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Sample records for drug use

  1. Utah Drug Use Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in junior and senior high school students. The 21 multiple choice items pertain to drug use practices, use history, available of drugs, main reason for drug use, and demographic data. The questionnaire is untimed, group administered, and may be given by the classroom teacher in about 10 minutes. Item…

  2. Optimal drug use and rational drug policy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Geoffrey F

    2011-12-01

    The Müller & Schumann (M&S) view of drug use is courageous and compelling, with radical implications for drug policy and research. It implies that most nations prohibit most drugs that could promote happiness, social capital, and economic growth; that most individuals underuse rather than overuse drugs; and that behavioral scientists could use drugs more effectively in generating hypotheses and collaborating empathically.

  3. Dynamics of Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Joan H.; Holden, Raymond H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from interviews with 167 drug users in the community, including age, sex, birth order, education, family constellation, and circumstances of first drug use. The majority of subjects had tried to stop using drugs, but most had been unsuccessful at the time of the interview. (Author)

  4. Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, Helen H.

    This paper discusses the nature and extent of student drug use, its meaning and significance, society's response to it, and some of the problems resulting from efforts to control it. Drugs are any substance which by its chemical nature affects the structure or function of the living organism. Abuse refers to any use of a non-medically approved…

  5. [Drug use in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U

    2005-01-01

    Drug use in pregnancy is associated with a number of serious complications for mother and fetus. There are safe data on destructive effects of alcohol, cocain, marijuana and tobacco on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Of importance is the fact that for many drugs similar effects on pregnancy could be observed: vasoconstriction of the placental vessels resulting in placental abruption, preterm labour (mother), spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preterm delivery and stillbirth (fetus). Symptoms of withdrawal and neurodevelopmental disorders are the most important problems of the neonate. However, only small data exist about the effects of recently popular party drugs like ecstasy or LSD. In addition, from most drugs, with exception of alcohol, safe information about the risk of congenital malformations doesn't exist. Nevertheless they may be a useful guide in the diagnostic of potential malformations by ultrasound. Most of pregnant women using drugs are poly-drug users and are often in reduced general condition. They need therefore the intensive care of the obstetrician in cooperation with other specialists (internal medicine, psychiatry).

  6. Predicting Drug-Target Interactions Using Drug-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shinhyuk; Jin, Daeyong; Lee, Hyunju

    2013-01-01

    Computational methods for predicting drug-target interactions have become important in drug research because they can help to reduce the time, cost, and failure rates for developing new drugs. Recently, with the accumulation of drug-related data sets related to drug side effects and pharmacological data, it has became possible to predict potential drug-target interactions. In this study, we focus on drug-drug interactions (DDI), their adverse effects () and pharmacological information (), and investigate the relationship among chemical structures, side effects, and DDIs from several data sources. In this study, data from the STITCH database, from drugs.com, and drug-target pairs from ChEMBL and SIDER were first collected. Then, by applying two machine learning approaches, a support vector machine (SVM) and a kernel-based L1-norm regularized logistic regression (KL1LR), we showed that DDI is a promising feature in predicting drug-target interactions. Next, the accuracies of predicting drug-target interactions using DDI were compared to those obtained using the chemical structure and side effects based on the SVM and KL1LR approaches, showing that DDI was the data source contributing the most for predicting drug-target interactions. PMID:24278248

  7. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  8. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  9. Personality, drug preference, drug use, and drug availability.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V K; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967) theories. Drug preference was measured by the method of paired-comparison and personality was measured with the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-50 CC. Contrary to expectations, high compared with low scorers on Sociability and Impulsive-Sensation Seeking preferred depressants. Surprisingly, low compared with high scorers on neuroticism did not differ in preference for alcohol. As in the previous study, drug preference, use, and availability were highly correlated, although ease of availability was slightly more predictive of drug use than drug preference. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  10. Drugs Used in COPD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  11. Drugs Used in COPD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  12. Religion and Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Ricky D.; Bahr, Stephen H.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted secondary analysis of data gathered under Utah State Division of Alcoholism and Drugs sponsorship in 1989. Found difference in frequency of alcohol use, source of alcohol, and age of first alcohol use among Mormons, other-religions, and no-religion subgroups; no significant difference among religious subgroups for age of first marijuana…

  13. "Off-Label" Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a single ailment. This is simply the nature of both drug devel- opment and clinical medicine. ... off-label use of cancer drugs. Given the nature of cancer and cancer drugs, this approach sounds ...

  14. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Teenage Drug Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Figure 11.3: LIfetime Prevalence of Ilicit Drug Use for Youths 12-17 by Race and 100 pWO110101 reed Ethnicity in 1968 4 U U 70 sio 60 40 Note: These...NCHS classifies the race of a child as "nonwhite" if either of the parents is nonwhite. As a result, the actual number of black mothers is 4.3 per- cent...their different kinds of personality "maladjustment." The parent- child interactions at age 5 for these youths also revealed some clear weak- nesses

  16. Substance use -- prescription drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... high, they cause feelings of well-being, intense happiness, and excitement. As street drugs, depressants come in ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prescription Drug Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A. ...

  17. Drug use first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... gait ( ataxia ) Sweating or extremely dry, hot skin Violent or aggressive behavior Death Drug withdrawal symptoms also ... own safety in danger. Some drugs can cause violent and unpredictable behavior. Call for medical help. Do ...

  18. Drug Use in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses drug use in U.S. history. Argues that a "get-tough" approach did not work in the past and will not work in the future. Suggests that history can provide a scholarly assessment of drugs, foster understanding of drugs in contemporary society, and enable students to evaluate drug policies more objectively. (DK)

  19. Effects of Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... work or losing a job trouble in relationships child abuse or neglect driving crashes arrests and jail Visit the Easy-to-Read Drug Facts webpages listed under Drugs That People Abuse to learn more about effects of specific drugs. Previous Index Next English Español ...

  20. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  1. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  2. Controlled Drug Delivery Using Microdevices

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Fu, Guanglei; Xu, Feng; Li, XiuJun

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drugs administered systematically are evenly distributed to the whole body through blood circulation and have to cross many biological barriers before reaching the pathological site. Conventional drug delivery may make drugs inactive or reduce their potency as they may be hydrolyzed or degraded enzymatically and are rapidly excreted through the urinary system resulting in suboptimal concentration of drugs at the desired site. Controlled drug delivery aims to localize the pharmacological activity of the drug to the desired site at desired release rates. The advances made by micro/nanofluidic technologies have provided new opportunities for better-controlled drug delivery. Various components of a drug delivery system can be integrated within a single tiny micro/nanofluidic chip. This article reviews recent advances of controlled drug delivery made by microfluidic/nanofluidic technologies. We first discuss microreservoir-based drug delivery systems. Then we highlight different kinds of microneedles used for controlled drug delivery, followed with a brief discussion about the current limitations and the future prospects of controlled drug delivery systems. PMID:26813304

  3. [Drug use and driving].

    PubMed

    Lemaire-Hurtel, Anne-Sophie; Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Mura, Patrick; Verstraete, Alain G

    2015-10-01

    Some drugs are known to impair driving because they can change the vision or hearing, and/or disrupt the intellectual or motor abilities: impaired vigilance, sedation, disinhibition effect, the coordination of movement disorders and the balance. The doctor during prescribing and the pharmacist during deliverance of drug treatment should inform their patients of the potential risks of drugs on driving or operating machinery. The driver has direct responsibility, who hired him and him alone, to follow the medical advice received. The pictograms on the outer packaging of medicinal products intended to classify substances according to their risk driving: The driver can whether to observe simple precautions (level one "be prudent"), or follow the advice of a health professional (level two "be very careful"), or if it is totally not drive (level three "danger caution: do not drive"). This classification only evaluates the intrinsic danger of drugs but not the individual variability. Medicines should be taken into account also the conditions for which the medication is prescribed. It is important to inform the patient on several points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  5. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  6. Psychotropic drug use among women.

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstock, R.

    1976-01-01

    The consistent 2:1 ratio of women to men in the receipt of prescriptions for psychotropic drugs is reflected in the higher rates for women of neurotic illness, symptoms of both physical and mental discomfort, and help-seeking and drug-taking behaviour. Physicians' perceptions of the problems presented by their male and female patients influence their prescribing of these drugs. Recent statistics in Ontario indicate that greater use of physicians' services by women is an inadequate explanation of the higher rate of prescribing of psychotropic drugs to women. A longitudinal study of a large insured population in Ontario showed that almost twice the proportion of females, compared with males, received a prescription for psychotropic drugs in 1970-71 and in 1973-74, a higher proportion of females received multiple prescriptions for each drug class, and males were more likely than females to have received only one prescription in a year. PMID:10075

  7. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign Up for Email Policies ...

  8. Drugs used in child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    Between 2000 and 2008, the American Association of Poison Control Centers recorded 1439 cases in which drugs or alcohol were used to mistreat children under 7 years of age, representing an average of 160 reports per year. Median age was 2 years, and 57% of victims were boys. The substances included psychotropic drugs, analgesics, cold remedies, alcohol, and illicit drugs. 18 children died, while 32 children experienced life-threatening effects or residual disability. It is not clear whether these results can be extrapolated to the French population. In France, a yearly survey of the Centres for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) identified 162 cases of "chemical submission", 3 of which involved children. In practice, it is often difficult to recognise when a child is being maltreated, especially when medications, illicit drugs or alcohol are used. Taking into consideration the known adverse effect profile of a drug may provide a clue, help to limit harms to the child and allow appropriate management.

  9. "Off-Label" Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... promoting unapproved uses of their drugs. Yet such marketing has been common in the U.S. In 2012, ... dangerous for kids. GSK was also charged with marketing the antidepressant Wellbutrin for weight loss and the ...

  10. Old drugs, new uses.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Marcio A; Casamassimo, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Advances in pediatric health care have prolonged lives and improved the quality of life for children and adolescents. These advances include not only high-tech devices and new medications but also re-application of available medications to take advantage of unexpected benefits which may not have been known previously or even side effects that can have therapeutic value for diseases and conditions refractory to other treatment. This review describes new uses for anti-epileptic medications, thalidomide, intravenous immunoglobulin, hydroxyurea, methotrexate, botulinum toxin, bisphosphonates, and aspirin in the medical care of children. Methods of action and concerns for the pediatric dentist are described for children benefiting from these new applications.

  11. Attitudes about Drugs and the Drug Use of Indian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of reservation and nonreservation American Indians and Anglo-Americans in grades 8 and 12 examined perceptions about availability of alcohol, marijuana, inhalants, and other drugs; beliefs about whether occasional or regular use of alcohol or various drugs would cause harm; and intentions concerning future drug use. (SV)

  12. Drugs Used in Blood Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in blood disorders is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives…

  13. Drugs Used in Blood Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in blood disorders is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives…

  14. Club drug use in Germany.

    PubMed

    Soellner, Renate

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the epidemiology of club drug use in Germany, including the use of 3,4-methylendioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) known as 'ecstasy' and related substances such as speed, amphetamines, hallucinogens, and cannabis is described on the basis of five different surveys. Two of them are representative household surveys to monitor the licit and illicit drug use behavior of the German population. The third one is a longitudinal study aimed at exploring comorbidity and posited risk and protective factors in adolescents and young adults with specific emphasis on substance use-related disorders. Since ecstasy seemed to be associated with a new music culture of the '90s called "techno," two studies investigating the relationship of using ecstasy and related substances in the techno party scene are additionally presented. The question of the clinical impact of using ecstasy and related substances is raised in terms of substance use-related and mental disorders associated with the use of ecstasy. Finally, the motivation for using and stopping the use of ecstasy is addressed. It is shown that ecstasy has reached the second place (after cannabis) in illegal drug preferences of adolescents and young adults in Germany. Evidence is found that ecstasy use as well as ecstasy use-related disorders such as "abuse" and "dependence" are of a transient, "youth-limited" nature.

  15. Smoking and Illicit Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Mark S., Ed.

    The biological mechanisms of nicotine dependence are described, the prevalence of tobacco dependency among those using other mood-altering drugs is examined, and the most efficacious way to address this dependency is discussed. New data on the relationship of smoking addiction to other addictions are examined. Topics include: (1) "Tobacco…

  16. Smoking and Illicit Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Mark S., Ed.

    The biological mechanisms of nicotine dependence are described, the prevalence of tobacco dependency among those using other mood-altering drugs is examined, and the most efficacious way to address this dependency is discussed. New data on the relationship of smoking addiction to other addictions are examined. Topics include: (1) "Tobacco…

  17. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  18. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  19. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  20. Hypothermia following antipsychotic drug use

    PubMed Central

    Wegewijs, Michelle A.; Loonen, Anton J. M.; Beers, Erna

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hypothermia is an adverse drug reaction (ADR) of antipsychotic drug (APD) use. Risk factors for hypothermia in ADP users are unknown. We studied which risk factors for hypothermia can be identified based on case reports. Method Case reports of hypothermia in APD-users found in PUBMED or EMBASE were searched for risk factors. The WHO international database for Adverse Drug Reactions was searched for reports of hypothermia and APD use. Results The literature search resulted in 32 articles containing 43 case reports. In the WHO database, 480 reports were registered of patients developing hypothermia during the use of APDs which almost equals the number of reports for hyperthermia associated with APD use (n = 524). Hypothermia risk seems to be increased in the first days following start or dose increase of APs. APs with strong 5-HT2 antagonism seem to be more involved in hypothermia; 55% of hypothermia reports are for atypical antipsychotics. Schizophrenia was the most prevalent diagnosis in the case reports. Conclusion Especially in admitted patients who are not able to control their own environment or physical status, frequent measurements of body temperature (with a thermometer that can measure low body temperatures) must be performed in order to detect developing hypothermia. PMID:17401555

  1. Prescription Drug Misuse Among Club Drug-Using Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among young adults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going young adults (18–29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going young adults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative. PMID:17994483

  2. Social Problems of Drug Use and Drug Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Joel

    The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…

  3. Using Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs to Address Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    (1) Forty-nine states have established prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to address misuse and abuse of controlled substances. (2) Pilot programs have shown that connecting prescribers' PDMPs using health information technology results in improved patient care. (3) Legislators can access up-to-date information about their state PDMP at the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Training and Technical Assistance Center.

  4. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  5. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  6. Patterns of lifetime drug use among intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Dinwiddie, S H; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1992-01-01

    To obtain a clearer description of the natural history of intravenous drug use (IVDU), 92 intravenous drug users (IVDUs), not selected through treatment or contact with the legal system, were identified. Concerning lifetime use, central nervous system (CNS) stimulants were the most common class of drug to be injected (by 72.8% of IVDUs), followed by opiates (by 50.0% of IVDUs). Mean age of onset of IVDU in this sample was 18.5 years, following initiation of alcohol use by an average of 4.6 years and cannabis use by an average of 2.1 years. Any history of IVDU in this sample indicated substantial lifetime use of illicit drugs and early onset of psychoactive substance use.

  7. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus can pass it to their baby during pregnancy, whether or not they use drugs. The viral infections of greatest concern related to drug use are HIV and hepatitis. People can reduce their risk of getting or ...

  8. Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2011-01-01

    This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon. PMID:23805068

  9. Drug use before hospital admission in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Stein, C M; Jongeling, G

    1988-01-01

    Drug use before hospital admission was studied prospectively in 284 consecutive patients admitted to general medical wards in Zimbabwe. Drugs were used by 84% of patients. Self-medication was used by 143 (50%) patients, aspirin (54%) and chloroquine (17%) being the most commonly used drugs. Traditional medicines were used by 55 (19%) patients. Drugs dispensed from orthodox medical sources were taken by 128 (45%) patients. Analgesics (22%), antibiotics (18%), and chloroquine (13%) were the commonest drugs dispensed. Urine screening tests were performed and were positive for aspirin in 37% of cases, chloroquine (33%), and antibiotics (20%). Adverse drug reactions requiring hospital admission occurred in 14 patients (10 orthodox medicines, 4 traditional medicines). Drug use before hospital admission, which is often poorly documented, is a source of potential drug toxicity and may obscure a diagnosis of infective illness.

  10. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)

  11. Safe use of drug trolleys.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Matt

    2016-11-16

    All medicines should be locked away in a treatment room, drug trolley or the patient's bedside locker. If you are doing a drug round on the ward and have to leave the trolley unattended for any reason, it is essential that you lock it.

  12. Strategies for Controlling Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polich, J. Michael; And Others

    As part of an effort to identify the most promising ways in which private initiatives and public policy might reduce the number of adolescents who use drugs, this study presents a broad review of the scientific literature on the nature of drug use and the effectiveness of drug law enforcement, treatment, and prevention programs. It evaluates the…

  13. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration...

  14. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration...

  15. Drug use in English professional football

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, I; Malcolm, D; Roderick, M; Naik, R; Spitzer, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine several issues related to drug use in English professional football. More particularly the project sought to gather data on: players' use of permitted supplements (mineral and vitamin pills and creatine); whether they sought advice, and if so from whom, about their use of supplements; their experience of and attitudes towards drug testing; their views on the extent of the use of banned performance enhancing and recreational drugs in football; and their personal knowledge of players who used such drugs. Methods: With the cooperation of the Professional Footballers Association (PFA), reply paid postal questionnaires were delivered to the home addresses of all 2863 members of the PFA. A total of 706 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of just under 25%. Results: Many players use supplements, although almost one in five players does so without seeking qualified professional advice from anyone within the club. Blood tests are rarely used to monitor the health of players. One third of players had not been tested for drugs within the preceding two years, and 60% felt that they were unlikely to be tested in the next year. The use of performance enhancing drugs appears to be rare, although recreational drugs are commonly used by professional footballers: 6% of respondents indicated that they personally knew players who used performance enhancing drugs, and 45% of players knew players who used recreational drugs. Conclusions: There is a need to ensure that footballers are given appropriate advice about the use of supplements in order to minimise the risk of using supplements that may be contaminated with banned substances. Footballers are tested for drugs less often than many other elite athletes. This needs to be addressed. The relatively high level of recreational drug use is not reflected in the number of positive tests. This suggests that many players who use recreational drugs avoid detection. It also raises doubts about the ability of

  16. Drug permeability prediction using PMF method.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fancui; Xu, Weiren

    2013-03-01

    Drug permeability determines the oral availability of drugs via cellular membranes. Poor permeability makes a drug unsuitable for further development. The permeability may be estimated as the free energy change that the drug should overcome through crossing membrane. In this paper the drug permeability was simulated using molecular dynamics method and the potential energy profile was calculated with potential of mean force (PMF) method. The membrane was simulated using DPPC bilayer and three drugs with different permeability were tested. PMF studies on these three drugs show that doxorubicin (low permeability) should pass higher free energy barrier from water to DPPC bilayer center while ibuprofen (high permeability) has a lower energy barrier. Our calculation indicates that the simulation model we built is suitable to predict drug permeability.

  17. Why do people use drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... to dangerous levels, leading to coma or death. Heroin: Similar to opioid pain relievers, your heart rate ...

  18. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ... Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Marijuana as Medicine MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  19. Analysis of adverse drug reactions using drug and drug target interactions and graph-based methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Fang; Xiao, Ke-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ting; Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate knowledge about drugs, drug targets, and topological methods. The goals were to build a system facilitating the study of adverse drug events, to make it easier to find possible explanations, and to group similar drug-drug interaction cases in the adverse drug reaction reports from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We developed a system that analyses adverse drug reaction (ADR) cases reported by the FDA. The system contains four modules. First, we integrate drug and drug target databases that provide information related to adverse drug reactions. Second, we classify drug and drug targets according to anatomical therapeutic chemical classification (ATC) and drug target ontology (DTO). Third, we build drug target networks based on drug and drug target databases. Finally, we apply topological analysis to reveal drug interaction complexity for each ADR case reported by the FDA. We picked 1952 ADR cases from the years 2005-2006. Our dataset consisted of 1952 cases, of which 1471 cases involved ADR targets, 845 cases involved absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) targets, and 507 cases involved some drugs acting on the same targets, namely, common targets (CTs). We then investigated the cases involving ADR targets, ADME targets, and CTs using the ATC system and DTO. In the cases that led to death, the average number of common targets (NCTs) was 0.879 and the average of average clustering coefficient (ACC) was 0.067. In cases that did not lead to death, the average NCTs was 0.551, and the average of ACC was 0.039. We implemented a system that can find possible explanations and cluster similar ADR cases reported by the FDA. We found that the average of ACC and the average NCTs in cases leading to death are higher than in cases not leading to death, suggesting that the interactions in cases leading to death are generally more complicated than in cases not leading to death. This indicates that our system

  20. FastStats: Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Use Illegal Drug Use Body Measurements Diet/Nutrition Disability and Functioning Exercise or Physical Activity Obesity and Overweight Smoking Injuries Accidents or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries ...

  1. Clinical Drug-Drug Interaction Evaluations to Inform Drug Use and Enable Drug Access.

    PubMed

    Rekić, Dinko; Reynolds, Kellie S; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Lei; Yoshida, Kenta; Sachar, Madhav; Piquette Miller, Micheline; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Zineh, Issam

    2017-09-01

    Clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can occur when multiple drugs are taken by the same patient. Significant DDIs can result in clinical toxicity or treatment failure. Therefore, DDI assessment is an integral part of drug development and the benefit-risk assessment of new therapies. Regulatory agencies including the Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan have made recommendations in their DDI guidance documents on various methodologies (in vitro, in silico, and clinical) to assess DDI potential and inform patient management strategies. This commentary focuses on clinical DDI evaluation for the purpose of drug development and regulatory evaluation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Emerging Drug Use Trends in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Chooi, Weng-Tink; Zaharim, Norzarina Mohd; Ahmad, Imran; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Azhar; Syed Jaapar, Sharifah Z; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Chawarski, Marek C

    2016-01-01

    The primarily rural and agrarian Kelantan province of Malaysia has high rates of drug use and is characterized by unique sociocultural factors. Combining qualitative and ethnographic methods, we investigated drug use and treatment needs of people who use drugs (PWUD) in rural areas of Kelantan. In February 2014, field visits, participant observation, and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 27 active PWUD were conducted in rural areas surrounding the capital city of Kelantan. The findings indicate a high prevalence of opiate and amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) use in these areas. FGD participants reported initiating drug use at early ages due to peer influences, to relieve boredom, to cope with problems, and a high saturation of villages with other PWUD was reported as a major contributor to their own continued drug use. They reported a trend of drug use initiation at younger ages and increased drug use among females. Participants were interested in treatment; however, their limited knowledge about treatment options and perceived limited availability of services were barriers to treatment seeking. Easy access to drugs, primarily from Thailand and facilitated by the use of mobile phones, resulted in an expanding prevalence of drug use that underscores the need to bolster education and prevention efforts and accessibility of treatment services in Kelantan.

