RSDT, program effectiveness, costs, legality, and effects of drug testing on students. The limitations of the current literature are explored. Findings Although there is limited empirical evidence to support or refute the efficacy of RSDT in schools, there remains substantial opposition to such programs, which may contribute to the paucity of empirical studies of RSDT. Conclusions Rigorous long-term evaluations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of various versions of RSDT programs to prevent drug use and identify students in need of assistance to become and stay drug-free. PMID:22906236

  17. 14 CFR 120.123 - Drug testing outside the territory of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing outside the territory of the... OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.123 Drug testing outside the territory of the United States. (a) No part of the testing process (including specimen collection...

  18. 14 CFR 120.123 - Drug testing outside the territory of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing outside the territory of the... OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.123 Drug testing outside the territory of the United States. (a) No part of the testing process (including specimen collection...

  19. 14 CFR 120.123 - Drug testing outside the territory of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing outside the territory of the... OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.123 Drug testing outside the territory of the United States. (a) No part of the testing process (including specimen collection...

  20. 14 CFR 120.123 - Drug testing outside the territory of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing outside the territory of the... OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.123 Drug testing outside the territory of the United States. (a) No part of the testing process (including specimen collection...

  1. 78 FR 4855 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... 31, 2013. Marine employers must submit their 2013 Management Information System (MIS) reports no... Management Information System (MIS) report. Marine employers may either submit their own MIS reports or have... closely monitor drug test reporting to ensure the quality of the information. The Coast Guard may set...

  2. NCAA[R] Drug-Testing Program, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Ty, Ed.

    The drug testing program supports NCAA's goal to protect the health and safety of student-athletes competing for their institutions, while reaffirming the organization's commitment to fair and equitable competition. Proposal Nos. 30 and 52-54 provide a program for the NCAA's members to ensure that no one athlete has a chemically-induced advantage…

  3. NCAA Drug-Testing Program 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Drug-Testing Program was created to protect the health and safety of student-athletes and to ensure that no one participant might have an artificially induced advantage or be pressured to use chemical substances. This publication describes this program in the following chapters: (1) NCAA…

  4. Nonweekend schedule for BACTEC drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J E

    1986-01-01

    Determination of the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by conventional methods using an agar-based medium may take 3 weeks or more to complete. On the other hand, results on positive cultures are generally available in 4 to 7 days with the radiometric (BACTEC, Johnston Laboratories, Towson, Md.) procedure. One disadvantage to the latter is the requirement to determine the quantity of 14CO2 in each test vial on a daily basis from the day of inoculation. Growth index readings often must be made over weekends, adding to the work load of clinical laboratories during periods of reduced staff or necessitating compensatory pay or time. Susceptibility tests with streptomycin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and rifampin against 104 M. tuberculosis strains were performed by the submerged disk method, the recommended BACTEC method with daily growth index readings, and the radiometric procedure with readings delayed for 2 days after inoculation. Criteria for interpretation of "delayed" tests were established. Drug concentrations tested included some modifications of those available commercially. Overall agreement for the four drugs by the three methods was greater than 90%. We conclude that under our test conditions a schedule of inoculation of radiometric test vials on Friday with growth index readings commencing on Monday gives susceptibility results that correlate well with the daily BACTEC method and with a conventional 7H10 agar method. PMID:3086371

  5. 21 CFR 310.103 - New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... testing. 310.103 Section 310.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 310.103 New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing. (a) The Food and Drug... testing is not promoted by the manufacturer or distributor. (2) The new drug substance requested is an...

  6. 21 CFR 310.103 - New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... testing. 310.103 Section 310.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 310.103 New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing. (a) The Food and Drug... testing is not promoted by the manufacturer or distributor. (2) The new drug substance requested is an...

  7. 21 CFR 310.103 - New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... testing. 310.103 Section 310.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 310.103 New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing. (a) The Food and Drug... testing is not promoted by the manufacturer or distributor. (2) The new drug substance requested is an...

  8. 21 CFR 310.103 - New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... testing. 310.103 Section 310.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 310.103 New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing. (a) The Food and Drug... testing is not promoted by the manufacturer or distributor. (2) The new drug substance requested is an...

  9. 21 CFR 310.103 - New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... testing. 310.103 Section 310.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 310.103 New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing. (a) The Food and Drug... testing is not promoted by the manufacturer or distributor. (2) The new drug substance requested is an...

  10. Drug Testing in Children with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness During Multiple Sleep Latency Testing

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eliot S.; Maski, Kiran; Jenkins, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the incidence of positive drug screens in children undergoing a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) for evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in children evaluated at the Boston Children's Hospital Sleep Center between 1998 and 2013 who underwent MSLT for EDS with a concurrent urine and/or serum drug screen. Results: A total of 210 MSLTs were accompanied by drug testing. Children were 12.7 ± 3.7 years old (mean ± SD), 43% were female, and 24% had narcolepsy. Positive tests were obtained in 32% for caffeine, 5% for prescription medications, and 4% for over-the-counter drugs. No drugs of abuse were identified. Children testing positive for caffeine were older (13.8 ± 3.5 vs. 12.4 ± 3.7) and more likely female (59% vs. 36%), but did not differ in MSLT or overnight polysomnographic parameters compared to children without caffeine detected. Overall, only 14% had specific documentation regarding caffeine intake, though 90% were referred from a sleep clinic. Of the children testing positive for caffeine, 5% acknowledged use, 3% denied use, and 92% did not have a documented caffeine intake history during their sleep clinic visit. Conclusions: Routine drug testing for drugs of abuse during an MSLT for EDS yielded no positive results over a 15-year period, indicating that this routine practice is unnecessary in our pediatric population without specific concerns. However, objective evidence for caffeine exposure was found in 32% of tested children undergoing an MSLT. Sleep physicians rarely documented the caffeine intake history during clinic visits for EDS. Citation: Katz ES, Maski K, Jenkins AJ. Drug testing in children with excessive daytime sleepiness during multiple sleep latency testing. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):897-901. PMID:25126037

  11. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing and Orphan Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew; Levenson, James; Quillin, John

    2017-08-01

    Since the introduction of the Orphan Drug Act (ODA) in 1983, orphan drug approvals in the United States have jumped from <100 per decade to over 200 per year. This growth is widely attributed to the financial incentives the ODA gives to companies that develop these medicines, and it is likely to continue for a unique reason: partnerships between pharmaceutical firms and direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies. This emerging trend is the subject of this article, which begins by considering how rare-disease drugs are regulated and the rising interest in nonclinical genetic testing. It then outlines how DTC companies analyze DNA and how their techniques benefit researchers and drug developers. Then, after an overview of the current partnerships between DTCs and drug developers, it examines concerns about privacy and cost brought up by these partnerships. The article concludes by contrasting the enormous positive potential of DTC-pharma relationships and their concomitant dangers, especially to consumer privacy and cost to the healthcare system.

  12. Testing a fall risk model for injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N; Goldberg, Allon

    2012-01-01

    Fall risk is a critical component of clinical assessment and has not been examined for persons who have injected illicit drugs and are aging. The aim of this study was to test and develop the Fall Risk Model for Injection Drug Users by examining the relationships among injection drug use, chronic venous insufficiency, lower extremity impairments (i.e., decreased ankle range of motion, reduced calf muscle endurance, and leg pain), age and other covariates, and the Tinetti balance and gait total score as a measure of fall risk. A cross-sectional comparative design was used with four crossed factors. Standardized instruments were used to assess the variables. Moderated multiple regression with linear and quadratic trends in age was used to examine the nature of the relationship between the Tinetti balance and gait total and age and the potential moderating role of injection drug use. A prespecified series of models was tested. Participants (n = 713) were men (46.9%) and women with a mean age of 46.26 years and primarily African American (61.7%) in methadone treatment centers. The fall risk of a 48-year-old leg injector was comparable with the fall risk of a 69-year-old who had not injected drugs. Variables were added to the model sequentially, resulting in some lost significance of some when they were explained by subsequent variables. Final significant variables in the model were employment status, number of comorbidities, ankle range of motion, leg pain, and calf muscle endurance. Fall risk was associated with route of drug use. Lower extremity impairments accounted for the effects of injection drug use and chronic venous insufficiency on risk for falls. Further understanding of fall risk in injection users is necessary as they age, attempt to work, and participate in activities.

  13. A snapshot of workplace drug testing in Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Paolo Emilio; De Nardis, Isabella; Fronterrè, Pietrangelo; Felli, Marialinda; Martello, Simona; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2012-02-01

    The Italian Decree on Health and Safety at Work (81/08) prescribes mandatory drug tests for jobs which pose safety hazards to others. Workplace drug testing is performed in accordance with the Provision of the Government-Regions Conference, 2008. The aim of our survey was to examine the prevalence of drug use and the main drug findings in a sample of Italian workers performing hazardous jobs. From September 2009 to February 2011, 551 urine samples were collected in 42 Italian companies. Sample collection was carried out at the workplace by qualified laboratory personnel sent from the Institute of Occupational Medicine of the Catholic University (UCSC) of Rome. The workers to be tested were informed the day before, as the law requires. The samples were checked for adulteration, coded, and sent immediately to the laboratory of the UCSC Forensic Toxicology Analytical Unit. The screening test was an immunoassay. The positive samples proceeded to the confirmatory analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The urine samples were analyzed for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, methamphetamines, cocaine, methadone, and MDMA. Out of 16 samples .9% screened positive; only 4 of them (0.7%) were confirmed with the LC-MS/MS. Confirmed results included cocaine (2 samples), cannabis (1 sample), both cocaine and cannabis (1 sample). The prevalence of positive samples was lower than expected. Such finding cannot be explained by a low reliability of the testing procedure but could be due to test scheduling. More positive cases might be found performing short-notice random testing. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing

    PubMed Central

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. Methods The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Results Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Conclusions Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. PMID:27344042

  15. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-09-01

    To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. The Sociological and Mathematical Implications of Mandatory Urine Tests for Drug Use in the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janell; Campbell, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Mandatory drug testing of workers will create problems due to the low predictive ability of urinalysis. The predictive value of drug testing in populations of low drug incidence is illustrated using Bayes' Theorem. (MT)

  17. The Sociological and Mathematical Implications of Mandatory Urine Tests for Drug Use in the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janell; Campbell, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Mandatory drug testing of workers will create problems due to the low predictive ability of urinalysis. The predictive value of drug testing in populations of low drug incidence is illustrated using Bayes' Theorem. (MT)

  18. Aligning New Tuberculosis Drug Regimens and Drug Susceptibility Testing: A Needs Assessment and Roadmap for Action

    PubMed Central

    Wells, William A.; Boehme, Catharina C.; Cobelens, Frank G.J.; Daniels, Colleen; Dowdy, David; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Gheuens, Jan; Kim, Peter; Kimerling, Michael E.; Kreiswirth, Barry; Lienhardt, Christian; Mdluli, Khisi; Pai, Madhukar; Perkins, Mark D.; Peter, Trevor; Zignol, Matteo; Zumla, Alimuddin; Schito, Marco

    2014-01-01

    New tuberculosis drug regimens are creating new priorities for drug susceptibility testing (DST) and surveillance. To minimise turnaround time, rapid DST will need to be prioritised, but developers of these assays will need better data about the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Efforts are underway to link mutations with drug resistance and to develop strain collections to enable assessment of new diagnostic assays. In resource-limited settings, DST might not be appropriate for all patients with tuberculosis. Surveillance data and modelling will help country stakeholders to design appropriate DST algorithms and to decide whether to change drug regimens. Finally, development of practical DST assays is needed so that, in countries where surveillance and modelling show that DST is advisable, these assays can be used to guide clinical decisions for individual patients. If combined judiciously during both development and implementation, new tuberculosis regimens and new DST assays have enormous potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:23531393

  19. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The effects of distraction on symptoms during drug provocation test

    PubMed Central

    CILDAG, SONGUL; SENTURK, TASKIN; SARGIN, GOKHAN

    2017-01-01

    Background Some patients may have psychosomatic complaints due to their previous experiences during the drug hypersensitivity reaction. Worry about being hurt due to an administered drug is termed nocebo effect, which is the opposite of the placebo effect. In our study, we investigated the effect of distraction on symptoms during drug provocation test. Methods Our study included 112 patients who underwent DPTs for alternative purposes in our clinic. Previous hypersensitivity reactions of all the patients had objective signs. Patients were divided into two groups for the DPT. Sixty-three patients were kept busy during the test, performing tasks such as filling questionnaires, arranging files in alphabetical and numerical order, and doing archiving (Group 1). Forty-nine patients did not perform any tasks during the test (Group 2). Reactions that occurred during the test were recorded. Results During the DPT, 5 patients in Group 1 (5/63, 7.9%) and 17 patients in Group 2 (17/49, 34.7%), i.e. a total of 22 patients (22/112, 19.6%), had a reaction. There was a statistically significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 according to the frequency of the reaction development. Conclusions Patient psychosomatic complaints during DPTs are proportional to their association with previous allergic reactions. In order to prevent such reactions, it may be beneficial to keep the patients busy with an activity in order to distract them during the test. PMID:28246492

  1. Effect of some commonly prescribed drugs on certain chemistry tests.

    PubMed

    Wright, L A; Foster, M G

    1980-12-01

    Of the 44 commonly prescribed drugs listed only ascorbic acid, at the upper end of its therapeutic range, significantly affected any (glucose, uric acid) of the twenty-three more frequently requested tests measured in the clinical chemistry laboratory. Acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, ascorbic acid, nitrofurantoin, methyldopa and tetracycline at five times the upper end of their therapeutic ranges individually produced consistently significant effects on one or more of the following tests: glucose, bilirubin, carbon dioxide, calcium, cholesterol, uric acid and aspartate aminotransferase. When drugs are added to lyophilized human serum and to fresh human serum in similar concentrations, their effects on clinical chemistry tests performed on these two different sera are not always the same.