  3. Drug Use by Urban and Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaton, Thomas J., Jr.; Smith, Sidney P.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated drug use behaviors of rural and urban students in Georgia. Data from 1,897 response forms indicated experimental use of alcoholic beverages was high (approximately two-thirds for rural and urban samples), while approximately one-third reported marijuana use. Males exceed females in weekly and daily drug use. (Author)

  4. Drug Use by Urban and Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaton, Thomas J., Jr.; Smith, Sidney P.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated drug use behaviors of rural and urban students in Georgia. Data from 1,897 response forms indicated experimental use of alcoholic beverages was high (approximately two-thirds for rural and urban samples), while approximately one-third reported marijuana use. Males exceed females in weekly and daily drug use. (Author)

  5. The use of drugs in swimming.

    PubMed

    Puffer, J C

    1986-01-01

    The use of drugs to enhance athletic performance poses tremendous potential risk to amateur sport. The aquatic sports are not immune from this risk. Although the exact incidence of drug usage among aquatic athletes is not known, empirical evidence would suggest that there are indeed athletes who are using substances in an effort to enhance performance. A number of the commonly used substances have been discussed and their risks and side effects reviewed. Future success in eradicating drug usage in sport will only result from increased efforts directed at enhancement of athlete education, development of strict policies dealing with those athletes who use banned substances, and refinement of drug testing procedures.

  6. Drug Overdose Surveillance Using Hospital Discharge Data

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Terry L.; Talbert, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. Methods We compared three International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based case definitions using Kentucky hospital discharge data for 2000–2011. The first definition (Definition 1) was based on the external-cause-of-injury (E-code) matrix. The other two definitions were based on the Injury Surveillance Workgroup on Poisoning (ISW7) consensus recommendations for national and state poisoning surveillance using the principal diagnosis or first E-code (Definition 2) or any diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3). Results Definition 3 identified almost 50% more drug overdose cases than did Definition 1. The increase was largely due to cases with a first-listed E-code describing a drug overdose but a principal diagnosis that was different from drug overdose (e.g., mental disorders, or respiratory or circulatory system failure). Regardless of the definition, more than 53% of the hospitalizations were self-inflicted drug overdoses; benzodiazepines were involved in about 30% of the hospitalizations. The 2011 age-adjusted drug overdose hospitalization rate in Kentucky was 146/100,000 population using Definition 3 and 107/100,000 population using Definition 1. Conclusion The ISW7 drug overdose definition using any drug poisoning diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3) is potentially the highest sensitivity definition for counting drug overdose hospitalizations, including by intent and drug type(s) involved. As the states enact policies and plan for adequate treatment resources, standardized drug overdose definitions are critical for accurate reporting, trend analysis, policy evaluation, and state-to-state comparison. PMID:25177055

  7. Drug-drug Interaction Discovery Using Abstraction Networks for "National Drug File - Reference Terminology" Chemical Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher; Zheng, Ling; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Zakharchenko, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology. NDF-RT provides important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles. It is difficult to comprehend large, complex terminologies like NDF-RT. In previous studies, we introduced abstraction networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies. In this paper, we introduce the Ingredient Abstraction Network to summarize NDF-RT's Chemical Ingredients and their associated drugs. Additionally, we introduce the Aggregate Ingredient Abstraction Network, for controlling the granularity of summarization provided by the Ingredient Abstraction Network. The Ingredient Abstraction Network is used to support the discovery of new candidate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) not appearing in First Databank, Inc.'s DDI knowledgebase.

  8. Drug use and addiction: evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Russil; Adamson, Simon; Todd, Fraser; Sellman, Doug

    2009-11-01

    Drug use creates a significant amount of harm in modern societies. From an evolutionary perspective, the pervasive use of drugs and the ongoing risk of drug addiction can be explained in terms of the action of drugs on evolved motivational-emotional systems. Addiction arises through interaction of these evolutionarily ancient systems, designed to promote the pursuit of natural rewards, and contemporary environments where purified and potent forms of drugs are readily available. This evolutionary analysis is extended to account for developmental patterns in problem drug use, and to explain the existence of behavioural addictions, such as problem gambling. The paper concludes by considering some of the clinical and public policy implications of the evolutionary perspective presented.

  9. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  10. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  11. [Eating Disorders and drug use in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Bisetto Pons, David; Botella Guijarro, Álvaro; Sancho Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show whether there was a connection between drug use and Eating Disorders, as well as to identify the type of drugs most widely used and to ascertain whether they are used to suppress appetite. An "ad hoc" scale was developed using the items of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, whose aim is to detect cases at risk of certain types of eating disorder, and items for assessing drug use. This scale was applied to samples of teenagers (n=446) aged 13-18 from various secondary schools in the Valencia Region (Comunidad Valenciana) in Spain. An association was found between teenagers that use drugs, and particularly between the variable "use of some kind of drug as an appetite suppressant", and being at risk of having an eating disorder. Tobacco was the drug most commonly used (accounting for 66% of those within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale). We conclude that those teenagers from the sample who fall within any of the risk thresholds consume more drugs than those who do not fall within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Stimulant-type drugs are those most widely used by these teenagers with the aim of suppressing appetite.

  12. Trends in antimalarial drug use in Africa.

    PubMed

    Flegg, Jennifer A; Metcalf, Charlotte J E; Gharbi, Myriam; Venkatesan, Meera; Shewchuk, Tanya; Hopkins Sibley, Carol; Guerin, Philippe J

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) led the World Health Organization (WHO) to recommend changes in national drug policies. The time between policy changes and their implementation profoundly affects program impact. We developed a model based on data on antimalarial treatments, extracted from household surveys and national antimalarial policy information from the literature. Drug use in each country during the time period 1999-2011 and the trend in reduction of CQ use after policy change were estimated. The SP use estimates were correlated with the prevalence of a molecular marker associated with SP resistance. There was no spatial pattern in the country-level rate of reduction of CQ use, after policy change. In East Africa SP drug use was strongly correlated to resistance. If artemisinin resistance spreads to, or emerges in, Africa this methodology will be a valuable tool to estimate actual drug use and its impact on changes in drug efficacy.

  13. Drug trafficking and drug use among urban African-American adolescents: a causal analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Feigelman, S; Stanton, B; Galbraith, J; Huang, W

    1998-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that involvement in drug trafficking leads to illicit drug use among urban African-American adolescents. Self-reports of substance use, illicit drug use, and drug trafficking were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 24 months from 383 African-American early adolescents. Transitions between involvement in drug trafficking and illicit drug use over time were examined. Path analysis was conducted to examine the causal relation between drug trafficking and drug use. Among the 35 youth who were initially involved only in drug trafficking, 22 (67%) subsequently used illicit drugs. Of the 53 youth who were initially involved only in illicit drug use, only 19 (42%) continued using drugs at later waves (p < 0.05). Path analysis revealed that baseline drug trafficking had a strong effect on subsequent drug trafficking and drug use, whereas baseline drug use did not have an effect on subsequent drug use or drug trafficking. Initiation of drug trafficking by adolescents appears to lead to sustained involvement in drug-related activities, including continued drug trafficking and drug use. By contrast, initiation of drug use does not necessarily lead to continued involvement in drug-related behaviors.

  14. International Drug Use; Research Issues 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of resources contains 95 summaries of research conducted on drug use in countries other than the United States, and is designed to be an introductory set of readings which provide a basic familiarity with drug use patterns in foreign countries. The first section contains 23 studies on the United Kingdom while the second section…

  15. Race, Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines drug use, including alcohol, as a factor in risky sexual behavior while considering patterns across sex and race. Both factors have been given insufficient attention in prior research. The data for this study come from a survey of 1,052 college students from a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that drug use is associated with…

  16. Longitudinal Correlates of Hard Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Mimi S.; And Others

    Interventions designed to prevent drug abuse have typically focused on the gateway drugs of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, on the assumption that such prevention would indirectly prevent use of harder substances. Little data has been available, however, for examining the onset of harder substance use in a normal adolescent population. This…

  17. Drug Use among Utah Students, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Stephen J.

    The prevalence of adolescent drug use in Utah is compared with drug use in the United States as a whole in this study. The data were obtained from a survey of 16,000 students in grades 7 through 12. Participants were drawn randomly from 38 of Utah's 40 school districts, with school personnel administering the anonymous questionnaire during school…

  18. International Drug Use; Research Issues 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of resources contains 95 summaries of research conducted on drug use in countries other than the United States, and is designed to be an introductory set of readings which provide a basic familiarity with drug use patterns in foreign countries. The first section contains 23 studies on the United Kingdom while the second section…

  19. Longitudinal Correlates of Hard Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Mimi S.; And Others

    Interventions designed to prevent drug abuse have typically focused on the gateway drugs of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, on the assumption that such prevention would indirectly prevent use of harder substances. Little data has been available, however, for examining the onset of harder substance use in a normal adolescent population. This…

  20. Drug Use and Shock Incarceration Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James F.; Carson, Gary; Dyson, Laronistine

    1997-01-01

    Examines shock incarceration (short-term, boot-camp programs) to determine whether a self-reported history of drug use, supported by official data, is related to completion or failure in the program. Analysis of selected inmates (N=100) found no significant correlation between drug use and boot camp completion or failure. (RJM)

  1. [Education and use of drugs in Norway].

    PubMed

    Hjellvik, Vidar; Mahic, Milada; Tverdal, Aage

    2012-10-16

    Many studies have demonstrated that a low socioeconomic status is associated with poor health. The aim of the study was to investigate whether use of prescription drugs, generally and within selected categories, varies with education. Data on education from the 2001 Population and Housing Census for 645,023 men and women born in the period 1960-1969 and living in Norway in 2001 were linked to data from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drugs dispensed in the period 2004-2009. The overall frequency of drug dispensing was compared with six levels of education. The relative risk associated with limited education (≤ 10 years) compared with long education (> 10 years) of having at least one drug dispensed during the period was calculated for 42 selected drug categories. There was a dose-response relationship between education and the number of drug prescriptions dispensed. Subjects with lower secondary education collected prescription drugs about three times as often on average as subjects with researcher education. The average relative risk of drug dispensing for subjects with short education (≤ 10 years) compared with long (>10 years) for the 42 selected drug categories was 1.29 for men and 1.31 for women. Given that dispensing of drugs is an expression of state of health, our findings support earlier studies that have shown that there is social inequality in the health of the adult population.

  2. In Vitro Drug Metabolism Using Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Knights, Kathleen M; Stresser, David M; Miners, John O; Crespi, Charles L

    2016-09-16

    Knowledge of the metabolic stability of newly discovered drug candidates eliminated by metabolism is essential for predicting the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters that underpin dosing and dosage frequency. Further, characterization of the enzyme(s) responsible for metabolism (reaction phenotyping) allows prediction, at least at the qualitative level, of factors (including metabolic drug-drug interactions) likely to alter the clearance of both new chemical entities (NCEs) and established drugs. Microsomes are typically used as the enzyme source for the measurement of metabolic stability and for reaction phenotyping because they express the major drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), along with others that contribute to drug metabolism. Described in this unit are methods for microsome isolation, as well as for the determination of metabolic stability and metabolite formation (including kinetics). © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Drug targeting using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Elham; Kashanian, Soheila; Azandaryani, Abbas H; Faramarzi, Hossain; Dolatabadi, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad; Omidfar, Kobra

    2014-07-01

    The present review aims to show the features of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) which are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery and research. Because of some unique features of SLNs such as their unique size dependent properties it offers possibility to develop new therapeutics. A common denominator of all these SLN-based platforms is to deliver drugs into specific tissues or cells in a pathological setting with minimal adverse effects on bystander cells. SLNs are capable to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers which lead to a new prototype in drug delivery which maybe used for drug targeting. Hence solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence attracted wide attention of researchers. This review presents a broad treatment of targeted solid lipid nanoparticles discussing their types such as antibody SLN, magnetic SLN, pH sensitive SLN and cationic SLN.

  4. Progress in antiretroviral drug delivery using nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Mallipeddi, Rama; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2010-01-01

    There are currently a number of antiretroviral drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). More recently, antiretrovirals are being evaluated in the clinic for prevention of HIV infection. Due to the challenging nature of treatment and prevention of this disease, the use of nanocarriers to achieve more efficient delivery of antiretroviral drugs has been studied. Various forms of nanocarriers, such as nanoparticles (polymeric, inorganic, and solid lipid), liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, cyclodextrins, and cell-based nanoformulations have been studied for delivery of drugs intended for HIV prevention or therapy. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the application of nanocarrier systems to the delivery of anti-HIV drugs, specifically antiretrovirals. For anti-HIV drugs to be effective, adequate distribution to specific sites in the body must be achieved, and effective drug concentrations must be maintained at those sites for the required period of time. Nanocarriers provide a means to overcome cellular and anatomical barriers to drug delivery. Their application in the area of HIV prevention and therapy may lead to the development of more effective drug products for combating this pandemic disease. PMID:20957115

  5. Athletes' Use and Abuse of Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bell, J A; Doege, T C

    1987-03-01

    In brief: This article presents a review of the literature on drug misuse by athletes and information from 16 sports and medical organizations whose representatives met in 1985 to discuss the problem. Studies of drug use by athletes are relatively few. Existing data do not show a difference in drug use between athletes and nonathletes, but anabolic steroids probably are used more widely among athletes. Our review disclosed little evidence that drugs can improve an athlete's performance without also posing the threat of serious harm. Major sports organizations have banned the use of anabolic steroids, stimulants, diuretics, analgesics, beta-adrenergic blockers, cocaine, marijuana, and heroin, and some have begun testing athletes. Physicians should assist efforts to prevent the illegal distribution of drugs and should help with existing education and testing programs.

  6. Illicit Drug Use and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research. PMID:25938114

  7. Permissive Attitude Towards Drug Use, Life Satisfaction, and Continuous Drug Use Among Psychoactive Drug Users in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at

  8. Patterns of Drug Use: School Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bernard; And Others

    This study surveyed students in grades 7-12 in eight Alaskan school districts. The study was designed to obtain information on the use or nonuse of a broad spectrum of chemical substances, ranging from legal, socially sanctioned drugs for those of legal age such as alcohol and tobacco, to illegal and unsanctioned drugs taken for nonmedical…

  9. Decisions about Drug Use. Adolescent Decisions Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others

    This teacher's manual for drug abuse education is one volume of a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: drug (substance) use and abuse, sexuality and social relationships, juvenile law, work and people and government.…

  10. Personality Factors in Student Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Kenneth; Kahn, Malcolm

    1974-01-01

    A random sample of university students was interviewed concerning illicit psychotropic drug use and administered the Personality Research Form. Univariate and multivariate analyses strongly supported the hypothesis that nonusers, moderate users, and heavy users of illicit drugs differ in personality characteristics. (Author)

  11. Intelligence and Past Use of Recreational Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmoth, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    One motivation for trying recreational drugs is the desire for novel experiences. More intelligent people tend to value novelty more highly and may therefore be more likely to have tried recreational drugs. Using data from a national survey, it is shown that intelligence tends to be positively related to the probabilities of having tried alcohol,…

  12. Intelligence and Past Use of Recreational Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmoth, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    One motivation for trying recreational drugs is the desire for novel experiences. More intelligent people tend to value novelty more highly and may therefore be more likely to have tried recreational drugs. Using data from a national survey, it is shown that intelligence tends to be positively related to the probabilities of having tried alcohol,…

  13. Multiple drug use and polydrug use amongst homeless traveling youth.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer; Hathazi, Dodi

    2008-01-01

    Diverse forms of drug use are an emerging theme within research on young people and substance use. This manuscript, based on a three city study of health risks amongst young injection drug users, explores multiple drug use and polydrug use amongst a subset of homeless youth referred to as "travelers." In particular, we outline characteristics of homeless traveler youths and the various ways in which they practiced multiple drug use and polydrug use. From here, we discuss some theoretical and public health implications of multiple drug use and polydrug use amongst this particular population.

  14. Drug use community intervention: issues and options.

    PubMed

    Einstein, S

    1984-12-01

    A schema has been designed for intervention planners to facilitate their effective use of the concept/entity of community, in its variety of types, meanings, and implications, for drug use/misuse intervention.

  15. Risk perception regarding drug use in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Widnes, Sofia F; Schjøtt, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Pregnant women, but also physicians, have unrealistically high perceptions of teratogenic drug effects. This may result in suboptimal treatment of disease and even influence decisions of whether to continue pregnancy. To attain more realistic teratogenic risk perceptions, several factors that influence this issue should be considered, and these are further discussed in this Clinical Opinion. Importantly, drug use may have several benefits, both for the pregnant woman's health and to avoid negative fetal effects of untreated maternal disease. A greater focus on this aspect may act to balance risk perceptions. Furthermore, both pregnant women and physicians need access to drug information sources that provide realistic risk estimates to increase confidence in appropriate drug use and prescribing. We suggest that access to decision support and individually tailored information provided by drug information centers may contribute to this goal.

  16. [Psychotropic drug therapy using maintenance dosage pumps].

    PubMed

    Smulevich, A B; Vorob'ev, V Iu; Tarasova, T P; Abrosimov, A I

    1987-01-01

    The article deals with questions related to the use of paracorporal automatic drug-administering devices designed for the prolonged administration of psychotropic drugs. This is the first ever experience with the use of artificial systems for drug administration in psychiatry. The authors have developed a scheme of drug administration and determined the optimal rate of injection and daily doses. Possible complications and side effects associated with this method of treatment, as well as the methods for their prevention and control are described in detail. According to preliminary data the administration of psychotropic drugs with the help of automatic devices may contribute significantly to the improvement of social adaptation of patients with minor mental disturbances and make easier the provision of psychotherapy, in particular it may considerably simplify functional training of patients with phobic abnormalities. The method appears to be especially promising with regard to maintenance therapy.

  17. The Life Course Perspective on Drug Use: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Drug Use Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Longshore, Douglas; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the life course perspective on drug use, including conceptual and analytic issues involved in developing the life course framework to explain how drug use trajectories develop during an individual's lifetime and how this knowledge can guide new research and approaches to management of drug dependence. Central concepts…

  18. Predominance of illicit drugs and poly-drug use among drug-impaired drivers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Anita; Holmgren, Per; Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Jones, A Wayne; Ahlner, Johan

    2007-12-01

    After Sweden's zero-tolerance law came into force (1 July 1999), the number of cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) submitted by the police for toxicological analysis increased more than 10-fold. This prompted an in-depth investigation into the kinds of drugs used by DUID offenders, whether licit or illicit, and the frequency of their occurrence. All blood samples from DUID suspects sent by the police for toxicological analysis over a 4-year period (2001-2004) were investigated (N = 22,777 cases). Specimens of blood or urine were subjected to a broad screening analysis by immunoassay methods aimed at detecting amphetamines, cannabis, opiates, cocaine metabolite, and the major benzodiazepines. All positive results from the screening stage were verified by use of more specific analytical methods (e.g., GC-MS, LC-MS, GC-FID, and GC-NPD). Between 80 and 85% of all the blood samples contained at least one banned substance and many contained two or more therapeutic and/or illicit drugs. About 15% of cases were negative for drugs, although these frequently (30-50%) contained ethanol above the legal limit for driving in Sweden, which is 0.20 mg/g (0.02 g%). Amphetamine was the most prominent illicit drug seen in 55-60% of cases either alone or together with other drugs of abuse. Stimulants like cocaine and/or its metabolite were infrequently encountered ( approximately 1.2% of cases). The next most prevalent illicit drug was cannabis, with positive results for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood either alone ( approximately 4%) or together with other psychoactive substances ( approximately 20%). Morphine, codeine, and/or 6-acetyl morphine were identified in approximately 2% of all DUID suspects, being indicative of heroin abuse. The major prescription drugs identified in blood were benzodiazepines (10%) as exemplified by diazepam, alprazolam, nitrazepam, and flunitrazepam. Drugs for treating insomnia, zolpidem and zopiclone, were also identified in blood

  19. Promoting Appropriate Use of Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Yewale, Vijay N.; Dharmapalan, Dhanya

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of appropriate and safe drugs in children is the need of the hour globally. Pediatric population by itself is a spectrum of different physiologies with significant variation in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Unfortunately, 50–90% of drugs used in children today have never been actually studied in this population, and the results of drug studies done in adults are often extrapolated for use in children. Many medicines in pediatrics are off label or unlicensed. There is a spurt in drug resistance due to the overzealous prescription of antimicrobials not indicated, such as, using inadequate dosage or duration of drug regime leading to partially treated infections, using the wrong antimicrobial due to ignorance of causative organism, and finally using indigenous, irrational combinations. Availability of properly labeled and safe pediatric formulations, regular audit by pharmacists, judicious prescriptions, proper counseling about drug administration, surveillance of adverse effects, and pediatric drug trials can be the best possible interventions to offer appropriate medicines to children and thereby save millions of lives. PMID:22645620

  20. Tocolytic Drugs for Use in Veterinary Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a literature review of two tocolytic agents used in veterinary obstetrics: isoxsuprine and clenbuterol. The medical background from which these drugs emerged for human use and to which is linked their application in animal medicine is described. Each drug is reviewed according to its pharmacology, basic considerations for its clinical use and the reports on its application in the treatment and management of obstetrical disorders in veterinary medicine. PMID:17422462

  1. MSM and drug use: A latent class analysis of drug use and related sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    McCarty-Caplan, David; Jantz, Ian; Swartz, James

    2014-07-01

    This study examined patterns of drug use among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to identify sub-categories of men whose drug use and sexual behavior place them at especially high risk for HIV. A latent class analysis of a sample of MSM yielded a four-class model with two distinct high drug use sub-groups: one whose drug use concentrated on "sex-drugs" (SDU); and a distinct polydrug use class that showed higher probabilities of using all other drugs assessed. Comparative follow-up analyses indicated the SDU group was also more likely to engage in particular potentially high-risk sexual behaviors, be older, and to be HIV positive. Implications of distinguishing between patterns of drug use for HIV-risk prevention efforts with MSM are discussed.

  2. Tumor targeting using liposomal antineoplastic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huwyler, Jörg; Drewe, Jürgen; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    During the last years, liposomes (microparticulate phospholipid vesicles) have been used with growing success as pharmaceutical carriers for antineoplastic drugs. Fields of application include lipid-based formulations to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble antitumor drugs, the use of pegylated liposomes for passive targeting of solid tumors as well as vector-conjugated liposomal carriers for active targeting of tumor tissue. Such formulation and drug targeting strategies enhance the effectiveness of anticancer chemotherapy and reduce at the same time the risk of toxic side-effects. The present article reviews the principles of different liposomal technologies and discusses current trends in this field of research. PMID:18488413

  3. Use of drugs with dependence liability

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Moire S.; Sellers, Edward M.