  2. Testing for diabetes in hospitalised patients prescribed antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David; Young, Corina; Esop, Raadiyya; Paton, Carol; Walwyn, Rebecca

    2004-08-01

    Studies using computer databases suggest that atypical antipsychotic agents are more likely to be associated with diabetes than are conventional drugs. To discover the extent of testing for diabetes mellitus in hospital in-patients prescribed antipsychotics. Prescription charts were screened to identify patients prescribed antipsychotics. Case notes were then searched for evidence of testing for diabetes. In all, 606 patients were prescribed antipsychotics, of whom 250 (41.3%) had evidence of prior testing for diabetes. Patients prescribed atypicals were 40% more likely to have been tested than those prescribed conventional drugs (RR =1.4,95% CI1.1-1.9). Adjusted odds ratios v. conventional antipsychotics for conventional antipsychotics for testing were significantly higher for clozapine (OR=4.64,95% CI 2.42-8.90), olanzapine (OR=1.85,95% CI1.04-3.30) and antipsychotic polypharmacy (OR=2.96,95% CI1.59-5.52). Testing for diabetes was undertaken in less than half of the patients studied. Testing was more common in those receiving atypical antipsychotics. Apparent differences in claimed causal association of the use of some antipsychotics with diabetes may in part reflect different rates of testing.

  3. Equipment for drug release testing of medicated chewing gums.

    PubMed

    Kvist, L C; Andersson, S B; Berglund, J; Wennergren, B; Fors, S M

    2000-04-01

    An apparatus was specially designed and constructed for release testing of medicated chewing gums. The adjustable instrumental settings such as temperature, chewing frequency, chewing time, volume of test medium, distance between the jaws and twisting angle increased the versatility of the apparatus. Selection of the test medium was also an important parameter. Each sample was kneaded mechanically in separate test chambers and the drug release was followed by sampling and HPLC analysis. Different gum formulations were tested and the obtained results demonstrated satisfactory release curves for a variety of formulations and active ingredients. The tested gum formulations comprised nicotine, meclizine, dimenhydrinate and xylitol. The apparatus proved to be suitable in product control of commercial batches but also a useful tool in the research and development of medicated gum formulations.

  4. Synergy testing of FDA-approved drugs identifies potent drug combinations against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Planer, Joseph D; Hulverson, Matthew A; Arif, Jennifer A; Ranade, Ranae M; Don, Robert; Buckner, Frederick S

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 8 million persons, mainly in Latin America, are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Existing antiparasitic drugs for Chagas disease have significant toxicities and suboptimal effectiveness, hence new therapeutic strategies need to be devised to address this neglected tropical disease. Due to the high research and development costs of bringing new chemical entities to the clinic, we and others have investigated the strategy of repurposing existing drugs for Chagas disease. Screens of FDA-approved drugs (described in this paper) have revealed a variety of chemical classes that have growth inhibitory activity against mammalian stage Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. Aside from azole antifungal drugs that have low or sub-nanomolar activity, most of the active compounds revealed in these screens have effective concentrations causing 50% inhibition (EC50's) in the low micromolar or high nanomolar range. For example, we have identified an antihistamine (clemastine, EC50 of 0.4 µM), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine, EC50 of 4.4 µM), and an antifolate drug (pyrimethamine, EC50 of 3.8 µM) and others. When tested alone in the murine model of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, most compounds had insufficient efficacy to lower parasitemia thus we investigated using combinations of compounds for additive or synergistic activity. Twenty-four active compounds were screened in vitro in all possible combinations. Follow up isobologram studies showed at least 8 drug pairs to have synergistic activity on T. cruzi growth. The combination of the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, plus the antifungal drug, posaconazole, was found to be more effective at lowering parasitemia in mice than either drug alone, as was the combination of clemastine and posaconazole. Using combinations of FDA-approved drugs is a promising strategy for developing new treatments for Chagas disease.

  5. Signify ER Drug Screen Test evaluation: comparison to Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus tricyclic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jane Ellen; Bogema, Stuart; Fu, Paul; Furmaga, Wieslaw; Wu, Alan H B; Zic, Vlasta; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine

    2003-02-01

    Signify ER Drug Screen Test (Signify ER) and Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus TCA (Triage DOA Panel) rapid drug screening devices were compared at four laboratories. Both assay systems are point of care immunoassays, measuring phencyclidine, barbiturates, amphetamine, cocaine metabolite, methamphetamine, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, marijuana metabolite, and benzodiazepines in human urine. The performance of these two assay systems, including a cutoff verification and cross-reactivity using spiked urine specimens and accuracy using clinical urine samples, was investigated. The cutoff verification study showed that the Signify ER had 95.4% precision for all drugs tested at concentrations of 50%, 75%, 125%, 150%, and 200% of cutoffs compared to 90% precision obtained with Triage DOA Panel. Accuracy studies testing 53 negative urine samples demonstrated that both Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have 100% specificity. Testing of 693 positive urine samples demonstrated that Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have sensitivities of 99.8% and 99.3%, respectively, with an accuracy of 99.9% and 99.6%. A total of 527 compounds were tested for the cross-reactivity study. Eighty-seven structurally related drugs and metabolites were found to cross-react with at least one of the nine tests of the Signify ER. Four hundred forty structurally unrelated compounds that can be found in human urine were shown not to cross-react with the Signify ER. In terms of operating characteristics, the Signify ER device is simpler since only a single pipetting step is required, and reaction completed within 8 min.

  6. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the...

  7. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the...

  11. 76 FR 59574 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... is no current requirement for the service provider's information system to capture this data element... employer's knowledge of the test outcome. We have removed the requirement from the rule text. Section 40...

  12. Mouse models for pre-clinical drug testing in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanil; Daschkey, Svenja; Lang, Franziska; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hauer, Julia

    2016-11-01

    The development of novel drugs which specifically target leukemic cells, with the overall aim to increase complete remission and to reduce toxicity and morbidity, is the most important prerequisite for modern leukemia treatment. In this regard, the current transition rate of potential novel drugs from bench to bedside is remarkably low. Although many novel drugs show promising data in vitro and in vivo, testing of these medications in clinical phase I trials is often sobering with intolerable toxic side effects leading to failure in FDA approval. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the development of murine model generation in the context of targeted therapy development for the treatment of childhood leukemia, aiming to decrease the attrition rate of progressively complex targeted therapies ranging from small molecules to cell therapy. As more complex therapeutic approaches develop, more complex murine models are needed, to recapitulate closely the human phenotype. Expert opinion: Combining xenograft models for efficacy testing and GEMMs for toxicity testing will be a global approach for pre-clinical testing of complex therapeutics and will contribute to the clinical approval of novel compounds. Finally, this approach is likely to increase clinical approval of novel compounds.

  13. Xenograft model for therapeutic drug testing in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Julie; Bishop, Justin A; Akpeng, Belinda; Pai, Sara I; Best, Simon R A

    2015-02-01

    Identifying effective treatment for papillomatosis is limited by a lack of animal models, and there is currently no preclinical model for testing potential therapeutic agents. We hypothesized that xenografting of papilloma may facilitate in vivo drug testing to identify novel treatment options. A biopsy of fresh tracheal papilloma was xenografted into a NOD-scid-IL2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mouse. The xenograft began growing after 5 weeks and was serially passaged over multiple generations. Each generation showed a consistent log-growth pattern, and in all xenografts, the presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histopathologic analysis demonstrated that the squamous architecture of the original papilloma was maintained in each generation. In vivo drug testing with bevacizumab (5 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly for 3 weeks) showed a dramatic therapeutic response compared to saline control. We report here the first successful case of serial xenografting of a tracheal papilloma in vivo with a therapeutic response observed with drug testing. In severely immunocompromised mice, the HPV genome and squamous differentiation of the papilloma can be maintained for multiple generations. This is a feasible approach to identify therapeutic agents in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. [Interventional neuroradiology. Drug treatment, monitoring and function tests].

    PubMed

    Laurent, A; Gobin, Y P; Launay, F; Aymard, A; Casasco, A; Merland, J J

    1994-04-23

    Specialized monitoring as well as function tests and drug therapy play an ever growing role in neuroradiological procedures. The particular route of administration and the territories involved in neuroradiology require special precautions. Anaesthesia must enable the operators to monitor the central nervous system since the patients must remain totally immobilized for several hours. Catheterization is made safe by careful asepsia and antibiotic prophylaxis and by preventing embolic events, particularly in neuro-cervico-facial interventions where an anticoagulant protocol is important. Arterial spasms can be prevented or cured with calcium inhibitors. The safety of the procedure itself is guaranteed by various function tests including sensitivity to ischaemia using anaesthetic barbiturates, controlled clampings or the lidocaine test. Undesirable effects of both emboli (e.g. toxicity of cyanoacrylate glue) and embolization (e.g. subsequent venous thrombosis) can be prevented by adapted anti-inflammatory drugs. Herein, we describe the routine monitoring conditions, drugs prescribed and function tests performed at the Therapeutic Angiography Department of the Lariboisière Hospital, Paris.

  15. QA procedures for multimodality preclinical tumor drug response testing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongsook C; Goins, Beth A; Fullerton, Gary D

    2010-09-01

    There are growing expectations that imaging biomarkers for tumor therapeutic drug response assessment will speed up preclinical testing of anticancer drugs in rodent models. The only imaging biomarker presently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is tumor size measurement based on either World Health Organization (WHO) criteria or Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Frequently, preclinical data are accumulated from multiple research centers on multiple continents using scanners from different manufacturers and sometimes even using different imaging modalities. Very expensive cancer drug response studies can be compromised by inadequate controls to assure precision and accuracy of tumor size measurements. This project was undertaken to develop standardized quality assurance (QA) procedures using a multimodality preclinical tumor response phantom to validate the accuracy of tumor size measurements based on WHO criteria, RECIST, or global tumor volume criteria for evaluation of cytostatic drugs. A tumor response phantom containing five low contrast test objects designed to simulate animal tumor models was made of tissue-mimicking materials. Imaging of the phantom was performed using three modalities in two institutions to evaluate size measurement of tumor-simulating test objects. Evaluation of tumor measurements from the three commonly used imaging devices in two different institutions for monitoring tumor size changes showed that a single phantom for multiple modalities was feasible. The tumor response phantom validated precision and accuracy of tumor response data input from ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging devices. Measurement results show that the standardized QA procedures using the tumor response phantom can provide a rationale check of data that excludes input from poorly maintained instruments, inadequate measurement protocols, or random operator error that frequently introduce unacceptable

  16. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  17. Drug testing in children with excessive daytime sleepiness during multiple sleep latency testing.

    PubMed

    Katz, Eliot S; Maski, Kiran; Jenkins, Amanda J

    2014-08-15

    To determine the incidence of positive drug screens in children undergoing a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) for evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). A retrospective analysis was performed in children evaluated at the Boston Children's Hospital Sleep Center between 1998 and 2013 who underwent MSLT for EDS with a concurrent urine and/or serum drug screen. A total of 210 MSLTs were accompanied by drug testing. Children were 12.7 ± 3.7 years old (mean ± SD), 43% were female, and 24% had narcolepsy. Positive tests were obtained in 32% for caffeine, 5% for prescription medications, and 4% for over-the-counter drugs. No drugs of abuse were identified. Children testing positive for caffeine were older (13.8 ± 3.5 vs. 12.4 ± 3.7) and more likely female (59% vs. 36%), but did not differ in MSLT or overnight polysomnographic parameters compared to children without caffeine detected. Overall, only 14% had specific documentation regarding caffeine intake, though 90% were referred from a sleep clinic. Of the children testing positive for caffeine, 5% acknowledged use, 3% denied use, and 92% did not have a documented caffeine intake history during their sleep clinic visit. Routine drug testing for drugs of abuse during an MSLT for EDS yielded no positive results over a 15-year period, indicating that this routine practice is unnecessary in our pediatric population without specific concerns. However, objective evidence for caffeine exposure was found in 32% of tested children undergoing an MSLT. Sleep physicians rarely documented the caffeine intake history during clinic visits for EDS.

  18. Workplace drug testing in Italy: findings about second-stage testing.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; San Bartolomeo, Paolo; Groppi, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Workplace Drug Testing (WDT) in Italy includes two levels of monitoring: a first stage concerning drug testing on urine samples and a second involving both urine and hair analysis. The second stage is performed only on workers who tested positive at the first level. We analyzed urine and hair specimens from 120 workers undergoing second-level testing between 2009 and 2012. Eighty percent of them had tested positive for cannabinoids during the first level analysis, and 15.8% for cocaine. Both urine and hair samples were analyzed in order to find the following drugs of abuse: amphetamines, buprenorphine, cannabinoids, cocaine, ecstasy, methadone, and opiates. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); urine confirmatory tests and hair analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As regards second-stage testing on urine samples, 71.2% of workers were always negative, whereas 23.9% tested positive at least once for cannabinoids and 2.5% for cocaine. Hair analyses produced surprising results: 61.9% of hair samples tested negative, only 6.2% tested positive for cannabinoids, whereas 28.8% tested positive for cocaine. These findings confirm that second-level surveillance of WDT, which includes hair analysis, is very effective because it highlights drug intake - sometimes heavy - that cannot be revealed only through urine analyses. The employees for whom drug addiction is proved can begin rehabilitation, while keeping their job. Eventually, our results confirmed the widespread and undeclared use of cocaine in Italy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 78 FR 52931 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... to generic drug manufacturers to follow International Conference on Hamonisation (ICH)...

  20. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... percentage rate for random drug testing must be 50 percent of covered employees. (b) The FRA Administrator's decision to increase or decrease the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing is based on the...

  1. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug... percentage rate for random drug testing must be 50 percent of covered employees. (b) The FRA Administrator's decision to increase or decrease the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing is based on the...