    1979-01-01

    The term addictive as used by the popular press frequently confuses the more precise concepts of acute and chronic tolerance, physical dependence and withdrawal, and psychologic dependence. Serious physical dependence on psychoactive drugs is rare and is easily managed. In contrast, psychologic dependence, the most important reason for persistent drug use, is much more common and is difficult to treat. Some tactics are available — for example, confrontation and discussion with the patient about how a drug is not going to be effective over long periods. Treating the symptom of a complex problem should, of course, not be expected to solve the problem. The most important tactic is to prescribe dependence-associated drugs only when clearly indicated, when the problem is responsive to drug therapy and for the shortest period necessary, without the option for renewing the prescription. Many problems related to drug use long after the period of expected benefit is past can be avoided by far more restrictive drug prescribing. Barbiturates and nonbarbiturate sedative hypnotics (e.g., ethchlorvynol, glutethimide, meprobamate, methaqualone and methyprylon) should not be prescribed for insomnia, acute reactive anxiety, chronic anxiety neurosis or depressive illnesses, since the safer and equally effective benzodiazepines, which are less associated with dependence, are available. PMID:42479

  4. Drug Trafficking and Drug Use among Urban African American Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…

  5. The Development of a Test to Assess Drug Using Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Michael E.

    The objective of the study was to develop a test which could measure both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-using behavior, including such factors as attitudes toward drugs, experience with drugs, and knowledge about drugs. The Drug Use Scale was developed containing 134 items and dealing with five classes of drugs: marijuana,…

  6. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  7. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. Use of antiplatelet drugs after cardiac operations.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Victor A; Bolanos, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Unfortunately, venous bypass grafts still have a prominent role in operative coronary revascularization (coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]). Venous grafts develop pathologically occlusive disease that limits the effectiveness of CABG, and antiplatelet drugs following operation may limit this problem. The types and indications of antiplatelet drugs following CABG generate some controversy in the recent literature. This review surveys relevant evidence about the use of antiplatelet drugs following CABG to identify the controversial issues, define appropriate questions, and attempt to provide evidence-based interventions that may be helpful in limiting graft occlusion after CABG. Evidence suggests that, in most CABG patients, dual antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and clopidogrel), given after operation, minimizes early (within 1 year) graft failure and improves intermediate-term outcomes, better than single antiplatelet therapy with aspirin alone. There are gaps in the knowledge base that supports this contention, and future clinical trials will likely augment or alter this recommendation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Government Regulations and the Use of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hafkenschiel, Joseph H.

    1967-01-01

    I have tried to trace the new drug development pattern from 1766, when Withering obtained his medical degree, to the present. The role of governmental authority as defined by the 1962 Kefauver-Harris amendments to the 1906 law and the subsequently issued regulations has been summarized. Four phases of testing in man have been detailed. Something of the scientific or research capability of the pharmaceutical industry has been presented. It is concluded that in the period of over two hundred years of medical education in the United States, the university hospital has become more and more the focus of medical research, teaching and practice in the community. The safety and effectiveness in the use of drugs in the future will depend upon the liaison and rapport of the industry physicians, government officials and the university hospital teacher-clinical investigators (phase 1 and 2) in designing the most critical studies of the safety and effectiveness of new drugs. Whether the medical profession as we know it will participate more in the future than has been possible since 1962 in mass clinical trial (phase 3) before new drug approval by governmental authority remains to be seen. The final approbation or disapproval of a drug after NDA approval (phase 4) will continue to be in the hands of the participating physician as long as he can establish scientifically that the drug is the best possible agent for him to use in healing the sick and comforting the dying. PMID:4862066

  11. Drugs and breastfeeding: instructions for use.

    PubMed

    Bertino, E; Varalda, A; Di Nicola, P; Coscia, A; Occhi, L; Vagliano, L; Soldi, A; Perathoner, C

    2012-10-01

    It's universally well known that breastfeeding, due to its numerous beneficial effects on child and maternal health, is the best feeding method for infants. The use of medication by the nursing mother and the physician's advice to stop nursing are the most common reasons for the cessation of breastfeeding. The physician plays an extremely delicate role and should be able to assess risks and benefits for both mother and child. The issue of which drugs are safe to take during lactation is quite complicated. Three main factors must be taken into account: pharmacokinetics, assessment of the risk to the infant and to the lactation. Excellent sources of reliable information are the reference books. For the most up-to-date information it would be useful to consult the online medical literature. Few drugs have been demonstrated to be absolutely contraindicated during breastfeeding. Clear, safe and reliable information is still lacking for most drugs. It would be desirable to see an improvement in knowledge about mechanisms for transfer of drugs into milk, to analyze the biotransformation process for a given drug and to study the clinical consequences of infant exposure to drugs present in milk.

  12. Adolescent drug using groups in Chicago parks.

    PubMed

    Shick, J F; Dorus, W; Hughes, P H

    1978-05-01

    In a northern Chicago neighborhood, observational and interview data were collected at parks, school lots, and beaches where adolescents congregate to buy, sell, and use nonopiate drugs. These sites were geographically distinct from areas where heroin is regularly distributed. Users at each area generally resided in the immediate neighborhood, were well known to one another, were predominantly male, displayed similar socioeconomic, religious and ethnic backgrounds, and had attended the same grade schools and high schools. These sites were relatively stable during the summer months, although visitors occasionally changed locations in response to police harassment. Attendance fluctuated with weather and time of day. Drug use was generally confined to the daily use of marihuana and weekend use of alcohol and sedative-hypnotics, but availability seemed to determine the type and frequency of drug use to a greater extent than drug perference. This study suggests the potential of a fieldwork model for prevention and intervention activities prior to the onset of more intense and diversified drug use.

  13. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use.

  14. Mini drug pump for ophthalmic use.

    PubMed

    Saati, Saloomeh; Lo, Ronalee; Li, Po-Ying; Meng, Ellis; Varma, Rohit; Humayun, Mark S

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of developing a novel mini drug pump for ophthalmic use. Using principles of microelectromechanical systems engineering, a mini drug pump was fabricated. The pumping mechanism is based on electrolysis and the pump includes a drug refill port as well as a check valve to control drug delivery. Drug pumps were tested first on the bench-top and then after implantation in rabbits. For the latter, we implanted 4 elliptical (9.9 x 7.7 x 1.8 mm) non-electrically active pumps into 4 rabbits. The procedure is similar to implantation of a glaucoma aqueous drainage device. To determine the ability to refill and also the patency of the cannula, at intervals of 4-6 weeks after implantation, we accessed the drug reservoir with a transconjunctival needle and delivered approximately as low as 1 microL of trypan blue solution (0.06%) into the anterior chamber. Animals were followed by slit lamp examination, photography, and fluorescein angiography. Bench-top testing showed 2.0 microL/min delivery when using 0.4 mW of power for electrolysis. One-way valves showed reliable opening pressures of 470 mmHg. All implanted devices refilled at 4-6 weeks intervals for 4-6 months. No infection was seen. No devices extruded. No filtering bleb formed over the implant. A prototype ocular mini drug pump was built, implanted, and refilled. Such a platform needs more testing to determine the long term biocompatibility of an electrically-controlled implanted pump. Testing with various pharmacological agents is needed to determine its ultimate potential for ophthalmic use.

  15. Mini drug pump for ophthalmic use.

    PubMed

    Saati, Saloomeh; Lo, Ronalee; Li, Po-Ying; Meng, Ellis; Varma, Rohit; Humayun, Mark S

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of developing a novel mini drug pump for ophthalmic use. Using principles of microelectromechanical systems engineering, a mini drug pump was fabricated. The pumping mechanism is based on electrolysis, and the pump includes a drug refill port as well as a check valve to control drug delivery. Drug pumps were tested first on the benchtop and then after implantation in rabbits. For the latter, we implanted 4 elliptical (9.9 x 7.7 x 1.8 mm) non-electrically active pumps into 4 rabbits. The procedure is similar to implantation of a glaucoma seton. To determine the ability to refill and also the patency of the cannula, at intervals of 4 to 6 weeks after implantation, we accessed the drug reservoir with a transconjunctival needle and delivered approximately as low as 1 microL of trypan blue solution (0.06%) into the anterior chamber. Animals were followed up by slit-lamp examination, photography, and fluorescein angiography. Benchtop testing showed 2.0 microL/min delivery when using 0.4 mW of power for electrolysis. One-way valves showed reliable opening pressures of 470 mm Hg. All implanted devices refilled at 4- to 6-week intervals for 4 to 6 months. No infection was seen. No devices extruded. No filtering bleb formed over the implant. A prototype ocular mini drug pump was built, implanted, and refilled. Such a platform needs more testing to determine the long-term biocompatibility of an electrically controlled implanted pump. Testing with various pharmacologic agents is needed to determine its ultimate potential for ophthalmic use.

  16. Contraception, punishment and women who use drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of the recent debate on the use of financial incentives to promote long-acting contraception and sterilisation among women who use illicit drugs we discuss attitudes to contraception, pregnancy and parenting among Australian women who inject drugs. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 90 women of reproductive age about contraceptive use, preferences, reproductive histories, attitudes to and experiences of parenting. All women were either currently, or had previously injected drugs. The in-depth, semi-structured interviews were compared and contrasted for themes relating to drug use, contraception, pregnancy and parenting. Results Participants aspired to control their fertility, expressed individual contraceptive preferences and concerns for their children (both born and unborn). Most had tried a number of contraceptive methods interspersed by periods of non-use related to experiences of side-effects, being single or abstinent, believing that they were infertile and trying to conceive. Attitudes varied from woman to woman and in the same individual over their life course. Some believed that they were not likely to be capable, but most aspired to be successful mothers. Conclusions Women’s drug use should not automatically be associated with an inability to make informed health care choices or to care for children. Evidence suggests that women who use drugs do not need to be paid to limit or end their fertility. Rather, programs that aim to reduce barriers to obtaining free, non-discriminating reproductive advice and parenting assistance would better utilise women’s agency to improve their own reproductive health. PMID:24405890

  17. Signs of Drug Use and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use and Addiction Signs of Drug Use and Addiction Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_012017.pdf People ... English Español "I feel so helpless against his addiction." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's brother Stephen is ...

  18. Control Theory and Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Anastaios C.; Bahr, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    Tested the application of a revised version on Hirschi's (1969) social bond model on the drug use patterns of 2,626 high school students. The revised model, which accounted for more of the use variance than the original model, reveals that the best direct predictors are belief and attachment. (BJV)

  19. Drug use among adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abdulkarim, A A; Mokuolu, O A; Adeniyi, A

    2005-10-01

    The types and frequency of drug use among 1200 students aged 10-19 years was investigated and a prevalence rate of 40.1% found; currently used drugs included mild stimulants such as kolanut and coffee 294 (26.2%), alcohol 164 (14.5%), sniffing agents 80 (7.2%), amphetamine and ephedrine 66 (6.7%), cigarette 54 (4.8%), heroin 45 (4%) cocaine 40 (3.6%) and cannabis 38 (3.4%). Multiple drug use was found among the students, with the abuse of cannabis, cocaine and heroin being significant among those who smoked cigarette (P<0.001). The relative risk (RR) for cannabis use when cigarette was smoked was 37.4 (24.1-57.8); RR for cigarette smoking when alcohol was used, 6.8, while RR for cocaine abuse when cigarette was used, 21.8 (13.9-34.5) and 52.8 (29.2-95.5) when cannabis was used. It is therefore concluded that the use of the licit and "socially" acceptable drugs may pave the way for the abuse of illicit ones.

  20. Treating Migraine Headaches Some Drugs Should Rarely be Used

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients’ Stories Providers’ Stories Treating Migraine Headaches Some drugs should rarely be used using these drugs. Here’s why: These drugs can make headaches worse. Using too much pain ...

  1. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... graphic advertising, and conditions, purposes, or uses for which the drug is commonly used; except that... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  2. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... graphic advertising, and conditions, purposes, or uses for which the drug is commonly used; except that... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  3. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... graphic advertising, and conditions, purposes, or uses for which the drug is commonly used; except that... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  4. Deterred drug abuse using superabsorbent polymers.

    PubMed

    Mastropietro, David J; Muppalaneni, Srinath; Omidian, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to determine whether selected superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) could be used as a suitable alternative to thwart extraction, filtration, and syringeability attempts for abuse. Many abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) rely on high molecular weight polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) to provide crush and extraction resistance. However, these polymers suffer from slow dissolution kinetics, and are susceptible to a variety of abuse conditions. Several commercially available SAPs were evaluated for swelling behavior in extraction solvents, and tableting properties. Post-compaction abuse properties were evaluated by recoverable volume and syringeability after solvent extraction. Drug release and percent drug extraction were conducted using tramadol HCl as a model drug. Certain SAPs had the ability to rapidly imbibe solvent and effectively stop extraction processes in a variety of solvents, including water and water/alcohol mixtures. Tablets containing SAP and drug showed no effect on drug release in vitro. SAPs possess adequate properties for tableting, and maintain their high and fast swelling properties after compaction. The fast and extensive interactions of SAPs with aqueous medium are a major advantage over non-crosslinked high molecular weight viscosifying agents such as poly(ethylene oxide).

  5. [Drug analytics in oral fluid using immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Dierich, O; Soyka, M

    2005-07-01

    Drug analytics in oral fluid can be of relevance for various clinical and forensic questions, for example when testing for driving ability. To date few studies have been conducted concerning validity of different methods. The reliability of drug analytics in oral fluid was studied using cedia test and emit test (for cannabinoids). CUT-offs for different substances were defined after evaluation of ROC curves following various prestudies. 97 saliva and 103 urins probes from 31 opioid dependent patients were tested. Only for methadone, the results in oral fluid were comparable to those in urine. For most other drugs including opioids and barbiturates, results were less favourable. For cannabinoids and benzodiazepines, results were unsatisfactory. To date drug testing in oral fluid does not seem to be as accurate as urine analytics. Urine testing using immunoassays or gas chromatography is still the most reliable non-invasive test method. Drug testing in oral fluid may be of relevance as an additional method in substitution treatment and as an experimental tool in epidemiological road surveys.

  6. [Low use of drugs among farmers].

    PubMed

    Bårnes, Hanne Ulrikke; Riise, Trond

    2006-02-09

    Farmers have a higher prevalence of depression compared to workers with other occupations. We wanted to investigate whether this corresponds to a more frequent use of antidepressants among farmers and to investigate their use of medication in general. The study population consisted of 20 166 workers aged 40-47 years from the general population, including 398 farmers and 713 part-time farmers, from a population-based health study carried out in a Norwegian county. In addition to type of occupation and use of medical drugs, mental (HADS) and physical (SF-12) health, life-style factors, height, weight and blood pressure were measured. The farmers reported significantly lower use of antiperessants and also a significant lower use of medical drugs in general compared with other groups. Their physical health was significantly better compared with other occupational groups and they had a lower consumption of alcohol and tobacco. There were no marked differences in the blood pressure or body-mass index. The lower use of drugs could reflect better health, it could be related to a culturally-related reluctance to the use of drugs, or it could indicate that farmers in some instances are not receiving proper medical care.

  7. Pricing, distribution, and use of antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Prices of new antimalarial drugs are targeted at the "travellers' market" in developed countries, which makes them unaffordable in malaria-endemic countries where the per capita annual drug expenditures are US$ 5 or less. Antimalarials are distributed through a variety of channels in both public and private sectors, the official malaria control programmes accounting for 25-30% of chloroquine distribution. The unofficial drug sellers in markets, streets, and village shops account for as much as half of antimalarials distributed in many developing countries. Use of antimalarials through the health services is often poor; drug shortages are common and overprescription and overuse of injections are significant problems. Anxiety over drug costs may prevent patients from getting the necessary treatment for malaria, especially because of the seasonal appearance of this disease when people's cash reserves are very low. The high costs may lead them to unofficial sources, which will sell a single tablet instead of a complete course of treatment, and subsequently to increased, often irrational demand for more drugs and more injections. Increasingly people are resorting to self-medication for malaria, which may cause delays in seeking proper treatment in cases of failure, especially in areas where chloroquine resistance has increased rapidly. Self-medication is now widespread, and measures to restrict the illicit sale of drugs have been unsuccessful. The "unofficial" channels thus represent an unacknowledged extension of the health services in many countries; suggestions are advanced to encourage better self-medication by increasing the knowledge base among the population at large (mothers, schoolchildren, market sellers, and shopkeepers), with an emphasis on correct dosing and on the importance of seeking further treatment without delay, if necessary. PMID:1893512

  8. Pricing, distribution, and use of antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Foster, S D

    1991-01-01

    Prices of new antimalarial drugs are targeted at the "travellers' market" in developed countries, which makes them unaffordable in malaria-endemic countries where the per capita annual drug expenditures are US$ 5 or less. Antimalarials are distributed through a variety of channels in both public and private sectors, the official malaria control programmes accounting for 25-30% of chloroquine distribution. The unofficial drug sellers in markets, streets, and village shops account for as much as half of antimalarials distributed in many developing countries. Use of antimalarials through the health services is often poor; drug shortages are common and overprescription and overuse of injections are significant problems. Anxiety over drug costs may prevent patients from getting the necessary treatment for malaria, especially because of the seasonal appearance of this disease when people's cash reserves are very low. The high costs may lead them to unofficial sources, which will sell a single tablet instead of a complete course of treatment, and subsequently to increased, often irrational demand for more drugs and more injections. Increasingly people are resorting to self-medication for malaria, which may cause delays in seeking proper treatment in cases of failure, especially in areas where chloroquine resistance has increased rapidly. Self-medication is now widespread, and measures to restrict the illicit sale of drugs have been unsuccessful. The "unofficial" channels thus represent an unacknowledged extension of the health services in many countries; suggestions are advanced to encourage better self-medication by increasing the knowledge base among the population at large (mothers, schoolchildren, market sellers, and shopkeepers), with an emphasis on correct dosing and on the importance of seeking further treatment without delay, if necessary.

  9. Relationship between student illicit drug use and school drug-testing policies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2003-04-01

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The study provides descriptive information on drug-testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and examines the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by students. School-level data on drug testing were obtained through the Youth, Education, and Society study, and student-level survey data were obtained from the same schools participating in the Monitoring the Future study. A relatively small percentage of schools (about 18%) reported testing students for drug use, with more high schools than middle schools reporting drug testing. Drug testing was not associated with students' reported illicit drug use, or with rate of use among experienced marijuana users. Drug testing of athletes was not associated with illicit drug use among male high school athletes. Policy implications are discussed.

  10. Drug Use and Cognitions about Drug Use amongst Students: Changes over the University Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Brian; Conner, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Studied the hypothesis that students would exhibit changes in their levels of, and cognitions about, drug use throughout their university careers. Responses from a sample of 380 undergraduates (response rate, 63%) show no evidence of an increase in the percentage of undergraduates using drugs over their university careers, but there was a…

  11. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. How Parental Drug Use and Drug Treatment Compliance Relate to Family Reunification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brenda D.

    2003-01-01

    Cox regression was used to assess the relationships among parental drug use, drug treatment compliance, and reunification from substitute care. Findings indicated that drug treatment compliance was associated with faster reunification, even when accounting for ongoing drug use and three parenting measures. Findings were consistent with a…

  13. Oral transmucosal drug delivery for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jenny K W; Xu, Yingying; Worsley, Alan; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-06-01

    The formulation of medicines for children remains a challenge. An ideal pediatric formulation must allow accurate dose administration and be in a dosage form that can be handled by the target age group. It is also important to consider the choices and the amount of excipients used in the formulation for this vulnerable age group. Although oral formulations are generally acceptable to most pediatric patients, they are not suitable for drugs with poor oral bioavailability or when a rapid clinical effect is required. In recent years, oral transmucosal delivery has emerged as an attractive route of administration for pediatric patients. With this route of administration, a drug is absorbed through the oral mucosa, therefore bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism and thus avoiding drug degradation or metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. The high blood flow and relatively high permeability of the oral mucosa allow a quick onset of action to be achieved. It is a simple and non-invasive route of drug administration. However, there are several barriers that need to be overcome in the development of oral transmucosal products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current development of oral transmucosal delivery specifically for the pediatric population in order to achieve systemic drug delivery. The anatomical and physiological properties of the oral mucosa of infants and young children are carefully examined. The different dosage forms and formulation strategies that are suitable for young patients are discussed.

  14. Drug screening using model systems: some basics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An increasing number of laboratories that focus on model systems are considering drug screening. Executing a drug screen is complicated enough. But the path for moving initial hits towards the clinic requires a different knowledge base and even a different mindset. In this Editorial I discuss the importance of doing some homework before you start screening. 'Lead hits', 'patentable chemical space' and 'druggability' are all concepts worth exploring when deciding which screening path to take. I discuss some of the lessons I learned that may be useful as you navigate the screening matrix. PMID:27821602

  15. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  16. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  17. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products if such residues are from drugs which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and any such...

  18. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products if such residues are from drugs which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and any such...

  19. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products if such residues are from drugs which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and any such...

  20. Antiretroviral Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection Click on drug brand name for additional ...

  1. Maltese Survey of Adolescent Drug Use, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ronald D.; Gleaton, Thomas J.

    A national survey to obtain adolescent drug use patterns in Malta was conducted on November 29, 1991. A total of 20,815 students were surveyed in Malta and Gozo. Ages ranged from 11 to 17 years. Tabular reports were prepared for each participating school, regionally, and for the total or national sample. The overwhelming majority of students…

  2. The Use of Drugs in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Steven

    Indications, precautions, contraindications, and side effects of drugs most frequently used by athletic trainers in treating injuries are discussed: (1) aspirin; (2) arylalkanoic derivatives; (3) butazolidin and tandearil; (4) corticosteroids; (5) oral corticosteroids; (6) muscle relaxants; (7) analgesics; (8) cold medications; (9) antidiarrheal…

  3. Teen Drug Use: Impacts and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casemore, Bradley P.

    Each generation of adolescents is exposed to a wider array of stressors and environmental deficits. Use, abuse, and dependence on alcohol and other drugs greatly impairs youths' ability to develop fully, and exacerbates and compounds other biopsychosocial problems. Physiologically, the onset of secondary sex characteristics, the growth spurt,…

  4. Adolescent Drug Use and Other Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundleby, John D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two-hundred-thirty-one adolescents completed questionnaires concerning their use of drugs (alcohol, tobacco, pain-killers, and marijuana). Factor analysis of endorsements of a broad range of behavior, followed by regression analysis, indicated that sexual behavior, general delinquency, school achievement, and social behavior were all related to…

  5. The Use of Drugs in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Steven

    Indications, precautions, contraindications, and side effects of drugs most frequently used by athletic trainers in treating injuries are discussed: (1) aspirin; (2) arylalkanoic derivatives; (3) butazolidin and tandearil; (4) corticosteroids; (5) oral corticosteroids; (6) muscle relaxants; (7) analgesics; (8) cold medications; (9) antidiarrheal…

  6. Adolescent Drug Use and Other Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundleby, John D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two-hundred-thirty-one adolescents completed questionnaires concerning their use of drugs (alcohol, tobacco, pain-killers, and marijuana). Factor analysis of endorsements of a broad range of behavior, followed by regression analysis, indicated that sexual behavior, general delinquency, school achievement, and social behavior were all related to…

  7. Illicit drug use and HIV risk in the Dominican Republic: tourism areas create drug use opportunities.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas.

  8. Self-image bias in drug use attributions.

    PubMed

    Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to examine the degree to which people's personal drug use affects how they perceive other drug users, with a view to investigating the possibility that drug use attributions are a function of self-image bias. University students (n = 60), categorized post hoc as drug users or nonusers, completed questionnaires assessing locus, control, and stability attributions about their own personal drug use or imagined drug use. Attributions pertaining to presented vignettes of light and heavy drug use by others were also assessed. Heavy drug use elicited the most "addicted" attributions (dispositional locus, low control, and high stability) and drug-using participants made more addicted attributions about their own personal drug use than did nonusing participants about their imagined use. Additionally, attributions made by non-drug users regarding their imagined personal drug use were similar to those they made for the light drug use described in presented vignettes. Conversely, drug users made attributions which were similar for their personal drug use and for the heavy drug-use vignette. These data lend support to conceptualizing addiction as a product of the functional attribution process-"addict" attributions being applied mainly where drug use is more problematic (heavy) and thus in need of explanation. The data also lend support to the notion that a self-image bias is operating in drug use attributions when people can identify with the behavior of others.

  9. Antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Morley, Paul S; Apley, Michael D; Besser, Thomas E; Burney, Derek P; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Papich, Mark G; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Weese, J Scott

    2005-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of antimicrobial resistance and the need for veterinarians to aid in efforts for maintaining the usefulness of antimicrobial drugs in animals and humans, the Board of Regents of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine charged a special committee with responsibility for drafting this position statement regarding antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine. The Committee believes that veterinarians are obligated to balance the well-being of animals under their care with the protection of other animals and public health. Therefore, if an animal's medical condition can be reasonably expected to improve as a result of treatment with antimicrobial drugs, and the animal is under a veterinarian's care with an appropriate veterinarian-client-patient relationship, veterinarians have an obligation to offer antimicrobial treatment as a therapeutic option. Veterinarians also have an obligation to actively promote disease prevention efforts, to treat as conservatively as possible, and to explain the potential consequences associated with antimicrobial treatment to animal owners and managers, including the possibility of promoting selection of resistant bacteria. However, the consequences of losing usefulness of an antimicrobial drug that is used as a last resort in humans or animals with resistant bacterial infections might be unacceptable from a public or population health perspective. Veterinarians could therefore face the difficult choice of treating animals with a drug that is less likely to be successful, possibly resulting in prolonged or exacerbated morbidity, to protect the good of society. The Committee recommends that voluntary actions be taken by the veterinary profession to promote conservative use of antimicrobial drugs to minimize the potential adverse effects on animal or human health. The veterinary profession must work to educate all veterinarians about issues related to conservative antimicrobial drug use and

  10. Early discovery drug screening using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marshall M

    2002-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric methods useful for early discovery drug screening are reviewed. All methods described involve studies of non-covalent complexes between biopolymer receptors and small molecule ligands formed in the condensed phase. The complexes can be sprayed intact directly into the gas phase by ESI-MS using gentle experimental conditions. Gas phase screening applications are illustrated for drug ligand candidates non-covalently interacting with peptides, proteins, RNA, and DNA. In the condensed phase, the complexes can be also isolated, denatured and analyzed by ESI-MS to identify the small molecule ligands. Condensed phase drug screening examples are illustrated for the ESI-MS ancillary techniques of affinity chromatography, ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and capillary electrophoretic methods. Solid phase drug screening using MALDI-MS is illustrated for small molecule ligands bound to MALDI affinity probe tips and to beads. Since ESI and MALDI principally produce molecular ions, high throughput screening is achieved by analyzing mass indexed mixtures.

  11. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  12. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  13. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  14. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  15. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  16. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility. 960.205 Section 960.205 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... Admission § 960.205 Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility. (a)...

  17. Reality Television Programs Are Associated With Illegal Drug Use and Prescription Drug Misuse Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander

    2016-01-02

    Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.

  18. How parental drug use and drug treatment compliance relate to family reunification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brenda D

    2003-01-01

    This study uses Cox regression to assess the relationships among parental drug use, drug treatment compliance, and reunification from substitute care. The study finds that drug treatment compliance is associated with faster reunification, even when accounting for ongoing drug use and three parenting measures. The findings are consistent with a conceptual framework suggesting that certain client actions, such as drug treatment compliance, may serve as markers that substantially affect client outcomes.

  19. Understanding performance-enhancing drug use.

    PubMed

    Wang, David

    2012-09-01

    Performance-enhancing drug use is a prevalent problem in sports. It is a problem that has captured the world's attention as the media highlights story after story of athletes who have transformed their bodies over a short period of time, those who have simply defied the aging process in an attempt to prolong a career and those whose careers have been tarnished because of drug use. The baseball investigations and the Mitchell Report of 2007 opened our eyes and gave us a glimpse of a secretive underground world. This "world" is much more intelligent and sophisticated than it is given credit for. It is the goal of this article to increase the awareness of the medical provider about the types of steroids and other medications used, the influence these substances have on the athletes, and how and why they use them.

  20. Patterns of drug use among a sample of drug users and injecting drug users attending a General Practice in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Day, Carolyn; Nassirimanesh, Bijan; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Dolan, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to examine drug use, drug treatment history and risk behaviour among a sample of Iranian drug users seeking treatment through a general practice clinic in Iran. Methods Review of medical records and an intake questionnaire at a large general practice in Marvdasht, Iran, with a special interest in drug dependence treatment. Records from a random sample of injecting drug users (IDU), non-injecting drug users (DU) and non-drug using patients were examined. Results 292 records were reviewed (34% IDU, 31% DU and 35% non-drug users). Eighty-three percent were males; all females were non-drug users. The mean age of the sample was 30 years. Of the IDU sample, 67% reported sharing a needle or syringe, 19% of these had done so in prison. Of those who had ever used drugs, being 'tired' of drug use was the most common reason for seeking help (34%). Mean age of first drug use was 20 years. The first drugs most commonly used were opium (72%), heroin (13%) and hashish/ other cannabinoids (13%). Three quarters reported having previously attempted to cease their drug use. IDU were more likely than DU to report having ever been imprisoned (41% vs 7%) and 41% to have used drugs in prison. Conclusion This study has shown that there is a need for general practice clinics in Iran to treat drug users including those who inject and that a substantial proportion of those who inject have shared needles and syringes, placing them at risk of BBVI such as HIV and hepatitis C. The expansion of services for drug users in Iran such as needle and syringe programs and pharmacotherapies are likely to be effective in reducing the harms associated with opium use and heroin injection. PMID:16433914

  1. Are we using drugs rationally? A survey study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozdinc, Serife; Sensoy, Nazli; Kurt, Rumeysa; Altas, Sevda; Altun, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the rational use of drugs from patient’s perspective. Methods: This study was conducted at the Afyon Kocatepe University Training and Research Hospital between February and March 2013. Data were collected with a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test were used. Results: About 54% (n=419) of participants reported that they used drugs without the advice of a physician. The 19-24 age group, secondary and high school graduates, and students used drugs more often without consulting a physician (P < 0.05). Participants that used drugs after consulting a physician did not fully use the drugs as recommended by the physician, and physicians did not give patients adequate information about prescribed drug(s). 72% of participants stored drug(s) at home. Conclusions: Rational use of drugs is not completely achieved. Certain patient groups and even physicians are closer to being a part of the irrational use of drugs. PMID:26649005

  2. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

  3. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use. Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences.

  4. The Relationship between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The purposes of this study are (1) to provide descriptive information on drug testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and (2) to examine the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by…

  5. Post-war prevention: Emerging frameworks to prevent drug use after the War on Drugs.

    PubMed

    Werb, Dan

    2017-07-19

    The prevention of drug use is one of the primary goals of the War on Drugs. However, despite investment in high-profile interventions such as social marketing campaigns and enforcement-based deterrence, these efforts have generally failed. With the emergence of novel policy frameworks to control and regulate drug use, a window of opportunity exists to test approaches to drug prevention that take into account existing evidence and the rights of individuals who use drugs. Specifically, there is a growing consensus that entry into drug use is a socially-defined event that individuals experience within particular socio-structural contexts. This understanding, coupled with a distinction between the value of preventing problematic drug use rather than all drug use, provides a useful framework within which to develop effective and rights-based approaches to drug prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Systematic Framework for Drug Repositioning from Integrated Omics and Drug Phenotype Profiles Using Pathway-Drug Network

    PubMed Central

    Jadamba, Erkhembayar

    2016-01-01

    Drug repositioning offers new clinical indications for old drugs. Recently, many computational approaches have been developed to repurpose marketed drugs in human diseases by mining various of biological data including disease expression profiles, pathways, drug phenotype expression profiles, and chemical structure data. However, despite encouraging results, a comprehensive and efficient computational drug repositioning approach is needed that includes the high-level integration of available resources. In this study, we propose a systematic framework employing experimental genomic knowledge and pharmaceutical knowledge to reposition drugs for a specific disease. Specifically, we first obtain experimental genomic knowledge from disease gene expression profiles and pharmaceutical knowledge from drug phenotype expression profiles and construct a pathway-drug network representing a priori known associations between drugs and pathways. To discover promising candidates for drug repositioning, we initialize node labels for the pathway-drug network using identified disease pathways and known drugs associated with the phenotype of interest and perform network propagation in a semisupervised manner. To evaluate our method, we conducted some experiments to reposition 1309 drugs based on four different breast cancer datasets and verified the results of promising candidate drugs for breast cancer by a two-step validation procedure. Consequently, our experimental results showed that the proposed framework is quite useful approach to discover promising candidates for breast cancer treatment. PMID:28127549

  7. A Systematic Framework for Drug Repositioning from Integrated Omics and Drug Phenotype Profiles Using Pathway-Drug Network.

    PubMed

    Jadamba, Erkhembayar; Shin, Miyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drug repositioning offers new clinical indications for old drugs. Recently, many computational approaches have been developed to repurpose marketed drugs in human diseases by mining various of biological data including disease expression profiles, pathways, drug phenotype expression profiles, and chemical structure data. However, despite encouraging results, a comprehensive and efficient computational drug repositioning approach is needed that includes the high-level integration of available resources. In this study, we propose a systematic framework employing experimental genomic knowledge and pharmaceutical knowledge to reposition drugs for a specific disease. Specifically, we first obtain experimental genomic knowledge from disease gene expression profiles and pharmaceutical knowledge from drug phenotype expression profiles and construct a pathway-drug network representing a priori known associations between drugs and pathways. To discover promising candidates for drug repositioning, we initialize node labels for the pathway-drug network using identified disease pathways and known drugs associated with the phenotype of interest and perform network propagation in a semisupervised manner. To evaluate our method, we conducted some experiments to reposition 1309 drugs based on four different breast cancer datasets and verified the results of promising candidate drugs for breast cancer by a two-step validation procedure. Consequently, our experimental results showed that the proposed framework is quite useful approach to discover promising candidates for breast cancer treatment.

  8. The Natural History of Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lee N.

    1984-01-01

    Considers the similarities between current drug abuse trends and epidemics of infectious diseases. Briefly reviews significant findings from drug abuse research reported in the same journal issue. (GC)

  9. Drugs as instruments: a new framework for non-addictive psychoactive drug use.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian P; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-12-01

    Most people who are regular consumers of psychoactive drugs are not drug addicts, nor will they ever become addicts. In neurobiological theories, non-addictive drug consumption is acknowledged only as a "necessary" prerequisite for addiction, but not as a stable and widespread behavior in its own right. This target article proposes a new neurobiological framework theory for non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption, introducing the concept of "drug instrumentalization." Psychoactive drugs are consumed for their effects on mental states. Humans are able to learn that mental states can be changed on purpose by drugs, in order to facilitate other, non-drug-related behaviors. We discuss specific "instrumentalization goals" and outline neurobiological mechanisms of how major classes of psychoactive drugs change mental states and serve non-drug-related behaviors. We argue that drug instrumentalization behavior may provide a functional adaptation to modern environments based on a historical selection for learning mechanisms that allow the dynamic modification of consummatory behavior. It is assumed that in order to effectively instrumentalize psychoactive drugs, the establishment of and retrieval from a drug memory is required. Here, we propose a new classification of different drug memory subtypes and discuss how they interact during drug instrumentalization learning and retrieval. Understanding the everyday utility and the learning mechanisms of non-addictive psychotropic drug use may help to prevent abuse and the transition to drug addiction in the future.

  10. The Effects of Social Contact on Drug Use: Behavioral Mechanisms Controlling Drug Intake

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The social environment plays a critical role in determining the likelihood that an individual will use drugs or will develop a drug use disorder. Recent evidence obtained from preclinical studies reveals that proximal social factors (i.e., those factors that are immediately present at the time of drug exposure) exert a particularly strong influence on both drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. These studies are advancing our understanding of the role of the social environment in drug use by showing that the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs depend on (1) whether other individuals are immediately present and (2) whether those individuals are also using drugs. Furthermore, the preclinical literature examining the role of social learning in behavior maintained by nondrug reinforcers reveals a number of behavioral mechanisms by which social contact may influence drug use, as well as potential ways the social environment may be modified to prevent or reduce drug use. Additional research is needed to determine potential age and sex differences in the effects of social contact on drug use, to determine the generality of the current findings across different pharmacological classes of drugs, and to determine the role of social contact on drug intake during different transitional stages of drug use disorders; however, enough evidence now exists to begin implementing social interventions in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:24188170

  11. Drug Use Among the Young: As Teenagers See It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Elizabeth; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Reports responses of 205 students to a children's Bureau inquiry on teenage drug usage. Youth were asked how teenagers feel about use of various kinds of drugs, what makes some teenagers use drugs and keeps others from using them, and what adults should do about teenage drug usage. (NH)

  12. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  13. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  15. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  17. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  18. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  20. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  1. Patterns of Drug Use Among College Students. A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizner, George L.; And Others

    Initial data from a survey of drug usage among college students was presented. A large-scale effort was made to produce reliable figures on: (1) drug use patterns; (2) attitudes toward drug use; and (3) incidence of drug use among college students. Questionnaires were answered by 26,000 college students from the Denver-Boulder area, who were…

  2. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  3. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252). Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5%) individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4%) individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1%) individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine) use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach. PMID:19622171

  4. [The use of drugs in migraine].

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M

    1976-06-02

    Drugs may be given either for treatment of the acute attack or as prophylaxis. Those most commonly used for the acute attack are analgesics, anti-emetics and ergotamine tartrate. A recent work (Volans, 1974) has shown that absorption may be impaired during a migraine attack. It is important therefore that not only is the analgesic given in an easily absorbed form but that a drug such as metaclopromide should be given to help restore the normal activity of the gastro-intestinal tract. Patients having one or more attacks of migraine a week may need prophylactic treatment. The drugs now used include: Methysergide, should only be used for severe cases when no other treatment has been found helpful. Dihydroergotamine, the vasoconstrictor activity is less than in ergotamine tartrate and can therefore be used prophylactically. Pizotifen, possesses powerful anti-serotonin properties. It also has marked antihistamine and antitryptamine properties as well as being a central sedative and anti-depressant. Clonidine, in doses of 1 mugm/Kg renders the blood vessels less sensitive to circulating amines and seems to be effective in about one third of patients with classical or common migraine. Sympathetic Blocking Agents: alpha-blockers: indoramine has recently given some good results; beta-blockers: such as propanolol and pindolol have also been used. Full trials of all the substances are now in progress. Tranquilisers and anti-depressants, two of those commonly used are diazepam and amitryptiline. In either cases a small dose only should be used. Anticonvulsants, phenytoin in doses of 50-100 mgs per day is sometimes helpful particularly in children or in those who have abnormal electroencephalograms.

  5. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... participation to individuals who engage in illegal use of drugs while they are in the program. (c) Drug testing... procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual who formerly... of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  6. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual is otherwise entitled to such services. (c) Drug testing. (1) This part does not prohibit the... drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual who formerly engaged in the illegal use of drugs is... construed to encourage, prohibit, restrict, or authorize the conduct of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  7. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individual is otherwise entitled to such services. (c) Drug testing. (1) This part does not prohibit the... drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual who formerly engaged in the illegal use of drugs is... construed to encourage, prohibit, restrict, or authorize the conduct of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  8. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... participation to individuals who engage in illegal use of drugs while they are in the program. (c) Drug testing... procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual who formerly... of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  9. USING SEMANTIC PREDICATIONS TO UNCOVER DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN CLINICAL DATA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Cairelli, Michael J.; Fiszman, Marcelo; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we report on potential drug-drug interactions between drugs occurring in patient clinical data. Results are based on relationships in SemMedDB, a database of structured knowledge extracted from all MEDLINE citations (titles and abstracts) using SemRep. The core of our methodology is to construct two potential drug-drug interaction schemas, based on relationships extracted from SemMedDB. In the first schema, Drug1 and Drug2 interact through Drug1’s effect on some gene, which in turn affects Drug2. In the second, Drug1 affects Gene1, while Drug2 affects Gene2. Gene1 and Gene2, together, then have an effect on some biological function. After checking each drug pair from the medication lists of each of 22 patients, we found 19 known and 62 unknown drug-drug interactions using both schemas. For example, our results suggest that the interaction of Lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor commonly prescribed for hypertension, and the antidepressant sertraline can potentially increase the likelihood and possibly the severity of psoriasis. We also assessed the relationships extracted by SemRep from a linguistic perspective and found that the precision of SemRep was 0.58 for 300 randomly selected sentences from MEDLINE. Our study demonstrates that the use of structured knowledge in the form of relationships from the biomedical literature can support the discovery of potential drug-drug interactions occurring in patient clinical data. Moreover, SemMedDB provides a good knowledge resource for expanding the range of drugs, genes, and biological functions considered as elements in various drug-drug interaction pathways. PMID:24448204

  10. Drug utilization evaluation of third generation cephalosporins using core drug use indicators.

    PubMed

    Kaliamoorthy, Kousalya; Sankaralingam, Ramalakshmi; Punniyakotti, Saranya; Janardhan, Vasantha; Cheekala, Umamaheswara Reddy

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the drug utilization of third generation cephalosporins using core drug use indicators in various wards of Sri Ramachandra Hospital. Third generation cephalosporins are the most commonly prescribed broad spectrum antibiotic even before the culture sensitivity results arrives. Hence this study was undertaken to study the drug utilization evaluation of third generation cephalosporins in the inpatient department of various wards of Sri Ramachandra Hospital. A prospective study was conducted between July 2009 and February 2010. Prescriptions of 364 patients containing third generation cephalosporins admitted in inpatient department of various wards of Sri Ramachandra Hospital, Chennai were collected and using WHO basic drug indicators, the utilization pattern were analyzed. The average number of drugs per prescription was found to be 7.89 on prescription analysis. Cefixime was the most frequently prescribed (32.69%) oral third generation cephalosporins, followed by cefotaxime (31.32%). Among IV third generation cephalosporins, cefotaxime was the most frequently prescribed injections (35.4%). Only 28.02% of drugs were prescribed by generic name. The results obtained represent the over all prescribing pattern of third generation cephalosporins in the Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Chennai.

  11. 76 FR 11790 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for Relief of Symptoms of Cough, Cold, or... outstanding hearing requests pertaining to oral prescription drugs offered for relief of symptoms of cough... CFR part 341, ``Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and Antihistamine Drug Products for...

  12. 77 FR 43337 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Certain Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... enacted in 1938, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) required that ``new drugs'' (see... commerce. To this end, the FD&C Act made it the sponsor's responsibility, before marketing a new drug, to... to be marketed without independent approval. In 1962, Congress amended the FD&C Act to require...

  13. The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Drug Users and Religion on Drug Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Joon; Johnson, Byron R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research finds drug-using peers and religiosity to be key predictors of drug use among youth, but the effects of childhood exposure to drug users and religion on later drug use have been understudied. The authors hypothesize a child's exposure to parental drug use and religious upbringing have a causal influence on drug use in youth…

  14. The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Drug Users and Religion on Drug Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Joon; Johnson, Byron R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research finds drug-using peers and religiosity to be key predictors of drug use among youth, but the effects of childhood exposure to drug users and religion on later drug use have been understudied. The authors hypothesize a child's exposure to parental drug use and religious upbringing have a causal influence on drug use in youth…

  15. Increased drug use and the timing of social assistance receipt among people who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Emanuel; Wang, Linwei; Olding, Michelle; DeBeck, Kora; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Nosyk, Bohdan; Richardson, Lindsey

    2016-12-01

    The monthly disbursement of social assistance (SA) payments to people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) has been temporally associated with increases in drug-related harm. Yet, whether SA receipt changes drug use intensity compared to levels of use at other times in the month has not been established. We therefore examined this relationship among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada (2005-2013). Data were derived from prospective cohorts of HIV-positive and HIV-negative PWUD. Every six months, participants were asked about their illicit drug use during the last 180 days and the past week. We determined whether SA receipt occurred within the assessment's one-week recall period. We employed generalized estimating equations controlling for confounders to examine the relationship between SA receipt and the change in drug use intensity, defined as a 100% increase in the average times per day a given drug was used in the last week compared to the previous 6 months. We tested the robustness of this relationship by stratifying analyses by whether individuals primarily used stimulants, illicit opioids or engaged in polydrug use and examining the timing of SA receipt relative to date of assessment. Our study included 2661 individuals (median age 36, 32% female) with 1415 (53.2%) reporting SA receipt occurring within the one-week recall period of the assessment at least once. SA receipt was independently associated with intensified drug use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.79; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.53, 2.09), and remained significant when stratified by primary use of stimulants (AOR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.26), opioids (AOR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.13) and polydrug use (AOR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.10). We found a temporal association between SA receipt and drug use intensification. While the health and social benefits of SA are significant, these findings suggest that alternative disbursement strategies, such as staggered or smaller and more frequent SA payments may be able to mitigate

  16. Predictors of Illicit Drug/s Use Among University Students in Northern Ireland, Wales and England

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Walid El; Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Stock, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of illicit drug/s among university students is a public health concern. Nevertheless, many UK studies investigated a narrow spectrum of variables to explore their association/s with illicit drug/s use. Methods: We assessed the associations between a wide range of socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and having used illicit drug/s regularly, occasionally or never in life (dependent variables). Data (3706 students) were collected from seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: About 5% of the sample had regularly used illicit drug/s, 25% occasionally, and 70% never. Regular drug use (RDU) was significantly more likely among males aged 21-29 years, daily smokers, those with heavy episodic drinking or possible alcohol dependency (CAGE test), and those who perceived their academic performance better than their peers. RDU was less likely among students with high health awareness and those living with parents. The predictors of occasional drug use (ODU) were similar to those of RDU. However, in addition, students with higher perceived stress were less likely, and students who felt financial burden/s were more likely to report ODU, while no association with academic performance was found. Never use of illicit drug/s was inversely associated with most of the variables listed above, and was positively associated with religiosity. Illicit drug/s use goes along with other substance use (alcohol and smoking). The finding that illicit drug/s use was higher among students reporting good academic performance was surprising and raises the question of whether illicit drug/s may be used as performance enhancing drugs. Conclusion: The factors identified with illicit drug/s use in this study could be utilized to develop appropriate public health policies and preventive measures for the health of students. Multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic

  17. Predictors of illicit drug/s use among university students in Northern Ireland, Wales and England.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Stock, Christiane

    2014-12-16

    The use of illicit drug/s among university students is a public health concern. Nevertheless, many UK studies investigated a narrow spectrum of variables to explore their association/s with illicit drug/s use. We assessed the associations between a wide range of socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and having used illicit drug/s regularly, occasionally or never in life (dependent variables). Data (3706 students) were collected from seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, using a self-administered questionnaire. About 5% of the sample had regularly used illicit drug/s, 25% occasionally, and 70% never. Regular drug use (RDU) was significantly more likely among males aged 21-29 years, daily smokers, those with heavy episodic drinking or possible alcohol dependency (CAGE test), and those who perceived their academic performance better than their peers. RDU was less likely among students with high health awareness and those living with parents. The predictors of occasional drug use (ODU) were similar to those of RDU. However, in addition, students with higher perceived stress were less likely, and students who felt financial burden/s were more likely to report ODU, while no association with academic performance was found. Never use of illicit drug/s was inversely associated with most of the variables listed above, and was positively associated with religiosity. Illicit drug/s use goes along with other substance use (alcohol and smoking). The finding that illicit drug/s use was higher among students reporting good academic performance was surprising and raises the question of whether illicit drug/s may be used as performance enhancing drugs. The factors identified with illicit drug/s use in this study could be utilized to develop appropriate public health policies and preventive measures for the health of students. Multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plans are required. This

  18. Online illegal drug use information: an exploratory analysis of drug-related website viewing by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dugosh, Karen L; Lynch, Kevin; Mericle, Amy A; Pich, Michele; Forman, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Given the uncertain effects of antidrug media campaigns, and the ease of finding online illegal drug information, research is needed on the Internet role in disseminating drug information to youths. This exploratory study analyzes National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) data on drug website viewing among 12-18 year olds (N = 7,145). Approximately 10.4% reported drug-related website exposure: 5.4% viewed only websites that communicated how to avoid drugs or bad things about drugs (antidrug websites); 1.7% only viewed websites that communicated how to use drugs and good things about drugs (prodrug websites); and 3.2% viewed both types of websites. The low rates of viewing antidrug websites occurred despite efforts in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign (NYAMC) to encourage youths to visit such websites. Prodrug website viewers had used inhalants and been offered marijuana, perceived little risk in trying marijuana, intended to use marijuana, had close friends who used drugs, reported low parental monitoring, and had been exposed to antidrug media messages. Viewing antidrug websites was related to gender, income, likelihood of using marijuana in the next 12 months, having close friends who use drugs and talking to friends about avoiding drugs, parental monitoring, and drug prevention exposure. Prior prevention exposure increased drug website viewing overall, perhaps by increasing general curiosity about drugs. Because adolescents increasingly seek health information online, research is needed on how they use the Internet as a drug information source, the temporal relationships of prevention exposure and drug website viewing, and the effects of viewing prodrug websites on drug risk.