  2. Segmental hair testing to disclose chronic exposure to psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    Marchei, Emilia; Palmi, Ilaria; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Anton Airaldi, Ileana-Rita; Costa Orvay, Juan Antonio; García Serra, Joan; Bonet Serra, Bartolomé; García-Algar, Óscar

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the case of a 4-year-old healthy child admitted to the paediatric ward for suspected accidental intoxication due to ingestion of narcoleptic drugs (methylphenidate, sertraline and quetiapine), taken on a regular basis by his 8-year-old brother affected by Asperger syndrome.Intoxication can be objectively assessed by measurements of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices with short-term (blood and urine) or long-term (hair) detection windows. At the hospital, the child's blood and urine were analysed by immunoassay (confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sertraline and quetiapine and their metabolites were identified. The suspicion that the mother administered drugs chronically prompted the analysis of six, consecutive 2-cm segments of the child's hair, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, thereby accounting for ingestion over the previous 12 months. Quetiapine was found in the first four segments with a mean concentration of 1.00 ng/mg ± 0.94 ng/mg hair while sertraline and its metabolite, desmethyl-sertraline, were found in all segments with a mean concentration of 2.65 ± 0.94 ng/mg and 1.50 ± 0.94 ng/mg hair, respectively. Hair analyses were negative for methylphenidate and its metabolite (ritalinic acid). Biological matrices testing for psychoactive drugs disclosed both acute and chronic intoxication with quetiapine and sertraline administered by the mother.

  3. Application of drug testing using exhaled breath for compliance monitoring of drug addicts in treatment.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Sten; Olsson, Robert; Lindkvist, Irene; Beck, Olof

    2015-04-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a possible matrix for drug testing. This study explored the potential of this new method for compliance monitoring of patients being treated for dependence disorders. Outpatients in treatment programs were recruited for this study. Urine was collected as part of clinical routine and a breath sample was collected in parallel together with a questionnaire about their views of the testing procedure. Urine was analyzed for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, buprenorphine, methadone and opiates using CEDIA immunochemical screening and mass spectrometry confirmation. The exhaled breath was collected using the SensAbues device and analyzed by mass spectrometry for amphetamine, methamphetamine, diazepam, oxazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, methadone, morphine, codeine and 6-acetylmorphine. A total of 122 cases with parallel urine and breath samples were collected; 34 of these were negative both in urine and breath. Out of 88 cases with positive urine samples 51 (58%) were also positive in breath. Among the patients on methadone treatment, all were positive for methadone in urine and 83% were positive in breath. Among patients in treatment with buprenorphine, 92% were positive in urine and among those 80% were also positive in breath. The questionnaire response documented that in general, patients accepted drug testing well and that the breath sampling procedure was preferred. Compliance testing for the intake of prescribed and unprescribed drugs among patients in treatment for dependence disorders using the exhaled breath sampling technique is a viable method and deserves future attention.

  4. Radiometric and conventional drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hoel, T; Eng, J

    1991-11-01

    One hundred and four clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were susceptibility tested by the radiometric method (RAD) using the BACTEC system in parallel with a conventional modified proportion method (CON). In the latter, the strains were tested against four concentrations of drugs in Lowenstein-Jensen medium (isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (SM) and ethambutol (EMB)) OR 7H10 agar medium (rifampicin (RIF)) and reported as "sensitive", "intermediate" or "resistant" from the minimum inhibitory concentrations observed. The radiometric results were classified in the same three groups in accordance with the BACTEC methodology. The overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods was 97.4% (INH 95.2%, EMB 96.2%, SM 98.1% and RIF 100%). In addition, the agreement between RAD and each of the drug concentration steps employed in CON was examined and the results discussed in relation to the established critical concentrations of the drugs. The BACTEC technique was found to be a rapid and convenient method for routine use.

  5. Recent advances in testing of microsphere drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Andhariya, Janki V; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses advances in the field of microsphere testing. In vitro release-testing methods such as sample and separate, dialysis membrane sacs and USP apparatus IV have been used for microspheres. Based on comparisons of these methods, USP apparatus IV is currently the method of choice. Accelerated in vitro release tests have been developed to shorten the testing time for quality control purposes. In vitro-in vivo correlations using real-time and accelerated release data have been developed, to minimize the need to conduct in vivo performance evaluation. Storage stability studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of various environmental factors on microsphere quality throughout the product shelf life. New tests such as the floating test and the in vitro wash-off test have been developed along with advancement in characterization techniques for other physico-chemical parameters such as particle size, drug content, and thermal properties. Although significant developments have been made in microsphere release testing, there is still a lack of guidance in this area. Microsphere storage stability studies should be extended to include microspheres containing large molecules. An agreement needs to be reached on the use of particle sizing techniques to avoid inconsistent data. An approach needs to be developed to determine total moisture content of microspheres.

  6. Animal models for testing anti-prion drugs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Eraña, Hasier; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases belong to a group of fatal infectious diseases with no effective therapies available. Throughout the last 35 years, less than 50 different drugs have been tested in different experimental animal models without hopeful results. An important limitation when searching for new drugs is the existence of appropriate models of the disease. The three different possible origins of prion diseases require the existence of different animal models for testing anti-prion compounds. Wild type, over-expressing transgenic mice and other more sophisticated animal models have been used to evaluate a diversity of compounds which some of them were previously tested in different in vitro experimental models. The complexity of prion diseases will require more pre-screening studies, reliable sporadic (or spontaneous) animal models and accurate chemical modifications of the selected compounds before having an effective therapy against human prion diseases. This review is intended to put on display the more relevant animal models that have been used in the search of new antiprion therapies and describe some possible procedures when handling chemical compounds presumed to have anti-prion activity prior to testing them in animal models.

  7. Rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and drug susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    The global control of tuberculosis remains a challenge from the standpoint of diagnosis, detection of drug resistance, and treatment. This is an area of special concern to the health of women and children, particularly in regions of the world with high infant mortality rates and where women have limited access to health care. Because treatment can only be initiated when infection is detected, and is guided by the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, there recently has been a marked increase in the development and testing of novel assays designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, with or without simultaneous detection of resistance to isoniazid and/or rifampin. Both nonmolecular and molecular assays have been developed. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the use of rapid tests to detect M tuberculosis and drug resistance. Review of the most recent World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Report, as well as selected publications in the primary research literature, meta-analyses, and review articles. To a large extent, nonmolecular methods are refinements or modifications of conventional methods, with the primary goal of providing more rapid test results. In contrast, molecular methods use novel technologies to detect the presence of M tuberculosis complex and genes conferring drug resistance. Evaluations of molecular assays have generally shown that these assays are of variable sensitivity for detecting the presence of M tuberculosis complex, and in particular are insensitive when used with smear-negative specimens. As a group, molecular assays have been shown to be of high sensitivity for detecting resistance to rifampin, but of variable sensitivity for detecting resistance to isoniazid.

  8. The Influence of Drug Testing and Benefit-Based Distribution of Opioid Substitution Therapy on Drug Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Gabrovec, Branko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our research was to discover whether the new approach to urine drug testing has a positive effect on users' abstinence, users' treatment, and their cooperation, while remaining user-friendly, and whether this approach is more cost-effective. The centers are focused on providing high-quality treatment within a cost-efficient program. In this study, we focus on the influence of drug testing and benefit-based distribution of opioid substitution therapy (BBDOST) on drug abstinence. The purpose of this study was to find any possible positive effect of modified distribution of the therapy and illicit drug testing on the number of users who are abstinent from illicit drugs and users who are not abstinent from illicit drugs as well as the users' opinion on BBDOST and testing. We are also interested in a difference in abstinence rates between those on BBDOST and those not receiving BBDOST. In 2010, the method of drug testing at the center was changed (less frequent and random drug testing) to enable its users faster access to BBDOST (take-home therapy). It was found that the number of drug-abstinent program participants has increased from initial 44.5% (2010) to 54.1% (2014). According to the program participants, the new method allows them to achieve and maintain abstinence from drugs more easily. In addition, they are also satisfied with the modified way of drug testing. This opinion does not change with age, gender, and acquired benefits.

  9. Sociodemographic correlates of HIV drug resistance and access to drug resistance testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Genevieve; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Oliveira, Natalia; Brumme, Zabrina L; Rusch, Melanie; Shoveller, Jeannie; Brumme, Chanson J; Harrigan, P Richard

    2017-01-01

    Sociodemographic correlates of engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care are well studied, however the association with accessing drug resistance testing (DRT) and the development of drug resistance have not been characterized. Between 1996-2014, 11 801 HIV patients accessing therapy in British Columbia were observed longitudinally. A subset of 9456 patients had testable viral load; of these 8398 were linked to census data. Sociodemographic (census tract-level) and clinical (individual-level) correlates of DRT were assessed using multivariable General Estimating Equation logistic regression adjusted odds ratios (aOR). The mean number of tests per patient was 2.1 (Q1-Q3; 0-3). Separately, any drug resistance was determined using IAS-USA (2013) list for 5703 initially treatment naïve patients without baseline resistance; 5175 were census-linked (mean of 1.5 protease-reverse transcriptase sequences/patient, Q1-Q3; 0-2). Correlates of detecting drug resistance in this subset were analyzed using Cox PH regression adjusted hazard ratios (aHR). Our results indicate baseline CD4 <200 cells/μL (aOR: 1.5, 1.3-1.6), nRTI-only baseline regimens (aOR: 1.4, 1.3-1.6), and unknown (therapy initiation before routine pVL in BC) baseline pVL (aOR: 1.8, 1.5-2.1) were among individual-level clinical covariates strongly associated with having accessed DRT; while imperfect adherence (aHR: 2.2, 1.9-2.5), low baseline CD4 count (aHR: 1.9, 1.6-2.3), and high baseline pVL (aHR: 2.0, 1.6-2.6) were associated with a higher likelihood of developing drug resistance. A higher median income (aOR: 0.83, 0.77-0.89) and higher percentage of those with aboriginal ancestry (aOR: 0.85, 0.76-0.95) were census tract-level sociodemographic covariates associated with decreased access to DRT. Similarly, aboriginal ancestry (aHR: 1.2, 1.1-1.5) was associated with development of drug resistance. In conclusion, clinical covariates continue to be the strongest correlates of development of drug

  10. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger; Battegay, Manuel; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Machala, Ladislav; Tomazic, Janez; Girard, Pierre M; Januskevica, Inga; Gronborg-Laut, Kamilla; Lundgren, Jens D; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro

    2015-07-17

    To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. Multinational cohort study. Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P < 0.001). Resistance was detected in 77.9% of the tests, NRTI resistance being most common (70.3%), followed by NNRTI (51.6%) and protease inhibitor (46.1%) resistance. The odds of detecting resistance were lower in tests done in 1997-1998, 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, compared to those carried out in 2003-2004 (global P < 0.001). Resistance testing was less common in Eastern Europe [aOR 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.94] compared to Southern Europe, whereas the detection of resistance given that a test was done was less common in Northern (aOR 0.29, 95% CI 0.21-0.39) and Central Eastern (aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.76) Europe, compared to Southern Europe. Despite a concurrent decline in virological failure and testing, drug resistance was commonly detected. This suggests a selective approach to resistance testing. The regional differences identified indicate that policy aiming to minimize the emergence of resistance is of particular relevance in some European regions, notably in the countries in Eastern Europe.

  11. Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair.

    PubMed

    Tsanaclis, Lolita; Wicks, John F C

    2008-03-21

    The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the hair before analysis, the second is the detection of the relevant metabolites in the hair samples and the third is the use of cut-off levels. Difficulty in the interpretation arises when metabolites are not detected either due to external contamination of the hair or low doses of the drugs used. A wash protocol needs to be practical and ideally remove any drug deposited on the external portion of the hair. We propose an additional step that helps considerably in the interpretation of the results with the aim to establish a consensus: the analysis of the wash residue (W) and its comparison with the levels detected in hair (H). The wash residue is the remainder of a quick wash with methanol which is dried and reconstituted in buffer before analysis. The detection of small quantities of analytes that are not susceptible to external contamination in the wash residue, such as metabolites or drugs such as dihydrocodeine, indicates that the washing procedure is in fact able to remove drugs from the hair shaft. Where the W/H ratio is less then 0.1 or null, it would tend to indicate drug use as opposed to environmental contamination. Where the W/H ratio is above 0.1 but less than 0.5, it is likely to indicate possible use possibly combined with a level of external contamination. A W/H ratio greater than 0.5 is likely to indicate that the source of most of the drug in the wash residue is from external contamination. In this last case, the source of levels detected in the hair is questionable, as it is not possible to be absolutely sure that all external contamination was removed

  12. MOEs for Drug Interdiction: Simple Tests Expose Critical Flaws

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    DTIC gN In MOEs for Drug Interdiction: Simple Tests Expose Critical Flaws Michael R. Anderberg 92-15393 92 6 1 2 0 5 3 U CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Center for Naval Analyses CRM 91-48 4401 Ford Avenue Alexandria, Virginia 22302-0268 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...S%& 2MS.18 ECENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES 4401 Ford Avenue • Post Office Box 16268 • Alexandria, Virginia 22302-0268 * (703) 824-2000 10 October 1991

  13. Galactosylated cellulosic sponge for multi-well drug safety testing.

    PubMed

    Nugraha, Bramasta; Hong, Xin; Mo, Xuejun; Tan, Looling; Zhang, Wenxia; Chan, Po-Mak; Kang, Chiang Huen; Wang, Yan; Beng, Lu Thong; Sun, Wanxin; Choudhury, Deepak; Robens, Jeffrey M; McMillian, Michael; Silva, Jose; Dallas, Shannon; Tan, Choon-Hong; Yue, Zhilian; Yu, Hanry

    2011-10-01

    Hepatocyte spheroids can maintain mature differentiated functions, but collide to form bulkier structures when in extended culture. When the spheroid diameter exceeds 200 μm, cells in the inner core experience hypoxia and limited access to nutrients and drugs. Here we report the development of a thin galactosylated cellulosic sponge to culture hepatocytes in multi-well plates as 3D spheroids, and constrain them within a macroporous scaffold network to maintain spheroid size and prevent detachment. The hydrogel-based soft sponge conjugated with galactose provided suitable mechanical and chemical cues to support rapid formation of hepatocyte spheroids with a mature hepatocyte phenotype. The spheroids tethered in the sponge showed excellent maintenance of 3D cell morphology, cell-cell interaction, polarity, metabolic and transporter function and/or expression. For example, cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2, CYP2B2 and CYP3A2) activities were significantly elevated in spheroids exposed to β-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, or pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile, respectively. The sponge also exhibits minimal drug absorption compared to other commercially available scaffolds. As the cell seeding and culture protocols are similar to various high-throughput 2D cell-based assays, this platform is readily scalable and provides an alternative to current hepatocyte platforms used in drug safety testing applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Likelihood ratio based tests for longitudinal drug safety data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Zalkikar, Jyoti; Tiwari, Ram