  19. Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of 'use'?

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Ramasamy, Anand; Sen, Sumalya; Mondal, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), described as a classical hallucinogen, began its journey from the middle of the last century following an accidental discovery. Since then, it was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its beneficial role as an adjunct to psychotherapy was much unknown, until some 'benevolent' experiments were carried out over time to explore some of its potential uses. But, many of its effects were unclear and seemed to be a psychedelic enigma. In this review article, we have described the receptor pharmacology, mechanism of action, effects and adverse effects of LSD on the normal body system. We have also highlighted its addictive potentials and the chances of developing tolerance. We have assimilated some of the interesting therapeutic uses of this drug, such as an antianxiety agent, a creativity enhancer, a suggestibility enhancer, and a performance enhancer. We have also described LSD to be successfully used in drug and alcohol dependence, and as a part of psychedelic peak therapy in terminally ill patients. The relevant chronological history and literature in the light of present knowledge and scenarios have been discussed. Based on available evidence, LSD could be tried therapeutically in certain specific conditions under controlled settings. But as we mention, due to all the safety concerns, the use of this nonaddictive 'entheogen' in actual practice warrants a lot of expertise, caution, cooperation and ethical considerations.

  20. A weighted and integrated drug-target interactome: drug repurposing for schizophrenia as a use case

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational pharmacology can uniquely address some issues in the process of drug development by providing a macroscopic view and a deeper understanding of drug action. Specifically, network-assisted approach is promising for the inference of drug repurposing. However, the drug-target associations coming from different sources and various assays have much noise, leading to an inflation of the inference errors. To reduce the inference errors, it is necessary and critical to create a comprehensive and weighted data set of drug-target associations. Results In this study, we created a weighted and integrated drug-target interactome (WinDTome) to provide a comprehensive resource of drug-target associations for computational pharmacology. We first collected drug-target interactions from six commonly used drug-target centered data sources including DrugBank, KEGG, TTD, MATADOR, PDSP Ki Database, and BindingDB. Then, we employed the record linkage method to normalize drugs and targets to the unique identifiers by utilizing the public data sources including PubChem, Entrez Gene, and UniProt. To assess the reliability of the drug-target associations, we assigned two scores (Score_S and Score_R) to each drug-target association based on their data sources and publication references. Consequently, the WinDTome contains 546,196 drug-target associations among 303,018 compounds and 4,113 genes. To assess the application of the WinDTome, we designed a network-based approach for drug repurposing using mental disorder schizophrenia (SCZ) as a case. Starting from 41 known SCZ drugs and their targets, we inferred a total of 264 potential SCZ drugs through the associations of drug-target with Score_S higher than two in WinDTome and human protein-protein interactions. Among the 264 SCZ-related drugs, 39 drugs have been investigated in clinical trials for SCZ treatment and 74 drugs for the treatment of other mental disorders, respectively. Compared with the results using other

  1. Patterns of common drug use in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Patton, G C; Hibbert, M; Rosier, M J; Carlin, J B; Caust, J; Bowes, G

    1995-08-01

    To ascertain current levels of drug use among teenagers and to examine interrelationships in use, a two-stage cluster sample of Victorian secondary school students in years 7 (aged 12 to 13 years), 9 (14 to 15 years) and 11 (16 to 17 years) were surveyed using a questionnaire on computer. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were evaluated by self-reported frequency of use and seven-day retrospective diaries. Marijuana and coffee consumption were assessed by self-reported frequency of recent use. The questionnaire was completed by 2525, a participation rate of 83 per cent. Tobacco use rose with year, with 24 per cent of young women and 16 per cent of young men in year 11 being regular smokers. Trends across year level for heavier alcohol consumption were also observed, with just under 10 per cent of year 11 students reporting a weekly consumption higher than the current recommended guidelines for adults. Strong interrelationships in drug use were found, with a pattern of association between smoking and drinking consistent with a mutual elevation of risk. Frequent use of tobacco and alcohol had a high risk for associated marijuana use. Coffee consumption carried a significant independent association with regular smoking. Teenage substance use is common and most occurs at low level and frequency. However, for a substantial and increasing minority across the teenage years, high levels of tobacco and alcohol consumption potentially compromise health. Frequent alcohol or tobacco use rather than heavy intermittent consumption is most likely to be associated with concurrent substance use potentially damaging to health.

  2. [Drugs used to treat nicotine addiction].

    PubMed

    Zieleń, Iwona; Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking in Poland is fairly widespread on a large scale. Research suggests that the early twenty-first century, the percentage of female daily smokers aged 20 and above was 26%, and men the same age 43%. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown that smoking was the cause of approximately sixty-nine thousand deaths in Poland (including fifty-seven thousand men and twelve thousand women). It is common ground that cigarette smoking has a negative effect on our body. It represents one of the main and most commonly defined risk factors for many diseases that can be eliminated. Smoking often leads to addiction, and nicotine is an addictive drug. Nicotine addiction is characterized by symptoms such as: "hunger" smoking, difficulty in controlling behavior on smoking or the number of cigarettes smoked, nicotine withdrawal, the occurrence of tolerance, neglect of interests, as well as devoting more time on activities related to smoking, follow-up smoking despite knowledge of its dangers. The most commonly used in Poland, a questionnaire to identify nicotine dependence is a test Fagerstöma. Currently assigned some importance, "the doctor a conversation the patient" and motivating him to stop smoking and maintain abstinence as long as possible. But beyond the "conversation" is also used as an aid to medical treatment for the patient to stop smoking, especially to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. The first attempts of pharmacological help in the effort to weaning from smoking began in the thirties. Were conducted fairly successful, although uncontrolled trials with lobeline, an alkaloid of action similar to nicotine. In Poland, the drugs of first choice in the treatment of nicotine dependence are nicotine replacement therapies (nicotine gum and patches that contain nicotine) and bupropion SR. Quite a popular drugs to help in the fight against addiction are also cytisine and varenicline. The choice of the drug is usually the result of medical experience in the use

  3. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  4. Paclitaxel: new uses for an old drug

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongshan; Yang, Ruhao; Wang, Shixuan; Dong, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol), one of the most important anticancer drugs, has been used for therapy of different types of cancers. Mechanistically, paclitaxel arrests cell cycle and induces cell death by stabilizing microtubules and interfering with microtubule disassembly in cell division. Recently, it has been found that low-dose paclitaxel seems promising in treating non-cancer diseases, such as skin disorders, renal and hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, axon regeneration, limb salvage, and coronary artery restenosis. Future studies need to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects in order to design therapies with specificity. PMID:24591817

  5. Rational use of generic psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-05-01

    individual patients since the pharmacokinetic properties of each generic may differ from the innovator drug in opposing directions. Ideally, therapeutic equivalence studies in addition to pharmacokinetic equivalence studies would be performed for each generic, reflecting the full variability of clinical responses due to changes of pharmacokinetic properties related to age, sex, ethnicity, genetic factors, and body mass index. This is particularly relevant, as bioequivalence studies are based on single-dose studies in healthy controls who are likely not representative of the patients who are prescribed the psychotropic medications. Additionally, individual case reports suggest potential clinical effects during brand-generic switches. Knowledge and consideration of intra-individual variations can help guide the clinical management during brand-generic or generic-generic switch periods. To optimize outcomes, clinicians need to consider that when using generic psychotropic medications, a change in the patient's clinical status can be related to psychological, interactional, physiological, and pharmacological factors that may or may not be related to the change to a generic drug. In addition, throughout all treatment periods, clinicians need to be aware of the currently dispensed product (i.e., branded or exact generic formulation), particularly when evaluating clinical changes in efficacy, tolerability, and adherence. If clinical problems occur, the first response should be an assessment of adherence and a careful dose adjustments of the generic drug rather than an immediate switch back to the originator.

  6. Drug-facilitated sexual assault using tetrahydrozoline.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Siewert, Dennis J

    2012-05-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has been defined as the use of a chemical agent to facilitate a sexual assault. We report two cases of the use of tetrahydrozoline for DFSA. We believe this is the first report with urinary quantification of tetrahydrozoline levels postassault. Blood and urine were obtained c. 20 h postexposure in two cases of reported DFSA. Tetrahydrozoline was not detected in blood but was identified in urine in both victims. After initial identification in the urine using the 2010 update to the AAFS mass spectrometry database library, tetrahydrozoline was quantified at 114 and 150 ng/mL, respectively, using GC/MS. Two unique clinical features reported in these cases were intermittent periods of consciousness and postexposure vomiting. Use of GC/MS was successful in identifying tetrahydrozoline in the 100 ng/mL range up to 20 h postexposure. For victims with late presentation, urine may be a better sample for evaluation for tetrahydrozoline.

  7. Increasing Use of Drugs by Our Youth. Remarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolins, Robert

    A general look at the drug abuse problem comprises the first part of the paper. The author views drug abuse in terms of dependence rather than addiction, and as being either physiological or psychological. He briefly discusses which drugs are used, by whom, and for what purposes. Drug abuse is seen as an old problem with contemporary…

  8. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... through the State's mechanized drug claims processing and information retrieval systems approved by CMS (that is, the Medicaid Management Information System (MMIS)) or an electronic drug claims processing... Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... without naming their components. (ii) Color additives may be designated as coloring without...

  10. Assembling the dominant accounts of youth drug use in Australian harm reduction drug education.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    Education programs are a central element of Australian harm reduction drug policy. Considered less judgmental and more effective than the punitive policies of Australia's past, harm reduction drug education is premised on the goal of reducing 'risks' and harms associated with illicit drug use rather than an elimination of use per se. In this article I analyse two sets of key texts designed to reduce drug related harm in Australia: harm reduction teaching resources designed for classroom use and social marketing campaigns that are targeted to a more general audience. I identify two significant accounts of young people's drug use present in Australian harm reduction drug education: 'damaged mental health' and 'distress'. I then draw on some of Deleuze and Guattari's key concepts to consider the harm reducing potential these accounts may have for young people's drug using experiences. To demonstrate the potential limitations of current drug education, I refer to an established body of work examining young people's experiences of chroming. From here, I argue that the accounts of 'damaged mental health' and 'distress' may work to limit the capacity of young drug users to practice safer drug use. In sum, current Australian harm reduction drug education and social marketing may be producing rather than reducing drug related harm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Respondent-Driven Sampling to Recruit Illegal Drug Purchasers to Evaluate a Drug Market Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ober, Allison J; Sussell, Jesse; Kilmer, Beau; Saunders, Jessica; Heckathorn, Douglas D

    2016-04-01

    Violent drug markets are not as prominent as they once were in the United States, but they still exist and are associated with significant crime and lower quality of life. The drug market intervention (DMI) is an innovative strategy that uses focused deterrence, community engagement, and incapacitation to reduce crime and disorder associated with these markets. Although studies show that DMI can reduce crime and overt drug activity, one perspective is prominently missing from these evaluations: those who purchase drugs. This study explores the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS)-a statistical sampling method-to approximate a representative sample of drug users who purchased drugs in a targeted DMI market to gain insight into the effect of a DMI on market dynamics. Using RDS, we recruited individuals who reported hard drug use (crack or powder cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, or illicit use of prescriptions opioids) in the last month to participate in a survey. The main survey asked about drug use, drug purchasing, and drug market activity before and after DMI; a secondary survey asked about network characteristics and recruitment. Our sample of 212 respondents met key RDS assumptions, suggesting that the characteristics of our weighted sample approximate the characteristics of the drug user network. The weighted estimates for market purchasers are generally valid for inferences about the aggregate population of customers, but a larger sample size is needed to make stronger inferences about the effects of a DMI on drug market activity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Emerging and Underrecognized Complications of Illicit Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Merchant, Elisabeth A.; Clark, Roger P.; Stone, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Illicit drug use can result in a wide range of medical complications. As the availability, synthesis, and popularity of illicit drugs evolve over time, new syndromes associated with their use may mimic infections. Some of these symptoms are anticipated drug effects, and others are complications of adulterants mixed with drugs or complications from the method of using drugs. Some illicit drugs are associated with rare infections, which are difficult to diagnosis with standard microbiological techniques. The goal of this review is to orient a wide range of clinicians—including general practitioners, emergency medicine providers, and infectious diseases specialists—to complications of illicit drug use that may be underrecognized. Improving awareness of infectious and noninfectious complications of illicit drug can expedite diagnosis and medical treatment of persons who use drugs and facilitate targeted harm reduction counseling to prevent future complications. PMID:26270683

  13. Patterns of Drug Use in Fatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Pollini, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize drug prevalence among fatally injured drivers, identify significant associations (i.e., day of week, time of day, age, gender), and compare findings with those for alcohol. Design Descriptive and logistic mixed-model regression analyses of Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Setting U.S. states with drug test results for >80% of fatally injured drivers, 1998-2010. Participants Drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes on public roads who died at the scene of the crash (N=16,942). Measurements Drug test results, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gender, age, and day and time of crash. Findings Overall, 45.1% of fatally injured drivers tested positive for alcohol (39.9% BAC>0.08) and 25.9% for drugs. The most common drugs present were stimulants (7.2%) and cannabinols (7.1%), followed by “other” drugs (4.1%), multiple drugs (4.1%), narcotics (2.1%), and depressants (1.5%). Drug-involved crashes occurred with relative uniformity throughout the day while alcohol-involved crashes were more common at night (p<.01). The odds of testing positive for drugs varied depending upon drug class, driver characteristics, time of day, and the presence of alcohol. Conclusions Fatal single vehicle crashes involving drugs are less common than those involving alcohol and the characteristics of drug-involved crashes differ depending upon drug class and whether alcohol is present. Concerns about drug-impaired driving should not detract from the current law enforcement focus on alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:23600629

  14. Guide to Using Drugs, Biologics, and Other Chemicals in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Guide to Using Drugs, Biologics, and Other Chemicals in Aquaculture (Guide) describes regulated products that are approved for use in U.S. aquaculture. The Guide also describes drugs that are not yet approved for use in the U. S. but that can be used under an Investigational New Animal Drug (INA...

  15. Highlights from Student Drug Use in America 1975-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This report presents findings from a national survey of the 1975-80 high school classes, focusing on drug use and related attitudes of American high school seniors. The materials highlight data on grade of first use, usage trends at earlier grade levels, intensity of drug use, attitudes and beliefs about various types of drug use, and students'…

  16. Alcohol and Drug Use among "Street" Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirnan, David J.; Johnson, Tina

    Although adolescent alcohol and drug use is decreasing, many teenagers continue to use alcohol and drugs. Studies of adolescent alcohol use typically sample intact high school populations, excluding dropouts and adolescents alienated from straight high school populations. Alcohol and drug use and alcohol related attitudes were measured in 62…

  17. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Víctor; González, Laura

    2009-06-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  18. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  19. Drug-drug Interaction Discovery Using Abstraction Networks for “National Drug File – Reference Terminology” Chemical Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Christopher; Zheng, Ling; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Zakharchenko, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The National Drug File – Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology. NDF-RT provides important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles. It is difficult to comprehend large, complex terminologies like NDF-RT. In previous studies, we introduced abstraction networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies. In this paper, we introduce the Ingredient Abstraction Network to summarize NDF-RT’s Chemical Ingredients and their associated drugs. Additionally, we introduce the Aggregate Ingredient Abstraction Network, for controlling the granularity of summarization provided by the Ingredient Abstraction Network. The Ingredient Abstraction Network is used to support the discovery of new candidate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) not appearing in First Databank, Inc.’s DDI knowledgebase. PMID:26958234

  20. 76 FR 1174 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-1981-N-0361 (formerly 81N-0391), FDA-1981-N... Relief of Symptoms of Cough, Cold, or Allergy; Withdrawal of Hearing Requests; Opportunity To Affirm Outstanding Hearing Requests; Final Resolution of Dockets ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  1. Use of toxicological information in drug design.

    PubMed

    Matthews, E J; Benz, R D; Contrera, J F

    2000-12-01

    This paper is an extension of the keynote address and another talk at the Symposium on the Use of Toxiciological Information in Drug Design. The symposium was organized by American Chemical Society's Chemical Information Division at the 220th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC, August 20-24, 2000. We outline an approach for meeting the scientific information needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Ready access to scientific information is critical to support safety-related regulatory decisions and is especially valuable in situations where available experimental information from in vivo/in vitro studies are inadequate or unavailable. This approach also has applications for lead selection in drug discovery. A pilot electronic toxicology/safety knowledge base and computational toxicology initiative is underway in the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) that may be a prototype for an FDA knowledge base. The objectives of this effort are: (i) to strengthen and broaden the scientific basis of regulatory decisions, (ii) to provide the Agency with an electronic scientific institutional memory, (iii) to create a scientific resource for regulatory and applied research, and (iv) to establish an internal Web-based support service that can provide decision support information for regulators that will facilitate the review process and improve consistency and uniformity. An essential component of this scientific knowledge base is the creation of a comprehensive electronic inventory of CDER-regulated substances that permit identification of clusters of substances having similar chemical, pharmacological or toxicological activities, and molecular structure/substructures. Furthermore, the inventory acts as a pointer and link to other databases and critical non-clinical and clinical pharmacology/toxicology studies and reviews in FDA archives. Clusters of related substances are identified through the use of: (i) an

  2. Club drugs: reasons for and consequences of use.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Cheryl L

    2004-09-01

    This preliminary descriptive study was designed to assess the reasons, primary contexts, and consequences (physical, psychological, lifestyle) of club drug use in a sample of young adults in a mid-size U.S. city. Fifty young adults (18 to 30 years old) reported on their use of club drugs (Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, Rohypnol, methamphetamine, LSD) in face-to-face interviews that included quantitative and qualitative measures. Ecstasy was the most frequently used club drug followed by ketamine, LSD and methamphetamine. All of the participants reported using club drugs to "experiment" and most reported using these drugs to feel good and enhance social activities. Club drugs were frequently used at raves, in bars or clubs, and at home with friends. An average of 16 negative physical, psychological, and lifestyle consequences were reported for club drug use. Despite substantial negative consequences, participants perceived several positive consequences of regular recreational club drug use. These findings corroborate descriptions of club drug use in other countries (e.g., Australia, United Kingdom) and provide additional information on perceived positive consequences that users experience with club drug use. Further exploration of the reasons and positive consequences that are associated with use of each of the club drugs may provide important information on the growing trend in use of these drugs.

  3. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  4. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  5. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  6. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  7. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  8. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  9. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  10. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  11. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  12. Job Mobility and Drug Use: An Event History Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of 1,325 young adults aged 24 to 25, to investigate the relationship between patterns of drug use and job separations. The relationships observed between job mobility and drug use support the general hypothesis that drug use predicts job turnover and decreased tenure on the job. (JDH)

  13. Job Mobility and Drug Use: An Event History Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of 1,325 young adults aged 24 to 25, to investigate the relationship between patterns of drug use and job separations. The relationships observed between job mobility and drug use support the general hypothesis that drug use predicts job turnover and decreased tenure on the job. (JDH)

  14. Drugs and Sex. The Nonmedical Use of Drugs and Sexual Behavior. National Institute on Drugs Research Issues 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report represents the second in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews some of the major research findings which explore the relationship between nonmedical drug use and sexual behavior. The research is summarized and…

  15. Drug Delivery Systems and Combination Therapy by Using Vinca Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Huang, Yen-Wei; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing new methods for chemotherapy drug delivery has become a topic of great concern. Vinca alkaloids are among the most widely used chemotherapy reagents for tumor therapy; however, their side effects are particularly problematic for many medical doctors. To reduce the toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficiency of vinca alkaloids, many researchers have developed strategies such as using liposome-entrapped drugs, chemical- or peptide-modified drugs, polymeric packaging drugs, and chemotherapy drug combinations. This review mainly focuses on the development of a vinca alkaloid drug delivery system and the combination therapy. Five vinca alkaloids (eg, vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vindesine, and vinflunine) are reviewed. PMID:25877096

  16. Drugs used for euthanasia in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vander Stichele, R H; Bilsen, J J R; Bernheim, J L; Mortier, F; Deliens, L

    2004-02-01

    Our aim was to describe and assess the medicinal products and doses used for euthanasia in a series of cases, identified within an epidemiological death certificate study in Belgium, where euthanasia was until recently legally forbidden and where guidelines for euthanasia are not available. In a random sample of the deaths in 1998 in Belgium, the physicians who signed the death certificates were identified and sent an anonymous mail questionnaire. The questionnaires of the deaths classified as euthanasia cases were reviewed by a multi-disciplinary panel. A total of 22 among 1925 questionnaires pertained to voluntary euthanasia. In 17 cases, detailed information on the euthanatics (medicinal substances used for euthanasia) used was provided. Opioids were used in 13 cases (in 7 as a single drug). Time between last dose and expiry ranged from 4 to 900 min. The panel judged that only in 4 cases effective euthanatics were used. In the end-of-life decision cases perceived by Belgian physicians as euthanasia, pharmacological practices were disparate, although dominated by the use of morphine, in the very late phase of dying, in doses which were unlikely to be lethal. Most physicians clandestinely engaging in euthanasia in Belgium seemed unaware of procedures for guaranteeing a quick, mild and certain death. Information on the pharmacological aspects of euthanasia should be included in the medical curriculum and continuing medical education, at least in countries with a legal framework permitting euthanasia under specified conditions.

  17. Using Linked Data for Mining Drug-Drug Interactions in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Kiefer, Richard C.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    By nature, healthcare data is highly complex and voluminous. While on one hand, it provides unprecedented opportunities to identify hidden and unknown relationships between patients and treatment outcomes, or drugs and allergic reactions for given individuals, representing and querying large network datasets poses significant technical challenges. In this research, we study the use of Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies for identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI) information from publicly available resources, and determining if such interactions were observed using real patient data. Specifically, we apply Linked Data principles and technologies for representing patient data from electronic health records (EHRs) at Mayo Clinic as Resource Description Framework (RDF), and identify potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) for widely prescribed cardiovascular and gastroenterology drugs. Our results from the proof-of-concept study demonstrate the potential of applying such a methodology to study patient health outcomes as well as enabling genome-guided drug therapies and treatment interventions. PMID:23920643

  18. Using linked data for mining drug-drug interactions in electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Kiefer, Richard C; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    By nature, healthcare data is highly complex and voluminous. While on one hand, it provides unprecedented opportunities to identify hidden and unknown relationships between patients and treatment outcomes, or drugs and allergic reactions for given individuals, representing and querying large network datasets poses significant technical challenges. In this research, we study the use of Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies for identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI) information from publicly available resources, and determining if such interactions were observed using real patient data. Specifically, we apply Linked Data principles and technologies for representing patient data from electronic health records (EHRs) at Mayo Clinic as Resource Description Framework (RDF), and identify potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) for widely prescribed cardiovascular and gastroenterology drugs. Our results from the proof-of-concept study demonstrate the potential of applying such a methodology to study patient health outcomes as well as enabling genome-guided drug therapies and treatment interventions.

  19. Social relationships and intravenous drug use among methadone maintenance patients.

    PubMed

    Gogineni, A; Stein, M D; Friedmann, P D

    2001-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which social relationships were associated with continued injection drug use and needle sharing among 252 methadone maintenance patients. Logistic regression analyses indicated that drug use was highest among persons who had a substance using live-in partner and among those with more drug-using social relationships. Among injectors, whites and those who had more people present during IV drug use were more likely to share needles, while those with more emotional support were less likely to do so. These findings suggest that personal relationships strongly influence continued injection drug use and that methadone programs should help patients develop social networks of non-users.

  20. Do drug seizures predict drug-related emergency department presentations or arrests for drug use and possession?

    PubMed

    Wan, Wai-Yin; Weatherburn, Don; Wardlaw, Grant; Sarafidis, Vasilis; Sara, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Direct evidence of the effect of drug seizures on drug use and drug-related harm is fairly sparse. The aim of this study was to see whether seizures of heroin, cocaine and ATS predict the number of people arrested for use and possession of these drugs and the number overdosing on them. We examined the effect of seizure frequency and seizure weight on arrests for drug use and possession and on the frequency of drug overdose with autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models. Granger causality tests were used to test for simultaneity. Over the short term (i.e. up to 4 months), increases in the intensity of high-level drug law enforcement (as measured by seizure weight and frequency) directed at ATS, cocaine and heroin did not appear to have any suppression effect on emergency department (ED) presentations relating to ATS, cocaine and heroin, or on arrests for use and/or possession of these drugs. A significant negative contemporaneous relationship was found between the heroin seizure weight and arrests for use and/or possession of heroin. However no evidence emerged of a contemporaneous or lagged relationship between heroin seizures and heroin ED presentations. The balance of evidence suggests that, in the Australian context, increases in the monthly seizure frequency and quantity of ATS, cocaine and heroin are signals of increased rather than reduced supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Beyond 'peer pressure': rethinking drug use and 'youth culture'.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Hilary

    2007-05-01

    The study of drug use by young people in the West has been transformed over the last decade by the development of sociological approaches to drug use which take serious account of the cultural context in which young people encounter drugs. One consequence is that the notion of 'peer pressure', as the primary articulation of the engagement between youth culture and drug use, has been displaced by that of 'normalisation', which envisages 'recreational' drug use as one expression of consumer-based youth cultural lifestyles. In stark contrast, academic discussion of drug use in Russia remains primarily concerned with the prevalence and health consequences of (intravenous) drug use while explanations of rising rates of drug use focus on structural factors related to the expansion of drugs supply and, to a lesser extent, post-Soviet social and economic dislocation. In this article, original empirical research in Russia is used to develop an understanding of young people's drug use that synthesises structural and cultural explanations of it. It does this by situating young people's narratives of their drugs choices in the context of local drugs markets and broader socio-economic processes. However, it attempts to go beyond seeing structural location as simply a 'constraint' on individual choice by adopting an understanding of 'youth culture' as a range of youth cultural practices and formations that simultaneously embody, reproduce and negotiate the structural locations of their subjects.

  2. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  3. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall...

  4. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  5. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  6. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall...

  7. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall...

  8. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  9. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  10. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  11. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  12. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  13. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products if...

  14. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products if...

  15. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The agency...

  16. Compulsory drug detention and injection drug use cessation and relapse in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Nadia; Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to promote the reduction and cessation of injection drug use are central to human immunodeficiency virus prevention and treatment efforts globally. Though drug use cessation is a major focus of drug policy in Thailand, little is known about factors associated with injection cessation and relapse in this setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and October 2011 of a community-recruited sample of people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the prevalence and correlates of injection drug use cessation with subsequent relapse. Among 422 participants, 209 (49.5%) reported a period of injection drug use cessation of at least one year. In multivariate analyses, incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 13.07), voluntary drug treatment (AOR 2.75), midazolam injection (AOR 2.48) and number of years since first injection (AOR 1.07) were positively associated with injection cessation of duration greater than a year (all P < 0.05). Exposure to compulsory drug detention was positively associated (AOR 2.61) and methadone treatment was negatively associated (AOR 0.38) with short-term cessation only. Injection drug use cessation was most often due to incarceration (74%), and relapse was associated with release from prison (66%). Half of the study participants had previously stopped injecting drugs for more than a year, and this was strongly associated with incarceration. Compulsory drug detention was associated with short-term cessation and relapse. A range of evidence-based strategies should be made available to facilitate sustained cessation of injection drug use in Thailand. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Bradley M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Phillips, Benjamin; Wiessing, Lucas; Hickman, Matthew; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wodak, Alex; Panda, Samiran; Tyndall, Mark; Toufik, Abdalla; Mattick, Richard P

    2008-11-15

    Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of injecting drug use among individuals aged 15-64 years, and of HIV among people who inject drugs. We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline, EmBase, and PubMed/BioMed Central), internet, and grey literature databases; and data requests were made to UN agencies and international experts. 11 022 documents were reviewed, graded, and catalogued by the Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Injecting drug use was identified in 148 countries; data for the extent of injecting drug use was absent for many countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. The presence of HIV infection among injectors had been reported in 120 of these countries. Prevalence estimates of injecting drug use could be ascertained for 61 countries, containing 77% of the world's total population aged 15-64 years. Extrapolated estimates suggest that 15.9 million (range 11.0-21.2 million) people might inject drugs worldwide; the largest numbers of injectors were found in China, the USA, and Russia, where mid-estimates of HIV prevalence among injectors were 12%, 16%, and 37%, respectively. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users was 20-40% in five countries and over 40% in nine. We estimate that, worldwide, about 3.0 million (range 0.8-6.6 million) people who inject drugs might be HIV positive. The number of countries in which the injection of drugs has been reported has increased over the last decade. The high prevalence of HIV among many populations of injecting drug users represents a substantial global health challenge. However, existing data are far from adequate, in both quality and quantity, particularly in view of the increasing importance of injecting drug use as a mode of HIV transmission in many regions.

  18. 'Trafficking' or 'personal use': do people who regularly inject drugs understand Australian drug trafficking laws?

    PubMed

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Ritter, Alison; Cowdery, Nicholas; Sindicich, Natasha

    2014-11-01

    Legal thresholds for drug trafficking, over which possession of an illicit drug is deemed 'trafficking' as opposed to 'personal use', are employed in all Australian states and territories excepting Queensland. In this paper, we explore the extent to which people who regularly inject drugs understand such laws. Participants from the seven affected states/territories in the 2012 Illicit Drug Reporting System (n = 823) were asked about their legal knowledge of trafficking thresholds: whether, if arrested, quantity possessed would affect legal action taken; and the quantities of heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis that would constitute an offence of supply. Data were compared against the actual laws to identify the accuracy of knowledge by drug type and state, and sociodemographics, use and purchasing patterns related to knowledge. Most Illicit Drug Reporting System participants (77%) correctly said that quantity possessed would affect charge received. However, only 55.8% nominated any specific quantity that would constitute an offence of supply, and of those 22.6% nominated a wrong quantity, namely a quantity that was larger than the actual quantity for supply (this varied by state and drug). People who regularly inject drugs have significant gaps in knowledge about Australian legal thresholds for drug trafficking, particularly regarding the actual threshold quantities. This suggests that there may be a need to improve education for this population. Necessity for accurate knowledge would also be lessened by better design of Australian drug trafficking laws. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Herb-Drug Interactions of Commonly Used Chinese Medicinal Herbs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrinder; Zhao, Kaicun

    2017-01-01

    With more and more popular use of traditional herbal medicines, in particular Chinese herbal medicines, herb-drug interactions have become a more and more important safety issue in the clinical applications of the conventional drugs. Researches in this area are increasing very rapidly. Herb-drug interactions are complicated due to the fact that multiple chemical components are involved, and these compounds may possess diverse pharmacological activities. Interactions can be in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Abundant studies focused on pharmacokinetic interactions of herbs and drugs. Herbs may affect the behavior of the concomitantly used drugs by changing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Studies on pharmacodynamics interactions of herbs and drugs are still very limited. Herb-drug interactions are potentially causing changes in drug levels and drug activities and leading to either therapeutic failure or toxicities. Sometime it can be fatal. The exposures to drugs, lacking of knowledge in the potential adverse herb-drug interactions, will put big risk to patients' safety in medical services. On the contrary, some interactions may be therapeutically beneficial. It may be used to help develop new therapeutic strategies in the future. This chapter is trying to review the development in the area of herb-drug interactions based on the recently published research findings. Information on the potential interactions among the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs and conventional drugs is summarized in this chapter. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of resistance to use drugs among adolescents who had an opportunity to use drugs*

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Neumark, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Background As drugs remain ubiquitous and their use increasingly viewed as socially normative, vulnerable population groups such as adolescents face continued and growing risk. A better understanding of the factors that discourage individuals from initiating drug use, particularly in enabling scenarios, is therefore needed. This study aims to identify individual, interpersonal and school-contextual factors associated with resistance to using drugs in the presence of a drug use opportunity among adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods Data are analyzed from 724 school-attending adolescents (15.1 years, SD=1.3) who have had an opportunity to use drugs. Schools were selected in a multistage probability cluster sample. Random intercept multilevel logistic regression models were implemented to estimate the effect of individual, interpersonal and school-contextual level variables on the likelihood of resisting using drugs. Results Drug use resistance was observed in less than half (41.4%) of those students who experienced an opportunity to use drugs. Drug use resistance was strongly associated with having experienced a passive drug use opportunity (AOR=3.1, 95%CI=2.0, 4.9), the number of drugs offered (AOR=0.7, 95% CI=0.6, 0.8) and family factors such as not having a drug-using first-degree relative (AOR=2.3, 95%CI=1.2, 4.3) and a high degree of parental supervision (AOR=1.9, 95%CI=1.0, 3.2). Conclusions A large proportion of students who experienced a drug-use opportunity did not initiate drug use despite living in a context of high drug availability and social disorganization. The findings highlight the need for effective family-based drug use prevention interventions within the Colombian context. PMID:25659896

  1. Characteristics of drug use on sheep farms in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Catherine S.; Berke, Olaf; Avery, Brent P.; McEwen, Scott A.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Scott, Lisa; Menzies, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of the use of drugs, especially antimicrobials, on Ontario sheep farms. Forty-nine sheep farms participated in a 12-month prospective study. Producers documented treatment events during the study period and drug use data from the records were summarized. The most frequently used drugs of the 15 drug categories used by producers belonged to the following categories: antimicrobial (40.7%, n = 2710), vitamin/mineral (12.0%), and biological (11.1%). Short-acting penicillin (27.2%, n = 1103), long-acting oxytetracycline (22.9%), and long-acting penicillin (21.9%) were the most frequently used antimicrobials. The drugs that were used most frequently on sheep farms were antimicrobials, of which 93% of treatments were extra-label. Extensive extra-label drug use may be the result of the limited number of drugs that are approved in Canada for use in sheep. PMID:21358930

  2. Drug susceptibility prediction against a panel of drugs using kernelized Bayesian multitask learning

    PubMed Central

    Gönen, Mehmet; Margolin, Adam A.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer require personalized therapies owing to their inherent heterogeneous nature. For both diseases, large-scale pharmacogenomic screens of molecularly characterized samples have been generated with the hope of identifying genetic predictors of drug susceptibility. Thus, computational algorithms capable of inferring robust predictors of drug responses from genomic information are of great practical importance. Most of the existing computational studies that consider drug susceptibility prediction against a panel of drugs formulate a separate learning problem for each drug, which cannot make use of commonalities between subsets of drugs. Results: In this study, we propose to solve the problem of drug susceptibility prediction against a panel of drugs in a multitask learning framework by formulating a novel Bayesian algorithm that combines kernel-based non-linear dimensionality reduction and binary classification (or regression). The main novelty of our method is the joint Bayesian formulation of projecting data points into a shared subspace and learning predictive models for all drugs in this subspace, which helps us to eliminate off-target effects and drug-specific experimental noise. Another novelty of our method is the ability of handling missing phenotype values owing to experimental conditions and quality control reasons. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm via cross-validation experiments on two benchmark drug susceptibility datasets of HIV and cancer. Our method obtains statistically significantly better predictive performance on most of the drugs compared with baseline single-task algorithms that learn drug-specific models. These results show that predicting drug susceptibility against a panel of drugs simultaneously within a multitask learning framework improves overall predictive performance over single-task learning approaches. Availability and implementation: Our Matlab implementations for

  3. Epidemiology of DSM-5 Drug Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Bridget F.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Ruan, W. June; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Smith, Sharon M.; Pickering, Roger P.; Huang, Boji; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Current information on the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical profiles of individuals in the general population with DSM-5 drug use disorder (DUD) is limited. Given the present societal and economic context in the United States and the new diagnostic system, up-to-date national information is needed from a single uniform data source. OBJECTIVE To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 DUD diagnoses overall and by severity level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In-person interviews were conducted with 36 309 adults in the 2012–2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III, a cross-sectional representative survey of the United States. The household response rate was 72%; person-level response rate, 84%; and overall response rate, 60.1%. Data were collected April 2012 through June 2013 and analyzed from February through March 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Twelve-month and lifetime DUD, based on amphetamine, cannabis, club drug, cocaine, hallucinogen, heroin, nonheroin opioid, sedative/tranquilizer, and/or solvent/inhalant use disorders. RESULTS Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime DUD were 3.9% and 9.9%, respectively. Drug use disorder was generally greater among men, white and Native American individuals, younger and previously or never married adults, those with lower education and income, and those residing in the West. Significant associations were found between 12-month and lifetime DUD and other substance use disorders. Significant associations were also found between any 12-month DUD and major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.09–1.64), dysthymia (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09–2.02), bipolar I (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.06–2.05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.27–2.10), and antisocial (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.11–1.75), borderline (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.41–2.24), and schizotypal (OR, 1

  4. Using a drug facts box to communicate drug benefits and harms: two randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Welch, H Gilbert

    2009-04-21

    Direct-to-consumer prescription drug ads typically fail to provide fundamental information that consumers need to make informed decisions: data on how well the drug works. To see whether providing consumers with a drug facts box-a table quantifying outcomes with and without the drug-improves knowledge and affects judgments about prescription medications. Two randomized, controlled trials conducted between October 2006 and April 2007: a symptom drug box trial using direct-to-consumer ads for a histamine-2 blocker and a proton-pump inhibitor to treat heartburn, and a prevention drug box trial using direct-to-consumer ads for a statin and clopidogrel to prevent cardiovascular events. National sample of U.S. adults identified by random-digit dialing. Adults age 35 to 70 years who completed a mailed survey; the final samples comprised 231 participants with completed surveys in the symptom drug box trial (49% response rate) and 219 in the prevention drug box trial (46% response rate). In both trials, the control group received 2 actual drug ads (including both the front page and brief summary). The drug box group received the same ads, except that the brief summary was replaced by a drug facts box. Choice between drugs (primary outcome of the symptom drug box trial) and accurate perceptions of drug benefits and side effects (primary outcome of the prevention drug box trial). In the symptom drug box trial, 70% of the drug box group and 8% of the control group correctly identified the PPI as being "a lot more effective" than the histamine-2 blocker (P < 0.001), and 80% and 38% correctly recognized that the side effects of the 2 drugs were similar (P < 0.001). When asked what they would do if they had bothersome heartburn and could have either drug for free, 68% of the drug box group and 31% of the control group chose the proton-pump inhibitor, the superior drug (P < 0.001). In the prevention drug box trial, the drug box improved consumers' knowledge of the benefits and

  5. Drug Repurposing Hypothesis Generation Using the "RE:fine Drugs" System

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Kelly; Moosavinasab, Soheil; Payne, Philip; Lin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The promise of drug repurposing is that existing drugs may be used for new disease indications in order to curb the high costs and time for approval. The goal of computational methods for drug repurposing is to enable solutions for safer, cheaper and faster drug discovery. Towards this end, we developed a novel method that integrates genetic and clinical phenotype data from large-scale GWAS and PheWAS studies with detailed drug information on the concept of transitive Drug-Gene-Disease triads. We created "RE:fine Drugs," a freely available, interactive dashboard that automates gene, disease and drug-based searches to identify drug repurposing candidates. This web-based tool supports a user-friendly interface that includes an array of advanced search and export options. Results can be prioritized in a variety of ways, including but not limited to, biomedical literature support, strength and statistical significance of GWAS and/or PheWAS associations, disease indications and molecular drug targets. Here we provide a protocol that illustrates the functionalities available in the "RE:fine Drugs" system and explores the different advanced options through a case study. PMID:28060329

  6. [Cost of drugs used to treat cardiovascular disease in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bueno, Cristiane Schmalz; Moreira, Angélica Cristiane; Oliveira, Karla Renata de

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the circulatory system are a principal cause of mortality in Brazil. Using as a basis drugs dispensed through Brazil's Popular Pharmacy Program (FPB, for its name in Portuguese), prices for drugs used to treat circulatory diseases were analyzed to identify the advantages of using generic drugs and the FPB. Drug prices were obtained using Brazil's Pharmacy Price Guide and FPB price tables. The costs of 15 drugs available through the FPB were compared with those of three generic pharmaceutical products, three similar products, and the reference drug. The generic drugs were lower in price for 10 of the drugs and for four of the similar products. The FPB drugs were of the lowest price. Generic and FPB drugs are easily accessed by the population and thus facilitate the continuity of pharmacotherapy when these drugs are not available through the Unified Health System and/or are not affordable through other means. Access to drugs should be taken into consideration at the time prescriptions are filled, especially as regards those used to treat chronic diseases.

  7. Recent advances of controlled drug delivery using microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Sharma T; Zhou, Wan; Dou, Maowei; Tavakoli, Hamed; Ma, Lei; Xu, Feng; Li, XiuJun

    2017-09-15

    Conventional systematically-administered drugs distribute evenly throughout the body, get degraded and excreted rapidly while crossing many biological barriers, leaving minimum amounts of the drugs at pathological sites. Controlled drug delivery aims to deliver drugs to the target sites at desired rates and time, thus enhancing the drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability while maintaining minimal side effects. Due to a number of unique advantages of the recent microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology, microfluidic lab-on-a-chip has provided unprecedented opportunities for controlled drug delivery. Drugs can be efficiently delivered to the target sites at desired rates in a well-controlled manner by microfluidic platforms via integration, implantation, localization, automation, and precise control of various microdevice parameters. These features accordingly make reproducible, on-demand, and tunable drug delivery become feasible. On-demand self-tuning dynamic drug delivery systems have shown great potential for personalized drug delivery. This review presents an overview of recent advances in controlled drug delivery using microfluidic platforms. The review first briefly introduces microfabrication techniques of microfluidic platforms, followed by detailed descriptions of numerous microfluidic drug delivery systems that have significantly advanced the field of controlled drug delivery. Those microfluidic systems can be separated into four major categories, namely drug carrier-free micro-reservoir-based drug delivery systems, highly integrated carrier-free microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, drug carrier-integrated microfluidic systems, and microneedles. Microneedles can be further categorized into five different types, i.e. solid, porous, hollow, coated, and biodegradable microneedles, for controlled transdermal drug delivery. At the end, we discuss current limitations and future prospects of microfluidic platforms for controlled drug delivery. Copyright

  8. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B

    2012-01-01

    One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs.

  9. Etiologies and consequences of adolescent drug use: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Bentler, P M

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results and work in progress from a longitudinal study of drug use etiologies and consequences. Early- and mid-adolescent drug use patterns, personality, and behavioral correlates were studied in a large sample of normal youth beginning in the mid-1970's. To determine the correlates and consequences of adolescent drug use, controlling for related tendencies such as lack of social conformity and deviant friendship networks, 654 youngsters were followed into young adulthood and their behaviors and lifestyles evaluated. Teenage drug use was found to disrupt many critical developmental tasks of adolescence and young adulthood. Tendencies to use many different drugs as an adolescent led in young adulthood to increased drug crime involvement, decreased college involvement, increased job instability, income, psychoticism, and stealing episodes. Intervention efforts should be directed not only towards decreasing drug use, but also towards improving personal maturity, social skills, and economic opportunities.

  10. Drug design using comparative molecular surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2006-12-01

    Chemists have eagerly extended a concept of shape into the molecular scale in an attempt to explain molecular effects. Although the molecular surface that shapes a molecule is a fuzzy category, which makes important theoretical problems with its precise interpretation, shape analysis appears to be an efficient method providing an explanation for a variety of effects. Comparative molecular surface analysis (CoMSA) is a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) method used for the comparison of molecular surfaces and shapes. In this review, the authors demonstrate that 3D QSAR basically works as a visualisation tool that investigates molecular similarity and indicates pharmacophoric sites. In this context, CoMSA that is based on the Kohonen self-organising maps that allow the projection of three-dimensional molecular data into two-dimensional maps without topological distortion has an important advantage over the traditional 3D QSAR methods. However, It should be remembered that the majority of the 3D QSAR limitations are still important for this technique and consequently a strategy to use the molecular data to produce drugs in this way still maps a 'far and bumpy road'.