    2014-06-30

    This article presents longitudinal likelihood ratio test (LongLRT) methods for large databases with exposure information. These methods are applied to a pooled large longitudinal clinical trial dataset for drugs treating osteoporosis with concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). When the interest is in the evaluation of a signal of an adverse event for a particular drug compared with placebo or a comparator, the special case of the LongLRT, referred to as sequential LRT (SeqLRT), is also presented. The results show that there is some possible evidence of concomitant use of PPIs leading to more adverse events associated with osteoporosis. The performance of the proposed LongLRT and SeqLRT methods is evaluated using simulated datasets and shown to be good in terms of (conditional) power and control of type I error over time. The proposed methods can also be applied to large observational databases with exposure information under the US Food and Drug Administration Sentinel Initiative for active surveillance. Published 2014. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Testing cardiovascular drug safety and efficacy in randomized trials.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Garret A

    2014-03-28

    Randomized trials provide the gold standard evidence on which rests the decision to approve novel therapeutics for clinical use. They are large and expensive and provide average but unbiased estimates of efficacy and risk. Concern has been expressed about how unrepresentative populations and conditions that pertain in randomized trials might be of the real world, including concerns about the homogeneity of the biomedical and adherence characteristics of volunteers entered into such trials, the dose and constancy of drug administration and the mixture of additional medications that are restricted in such trials but might influence outcome in practice. A distinction has been drawn between trials that establish efficacy and those that demonstrate effectiveness, drugs that patients actually consume in the real world for clinical benefit. However, randomized controlled trials remain the gold standard for establishing efficacy and the testing of effectiveness with less rigorous approaches is a secondary, albeit important consideration. Despite this, there is an appreciation that average results may conceal considerable interindividual variation in drug response, leading to a failure to appreciate clinical value or risk in subsets of patients. Thus, attempts are now being made to individualize risk estimates by modulating those derived from large randomized trials with the individual baseline risk estimates based on demographic and biological criteria-the individual Numbers Needed to Treat to obtain a benefit, such as a life saved. Here, I will consider some reasons why large phase 3 trials-by far the most expensive element of drug development-may fail to address the unmet medical needs, which should justify such effort and investment.

  16. Pumpless microfluidic platform for drug testing on human skin equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Gledhill, Karl; Guo, Zongyou; Christiano, Angela M.; Shuler, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in bio-mimetic in vitro human skin models increase the efficiency of drug screening studies. In this study, we designed and developed a microfluidic platform that allows for long-term maintenance of full thickness human skin equivalents (HSE) which are comprised of both the epidermal and dermal compartments. The design is based on the physiologically relevant blood residence times in human skin tissue and allows for the establishment of an air-epidermal interface which is crucial for maturation and terminal differentiation of HSEs. The small scale of the design reduces the amount of culture medium and the number of cells required by 36 fold compared to conventional transwell cultures. Our HSE-on-a-chip platform has the capability to recirculate the medium at desired flow rates without the need for pump or external tube connections. We demonstrate that the platform can be used to maintain HSEs for three weeks with proliferating keratinocytes similar to conventional HSE cultures. Immunohistochemistry analyses show that the differentiation and localization of keratinocytes was successfully achieved, establishing all sub-layers of the epidermis after one week. Basal keratinocytes located at the epidermal-dermal interface remain in a proliferative state for three weeks. We use a transdermal transport model to show that the skin barrier function is maintained for three weeks. We also validate the capability of the HSE-on-a-chip platform to be used for drug testing purposes by examining the toxic effects of doxorubucin on skin cells and structure. Overall, the HSE-on-a-chip is a user-friendly and cost-effective in vitro platform for drug testing of candidate molecules for skin disorders. PMID:25490891

  17. Pumpless microfluidic platform for drug testing on human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Gledhill, Karl; Guo, Zongyou; Christiano, Angela M; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-02-07

    Advances in bio-mimetic in vitro human skin models increase the efficiency of drug screening studies. In this study, we designed and developed a microfluidic platform that allows for long-term maintenance of full thickness human skin equivalents (HSE) which are comprised of both the epidermal and dermal compartments. The design is based on the physiologically relevant blood residence times in human skin tissue and allows for the establishment of an air-epidermal interface which is crucial for maturation and terminal differentiation of HSEs. The small scale of the design reduces the amount of culture medium and the number of cells required by 36 fold compared to conventional transwell cultures. Our HSE-on-a-chip platform has the capability to recirculate the medium at desired flow rates without the need for pump or external tube connections. We demonstrate that the platform can be used to maintain HSEs for three weeks with proliferating keratinocytes similar to conventional HSE cultures. Immunohistochemistry analyses show that the differentiation and localization of keratinocytes was successfully achieved, establishing all sub-layers of the epidermis after one week. Basal keratinocytes located at the epidermal-dermal interface remain in a proliferative state for three weeks. We use a transdermal transport model to show that the skin barrier function is maintained for three weeks. We also validate the capability of the HSE-on-a-chip platform to be used for drug testing purposes by examining the toxic effects of doxorubucin on skin cells and structure. Overall, the HSE-on-a-chip is a user-friendly and cost-effective in vitro platform for drug testing of candidate molecules for skin disorders.

  18. [Analysis and test of piezoelectric micropump for drug delivery].

    PubMed

    Kan, Junwu; Xuan, Ming; Yang, Zhigang; Wu, Yihui; Wu, Boda; Cheng, Guangming

    2005-08-01

    With a microsystem or micropump, the release rate of drug delivery is able to be controlled easily to maintain the therapeutic efficacy. A piezoelectric membrane-valve micropump for implantable and carryhome drug delivery system is developed and tested. The influence elements of dynamic performance of the PZT actuator and valve were analyzed, and the calculation method of resonant frequency of the membrane valve was provided. Study results showed that the output performance of the micropump depended on the coupling effect of the actuator and valve. For a given actuator, the output value and the optimal frequency of a micropump could be enhanced only by valve design. Two micropumps with different valve dimensions were fabricated for comparing examination. The smaller -valve micropump obtained higher output values (the maximum flow rate and backpressure being 3.5 ml/min and 27 KPa, respectively) and two optimal frequencies (800 Hz and 3 000 Hz). The larger -valve micropump achieved lower output values (the maximum flow rate and backpressure being 3.0 ml/min and 9 KPa, respectively) and one optimal frequency (about 200 Hz). The test results suggest that the output values and optimal frequency of micropump can be improved by changing the valve dimension, and the viewpoint that checkvalve micropump works only with low acting frequency is wrong.

  19. Evaluation of antibiotic allergy: the role of skin tests and drug challenges.

    PubMed

    Solensky, Roland; Khan, David A

    2014-09-01

    Antibiotic allergies are frequently reported in both adult and pediatric populations. While a detailed drug history is essential in the evaluation of antibiotic allergy, the history is typically insufficient to determine the presence of a drug allergy. The most readily available diagnostic testing for evaluating antibiotic allergies are drug skin testing and drug challenges. This review will focus on updates in the evaluation of antibiotic allergy utilizing immediate skin tests, delayed intradermal testing, drug patch tests, and drug challenges for both adults and children with histories of antibiotic allergies.

  20. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  1. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  2. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  3. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  4. 49 CFR 40.161 - What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rejected for testing? 40.161 Section 40.161 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.161 What does the MRO do when a drug test specimen is rejected for testing? As...

  5. 78 FR 39190 - Revisions to Fitness for Duty Programs' Drug Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...-2009-0225] RIN 3150-AI67 Revisions to Fitness for Duty Programs' Drug Testing Requirements AGENCY... regulations regarding drug testing requirements in NRC licensees' fitness for duty programs. The regulatory...

  6. Future applications of high-resolution MS to meet the demands for pain management drug testing.

    PubMed

    Crews, Bridgit O

    2014-01-01

    Urine specimens submitted for pain management drug testing often contain multiple psychotherapeutic drugs, in addition to opioids. Immunoassay-based screen-and-confirm approaches typically used for clinical drug testing have limited sensitivity to detect therapeutic concentrations of many drugs prescribed in pain management and do not differentiate between drugs in the same class. In addition, screening for all the various illicit and prescription drugs that may be present in the pain management population requires as many as 10-20 individual immunoassays. High-resolution MS approaches have the potential to transform the way clinical drug testing is performed for pain management.

  7. Emerging drugs affecting skeletal muscle function and mitochondrial biogenesis - Potential implications for sports drug testing programs.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-03-15

    A plethora of compounds potentially leading to drug candidates that affect skeletal muscle function and, more specifically, mitochondrial biogenesis, has been under (pre)clinical investigation for rare as well as more common diseases. Some of these compounds could be the object of misuse by athletes aiming at artificial and/or illicit and drug-facilitated performance enhancement, necessitating preventive and proactive anti-doping measures. Early warnings and the continuous retrieval and dissemination of information are crucial for sports drug testing laboratories as well as anti-doping authorities, as they assist in preparation of efficient doping control analytical strategies for potential future threats arising from new therapeutic developments. Scientific literature represents the main source of information, which yielded the herein discussed substances and therapeutic targets, which might become relevant for doping controls in the future. Where available, mass spectrometric data are presented, supporting the development of analytical strategies and characterization of compounds possibly identified in human sports drug testing samples. Focusing on skeletal muscle and mitochondrial biogenesis, numerous substances exhibiting agonistic or antagonistic actions on different cellular 'control centers' resulting in increased skeletal muscle mass, enhanced performance (as determined with laboratory animal models), and/or elevated amounts of mitochondria have been described. Substances of interest include agonists for REV-ERBα (e.g. SR9009, SR9011, SR10067, GSK4112), sirtuin 1 (e.g. SRT1720, SRT2104), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, e.g. AICAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ (e.g. GW1516, GW0742, L165041), and inhibitory/antagonistic agents targeting the methionine-folate cycle (MOTS-c), the general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) acetyl transferase (e.g. CPTH2, MB-3), myostatin (e.g. MYO-029), the myostatin receptor

  8. Double Flow Bioreactor for In Vitro Test of Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pavia, Francesco Carfì; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Ghersi, Giulio; Greco, Silvia; Brucato, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    In this work, double-structured polymeric scaffolds were produced, and a double flow bioreactor was designed and set up in order to create a novel system to carry out advanced in vitro drug delivery tests. The scaffolds, consisting of a cylindrical porous matrix, are able to host cells, thus mimicking a three-dimensional tumor mass: moreover, a "pseudo-vascular" structure was embedded into the matrix, with the aim of allowing a flow circulation. The structure that emulates a blood vessel is a porous tubular-shaped scaffold prepared by Diffusion Induced Phase Separation (DIPS), with an internal lumen of 2 mm and a wall thickness of 200 micrometers. The as-prepared vessel was incorporated into a three-dimensional matrix, prepared by Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS), characterized by a high porosity (about 95%) and pore size adequate to accommodate tumor cells and/or mesenchymal cells. The morphology of the multifunctional scaffolds is easy-tunable in terms of pore size, porosity and thickness and therefore adaptable to various cell or tissue types. At the same time, a double flow bioreactor was designed and built up, in order to be able to carry out biological tests on the scaffold under dynamic conditions. The device allows a separate control of the two flows (one for the tubular scaffold, one for the porous matrix) through the scaffolds. Preliminary characterizations and tests carried out suggest the presented system as a candidate to suitably "in vitro" assess the effects of different drugs on various cell populations.

  9. Army Drug Development Program. Phase 1. Clinical Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    of a possible drug related SGPT elevation is required. 3. Optimal dose schedules for Sodium Stibogluconate can be...subject also had a nightmare following drug administration. The gastrointestinal signs and symptoms are considered drug related ...The neurologic symptoms are considered possibly drug related . No physical changes were observed. All subjects had two

  10. Drug Testing. ERIC Digest Series Number EA35 (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy; Hadderman, Margaret

    Despite privacy concerns, school administrators are feeling pressure to adopt urgent measures to keep drugs and alcohol from further endangering our youth's well-being and undermining staff performance. This urgency is reinforced by a national anti-drug campaign and Congressional passage of the Drug-Free Workplace Act (1988) and the Drug-Free…

  11. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  13. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  15. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  16. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  17. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  18. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drug testing program? 40.123 Section 40.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an...

  2. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drug testing program? 40.123 Section 40.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an...

  3. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drug testing program? 40.123 Section 40.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an...

  4. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drug testing program? 40.123 Section 40.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.123 What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program? As an...

  5. Drug Testing Guidelines and Practices for Juvenile Probation and Parole Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Probation and Parole Association, Lexington, KY.

    This document, intended as a resource manual, provides guidelines on drug testing. These topics are covered: (1) National Institute on Drug Abuse guidelines applicability; (2) introduction to legal issues, drug testing in juvenile probation and parole, and juvenile law; (3) mission of a juvenile parole agency; (4) purpose of testing; (5) drug…

  6. An Alternative to the Physiological Psychology Laboratory: Identification of an Unknown Drug Through Behavioral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Susan J.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory project introduced physiological psychology students to research by requiring them to identify an unknown drug given to laboratory animals. Students read material about drugs and animal drug studies, designed behavioral tests, constructed the testing apparatus, conducted the tests, and wrote progress reports. (SR)

  7. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  8. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  9. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  10. 76 FR 34086 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information Regarding Specific Issues Related to the Use of the Oral Fluid Specimen for Drug Testing AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services... Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (oral fluid specimen). DATES: Comment...

  11. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  12. 49 CFR 40.149 - May the MRO change a verified drug test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May the MRO change a verified drug test result? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.149 May the MRO change a verified drug test result? (a) As the MRO, you may change a verified...

  13. An Alternative to the Physiological Psychology Laboratory: Identification of an Unknown Drug Through Behavioral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Susan J.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory project introduced physiological psychology students to research by requiring them to identify an unknown drug given to laboratory animals. Students read material about drugs and animal drug studies, designed behavioral tests, constructed the testing apparatus, conducted the tests, and wrote progress reports. (SR)

  14. Plaque inhibition assay for drug susceptibility testing of influenza viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, F G; Cote, K M; Douglas, R G

    1980-01-01

    The relative antiviral activities of four drugs against contemporary strains of influenza A and B viruses were determined in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers with a plaque inhibition assay. This assay proved to be a reliable, rapid method of determining 50% inhibitory concentrations that correlated well with clinically achievable drug levels and the results of clinical trials. Contemporary strains of influenza A viruses (subtypes H1N1, H3N2, HSW1N1) required amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride 50% inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 microgram/ml, whereas 50% inhibitory concentrations ranged from approximately 50 to 100 micrograms/ml against influenza B viruses. Ribavirin was approximately 10-fold less active than amantadine hydrochloride against influenza A viruses, and the ribavirin 50% inhibitory concentrations against both influenza A and B viruses ranged from 2.6 to 6.8 micrograms/ml. Inosiplex had no antiviral activity in this test system. PMID:7396473

  15. Understanding drug testing in the neonate and the role of meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Ostrea, E M

    2001-03-01

    The use of illicit drugs during pregnancy is a problem that affects a significant number of pregnant women or women of childbearing age. For many reasons, the identification of the drug exposed mother and her infant is a necessary, albeit difficult, task. This article will discuss drug testing to detect the antenatal exposure of the newborn infant to illicit drugs and review the different laboratory methods that are used and the role of meconium analysis in neonatal drug testing.

  16. Fatal Crashes from Drivers Testing Positive for Drugs in the U.S., 1993–2010

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Pagán, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Illegal drug use is a persistent problem, prescription drug abuse is on the rise, and there is clinical evidence that drug use reduces driving performance. This study describes trends in characteristics of drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes who test positive for drugs. Methods We used the Fatality Analysis Reporting System—a census of motor vehicle crashes resulting in at least one fatality on U.S. public roads—to investigate suspected drug use for the period 1993–2010. Results Drugged drivers who were tested for drug use accounted for 11.4% of all drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes in 2010. Drugged drivers are increasingly likely to be older drivers, and the percentage using multiple drugs increased from 32.6% in 1993 to 45.8% in 2010. About half (52.4%) of all drugged drivers used alcohol, but nearly three-quarters of drivers testing positive for cocaine also used alcohol. Prescription drugs accounted for the highest fraction of drugs used by drugged drivers in fatal crashes in 2010 (46.5%), with much of the increase in prevalence occurring since the mid-2000s. Conclusions The profile of a drugged driver has changed substantially over time. An increasing share of these drivers is now testing positive for prescription drugs, cannabis, and multiple drugs. These findings have implications for developing interventions to address the changing nature of drug use among drivers in the U.S. PMID:24982537

  17. Genetically Defined Strains in Drug Development and Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern about the poor quality and lack of repeatability of many pre-clinical experiments involving laboratory animals. According to one estimate as much as $28 billion is wasted annually in the USA alone in such studies. A decade ago the FDA's "Critical path" white paper noted that "The traditional tools used to assess product safety-animal toxicology and outcomes from human studies-have changed little over many decades and have largely not benefited from recent gains in scientific knowledge. The inability to better assess and predict product safety leads to failures during clinical development and, occasionally, after marketing." Repeat-dose 28-days and 90-days toxicity tests in rodents have been widely used as part of a strategy to assess the safety of drugs and chemicals but their repeatability and power to detect adverse effects have not been formally evaluated.The guidelines (OECD TG 407 and 408) for these tests specify the dose levels and number of animals per dose but do not specify the strain of animals which should be used. In practice, almost all the tests are done using genetically undefined "albino" rats or mice in which the genetic variation, a major cause of inter-individual and strain variability, is unknown and uncontrolled. This chapter suggests that a better strategy would be to use small numbers of animals of several genetically defined strains of mice or rats instead of the undefined animals used at present. Inbred strains are more stable providing more repeatable data than outbred stocks. Importantly their greater phenotypic uniformity should lead to more powerful and repeatable tests. Any observed strain differences would indicate genetic variation in response to the test substance, providing key data. We suggest that the FDA and other regulators and funding organizations should support research to evaluate this alternative.

  18. The significance of mitochondrial toxicity testing in drug development.

    PubMed

    Dykens, James A; Will, Yvonne

    2007-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly implicated in the etiology of drug-induced toxicities. Members of diverse drug classes undermine mitochondrial function, and among the most potent are drugs that have been withdrawn from the market, or have received Black Box warnings from the FDA. To avoid mitochondrial liabilities, routine screens need to be positioned within the drug-development process. Assays for mitochondrial function, cell models that better report mitochondrial impairment, and new animal models that more faithfully reflect clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction are discussed in the context of how such data can reduce late stage attrition of drug candidates and can yield safer drugs in the future.

  19. Trends in reports of driving following illicit drug consumption among regular drug users in Australia, 2007-2013: Has random roadside drug testing had a deterrent effect?

    PubMed

    Horyniak, Danielle; Dietze, Paul; Lenton, Simon; Alati, Rosa; Bruno, Raimondo; Matthews, Allison; Breen, Courtney; Burns, Lucy

    2017-07-01

    Driving following illicit drug consumption ('drug-driving') is a potential road safety risk. Roadside drug testing (RDT) is conducted across Australia with the dual aims of prosecuting drivers with drugs in their system and deterring drug-driving. We examined trends over time in self-reported past six-month drug-driving among sentinel samples of regular drug users and assessed the impact of experiences of RDT on drug-driving among these participants. Data from 1913 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 3140 regular psychostimulant users (RPU) who were first-time participants in a series of repeat cross-sectional sentinel studies conducted in Australian capital cities from 2007 to 2013 and reported driving in the past six months were analysed. Trends over time were assessed using the χ(2) test for trend. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the relationship between experiences of RDT and recent drug-driving, adjusting for survey year, jurisdiction of residence and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics. The percentage of participants reporting recent (past six months) drug-driving decreased significantly over time among both samples (PWID: 83% [2007] vs. 74% [2013], p<0.001; RPU: 72% vs. 56%, p<0.001), but drug-driving remained prevalent. Lifetime experience of RDT increased significantly over time (PWID: 6% [2007] vs. 32% [2013], p<0.001; RPU: 2% vs. 11%, p<0.001). There were no significant associations between experiencing RDT and drug-driving among either PWID or RPU. Although there is some evidence that drug-driving among key risk groups of regular drug users is declining in Australia, possibly reflecting a general deterrent effect of RDT, experiencing RDT appears to have no specific deterrent effect on drug-driving. Further intervention, with a particular focus on changing attitudes towards drug-driving, may be needed to further reduce this practice among these groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  1. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  2. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  3. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  4. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  5. What You Need To Know about Starting a Student Drug-Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colston, Stephenie; Stephenson, Bob; LoDico, Charles; Vogl, Walt; Price, Deborah; Disselkoen, Robyn; Modzeleski, Bill; Deramond, Helene; Mazza, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Drugs are a significant barrier to learning, and the use of drugs by even a small number of students can affect the entire atmosphere of a school. Recognizing this, many administrators, parents, and students appreciate having a tool as powerful as student drug testing available as an additional component in their school?s comprehensive drug and…

  6. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the individual..., opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the employee's system if...

  7. Creatinine normalization of workplace urine drug tests: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Price, James W

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of creatinine normalization on urine drug concentrations of 5 substances (amphetamines, cocaine, marijuana, opiates, and phencyclidine) and how this affects the proportion of reported positives. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used to compare the mean prenormalization urinary drug concentration with the mean postnormalization urinary drug concentration. Frequency analysis was performed on dichotomous drug test results and the information was used to complete McNemar testing for each drug to determine the difference of proportions for prenormalization positive drug tests to postnormalization positive drug test. Each drug tested (N = 4460) was found to have a statistically significant increase in mean urinary drug concentration after creatinine normalization with effect sizes ranging from small to medium with cocaine having the largest effect size (r = 0.229) and phencyclidine having the lowest effect size (r = 0.121). The differences in proportion of dichotomous results between study and control groups for drugs tested were compared with the McNemar test. Each drug had a statistically significant (P = 0.0010) increase of positive drug tests. This result indicates that specimen dilution does affect the number of laboratory-positive results confirmed.

  8. Test systems in drug discovery for hazard identification and risk assessment of human drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Richard J; Betts, Catherine; Blomme, Eric A G; Gerets, Helga H J; Gjervig Jensen, Klaus; Hewitt, Philip G; Juhila, Satu; Labbe, Gilles; Liguori, Michael J; Mesens, Natalie; Ogese, Monday O; Persson, Mikael; Snoeys, Jan; Stevens, James L; Walker, Tracy; Park, B Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The liver is an important target for drug-induced toxicities. Early detection of hepatotoxic drugs requires use of well-characterized test systems, yet current knowledge, gaps and limitations of tests employed remains an important issue for drug development. Areas Covered: The current state of the science, understanding and application of test systems in use for the detection of drug-induced cytotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, cholestasis and inflammation is summarized. The test systems highlighted herein cover mostly in vitro and some in vivo models and endpoint measurements used in the assessment of small molecule toxic liabilities. Opportunities for research efforts in areas necessitating the development of specific tests and improved mechanistic understanding are highlighted. Expert Opinion: Use of in vitro test systems for safety optimization will remain a core activity in drug discovery. Substantial inroads have been made with a number of assays established for human Drug-induced Liver Injury. There nevertheless remain significant gaps with a need for improved in vitro tools and novel tests to address specific mechanisms of human Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Progress in these areas will necessitate not only models fit for application, but also mechanistic understanding of how chemical insult on the liver occurs in order to identify translational and quantifiable readouts for decision-making.

  9. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  10. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  11. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  12. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  13. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  14. Professional vs. Personal Factors Related to Physicians' Attitudes toward Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Lawrence S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward alcohol and drug testing in workplace in relation to practice characteristics, religious and political ideology, personal use experiences, views of drug problems, and other characteristics of 303 physicians. Found that drug testing was most favored by those who more strongly believed in efficacy of treatment for abusers,…

  15. Text of American Council's Draft Guidelines on Testing Athletes for Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The text of the American Council on Education's draft of proposed guidelines for drug testing of college athletes is provided. The purpose of programs for testing intercollegiate athletes for use of drugs, it is suggested, should be to prevent use of performance-enhancing drugs that undermine the integrity of athletic competition. (MLW) PUBTYPE-055

  16. Urine drug testing: current recommendations and best practices.

    PubMed

    Owen, Graves T; Burton, Allen W; Schade, Cristy M; Passik, Steve

    2012-07-01

    The precise role of urine drug testing (UDT) in the practice of pain medicine is currently being defined. Confusion exists as to best practices, and even to what constitutes standard of care. A member survey by our state pain society revealed variability in practice and a lack of consensus. The authors sought to further clarify the importance of routine UDT as an important part of an overall treatment plan that includes chronic opioid prescribing. Further, we wish to clarify best practices based on consensus and data where available. A 20-item membership survey was sent to Texas Pain Society members. A group of chronic pain experts from the Texas Pain Society undertook an effort to review the best practices in the literature. The rationale for current UDT practices is clarified, with risk management strategies outlined, and recommendations for UDT outlined in detail. A detailed insight into the limitations of point-of-care (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, test cups, test strips) versus the more sensitive and specific laboratory methods is provided. Our membership survey was of a limited sample size in one geographic area in the United States and may not represent national patterns. Finally, there is limited data as to the efficacy of UDT practices in improving compliance and curtailing overall medication misuse. UDT must be done routinely as part of an overall best practice program in order to prescribe chronic opioid therapy. This program may include risk stratification; baseline and periodic UDT; behavioral monitoring; and prescription monitoring programs as the best available tools to monitor chronic opioid compliance.

  17. Sports drug testing using complementary matrices: Advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Tretzel, Laura; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-10-25

    Today, routine doping controls largely rely on testing whole blood, serum, and urine samples. These matrices allow comprehensively covering inorganic as well as low and high molecular mass organic analytes relevant to doping controls and are collecting and transferring from sampling sites to accredited anti-doping laboratories under standardized conditions. Various aspects including time and cost-effectiveness as well as intrusiveness and invasiveness of the sampling procedure but also analyte stability and breadth of the contained information have been motivation to consider and assess values potentially provided and added to modern sports drug testing programs by alternative matrices. Such alternatives could be dried blood spots (DBS), dried plasma spots (DPS), oral fluid (OF), exhaled breath (EB), and hair. In this review, recent developments and test methods concerning these alternative matrices and expected or proven contributions as well as limitations of these specimens in the context of the international anti-doping fight are presented and discussed, guided by current regulations for prohibited substances and methods of doping as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Focusing on literature published between 2011 and 2015, examples for doping control analytical assays concerning non-approved substances, anabolic agents, peptide hormones/growth factors/related substances and mimetics, β2-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, diuretics and masking agents, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticoids, and beta-blockers were selected to outline the advantages and limitations of the aforementioned alternative matrices as compared to conventional doping control samples (i.e. urine and blood/serum). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rifampin Drug Resistance Tests for Tuberculosis: Challenging the Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Kya J. M.; Bola, Valentin; Lebeke, Rossin; Hossain, Mohamed Anwar; de Rijk, Willem Bram; Rigouts, Leen; Gumusboga, Aysel; Torrea, Gabriela; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid diagnosis of rifampin resistance is hampered by a reported insufficient specificity of molecular techniques for detection of rpoB mutations. Our objective for this study was to document the prevalence and prognostic value of rpoB mutations with unclear phenotypic resistance. The study design entailed sequencing directly from sputum of first failure or relapse patients without phenotypic selection and comparison of the standard retreatment regimen outcome, according to the mutation present. We found that among all rpoB mutations, the best-documented “disputed” rifampin resistance mutations (511Pro, 516Tyr, 526Asn, 526Leu, 533Pro, and 572Phe) made up 13.1% and 10.6% of all mutations in strains from Bangladesh and Kinshasa, respectively. Except for the 511Pro and 526Asn mutations, most of these strains with disputed mutations tested rifampin resistant in routine Löwenstein-Jensen medium proportion method drug susceptibility testing (DST; 78.7%), but significantly less than those with common, undisputed mutations (96.3%). With 63% of patients experiencing failure or relapse in both groups, there was no difference in outcome of first-line retreatment between patients carrying a strain with disputed versus common mutations. We conclude that rifampin resistance that is difficult to detect by the gold standard, phenotypic DST, is clinically and epidemiologically highly relevant. Sensitivity rather than specificity is imperfect with any rifampin DST method. Even at a low prevalence of rifampin resistance, a rifampin-resistant result issued by a competent laboratory may not warrant confirmation, although the absence of a necessity for confirmation needs to be confirmed for molecular results among new cases. However, a result of rifampin susceptibility should be questioned when suspicion is very high, and further DST using a different system (i.e., genotypic after phenotypic testing) would be fully justified. PMID:23761144

  19. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  20. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  1. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  2. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  3. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility shall...