  11. Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne D; Lynskey, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We outline and evaluate competing explanations of three relationships that have consistently been found between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs, namely, (1) that cannabis use typically precedes the use of other illicit drugs; and that (2) the earlier cannabis is used, and (3) the more regularly it is used, the more likely a young person is to use other illicit drugs. We consider three major competing explanations of these patterns: (1) that the relationship is due to the fact that there is a shared illicit market for cannabis and other drugs which makes it more likely that other illicit drugs will be used if cannabis is used; (2) that they are explained by the characteristics of those who use cannabis; and (3) that they reflect a causal relationship in which the pharmacological effects of cannabis on brain function increase the likelihood of using other illicit drugs. These explanations are evaluated in the light of evidence from longitudinal epidemiological studies, simulation studies, discordant twin studies and animal studies. The available evidence indicates that the association reflects in part but is not wholly explained by: (1) the selective recruitment to heavy cannabis use of persons with pre-existing traits (that may be in part genetic) that predispose to the use of a variety of different drugs; (2) the affiliation of cannabis users with drug using peers in settings that provide more opportunities to use other illicit drugs at an earlier age; (3) supported by socialisation into an illicit drug subculture with favourable attitudes towards the use of other illicit drugs. Animal studies have raised the possibility that regular cannabis use may have pharmacological effects on brain function that increase the likelihood of using other drugs. We conclude with suggestions for the type of research studies that will enable a decision to be made about the relative contributions that social context, individual characteristics, and drug effects make

  12. [Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs].

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Facundo, Francisco Rafael; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge; Lopez-García, Karla Selene; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Esparza-Almanza, Santiaga Enriqueta

    2011-06-01

    Today, the social phenomenon of drugs trafficking and violence related to drugs has tended to minimize the implications of drugs consumption in gangs. This article is based on in-depth interviews in young gangs in the metropolitan area of Nuevo León, Mexico, with a view to reflecting on and analyzing the drug as a cultural practice within gangs. In the search for meaning, the first thing that is shown is the beginning of gang members in drugs consumption, and the form how drugs are presented by family members and friends of the gang is described. Next, we described the meaning of drugs use in everyday life and show the extent to which drugs use is acceptable and normalized.

  13. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... to dangerous levels, leading to coma or death. Heroin: Similar to opioid pain relievers, your heart rate ...

  14. Drug Use among Seniors on Public Drug Programs in Canada, 2012.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Jeff; Hunt, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Seniors take more drugs than younger Canadians because, on average, they have a higher number of chronic conditions. Although taking multiple medications may be necessary to manage these conditions, it is important to consider the benefits and risks of each medication and the therapeutic goals of the patient. This article provides an in-depth look at the number and types of drugs used by seniors using drug claims data from the CIHI's National Prescription Drug Utilization Information System Database, representing approximately 70% of seniors in Canada. In 2012, almost two-thirds (65.9%) of seniors on public drug programs had claims for five or more drug classes, while 27.2% had claims for 10 or more, and 8.6% had claims for 15 or more. The most commonly used drug class was statins, used by nearly half (46.6%) of seniors. Nearly two-thirds (60.9%) of seniors living in long-term care (LTC) facilities had claims for 10 or more drug classes. Proton pump inhibitors were the most commonly used drug class among seniors living in LTC facilities (used by 37.0% of seniors in LTC facilities), while statins ranked seventh (29.8%).

  15. The Changing Face of Recreational Drug Use.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Our author writes that recent data from the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime indicate that 540 different drugs classified as new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been identified worldwide as of 2014, and this number is expected to rise. His article describes the complexity of the NPS problem, what is known about the molecular mechanisms of action, and the pharmacological effects of NPS. It also highlights some of the considerable challenges in dealing with this emerging issue.

  16. Hardcore drug users claim to be occasional users: drug use frequency underreporting.

    PubMed

    Morral, A R; McCaffrey, D; Iguchi, M Y

    2000-01-01

    Self-reports of drug use frequency are central to treatment outcome evaluations, estimates of the prevalence of heavy use, estimates of treatment need, and other questions with direct relevance to drug policies. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about the validity of these self-reports. This study examines the accuracy of 701 frequency self-reports made by a sample of methadone maintenance clients. Self-report accuracy is evaluated by comparing rates of positive urinalyses found for each case with rates that would be expected had drug use occurred only as often as reported. Expected rates of positive urinalyses are derived from conservative Monte Carlo models of drug use for each case. This procedure reveals extensive heroin and cocaine use frequency underreporting. After adjusting for frequency underreporting, 51% of 279 cases reporting only occasional heroin use (1-10 days in the past 30), and 22% of the 157 cases reporting occasional cocaine use, are found to be using these drugs with frequencies corresponding to what the Office of National Drug Control Policy defines as 'hardcore use' (more than 10 days in the past 30). Drug use frequency underreporting appears substantial, and might constitute an important threat to the validity of some treatment outcome evaluations, needs assessments and other analyses that rely on drug use frequency self-reports.

  17. The role of serotonin in drug use and addiction.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian P; Homberg, Judith R

    2015-01-15

    The use of psychoactive drugs is a wide spread behaviour in human societies. The systematic use of a drug requires the establishment of different drug use-associated behaviours which need to be learned and controlled. However, controlled drug use may develop into compulsive drug use and addiction, a major psychiatric disorder with severe consequences for the individual and society. Here we review the role of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the establishment of drug use-associated behaviours on the one hand and the transition and maintenance of addiction on the other hand for the drugs: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), morphine/heroin, cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine. Results show a crucial, but distinct involvement of the 5-HT system in both processes with considerable overlap between psychostimulant and opioidergic drugs and alcohol. A new functional model suggests specific adaptations in the 5-HT system, which coincide with the establishment of controlled drug use-associated behaviours. These serotonergic adaptations render the nervous system susceptible to the transition to compulsive drug use behaviours and often overlap with genetic risk factors for addiction. Altogether we suggest a new trajectory by which serotonergic neuroadaptations induced by first drug exposure pave the way for the establishment of addiction.

  18. Is craving the source of compulsive drug use?

    PubMed

    Tiffany, S T; Carter, B L

    1998-01-01

    Compulsive drug use, which is typically portrayed as a defining quality of addictive behavior, has been described as a pattern of drug consumption that is stimulus bound, stereotyped, difficult to regulate and identified by a loss of control over intake. It is widely assumed that compulsive drug use is caused by drug craving. This assumption is supported by numerous findings of a general correspondence between measures of craving and drug-use behavior. A more focussed analysis of the available data, however, reveals that craving and drug use are not coupled to the degree required by the hypothesis that craving is the source of all drug use in the addict. As an alternative to this craving-based view, compulsive drug use could be characterized as a form of automatized behavior. Automatic performance is assumed to develop over the course of repeated practice of motor and cognitive skills. Automatized behavior, like compulsive drug use, tends to be stimulus bound, stereotyped, effortless, difficult to control and regulated largely outside of awareness. The formulation of drug compulsion as a manifestation of automaticity rather than craving allows addiction researchers to apply methods and measures derived from cognitive sciences to investigate the fundamental organization of compulsive drug-use behavior.

  19. Using visual analytics for presenting comparative information on new drugs.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Berthelot, Hélène; Favre, Madeleine; Ugon, Adrien; Duclos, Catherine; Venot, Alain

    2017-07-01

    When a new drug is marketed, physicians must decide whether they will consider it for their future practice. However, information about new drugs can be biased or hard to find. In this work, our objective was to study whether visual analytics could be used for comparing drug properties such as contraindications and adverse effects, and whether this visual comparison can help physicians to forge their own well-founded opinions about a new drug. First, an ontology for comparative drug information was designed, based on the expectations expressed during focus groups comprised of physicians. Second, a prototype of a visual drug comparator website was developed. It implements several visualization methods: rainbow boxes (a new technique for overlapping set visualization), dynamic tables, bar charts and icons. Third, the website was evaluated by 22 GPs for four new drugs. We recorded the general satisfaction, the physician's decision whether to consider the new drug for future prescription, both before and after consulting the website, and their arguments to justify their choice. The prototype website permits the visual comparison of up to 10 drugs, including efficacy, contraindications, interactions, adverse effects, prices, dosage regimens,…All physicians found that the website allowed them to forge a well-founded opinion on the four new drugs. The physicians changed their decision about using a new drug in their future practice in 29 cases (out of 88) after consulting the website. Visual analytics is a promising approach for presenting drug information and for comparing drugs. The visual comparison of drug properties allows physicians to forge their opinions on drugs. Since drug properties are available in reference texts, reviewed by public health agencies, it could contribute to the independent of drug information. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. What You Can Do about Drug Use in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This guide, part of the Drug-Free Communities Series, is a comprehensive overview of drug use and what can be done about it. It is directed toward individuals, specifically toward parents, asserting that change in the community needs to be reinforced by change at home. Information about alcohol and other drugs, their physiological effects, and how…

  1. Interdisciplinary Team Review of Psychotropic Drug Use in Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore A.; Walsh, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    This response to a description of a psychotropic drug review process, TAPER, suggests that the data supporting the reported low rate and dosage level of psychotropic drug use resulting from the process were misleading and inaccurate. Implications of such a drug review process for facilities serving people with developmental disabilities are drawn.…

  2. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the program. (c) Drug testing. (1) This part does not prohibit a public accommodation from adopting or administering reasonable policies or procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure..., restrict, or authorize the conducting of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  3. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the program. (c) Drug testing. (1) This part does not prohibit a public accommodation from adopting or administering reasonable policies or procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure..., restrict, or authorize the conducting of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  4. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  5. 14 CFR 120.33 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of...

  6. 14 CFR 120.33 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of...

  7. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  8. 14 CFR 120.33 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of...

  9. Pharmacogenomic study using bio- and nanobioelectrochemistry: Drug-DNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    Small molecules that bind genomic DNA have proven that they can be effective anticancer, antibiotic and antiviral therapeutic agents that affect the well-being of millions of people worldwide. Drug-DNA interaction affects DNA replication and division; causes strand breaks, and mutations. Therefore, the investigation of drug-DNA interaction is needed to understand the mechanism of drug action as well as in designing DNA-targeted drugs. On the other hand, the interaction between DNA and drugs can cause chemical and conformational modifications and, thus, variation of the electrochemical properties of nucleobases. For this purpose, electrochemical methods/biosensors can be used toward detection of drug-DNA interactions. The present paper reviews the drug-DNA interactions, their types and applications of electrochemical techniques used to study interactions between DNA and drugs or small ligand molecules that are potentially of pharmaceutical interest. The results are used to determine drug binding sites and sequence preference, as well as conformational changes due to drug-DNA interactions. Also, the intention of this review is to give an overview of the present state of the drug-DNA interaction cognition. The applications of electrochemical techniques for investigation of drug-DNA interaction were reviewed and we have discussed the type of qualitative or quantitative information that can be obtained from the use of each technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  11. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  12. An Endangered Generation: Impact of Perinatal Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melanie M.

    This article reviews some of the literature on educational approaches for drug-exposed children. Common effects of prenatal and perinatal drug use on the female user, the developing fetus, and the neonate are reviewed. It is noted that female drug users have an increased incidence of medical complications during pregnancy; that the specific…

  13. The use of drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Cheston M.

    1987-01-01

    It is a regulatory fact that only 14 drugs are approved for use during pregnancy; none of them is specifically approved for use in nursing mothers. With the current emphasis on breast feeding, more data describing levels of drugs in fetal blood and drug levels in breast milk are necessary. Some of the pharmacologic properties useful in predicting drug transmission during lactation include lipid solubility, ionization constant, and molecular size (which predisposes a drug to crossing membrane barriers to the fetus and the milk). PMID:16156082

  14. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  15. Substance-specific environmental influences on drug use and drug preference in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Badiani, Aldo

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and preclinical evidence indicate that the setting of drug use can exert a powerful modulatory influence on drug reward and that this influence is substance-specific. When heroin and cocaine co-abusers, for example, report on the circumstances of drug use, they indicate distinct settings for the two drugs: heroin being used preferentially at home and cocaine being used preferentially outside the home. Similar results were obtained in laboratory rats. These findings will be interpreted in the light of a novel model of drug reward, based on the emotional appraisal of central and peripheral drug effects as a function of environmental context. I argue here that drug addiction research has not paid sufficient attention to the substance-specific aspects of drug abuse and this may have contributed to the present dearth of effective treatments. Pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for example, should be tailored so as to allow the addict to anticipate, and cope with, the risks associated, in a substance-specific manner, to the different settings of drug use.

  16. Drug use before and during pregnancy in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Odalovic, Marina; Vezmar Kovacevic, Sandra; Ilic, Katarina; Sabo, Ana; Tasic, Ljiljana

    2012-10-01

    Observation of drug use patterns during pregnancy is necessary for the recognition of potential bad practices and improvement of safe drug use in pregnancy. To investigate prescription and over the counter drug use among Serbian women in the 6 months before pregnancy and in the first 6 months of pregnancy, and to evaluate the drugs used according to the risk to a fetus. Setting Six maternity care units and five community pharmacies. A multi-center study was performed in Serbia during the period from March 2009-March 2010. A self-reporting questionnaire was used as a data source. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) risk classification system was used to determine the risk of used drugs for the fetus. Differences between subgroups were assessed using McNemar's test on paired proportions. Main outcome measure Proportion of women exposed to drugs or class of drugs. The overall drug exposure was higher in pregnancy (34.7 %) than before pregnancy (29.9 %), p > 0.05, in the cohort of 311 pregnant women. A significantly greater prescription drug use, 19.0 versus 27.3 % of women, p < 0.05, and less selfmedication with over the counter drugs in pregnancy, 15.1 versus 8.7 %, p < 0.05, were observed. Commonly used drugs were musculoskeletal drugs, analgesics/antipyretics and respiratory system drugs before pregnancy (13.8, 12.5, and 6.4 % of women, respectively), and progestogens, analgesics/antipyretics, and antibiotics for the systemic use in pregnancy (9.0, 7.7, and 7.4 %, respectively). A greater exposure to drugs belonging to the FDA risk category A (3.9 vs. 60.8 %, p < 0.05), B (18.0 vs. 19.6 %, p > 0.05), C (10.0 vs. 10.3 %, p > 0.05) and D (2.9 vs. 10.9 %, p < 0.05), as well as less exposure to drugs belonging to category X (0.3 vs. 0 %, p > 0.05) were observed in pregnancy. Folic acid was used by 60.8 % of women in pregnancy, and by only 3.9 % before pregnancy. Besides higher overall drug use in pregnancy than before pregnancy, particularly the use of progestogens, and

  17. Methodological issues in using drugs data in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Vegni, F E; Wilkinson, P

    2004-01-01

    Using drugs data in epidemiological studies is becoming fashionable with the large databases available today. We describe the philosophical basis and the main methodological issues. The process leading a patient affected by a disease to be treated with an appropriate drug appears to be complex, and influenced by external and internal many factors, described here. The disease-drug use relationship is disentangled describing its main characteristics. Drug use data means the information concerning the use of drugs, which encompasses any form of record, on paper or computerised, collected from patients, doctors prescribing the drug, pharmacists dispensing it, the drug company that produces it, or its distributor. The possible sources of drug use data are described, along with the possible strengths and weaknesses of each source. Various examples of uses of drug utilisation data as indicator in epidemiological researches are presented. Drug utilisation studies are a recent issue of public health research, merging knowledge of public health doctors, epidemiologists, pharmacologists and health economists. Automated databases demonstrate nowadays to be a valuable approach to drug utilisation investigation. In conclusion, the aim of any forward looking health care system should be to collect and freely circulate these detailed information, allowing not only useful health care planning but also indeep, population based, health research.

  18. Use of Antihypertensive Drugs in Neoplastic Patients.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Agabiti-Rosei, Claudia; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) signaling pathway inhibitor treatment has highlighted the role of the baseline activity of the VEFG system for blood pressure regulation. VEGF signaling pathway is associated with hypertension and proteinuria. Activation of the endothelin system, endothelial dysfunction and capillary rarefaction are among the underlying mechanisms possibly explaining the rise in blood pressure and, to some extent, also the renal injury. The hypertension induced by VEGF signaling pathway inhibition is, usually, responsive to treatment. Recommendations about the management of cardiovascular toxicity in patients receiving VEGF signaling pathway inhibitors include a formal cardiovascular risk assessment before initiation of VEGF signaling pathway inhibitor treatment, active monitoring of blood pressure and cardiac toxicity throughout treatment, with more frequent monitoring during the first cycles of therapy, given that marked and unpredictable blood pressure rises can occur early after treatment with a VEGF signaling pathway inhibitor, and aggressive management of blood pressure elevations and early symptoms and signs of cardiac toxicity to prevent clinically limiting complications. In patients with preexisting hypertension, the blood pressure target for initiating VEGF signaling pathway inhibitor treatment should be <140/90 mmHg. Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system and calcium channel antagonists are among the drugs to be preferably used in these clinical conditions.

  19. Drug use generations and patterns of injection drug use: Birth cohort differences among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California.

    PubMed

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2017-06-01

    A robust literature documents generational trends in drug use. We examined the implications of changing national drug use patterns on drug injection histories of diverse people who inject drugs (PWID). Drug use histories were collected from 776 active PWID in 2011-13. Using descriptive statistics, we examine drug use initiation by year and birth cohort (BC) differences in drug first injected. A multivariate linear regression model of time to injection initiation ([TTII] (year of first injection minus year of first illicit drug use) was developed to explore BC differences. The first drug injected by BC changed in tandem with national drug use trends with heroin declining from 77% for the pre-1960's BC to 58% for the 1960's BC before increasing to 71% for the 1990's BC. Multivariate linear regression modeling found that shorter TTII was associated with the 1980's/1990's BC (-3.50 years; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=-0.79, -6.21) as compared to the 1970's BC. Longer TTII was associated with being female (1.65 years; 95% CI=0.40, 2.90), African American (1.69 years; 95% CI=0.43, 2.95), any substance use treatment prior to injection (4.22 years; 95% CI=2.65, 5.79), and prior non-injection use of drug that was first injected (3.29 years; 95% CI=2.19, 4.40). National drug trends appear to influence injection drug use patterns. The prescription opiate drug era is associated with shorter TTII. Culturally competent, demographically and generationally-targeted prevention strategies to combat transitions to drug injection are needed to prevent or shorten upstream increases in risky drug use practices on a national level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Adverse drug reactions and off-label drug use in paediatric outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Horen, Benjamin; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyre-mestre, Maryse

    2002-01-01

    Aims To investigate the potential relationship between off-label drug use and increased risk of adverse drug reactions in paediatric outpatients. Methods A prospective pharmacovigilance survey of drug prescribing in office based paediatricians was carried out in Haute-Garonne County (south west of France). Results The study involved a sample of 1419 children under 16 years old. Forty-two percent of patients were exposed to at least one off-label prescription. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 1.41% (95% CI 0.79, 2.11). Off-label drug use was significantly associated with adverse drug reactions (relative risk 3.44; 95% CI 1.26, 9.38), particularly when it was due to an indication different than that defined in the Summary Product Characteristics (relative risk 4.42; 95% CI 1.60, 12.25). Conclusions Our data suggest an increasing risk of adverse drug reactions related to off-label drug use. This risk would be acceptable if further studies prove the potential benefit of such a drug use. PMID:12492616

  1. Solid state drug-polymer miscibility studies using the model drug ABT-102.

    PubMed

    Jog, Rajan; Gokhale, Rajeev; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-07-25

    Amorphous solid dispersions typically suffer storage stability issues due to: their amorphous nature, high drug loading, uneven drug:stabilizer ratio and plasticization effects as a result of hygroscopic excipients. An extensive solid state miscibility study was conducted to aid in understanding the mechanisms involved in drug/stabilizer interactions. ABT-102 (model drug) and nine different polymers with different molecular weights and viscosities were selected to investigate drug/polymer miscibility. Three different polymer:drug ratios (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1, w/w) were analyzed using: DSC, FTIR and PXRD. Three different techniques were used to prepare the amorphous solid dispersions: serial dilution, solvent evaporation and spray drying. Spray drying was the best method to obtain amorphous solid dispersions. However, under certain conditions amorphous formulations could be obtained using solvent evaporation. Melting point depression was used to calculate interaction parameters and free energy of mixing for the various drug polymer mixtures. The spray dried solid dispersions yielded a negative free energy of mixing which indicated strong drug-polymer miscibility compared to the solvent evaporation and serial dilution method. Soluplus was the best stabilizer compared to PVP and HPMC, which is probably a consequence of strong hydrogen bonding between the two CO moieties of soluplus and the drug NH moieities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Social background and attitudes towards drugs as predictors of drug use among Malaysian students.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V

    1980-06-01

    Those Malaysian secondary schoolchildren who have ever used an illicit drug do not differ significantly in terms of social class background, ethnicity or rural/urban location, from the majority of their contemporaries who have not used drugs. The cross-sectional data show a rapid secular trend towards the sexes being equally involved in drug use. Significant differences between ever and never users are, however, found in their attitudes towards drug taking and their beliefs about the properties of drugs, although both groups share the same rather negative image of the typical drug user. Thus, drug users have accepted some of the attitudes towards drug issues which are normative in the non-user group, whilst developing other attitudes which are consistent with their continuing use. It is argued that adolescent drug abuse in Malaysia is not to be linked specifically with social deprivation, but should be seen as being part of the life style of particular groups in all strata of society.

  3. [Are there any sex/gender differences in drug use and drug addiction?].

    PubMed

    Mendrek, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    Drug use and drug addiction have been traditionally considered to be a male problem, however the gender gap has been decreasing over the past few decades. Thus, while the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and nicotine dependence is still overall greater among men than among women, sex/gender differences in the abuse of stimulants and opiates seem to have disappeared. Moreover, women appear to be more prone to develop drug dependence, suffer more severe physical and psychological consequences of drug abuse, and have more difficulties quitting the habit. Numerous psychological, socio-cultural and biological factors have been implicated in these changing statistics. For example, while a large proportion of men initiate drug use to induce feelings of elation, energy or focus, women frequently start taking drugs to alleviate pre-existing mental health problems, including high levels of stress, feelings of alienation, depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder. This maladaptive self-medication strategy often results in a faster transition to a habitual drug use and eventually a more severe dependence. In addition, the socio-cultural norms (particularly in the Western society) have changed dramatically over the past few decades. Thus, while there is still a more severe stigma and prejudice against women who use drugs (especially if they are pregnant of have children), overall there is much greater acceptance of women's drug use than it was several decades ago. Moreover, women have much greater access to various drugs of abuse than they used to have. Finally, over the past couple of decades new research started emerging pointing to some neurobiological factors that could also contribute to sex differences in drug addiction. Thus, there is now evidence that dopamine system, which for decades has been strongly implicated in drug reinforcement, is sexually dimorphic. The number of dopaminergic neurons, the density of the dopaminergic terminals, as well as

  4. Judgments of the fairness of using performance enhancing drugs.

    PubMed

    Sabini, John; Monterosso, John

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduates (total N=185) were asked about performance-affecting drugs. Some drugs supposedly affected athletic performance, others memory, and other attention. Some improved performance for anyone who took them, others for the top 10% of performers, others for the bottom 10%, and finally, yet other drugs worked only on the bottom 10% who also showed physical abnormalities. Participants were asked about the fairness of allowing the drug to be used, about banning it, and about whether predictions of future performance based on testing with or without the drug were better. The study found that participants appreciated the "interaction effect," that they felt it was less unfair to allow the drug if it affected the bottom 10% than if it affected everyone, and they were more eager to have the drug banned if it affected everyone. Participants were least tolerant of drugs that affected athletic performance and most tolerant of those that affected attention.