  4. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility shall...

  5. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility shall...

  6. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility shall...

  7. 10 CFR 26.139 - Reporting initial validity and drug test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting initial validity and drug test results. 26.139 Section 26.139 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.139 Reporting initial validity and drug test results. (a) The licensee testing facility shall...

  8. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  9. Psychotropic and General Drug Use by Mentally Retarded Persons: A Test of the Status Model of Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachron, Ann E.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the use of prescribed psychotropic drugs among the mentally retarded. Analyzes data on over 7,000 retarded adolescents to empirically test a proposed model of drug use. Suggests that interventions should provide needed changes in the individual's social environment as well as psychological and medical care. (CMG)

  10. Field testing of the Alere DDS2 Mobile Test System for drugs in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John

    2013-06-01

    A preliminary field evaluation of a second-generation handheld oral fluid testing device, the Alere DDS2 Mobile Test System (DDS2), is described. As part of a larger study, drivers were randomly stopped at various locations across California (in 2012) and asked to submit voluntarily to a questionnaire regarding their drug and alcohol use, a breath alcohol test and collection of oral fluid with the Quantisal device. The Quantisal-collected oral fluid samples were sent for laboratory-based analyses. At one location, 50 drivers were asked to submit an additional oral fluid sample using the DDS2 collection device; these samples were analyzed by using the DDS2 mobile test system. Thirty-eight donors (76%) provided specimens that were successfully run on the mobile system; in 12 cases (24%), the device failed to provide a valid result. Thirty-two of the 38 collected samples were negative for all drugs; five were positive for tetrahydrocannabinol and one was positive for methamphetamine using the mobile device. These results corresponded exactly with the laboratory-based results from the Quantisal oral fluid collection.

  11. Study: Gene Test Needed Before Using Alzheimer's Drug 'Off-Label'

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease should not be prescribed to people with milder mental impairment without first giving them a genetic test, a new study urges. The drug is ...

  12. Women's opinions of legal requirements for drug testing in prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Tucker Edmonds, Brownsyne; Mckenzie, Fatima; Austgen, MacKenzie B; Carroll, Aaron E; Meslin, Eric M

    2017-07-01

    To explore women's attitudes and perceptions regarding legal requirements for prenatal drug testing. Web-based survey of 500 US women (age 18-45) recruited from a market research survey panel. A 24-item questionnaire assessed their opinion of laws requiring doctors to routinely verbal screen and urine drug test patients during pregnancy; recommendations for consequences for positive drug tests during pregnancy; and opinion of laws requiring routine drug testing of newborns. Additional questions asked participants about the influence of such laws on their own care-seeking behaviors. Data were analyzed for associations between participant characteristics and survey responses using Pearson's chi-squared test. The majority of respondents (86%) stated they would support a law requiring verbal screening of all pregnant patients and 73% would support a law requiring universal urine drug testing in pregnancy. Fewer respondents were willing to support laws that required verbal screening or urine drug testing (68% and 61%, respectively) targeting only Medicaid recipients. Twenty-one percent of respondents indicated they would be offended if their doctors asked them about drug use and 14% indicated that mandatory drug testing would discourage prenatal care attendance. Women would be more supportive of policies requiring universal rather than targeted screening and testing for prenatal drug use. However, a noteworthy proportion of women would be discouraged from attending prenatal care - a reminder that drug testing policies may have detrimental effects on maternal child health.

  13. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting to...

  14. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting to...

  15. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting to...

  16. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting to...

  17. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drugs, and a laboratory is prohibited from making a DOT urine specimen available for a DNA test or other... a blood or urine specimen collected by the employee's physician or a DNA test result purporting to...

  18. 76 FR 35678 - SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements and Drug Facts Labeling for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310 SPF Labeling and Testing... solicits comments on SPF labeling and testing requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen products... of information technology. SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements for OTC Sunscreen Products...

  19. Comparison of random and postaccident urine drug tests in southern Indiana coal miners.

    PubMed

    Price, James W

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between the use of 9 classes of substances (amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, marijuana, methadone, opioids, phencyclidine, and propoxyphene) and coal-mining accidents. The control sample (n = 215) made up of miners that presented for random urine drug testing. The study sample (n = 100) consists of miners that presented for postaccident urine drug testing. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U tests of creatinine normalized urine drug levels were conducted to compare the medians of the groups. The mean drug concentrations were higher in the postaccident group for each drug tested except marijuana. Two-tailed testing demonstrated statistically significant differences for marijuana (P = 0.000), cocaine (P = 0.008), and opiates (P = 0.037). The study demonstrates statistically significant higher cocaine and opioid concentrations and lower marijuana concentrations in postaccident urine drug tests of coal miners when compared with random tests.

  20. Test-Retest Stability and Concurrent Validity of Two Reading Tests with a Drug-Abusing Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark E.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Rhodes, Fen; Booth, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised were administered twice to 269 current drug abusers over an average time interval of 204.2 days. Overall, the study demonstrates that the two instruments have strong psychometric properties and that results from current drug abusers are reliable. (SLD)

  1. Legal, workplace, and treatment drug testing with alternate biological matrices on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Cone, E J

    2001-09-15

    Global trends in drug trafficking and drug usage patterns indicate a continuing pattern of escalation throughout the world. Over the last two decades, urinalysis has evolved into a highly accurate means for determining whether individuals have been exposed to illicit drugs of abuse. Advances have also been made in the use of alternate biological matrices such as hair, oral fluids and sweat for drug testing. Often, these new matrices demonstrate some distinct advantages over urinalysis, e.g. less invasive procedures, different time course of drug detection. They may even indicate impairment. National and local laws of each country provide the underpinnings of drug-testing programs, but most countries have not addressed use of these alternate matrices. Currently, only a few countries have statutes that specifically mention use of alternate biological matrices, e.g. United States (Florida state law), Germany, Ireland, Poland and the Czech Republic. Conversely, few countries have prohibited collection of alternate biological specimens or drug test devices that utilize such specimens. In addition, guidelines for implementing drug testing programs have been slow to emerge and most deal primarily with workplace drug testing programs, e.g. United States. Currently, scientific technology utilized in drug testing is advancing rapidly, but there is a clear need for parallel development of guidelines governing the use of alternate matrices for drug testing. This article provides an overview of global drug trafficking patterns and drug use, and results from a survey of legal statutes in 20 countries covering use of alternate matrices for drug testing. In addition, elements needed for the development of guidelines for alternate matrices testing for drugs of abuse are discussed, and specific examples of use of alternate matrices in treatment monitoring are provided.

  2. Using the affective bias test to predict drug-induced negative affect: implications for drug safety.

    PubMed

    Stuart, S A; Wood, C M; Robinson, E S J

    2017-10-01

    Predicting the risk of drug-induced adverse psychiatric effects is important but currently not possible in non-human species. We investigated whether the affective bias test (ABT) could provide a preclinical method with translational and predictive validity. The ABT is a bowl-digging task, which quantifies biases associated with learning and memory. Rats encounter independent learning experiences, on separate days, under either acute manipulations (e.g. pro-depressant vs. control) or different absolute reward values (e.g. high vs. low). A bias is observed during a preference test when an animal's choices reflect their prior experience. We investigated the effects of putative pro-depressant drug treatments following acute or chronic administration on the formation of an affective bias or reward-induced positive bias respectively. The immunomodulators LPS (10 μg·kg(-1) ), corticosterone (10 and 30 mg·kg(-1) ) and IFN-α (100 U·kg(-1) ) induced a negative affective bias following acute treatment. Tetrabenazine (1 mg·kg(-1) ) also induced a negative bias, but no effects were observed with varenicline, carbamazepine or montelukast. Chronic treatment with IFN-α (100 U·kg(-1) ) and retinoic acid (10 mg·kg(-1) ) impaired the formation of a reward-induced positive bias but did not alter sucrose preference test (SPT). The ABT has the potential to provide a novel approach to predict pro-depressant risk in a non-human species. Negative biases induced by acute treatment in the standard version of the task may also predict longer-term effects on reward processing as shown by the deficit in reward-induced positive bias following chronic treatment, an effect distinct from anhedonia in the SPT. This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of Cognition: a Panacea for Neuropsychiatric Disease? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.19/issuetoc. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology

  3. 49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a verified adulterated or substituted test result, you have refused to take a drug test. (c) As an... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests...

  4. 49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a verified adulterated or substituted test result, you have refused to take a drug test. (c) As an... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests...

  5. Chicano Drug Abuse Patterns: Using Archival Data to Test Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan C.

    1985-01-01

    The records of 274,709 clients admitted to federally funded drug treatment programs in California between 1975 and early 1981 were examined to determine Chicano drug abuse patterns. The study confirmed the disproportionate use of heroin and inhalants by Chicanos and indicated that phencyclidine was disproportionately used by Chicanos. (NQA)

  6. Testing Drugs and Trying Cures: Experiment and Medicine in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elaine; Rankin, Alisha

    2017-01-01

    This article examines traditions of testing drugs (as substances) and trying cures (on patients) in medieval and early modern Europe. It argues that the history of drug testing needs to be a more central story to overall histories of scientific experiment. The practice of conducting thoughtful-and sometimes contrived-tests on drugs has a rich and varied tradition dating back to antiquity, which expanded in the Middle Ages and early modern period. Learned physicians paired text-based knowledge (reason) with hands-on testing (experience or experiment) in order to make claims about drugs' properties or effects on humans. Lay practitioners similarly used hands-on testing to gain knowledge of pharmaceutical effects. Although drug testing practices expanded in scale, actors, and sites, therpublished a work extolling the virtues of drugs froe was significant continuity from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.

  7. An implantable microdevice to perform high-throughput in vivo drug sensitivity testing in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Oliver; Landry, Heather M.; Fuller, Jason E.; Santini, John T.; Baselga, Jose; Tepper, Robert I.; Cima, Michael J.; Langer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Current anticancer chemotherapy relies on a limited set of in vitro or indirect prognostic markers of tumor response to available drugs. A more accurate analysis of drug sensitivity would involve studying tumor response in vivo. To this end, we have developed an implantable device that can perform drug sensitivity testing of several anticancer agents simultaneously inside the living tumor. The device contained reservoirs that released microdoses of single agents or drug combinations into spatially distinct regions of the tumor. The local drug concentrations were chosen to be representative of concentrations achieved during systemic treatment. Local efficacy and drug concentration profiles were evaluated for each drug or drug combination on the device, and the local efficacy was confirmed to be a predictor of systemic efficacy in vivo for multiple drugs and tumor models. Currently, up to 16 individual drugs or combinations can be assessed independently, without systemic drug exposure, through minimally invasive biopsy of a small region of a single tumor. This assay takes into consideration physiologic effects that contribute to drug response by allowing drugs to interact with the living tumor in its native microenvironment. Because these effects are crucial to predicting drug response, we envision that these devices will help identify optimal drug therapy before systemic treatment is initiated and could improve drug response prediction beyond the biomarkers and in vitro and ex vivo studies used today. These devices may also be used in clinical drug development to safely gather efficacy data on new compounds before pharmacological optimization. PMID:25904741

  8. Hair drug testing results and self-reported drug use among primary care patients with moderate-risk illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; O'Grady, Kevin E; Ondersma, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to examine the utility of hair testing as a research measure of drug use among individuals with moderate-risk drug use based on the internationally validated Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). This study is a secondary analysis using baseline data from a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug misuse, in which 360 adults with moderate-risk drug use were recruited from two community clinics in New Mexico, USA. The current study compared self-reported drug use on the ASSIST with laboratory analysis of hair samples using a standard commercially available 5-panel test with assay screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) confirmation. Both self-report and hair testing covered a 3-month period. Overall concordance between hair testing and self-report was 57.5% (marijuana), 86.5% (cocaine), 85.8% (amphetamines), and 74.3% (opioids). Specificity of hair testing at standard laboratory cut-offs exceeded 90% for all drugs, but sensitivity of hair testing relative to self-report was low, identifying only 52.3% (127/243) of self-disclosed marijuana users, 65.2% (30/46) of cocaine users, 24.2% (8/33) of amphetamine users, and 2.9% (2/68) of opioid users. Among participants who disclosed using marijuana or cocaine in the past 3 months, participants with a negative hair test tended to report lower-frequency use of those drugs (p<.001 for marijuana and cocaine). Hair testing can be useful in studies with moderate-risk drug users, but the potential for under-identification of low-frequency use suggests that researchers should consider employing low detection cut-offs and using hair testing in conjunction with self-report. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hair Drug Testing Results and Self-reported Drug Use among Primary Care Patients with Moderate-risk Illicit Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P.; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study sought to examine the utility of hair testing as a research measure of drug use among individuals with moderate-risk drug use based on the internationally-validated Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Methods This study is a secondary analysis using baseline data from a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug misuse, in which 360 adults with moderate-risk drug use were recruited from two community clinics in New Mexico, USA. The current study compared self-reported drug use on the ASSIST with laboratory analysis of hair samples using a standard commercially-available 5-panel test with assay screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) confirmation. Both self-report and hair testing covered a 3 month period. Results Overall concordance between hair testing and self-report was 57.5% (marijuana), 86.5% (cocaine), 85.8% (amphetamines), and 74.3% (opioids). Specificity of hair testing at standard laboratory cut-offs exceeded 90% for all drugs, but sensitivity of hair testing relative to self-report was low, identifying only 52.3% (127/243) of self-disclosed marijuana users, 65.2% (30/46) of cocaine users, 24.2% (8/33) of amphetamine users, and 2.9% (2/68) of opioid users. Among participants who disclosed using marijuana or cocaine in the past 3 months, participants with a negative hair test tended to report lower-frequency use of those drugs (p< .001 for marijuana and cocaine). Conclusions Hair testing can be useful in studies with moderate-risk drug users, but the potential for under-identification of low-frequency use suggests that researchers should consider employing low detection cut-offs and using hair testing in conjunction with self-report. PMID:24932945

  10. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  11. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  12. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  13. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  14. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  15. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug content. (1) Refusal by an operator to submit to a test is prohibited and proof of refusal may be admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and drugs...

  16. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug content. (1) Refusal by an operator to submit to a test is prohibited and proof of refusal may be admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and drugs...

  17. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing...

  18. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing...

  19. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing...

  20. Random Drug Testing of Students: Where Will the Line Be Drawn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nathan M.; Fossey, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Discusses several state and federal court cases testing the limits of school district efforts to expand the scope of random student drug-testing since the Supreme Court's 1995 decision in "Vernonia School District 47J v. Action," wherein the Court approved random drug-testing of student athletes in public high schools. (Contains 113…

  1. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    .... SUMMARY: According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug... determination is effective December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug...

  2. FDA, companies test RFID tracking to prevent drug counterfeiting.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. has an apparently growing problem with fake, counterfeit drugs entering the mainstream drug supply, and being fraudulently sold at full price in regular pharmacies and hospitals; some have no active ingredient, or too little, or substitute a cheap drug for an expensive one. The FDA has asked drug manufacturers to develop technology to track all shipments electronically as they move through the distribution chain; currently, RFID (radio frequency identification) is the preferred method for doing so. This article explains what is happening, and why we do not believe that this use of RFID is a privacy threat--though other privacy issues are among the most important questions we face today.

  3. Contrast media: interactions with other drugs and clinical tests.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Sameh K; Thomsen, Henrik S; Exley, C M

    2005-07-01

    Many patients with multiple medical problems who are receiving a variety of drugs are investigated with imaging techniques which require intravascular contrast media. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology therefore decided to review the literature and to draw up simple guidelines on interactions between contrast media and other drugs. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela. Contrast media may interact with other drugs, and may interfere with isotope studies and biochemical measurements. Awareness of the patient drug history is important to avoid potential hazards. Simple guidelines are presented.

  4. A single-question screening test for drug use in primary care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard

    2010-07-12

    Drug use (illicit drug use and nonmedical use of prescription drugs) is common but underrecognized in primary care settings. We validated a single-question screening test for drug use and drug use disorders in primary care. Adult patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms were asked the single screening question, "How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for nonmedical reasons?" A response of at least 1 time was considered positive for drug use. They were also asked the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10). The reference standard was the presence or absence of current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence) as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview. Drug use was also determined by oral fluid testing for common drugs of abuse. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single screening question was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.6%-100%) and 73.5% specific (95% CI, 67.7%-78.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was less sensitive for the detection of self-reported current drug use (92.9%; 95% CI, 86.1%-96.5%) and drug use detected by oral fluid testing or self-report (81.8%; 95% CI, 72.5%-88.5%). Test characteristics were similar to those of the DAST-10 and were affected very little by participant demographic characteristics. The single screening question accurately identified drug use in this sample of primary care patients, supporting the usefulness of this brief screen in primary care.

  5. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  6. Influence of the cosmetic treatment of hair on drug testing.

    PubMed

    Jurado, C; Kintz, P; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1997-01-01

    An important issue of concern for drug analysis in hair is the change in the drug concentration induced by the cosmetic treatment of hair. The products used for this treatment are strong bases and they are expected to cause hair damage. As a result drugs may be lost from the hair matrix or, under conditions of environmental contamination, be more easily incorporated into the hair matrix. We investigated the effects of cosmetic treatment in vivo by analysing hair samples selected from people who had treated their hair by bleaching or dyeing before sample collection. All of the subjects admitted a similar drug consumption during the time period for which the strands were analysed. Samples were viewed under a microscope to establish the degree of hair damage. Treated and untreated portions from each lock of hair were then selected, separated and analysed by standard detection procedures for cocaine, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine. In all cases the drug content in hair that had undergone cosmetic treatment decreased in comparison to untreated hair. The majority of the mean differences were in the range of 40%-60% (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine and THC-COOH). For morphine the mean difference was higher than 60%, and two cases (THC and nicotine) differed by approx. 30%. These differences depended not only on the type of cosmetic treatment, as bleaching produced higher decreases than dyeing, but also on the degree of hair damage i.e. the more damaged the hair, the larger the differences in the concentration levels of drugs.

  7. Models and approaches for anti-TB drug testing.

    PubMed

    Yasinskaya, Yuliya; Sacks, Leonard

    2011-07-01

    Unique challenges remain in the development of new drugs for the treatment of TB. While existing multidrug treatment regimens are prolonged and difficult for patients to adhere to, they are highly efficacious, setting a high bar for the performance of new agents. Complicating matters more, regulatory standards have changed since the first drugs for TB were introduced, with a rigorous characterization of the effect of a new drug within a combination regimen expected. If these demands are to be satisfied, innovative models will be needed to demonstrate drug efficacy. In the past, mycobacterial cultures performed on solid media at the end of treatment have been used as critical biomarkers of drug efficacy, but their inability to predict long-term outcomes with precision has limited their utility. This article reviews a range of nonclinical and clinical models to characterize the bactericidal and/or sterilizing activity of new compounds. Novel approaches, using in vitro and animal models, sensitive biomarkers, as well as creative new clinical trial designs, are discussed. These promise a timely expansion of our TB treatment armamentarium to include potent new drugs and shorter, simpler treatment regimens.

  8. A case of allopurinol-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed with a lymphocyte transformation test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hye; Shim, Eun-Jin; Jung, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2012-09-01

    Allopurinol is one of the causative drugs that induce fixed drug eruption (FDE). The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is a safe and reliable diagnostic procedure for drug allergy, but is reported to be rarely positive in patients with FDE. In the current case, we performed an LTT and successfully confirmed allopurinol as the offending drug. This case report suggests that an LTT should be an optional diagnostic tool for FDE or delayed reaction due to allopurinol.

  9. A Case of Allopurinol-Induced Fixed Drug Eruption Confirmed With a Lymphocyte Transformation Test

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Hye; Shim, Eun-Jin; Jung, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Seong-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Allopurinol is one of the causative drugs that induce fixed drug eruption (FDE). The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is a safe and reliable diagnostic procedure for drug allergy, but is reported to be rarely positive in patients with FDE. In the current case, we performed an LTT and successfully confirmed allopurinol as the offending drug. This case report suggests that an LTT should be an optional diagnostic tool for FDE or delayed reaction due to allopurinol. PMID:22950038

  10. Student drug testing and positive school climates: testing the relation between two school characteristics and drug use behavior in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Romer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Fostering positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student drug use in high schools. To assess the promise of these strategies, the present research examined whether positive school climates and/or student drug testing successfully predicted changes in youth substance use over a 1-year follow-up. Two waves of panel data from a sample of 361 high school students, assessed 1 year apart, were analyzed. Changes in reported initiation and escalation in frequency of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use as a function of perceived student drug testing and positive school climates were analyzed, while we held constant prior substance use. Perceived student drug testing was not associated with changes in substance use, whereas perceived positive school climates were associated with a reduction in cigarette and marijuana initiation and a reduction in escalation of frequency of cigarette use at 1-year follow-up. However, perceived positive school climates were not associated with a reduction in alcohol use. Student drug testing appears to be less associated with substance use than positive school climates. Nevertheless, even favorable school climates may not be able to influence the use of alcohol, which appears to be quite normative in this age group.

  11. Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia: incidence, clinical features, laboratory testing, and pathogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DIIT) is a relatively uncommon adverse reaction caused by drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) that react with platelet membrane glycoproteins only when the implicated drug is present. Although more than 100 drugs have been associated with causing DIIT, recent reviews of available data show that carbamazepine, eptifibatide, ibuprofen, quinidine, quinine, oxaliplatin, rifampin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and vancomycin are probably the most frequently implicated. Patients with DIIT typically present with petechiae, bruising, and epistaxis caused by an acute, severe drop in platelet count (often to <20,000 platelets/pL). Diagnosis of DIIT is complicated by its similarity to other non-drug-induced immune thrombocytopenias, including autoimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and platelet transfusion refractoriness, and must be differentiated by temporal association of exposure to a candidate drug with an acute, severe drop in platelet count. Treatment consists of immediate withdrawal of the implicated drug. Criteria for strong evidence of DIIT include (1) exposure to candidate drug-preceded thrombocytopenia; (2) sustained normal platelet levels after discontinuing candidate drug; (3) candidate drug was only drug used before onset of thrombocytopenia or other drugs were continued or reintroduced after resolution of thrombocytopenia, and other causes for thrombocytopenia were excluded; and (4) reexposure to the candidate drug resulted in recurrent thrombocytopenia. Flow cytometry testing for DDAbs can be useful in confirmation of a clinical diagnosis, and monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing can be used to determine the platelet glycoprotein target(s), usually GPIIb/IIIa or GPIb/IX/V, but testing is not widely available. Several pathogenic mechanisms for DIIT have been proposed, including hapten, autoantibody, neoepitope, drug-specific, and quinine-type drug mechanisms. A recent proposal

  12. The role of urine drug testing for patients on opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph; Pappagallo, Macro; Stauffer, Joseph; Gharibo, Christopher; Fortner, Neil; De Jesus, Mathew N; Brennan, Michael J; Richmond, Charlotte; Hussey, Desmond

    2010-01-01

    Opioid analgesics must be prescribed with discernment and their appropriate use should be periodically assessed. Urine drug testing, although not designed specifically for this role, is a widely available and familiar method for monitoring opioid use in chronic pain patients. Urine drug testing can help track patient compliance and expose possible drug misuse and abuse. We sought to evaluate current attitudes and practices regarding the use of urine drug testing among chronic pain patients taking opioids. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first such attempts in the literature to examine and document the practice patterns of urine drug testing in this context. A total of 99 attendees at the American Congress of Pain Medicine were surveyed in 2008 about their urine testing practices for patients on opioid therapy. Surprisingly, more urine testing was motivated by a desire to detect undisclosed substances than to evaluate appropriate opioid use. Some respondents never urine-tested their opioid patients, and about two-thirds of respondents had no formal training in urine testing of patients on opioid therapy. The literature does not thoroughly address the role of urine drug testing in this patient population. Most respondents did random rather than scheduled testing; few had any urine testing protocol. The study found motivations for urine testing and testing practices varied widely, and urine testing, despite its clinical utility, is not used consistently. © 2010 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  13. Tuberculosis Drug Resistance in an Area of Low Endemicity in 2004 to 2006: Semiquantitative Drug Susceptibility Testing and Genotyping▿

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Burkhard; Calligaris-Maibach, Romana C.; Ritter, Claudia; Böttger, Erik C.

    2008-01-01

    We determined the quantitative levels and the genetic mechanisms of resistance in drug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis sampled over a period of 3 years (n = 45; 17 of the isolate were multidrug resistant). Our results led us to hypothesize that some strains categorized as resistant to isoniazid, ethambutol, or streptomycin by standard laboratory procedures of in vitro drug susceptibility testing may still respond to a treatment regimen that includes these agents. PMID:18923010

  14. [Selection of drugs suitable for the treatment of intractable chronic pain patients by using drug challenge tests].

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Kazuo; Arita, Hideko; Nagase, Masaki; Ide, Yasuo; Tagami, Megumi; Hayashida, Masakazu

    2008-05-01

    Intractable chronic pain is very difficult to treat. Nowadays, small amounts of drugs, that have different actions on the mechanism of pain relief are administered intravenously, and the effects of the test drugs on individual chronic pain patients are investigated by using the evaluation method of the visual analogue scale (VAS). This will enable elucidation of the mechanisms of pain in each chronic pain patient. Based on this information, drugs that are effective for the treatment of individual chronic pain patients can be prescribed. Drugs that are used for the drug challenge tests are phentolamine, barbiturate, morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, benzodiazepine, adenosine-3-phosphate (ATP), neurotropine, and prostaglandine E1. Phentolamine is effective for the management of sympathetically maintained pain. Barbiturate and morphine are effective for the treatment of deafferentation pain and nociceptive pain, respectively. Lidocaine is effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain; ketamine, for allodynia; and benzodiazepine, for anxiety-related pain. ATP exerts a positive effect in total pain management. Neurotropine and prostaglandine E1 are effective for the management of neuropathic pain and ischemic pain, respectively. These tests aid in the selection of drugs that maybe useful for the treatment of intractable chronic pain in patients.

  15. 49 CFR 40.123 - What are the MRO's responsibilities in the DOT drug testing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cancel a test because you have not reviewed this documentation; (2) Providing feedback to employers... confirmed positive, adulterated, substituted, and invalid drug tests results from the laboratory. (d) While...

  16. A Laminated Microfluidic Device for Comprehensive Preclinical Testing in the Drug ADME Process.

    PubMed

    An, Fan; Qu, Yueyang; Luo, Yong; Fang, Ning; Liu, Yang; Gao, Zhigang; Zhao, Weijie; Lin, Bingcheng

    2016-04-28

    New techniques are urgently needed to replace conventional long and costly pre-clinical testing in the new drug administration process. In this study, a laminated microfluidic device was fabricated to mimic the drug ADME response test in vivo. This proposed device was loaded and cultured with functional cells for drug response investigation and organ tissues that are involved in ADME testing. The drug was introduced from the top of the device and first absorbed by the Caco-2 cell layer, and then metabolized by the primary hepatocyte layer. It subsequently interacted with the MCF-7 cell layer, distributed in the lung, heart and fat tissues, and was finally eliminated through the dialysis membrane. Throughout this on-chip ADME process, the proposed device can be used as a reliable tool to simultaneously evaluate the drug anti-tumor activity, hepatotoxicity and pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, this device was proven to be able to reflect the hepatic metabolism of a drug, drug distribution in the target tissues, and the administration method of a drug. Furthermore, this microdevice is expected to reduce the number of drug candidates and accelerate the pre-clinical testing process subject to animal testing upon adaptation in new drug discovery.

  17. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  18. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  19. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  20. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  1. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  2. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  3. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  4. 10 CFR 707.9 - Drug testing as a result of an occurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. 707.9 Section 707.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.9 Drug testing as a result of an occurrence. When there is an occurrence which is required to be...

  5. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  6. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  7. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  8. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  9. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  10. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  11. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  12. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  13. 49 CFR 40.165 - To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false To whom does the MRO transmit reports of drug test results? 40.165 Section 40.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  14. 49 CFR 40.163 - How does the MRO report drug test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does the MRO report drug test results? 40.163 Section 40.163 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process §...

  15. Dimensions and Characteristics of Personnel Manager Perceptions of Effective Drug-Testing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; Balkin, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Examined characteristics of drug-testing programs that were associated with personnel managers' judgments of the programs' effectiveness using data gathered from human resource managers (N=190). Results showed drug-testing programs considered to be effective were supported by ancillary activities (such as employee assistance programs), targeted…

  16. NCAA Sets Drug-Test Procedures and Selects Labs; Program Seen Costing More than Colleges Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association's plan for randomly testing athletes at championships for performance-enhancing and illegal drugs will cost about $950,000, more than anticipated, and will be accompanied by a drug education program and loans to laboratories to speed the testing. (MSE)

  17. The Effectiveness of Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing. NCEE 2010-4025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Goesling, Brian; Deke, John; Einspruch, Eric

    2010-01-01

    To help assess the effects of school-based random drug testing programs, the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES) contracted with RMC Research Corporation and Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an experimental evaluation of the Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing (MRSDT) programs in 36 high schools within…

  18. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  19. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  20. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  1. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  2. 49 CFR 655.5 - Stand-down waivers for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stand-down waivers for drug testing. 655.5 Section... OPERATIONS General § 655.5 Stand-down waivers for drug testing. (a) An employer subject to this part may petition the FTA for a waiver allowing the employer to stand down, per 49 CFR Part 40, an...

  3. Developing a Drug Testing Policy at a Public University: Participant Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Stephen O.; Keller, Adrienne; Cohn, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Although employee drug testing is widespread among private employers, the development of programs in the public sector has been slower due to constitutional law constraints. A qualitative approach presenting various participant perspectives may aid in developing an employee drug testing program. (Contains 41 references/notes.) (JOW)

  4. Second Thoughts on Drug Testing: Balancing Students' Health and Welfare with Their Expectations of Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    In its "stare decisis" ruling upholding a Pennsylvania school district's random drug-testing policy, a three-judge panel of the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals nonetheless declared its disagreement with a similar panel's 1998 decision upholding another district's policy of random, suspicionless drug, alcohol, and tobacco testing. (MLH)

  5. What You Need to Know about Starting a Student Drug-Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "What You Need to Know About Starting a Student Drug-Testing Program" is meant to Complement, and build on information provided in an earlier publication, "What You Need to Know about Drug Testing in Schools." This booklet assumes that you as a school, administrator, staff member, or parent involved in the decision have considered all the…

  6. Developing a Drug Testing Policy at a Public University: Participant Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Stephen O.; Keller, Adrienne; Cohn, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Although employee drug testing is widespread among private employers, the development of programs in the public sector has been slower due to constitutional law constraints. A qualitative approach presenting various participant perspectives may aid in developing an employee drug testing program. (Contains 41 references/notes.) (JOW)

  7. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  8. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  9. NCAA Sets Drug-Test Procedures and Selects Labs; Program Seen Costing More than Colleges Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association's plan for randomly testing athletes at championships for performance-enhancing and illegal drugs will cost about $950,000, more than anticipated, and will be accompanied by a drug education program and loans to laboratories to speed the testing. (MSE)

  10. 75 FR 22809 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...: Final rule: Change in effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is changing the effective date of the Revisions to the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs AGENCY: Substance Abuse...

  11. Drug Identification and Testing in the Juvenile Justice System. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Ann H.

    The first step of effective intervention with delinquent youth is to identify youth who are engaged in using alcohol and other drugs. This document reviews the American Correctional Association and the Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc. ACA/IBH and The American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) projects that investigated innovative and…

  12. Sensitization to petrolatum: an unusual cause of false-positive drug patch-tests.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, G; Schmutz, J L; Trechot, Ph; Commun, N; Barbaud, A

    2004-09-01

    We report on an unexpected sensitization to petrolatum diagnosed with the occurrence of multiple nonrelevant and false-positive drug patch-tests performed while investigating a patient suffering from many cutaneous adverse drug reactions. All the positive drug patch-tests were prepared with GILBERT vaseline. This petrolatum reaction is positive as it was tested with five other brands of petrolatums a few months later. As the same petrolatums, but from different batches were tested, patch-tests with GILBERT petrolatum were doubtful, while other petrolatums were positive. White petrolatum is a mixture of semisolid hydrocarbons of the methane series. The sensitizing impurities of petrolatum are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. phenanthrene derivatives. The purity of petrolatum depends on both the petroleum stock and on the production and packaging methods. Even if rare, contact sensitization to petrolatum can disturb the interpretation of drug patch-tests. It is necessary in the interpretation of drug patch-tests to test both in petrolatum and other vehicles and with all the different petrolatums used in preparing the material for drug patch-tests. So, it is essential to advise the patients sensitized to petrolatum to remove all the topical drugs, such as all the cosmetics, which contain petrolatum in their formulation.

  13. Meconium drug testing reveals maternal misuse of medicinal opioids among addicted mothers.

    PubMed

    Launiainen, Terhi; Nupponen, Irmeli; Halmesmäki, Erja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-07-01

    Meconium drug testing is a non-invasive method to detect prenatal drug exposure, which can cause severe problems for the infant, indicating the need for follow-up measures to ensure the welfare of the child. Meconium samples for drug testing were collected from 143 infants as part of routine clinical work among addicted mothers. The drug testing findings were combined with medical records including clinical background and follow-up data. The substances screened for included medicinal opioids, 6-monoacetylmorphine (a metabolite of heroin), amphetamines and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. At least one of the 13 target drugs was detected in 57 (40%) meconium samples. In 21 cases, the findings were unexpected on the basis of clinical data or denied by the mother. Medicinal opioids, especially the opioid substitution treatment drugs buprenorphine and methadone, comprised the majority of the findings of both admitted and unexpected drug misuse. Meconium drug testing methods should target not just traditional illicit drugs but also prescription drugs with misuse potential. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  15. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  16. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  17. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  18. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 40 - DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to DOT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. C Appendix C to Part 40—DOT Drug Testing... of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, W62-300, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 40 - DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to DOT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. C Appendix C to Part 40—DOT Drug Testing... of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, W62-300, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 40 - DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to DOT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DOT Drug Testing Semi-Annual Laboratory Report to... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. C Appendix C to Part 40—DOT Drug Testing... of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, W62-300, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590...

  2. Employee Drug Testing. Information on Private Sector Programs. Report to the Honorable Charles Schumer, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    At the request of Congress, the General Accounting Office studied drug testing in the private sector to determine its extent, which testing methods are most often used, who receives drug testing and why, the reasons for having a drug testing program, and what happens to those persons who test positive. Data were obtained from 10 surveys to which a…

  3. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing following a serious marine incident. When a marine employer determines that a casualty or... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each...

  4. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing following a serious marine incident. When a marine employer determines that a casualty or... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each...

  5. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing following a serious marine incident. When a marine employer determines that a casualty or... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each...

  6. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing following a serious marine incident. When a marine employer determines that a casualty or... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each...

  7. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing following a serious marine incident. When a marine employer determines that a casualty or... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each...

  8. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... testing rate is based on the reported random drug test positive rate for the entire aviation industry. If... minimum random drug testing rate at 25%. In 2012, the random drug test positive rate was 0.456%. Therefore... random alcohol test violation rate. If the violation rate remains less than 0.50%, the Administrator...

  9. Army Drug Development Program. Phase I. Clinical Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    clinical facililty. A microscope, UV light for phototoxicity studies * and both a table-top and a floor model refrigerated centrifuge are included. The...experience and expertise, he advised on all medical matters related to the qualification of subjects, including the need for obtaining specialized...reasons, none related to drug effect. Review of records at the end of the study when treatment codes were broken showed identical study days of

  10. Army Drug Development Program. Phase 1. Clinical Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    donavani which are relatively resistant to another pentavaRent antimony, Pentostam*. Based on animal studies in rats and dogs, the toxicologic profile of...to 30 mg. Symptoms of intolerance had been seen when the drug had been given at 30 mg/day (in the WWII studies) and animal studies had suggested the...cancellation of lindane as an acceptable product. PREVIOUS STUDIES OF ABATE: Extensive animal toxicology studies have been done. These are presented

  11. Testing for drugs of abuse in meconium of newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moriya, F; Chan, K M; Noguchi, T T; Wu, P Y

    1994-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive screening procedure has been developed for drugs of abuse (amphetamines, cocaine metabolites, opiates, and phencyclidine [PCP]) in meconium from infants. The substances in meconium were extracted with chloroform-isopropanol (3:1) and screened by enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT). The lower detection limits of the EMIT for benzoylecgonine, d-methamphetamine, morphine, and PCP were 250 ng/g, 730 ng/g, 110 ng/g, and 100 ng/g, respectively. This method was applied to meconium from 50 infants born to mothers suspected of using the drugs of abuse during pregnancy. Of the 50, 12 were positive for benzoylecgonine, seven for opiates, and one for PCP. The presence of benzoylecgonine and PCP in meconium was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and that of opiates by thin-layer chromatography. The routine analysis of meconium for drugs of abuse is recommended in cases where (A) urine can not be obtained or (B) urinalysis is negative for the substances despite a strong suspicion of maternal use of the substances during pregnancy.

  12. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.46 Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee refuses...

  13. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.46 Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee refuses...

  14. Development, implementation and management of a drug testing program in the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    To combat the rising use of drugs in the workplace many American companies have implemented drug testing programs and are testing employees and job applicants for use of illegal drugs. In addition, on September 15, 1986, Executive Order No.12564 was issued by President Reagan, which requires all federal agencies to develop programs and policies, one of the goals of which is to achieve a drug-free federal workplace. Included in this Executive Order is the requirement that federal agencies implement drug testing has become a prevalent practice as a means to detect and deter drug use in the workplace. Before a drug testing program is implemented, it is imperative that policies and procedures are developed that (1) ensure the accuracy of test results, (2) protect the validity and integrity of the specimen, (3) guarantee due process, and (4) maintain confidentiality. To make certain that these prerequisites were met in the government drug testing programs, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was directed to develop technical and scientific guidelines for conducting such programs. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Statistical considerations of the random selection process in a drug testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.; Owings, J.H.; Leete, R.S. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective drug testing program, individuals whose job classifications have been defined as sensitive are placed in a selection pool. On a periodic basis, individuals are chosen from this pool for drug testing. Random selection is a fair and impartial approach. A random selection process generates a Poisson distribution of probabilities that can be used to predict how many times an individual will be selected during a specific time interval. This information can be used to model the selection part of a drug testing program to determine whether specific conditions of testing are met. For example, the probability of being selected a given number of times during the testing period can be minimized or maximized by varying the frequency of the sampling process. Consequently, the Poisson distribution and the mathematics governing it can be used to structure a drug testing program to meet the needs and dictates of any given situation.

  16. Results of random drug testing in an adolescent substance abuse program.

    PubMed

    Levy, Sharon; Sherritt, Lon; Vaughan, Brigid L; Germak, Matthew; Knight, John R

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate from a random urine drug-testing program for adolescents the proportion of drug tests that are susceptible to interpretation errors. This was a secondary analysis of a clinical database and chart review from an adolescent outpatient substance abuse program at a large children's hospital. We analyzed from 110 adolescent patients (13-21 years of age) all 710 urine drug test results that were collected between December 2002 and July 2005 and 85 original laboratory reports for tests that were collected between December 2002 and May 2006 and were confirmed positive for opioids. We calculated the percentage of tests that were too dilute to interpret (potential false-negatives) and the percentage of confirmed positive tests for oxycodone that did not result in a positive initial screen (potential false-negatives). We also reviewed clinical information to determine whether confirmed positive tests resulted from legitimate use of prescription or over-the-counter medication (potential false-positives). Of 710 drug tests, 40 negative tests were too dilute to interpret properly, and 45 of 217 positive tests resulted from prescription medication use for a total of 85 tests that were susceptible to error. Of the 85 confirmatory laboratory reports reviewed, 43 were positive for oxycodone, but only 16 of these had produced a positive opiate screen. Unless proper procedures are used in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting laboratory testing for drugs, there is a substantial risk for error.

  17. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first aid... work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness; (ii) A radiation... tested. At a minimum, licensees and other entities shall test for marijuana metabolite,...

  18. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first aid... work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness; (ii) A radiation... tested. At a minimum, licensees and other entities shall test for marijuana metabolite,...

  19. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first aid... work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness; (ii) A radiation... tested. At a minimum, licensees and other entities shall test for marijuana metabolite,...

  20. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first aid... work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness; (ii) A radiation... tested. At a minimum, licensees and other entities shall test for marijuana metabolite,...