  5. Opportunities to use drugs and the transition to drug use among adolescents from Caracas, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Cox, Ronald B; Croff, Julie M; Washburn, Isaac J; Liu, Chao

    2016-03-15

    Few studies have examined exposure to drug use and the lag between exposure and use. This paper estimates prevalence of opportunity to use a substance, for use, and for use given an opportunity to use among a sample of Venezuelan adolescents. Several covariates on the opportunity to use and the transition to use are also examined. Findings show that lifetime prevalence of substance use among Venezuelan adolescents increases dramatically and more closely resembles rates among US and European samples when having had an opportunity to use was taken into account. A majority of youth who transitioned to use did so the same year exposure occurred, and females had a shorter time difference compared to males. Covariates primarily predicted exposure rather than having used after controlling for exposure, and their effects varied by substance. Implications for prevention efforts are discussed.

  6. Drug-Drug Multicomponent Solid Forms: Cocrystal, Coamorphous and Eutectic of Three Poorly Soluble Antihypertensive Drugs Using Mechanochemical Approach.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Jamshed; Chadha, Renu

    2017-08-01

    The present study deals with the application of mechanochemical approach for the preparation of drug-drug multicomponent solid forms of three poorly soluble antihypertensive drugs (telmisartan, irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide) using atenolol as a coformer. The resultant solid forms comprise of cocrystal (telmisartan-atenolol), coamorphous (irbesartan-atenolol) and eutectic (hydrochlorothiazide-atenolol). The study emphasizes that solid-state transformation of drug molecules into new forms is a result of the change in structural patterns, diminishing of dimers and creating new facile hydrogen bonding network based on structural resemblance. The propensity for heteromeric or homomeric interaction between two different drugs resulted into diverse solid forms (cocrystal/coamorphous/eutectics) and become one of the interesting aspects of this research work. Evaluation of these solid forms revealed an increase in solubility and dissolution leading to better antihypertensive activity in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-induced animal model. Thus, development of these drug-drug multicomponent solid forms is a promising and viable approach to addressing the issue of poor solubility and could be of considerable interest in dual drug therapy for the treatment of hypertension.

  7. An Exploratory Study Examining the Spatial Dynamics of Illicit Drug Availability and Rates of Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.; Treno, Andrew J.; Lascala, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the spatial relationship between drug availability and rates of drug use in neighborhood areas. Responses from 16,083 individuals were analyzed at the zip code level (n = 158) and analyses were conducted separately for youth and adults using spatial regression techniques. The dependent variable is the percentage of respondents…

  8. The Relationship between Psychotropic Drug Use and Suicidal Behavior in Japan: Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Takenoshita, S; Taka, F; Nakao, M; Nomura, K

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Very few studies have explored the adverse effect of psychotropic drugs worldwide. Methods: This study analyzed 1 813 suicide-related drug reports involving 553 patients collected from the Japanese National Adverse Drug Report Database between October 2001 and January 2012 to investigate psychotropic drugs associated with completed suicide vs. other suicide-related behaviors, including ideation and self-injury. The drugs investigated included antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and other drugs. Results: These reports referenced 300 (54.2%) individuals who completed suicide. Adjusting for age, sex, and drugs used, the multivariate model revealed that participants who took antipsychotics were 1.70 times (95% CI, 1.11-2.61) more likely to complete suicide compared with those who did not. All other drugs became non-significant. Compared with those who took only one medication, those prescribed more than 4 drugs were more likely to complete suicide (OR 4.44, 95% CI, 2.40-8.20). Discussion: Antipsychotic drugs and polypharmacy may be regarded as predictors of completed suicide.

  9. [Off-label use of drugs in paediatrics causes uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Hart, Dieter; Mühlbauer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The off-label use of drugs in paediatrics is a common practice casting doubts on the adequate safety of drug therapy. Regulatory initiatives of European and national legislators aim to address this paucity of clinical drug trials in paediatrics through clarifying regulations and incentives in pharmaceutical law, thereby promoting an increase in the approval of paediatric drugs, the improvement of drug and thus treatment safety. This paper describes the present situation in paediatrics and the legal status of off-label use in pharmaceutical law, medical malpractice law and statutory health insurance law.

  10. Discovery of Anthelmintic Drug Targets and Drugs Using Chokepoints in Nematode Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christina M.; Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A.; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Powell, Kerrie; Schedl, Tim; Pearce, Edward J.; Abubucker, Sahar; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic roundworm infections plague more than 2 billion people (1/3 of humanity) and cause drastic losses in crops and livestock. New anthelmintic drugs are urgently needed as new drug resistance and environmental concerns arise. A “chokepoint reaction” is defined as a reaction that either consumes a unique substrate or produces a unique product. A chokepoint analysis provides a systematic method of identifying novel potential drug targets. Chokepoint enzymes were identified in the genomes of 10 nematode species, and the intersection and union of all chokepoint enzymes were found. By studying and experimentally testing available compounds known to target proteins orthologous to nematode chokepoint proteins in public databases, this study uncovers features of chokepoints that make them successful drug targets. Chemogenomic screening was performed on drug-like compounds from public drug databases to find existing compounds that target homologs of nematode chokepoints. The compounds were prioritized based on chemical properties frequently found in successful drugs and were experimentally tested using Caenorhabditis elegans. Several drugs that are already known anthelmintic drugs and novel candidate targets were identified. Seven of the compounds were tested in Caenorhabditis elegans and three yielded a detrimental phenotype. One of these three drug-like compounds, Perhexiline, also yielded a deleterious effect in Haemonchus contortus and Onchocerca lienalis, two nematodes with divergent forms of parasitism. Perhexiline, known to affect the fatty acid oxidation pathway in mammals, caused a reduction in oxygen consumption rates in C. elegans and genome-wide gene expression profiles provided an additional confirmation of its mode of action. Computational modeling of Perhexiline and its target provided structural insights regarding its binding mode and specificity. Our lists of prioritized drug targets and drug-like compounds have potential to expedite the discovery

  11. Drug use among juveniles in conflict with the law.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Chetna; Sharma, Nandini; Saxena, Ratna; Ingle, G K

    2007-04-01

    To study the pattern of drug use, reasons for initiation and the perception about the effects of using drugs, among juveniles in conflict with law. A qualitative study was conducted at Prayas Observation Home for boys, New Delhi. Eight key informant interviews were conducted to find the prevalence of prior drug use among boys. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 34 children using a topic outline guide. The study showed that drug use was related to other criminal activities. Peer group and media were the most important influences for initiation of drug use. All kinds of drugs could easily be procured by children and there was a gradual progression from non-use to tobacco and alcohol use, to marijuana and ultimately to other drugs. Knowledge about medical and social mal-effects of consuming drugs did not seem to effect either the consumption of drugs or the desire to leave this habit. Results of the study demonstrate an urgent need for taking stringent measures in order to curb drug use among adolescents.

  12. Schistosomiasis: Drugs used and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lidiany da Paixão; Fontes, Danilo Augusto Ferreira; Aguilera, Cindy Siqueira Britto; Timóteo, Taysa Renata Ribeiro; Ângelos, Matheus Alves; Silva, Laysa Creusa Paes Barreto Barros; de Melo, Camila Gomes; Rolim, Larissa Araújo; da Silva, Rosali Maria Ferreira; Neto, Pedro José Rolim

    2017-08-10

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect millions of people in different geographic regions, especially the poorest and most vulnerable. Currently NTDs are prevalent in 149 countries, seventeen of these neglected tropical parasitic diseases are classified as endemic. One of the most important of these diseases is schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, a disease caused by the genus Schistosoma. It presents several species, such as Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni, the latter being responsible for parasitosis in Brazil. Contamination occurs through exposure to contaminated water in the endemic region. This parasitosis is characterized by being initially asymptomatic, but it is able to evolve into more severe clinical forms, potentially causing death. Globally, more than 200 million people are infected with one of three Schistosome species, including an estimated 40 million women of reproductive age. In Brazil, about 12 million children require preventive chemotherapy with anthelmintic. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), only about 15% of the at-risk children receive regular treatment. The lack of investment by the pharmaceutical industry for the development and/or improvement of new pharmaceutical forms, mainly aimed at the pediatric public, is a great challenge. Currently, the main forms of treatment used for schistosomiasis are praziquantel (PZQ) and oxaminiquine (OXA). PZQ is the drug of choice because it presents as a high-spectrum anthelmintic, used in the treatment of all known species of schistosomiasis and some species of cestodes and trematodes. OXA, however, is not active against the three Schistosome species. This work presents a literature review regarding schistosomiasis. It addresses points such as available treatments, the role of the pharmaceutical industry against neglected diseases, and perspectives for treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for assessment of drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Baneyx, Guillaume; Fukushima, Yumi; Parrott, Neil

    2012-04-01

    Interactions between co-administered medicines can reduce efficacy or lead to adverse effects. Understanding and managing such interactions is essential in bringing safe and effective medicines to the market. Ideally, interaction potential should be recognized early and minimized in compounds that reach late stages of drug development. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models combine knowledge of physiological factors with compound-specific properties to simulate how a drug behaves in the human body. These software tools are increasingly used during drug discovery and development and, when integrating relevant in vitro data, can simulate drug interaction potential. This article provides some background and presents illustrative examples. Physiologically based models are an integral tool in the discovery and development of drugs, and can significantly aid our understanding and prediction of drug interactions.

  14. Drug Guru: a computer software program for drug design using medicinal chemistry rules.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kent D; Shiroda, Melisa; James, Craig A

    2006-10-15

    Drug Guru (drug generation using rules) is a new web-based computer software program for medicinal chemists that applies a set of transformations, that is, rules, to an input structure. The transformations correspond to medicinal chemistry design rules-of-thumb taken from the historical lore of drug discovery programs. The output of the program is a list of target analogs that can be evaluated for possible future synthesis. A discussion of the features of the program is followed by an example of the software applied to sildenafil (Viagra) in generating ideas for target analogs for phosphodiesterase inhibition. Comparison with other computer-assisted drug design software is given.

  15. Early detection of illicit drug use in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahid; Mouton, Charles P; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

    2011-12-01

    The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors' objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures.

  16. Automated detection of off-label drug use.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kenneth; LePendu, Paea; Chen, William S; Iyer, Srinivasan V; Readhead, Ben; Dudley, Joel T; Shah, Nigam H

    2014-01-01

    Off-label drug use, defined as use of a drug in a manner that deviates from its approved use defined by the drug's FDA label, is problematic because such uses have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy. Studies estimate that 21% of prescriptions are off-label, and only 27% of those have evidence of safety and efficacy. We describe a data-mining approach for systematically identifying off-label usages using features derived from free text clinical notes and features extracted from two databases on known usage (Medi-Span and DrugBank). We trained a highly accurate predictive model that detects novel off-label uses among 1,602 unique drugs and 1,472 unique indications. We validated 403 predicted uses across independent data sources. Finally, we prioritize well-supported novel usages for further investigation on the basis of drug safety and cost.

  17. Automated Detection of Off-Label Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kenneth; LePendu, Paea; Chen, William S.; Iyer, Srinivasan V.; Readhead, Ben; Dudley, Joel T.; Shah, Nigam H.

    2014-01-01

    Off-label drug use, defined as use of a drug in a manner that deviates from its approved use defined by the drug's FDA label, is problematic because such uses have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy. Studies estimate that 21% of prescriptions are off-label, and only 27% of those have evidence of safety and efficacy. We describe a data-mining approach for systematically identifying off-label usages using features derived from free text clinical notes and features extracted from two databases on known usage (Medi-Span and DrugBank). We trained a highly accurate predictive model that detects novel off-label uses among 1,602 unique drugs and 1,472 unique indications. We validated 403 predicted uses across independent data sources. Finally, we prioritize well-supported novel usages for further investigation on the basis of drug safety and cost. PMID:24586689

  18. Family Structure and Mediators of Adolescent Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.; Li, Xin; Reckase, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how family structure is associated with adolescent drug use and how parenting, peer use, religiosity, and neighborhood problems may mediate the relationship. The authors use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between family structure and drug use across race, and examine potential mediators. Using data…

  19. Gender differences in psychopathy links to drug use.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between 2 criminally relevant constructs, (a) psychopathy and its factors and (b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and the antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation of drug use among women. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Students' Evaluations of Their Psychoactive Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joel W.

    1975-01-01

    Evaluations were obtained with the same questionnaire item in 1968, 1969, 1970, and 1972 at Carnegie-Mellon University. Evaluations varied by drug, but were predominantly "beneficial and helpful" (marijuana, hallucinogens, tranquilizers and barbiturates) or had "no particular effect" (amphetamines, beer, liquor, tobacco, and narcotics). (Author)

  1. Students' Evaluations of Their Psychoactive Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joel W.

    Evaluations were obtained with the same questionnaire item in 1968, 1969, 1970, and 1972 at Carnegie-Mellon University. The evaluations of marijuana and LSD experiences reported in 1968 were very similar to those at California Institute of Technology in 1967. Evaluations varied by drug, but were predominantly "beneficial and helpful"…

  2. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  3. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  4. School-Based Drug Prevention: What Kind of Drug Use Does It Prevent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Paddock, Susan; Chiesa, James

    School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for…

  5. School-Based Drug Prevention: What Kind of Drug Use Does It Prevent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Paddock, Susan; Chiesa, James

    School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for…

  6. Mental Health Status, Drug Treatment Use, and Needle Sharing among Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…

  7. The Knowledge About Drugs, Attitudes Towards Them And Drug Use Rates Of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejer, Dianne; Smart, Reginald G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about them and the use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit and psychoactive drugs was conducted among 4,693 high school students. Knowledge level and permissive attitudes tended to increase with grade level. Knowledge scores also increased, but attitudes became less permissive with increasing academic…

  8. Differentiation of drug and non-drug Cannabis using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay.

    PubMed

    Rotherham, D; Harbison, S A

    2011-04-15

    Cannabis sativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have the potential to assay Cannabis material unsuitable for analysis using conventional means including seeds, pollen and severely degraded material. The purpose of this research was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for the differentiation of "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis plants. An assay was developed based on four polymorphisms within a 399 bp fragment of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, utilising the snapshot multiplex kit. This SNP assay was tested on 94 Cannabis plants, which included 10 blind samples, and was able to differentiate between "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis in all cases, while also differentiating between Cannabis and other species. Non-drug plants were found to be homozygous at the four sites assayed while drug Cannabis plants were either homozygous or heterozygous.

  9. Current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future. PMID:25284965

  10. Using Nonexperts for Annotating Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction Mentions in Product Labeling: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Yifan; Hernandez, Andres; Horn, John R; Jacobson, Rebecca; Boyce, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Background Because vital details of potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions are often described in free-text structured product labels, manual curation is a necessary but expensive step in the development of electronic drug-drug interaction information resources. The use of nonexperts to annotate potential drug-drug interaction (PDDI) mentions in drug product label annotation may be a means of lessening the burden of manual curation. Objective Our goal was to explore the practicality of using nonexpert participants to annotate drug-drug interaction descriptions from structured product labels. By presenting annotation tasks to both pharmacy experts and relatively naïve participants, we hoped to demonstrate the feasibility of using nonexpert annotators for drug-drug information annotation. We were also interested in exploring whether and to what extent natural language processing (NLP) preannotation helped improve task completion time, accuracy, and subjective satisfaction. Methods Two experts and 4 nonexperts were asked to annotate 208 structured product label sections under 4 conditions completed sequentially: (1) no NLP assistance, (2) preannotation of drug mentions, (3) preannotation of drug mentions and PDDIs, and (4) a repeat of the no-annotation condition. Results were evaluated within the 2 groups and relative to an existing gold standard. Participants were asked to provide reports on the time required to complete tasks and their perceptions of task difficulty. Results One of the experts and 3 of the nonexperts completed all tasks. Annotation results from the nonexpert group were relatively strong in every scenario and better than the performance of the NLP pipeline. The expert and 2 of the nonexperts were able to complete most tasks in less than 3 hours. Usability perceptions were generally positive (3.67 for expert, mean of 3.33 for nonexperts). Conclusions The results suggest that nonexpert annotation might be a feasible option for comprehensive

  11. Diversity of contexts in drug use among street adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goncalves de Moura, Yone; van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Noto, Ana Regina

    2010-09-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate through ethnographic methods the different contexts of drug use by street adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Participant observations and semistructured interviews were performed at 11 major points of adolescent concentration in the streets of the city and in 10 care institutions. The sample was composed of 17 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Data showed diverse patterns of drug use distributed by geographic situation and street circumstances. Observations were grouped into three main contexts: (a) immersion: greater intensity of drug use associated with greater involvement in the street culture; (b) surface: less drug use associated with family closeness; and (c) alternative-migratory: greater involvement with drug trafficking and prostitution associated with less family closeness and street culture. The drug use patterns varied in accordance with the diversity of street situations. Therefore, the peculiarities of each context should be taken into consideration in the development of social/ health policies.

  12. Punishing parents: child removal in the context of drug use.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    New amendments to child welfare policy in New South Wales turn a spotlight on parents who use drugs and raise concerns about adequate provision of services for families facing issues with alcohol and other drug use. Sections of the new legislation are explicitly focused on parents who use illicit drugs, expanding the reach of child protection services over expectant parents during pregnancy. This targeting of women who are 'addicted' highlights the ambiguous scientific and moral attention to drug use in pregnancy. It also raises practical questions about the potential for the legislation to increase stigma towards drug use and disproportionately affect vulnerable and disadvantaged families. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Teacher Drug Use: A Response to Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Short, Alvin P.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship of work-related stress in teachers with wanting to leave the teaching profession and drug use in 277 teachers. Teachers reported higher rates than a national sample of lifetime alcohol, amphetamine, and tranquilizer use and higher rates of alcohol use. Selected measures of stress were correlated with drug use, particularly…

  14. Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

  15. Age of inhalant first time use and its association to the use of other drugs.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who also used at least one of 14 other drugs. Findings indicated that only 4.2% multiple drug users who used inhalants prior to other drugs, especially alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Thus, the theory that inhalants are gateway drugs was not supported.

  16. Use of the "NYC Condom" among people who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using

  17. [Rational use of psychotropic drugs and social communication role].

    PubMed

    Montero, F

    1994-06-01

    Extra-clinical factors about the influences affecting the prescription and use of drugs are reviewed. Special attention is given to regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and mass media. The problems and public health consequences of the irrational use of drugs are rarely documented in Latin America. Analysis of these factors, information sources, and rational use of psychotropic drugs will require multiple strategies such as social communication and policy formulation to define goals and objectives related to population information, doctors' and individual citizens' decision making processes, and participation of consumers in improving the use of psychotropic drugs.

  18. Dynamical modeling of drug effect using hybrid systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Drug discovery today is a complex, expensive, and time-consuming process with high attrition rate. A more systematic approach is needed to combine innovative approaches in order to lead to more effective and efficient drug development. This article provides systematic mathematical analysis and dynamical modeling of drug effect under gene regulatory network contexts. A hybrid systems model, which merges together discrete and continuous dynamics into a single dynamical model, is proposed to study dynamics of the underlying regulatory network under drug perturbations. The major goal is to understand how the system changes when perturbed by drugs and give suggestions for better therapeutic interventions. A realistic periodic drug intake scenario is considered, drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics information being taken into account in the proposed hybrid systems model. Simulations are performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK to corroborate the analytical results. PMID:23268741

  19. Surveillance of gastrointestinal disease in France using drug sales data.

    PubMed

    Pivette, Mathilde; Mueller, Judith E; Crépey, Pascal; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2014-09-01

    Drug sales data have increasingly been used for disease surveillance during recent years. Our objective was to assess the value of drug sales data as an operational early detection tool for gastroenteritis epidemics at national and regional level in France. For the period 2008-2013, we compared temporal trends of drug sales for the treatment of gastroenteritis with trends of cases reported by a Sentinel Network of general practitioners. We benchmarked detection models to select the one with the best sensitivity, false alert proportion and timeliness, and developed a prospective framework to assess the operational performance of the system. Drug sales data allowed the detection of seasonal gastrointestinal epidemics occurring in winter with a distinction between prescribed and non-prescribed drugs. Sales of non-prescribed drugs allowed epidemic detection on average 2.25 weeks earlier than Sentinel data. These results confirm the value of drug sales data for real-time monitoring of gastroenteritis epidemic activity.

  20. The Relationship Between Drug Use, Drug-related Arrests, and Chronic Pain Among Adults on Probation.

    PubMed

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Walters, Scott T; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S

    2015-06-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=-1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89-1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03-9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety.

  1. Novel Approaches in Formulation and Drug Delivery using Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kishan; Nair, Anroop B; Kumar, Ashok; Kumria, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    The success of ocular delivery relies on the potential to enhance the drug bioavailability by controlled and extended release of drug on the eye surface. Several new approaches have been attempted to augment the competence and diminish the intrinsic side effects of existing ocular drug delivery systems. In this contest, progress has been made to develop drug-eluting contact lens using different techniques, which have the potential to control and sustain the delivery of drug. Further, the availability of novel polymers have facilitated and promoted the utility of contact lenses in ocular drug delivery. Several research groups have already explored the feasibility and potential of contact lens using conventional drugs for the treatment of periocular and intraocular diseases. Contact lenses formulated using modern technology exhibits high loading, controlled drug release, apposite thickness, water content, superior mechanical and optical properties as compared to commercial lenses. In general, this review discus various factors and approaches designed and explored for the successful delivery of ophthalmic drugs using contact lenses as drug delivery device PMID:24826007

  2. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS transmission in China.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tian Xin; Levy, Judith A

    2005-01-01

    After nearly three decades of being virtually drug free, use of heroin and other illicit drugs has re-emerged in China as a major public health problem. One result is that drug abuse, particularly heroin injection, has come to play a predominant role in fueling China's AIDS epidemic. The first outbreak of HIV among China's IDUs was reported in the border area of Yunnan province between China and Myanmar where drug trafficking is heavy. Since then drug-related HIV has spread to all 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. This paper provides an overview to HIV/AIDS transmission through injection drug use in China. It begins with a brief history of the illicit drug trade in China, followed by a discussion of the emergence of drug related AIDS, and a profile of drug users and their sexual partners who have contracted the virus or who are vulnerable to infection. It ends by summarizing three national strategies being used by China to address both drug use and AIDS as major health threats.

  3. Preparation of drug delivery systems using supercritical fluid technology.

    PubMed

    Kompella, U B; Koushik, K

    2001-01-01

    Small changes in temperature and pressure near the critical region induce dramatic changes in the density and solubility of supercritical fluids, thereby facilitating the use of environmentally benign agents such as CO2 for their solvent and antisolvent properties in processing a wide variety of materials. While supercritical fluid technologies have been in commercial use in the food and chromatography industries for several years, only recently has this technology made inroads in the formulation of drug delivery systems. This review summarizes some of the recent applications of supercritical fluid technology in the preparation of drug delivery systems. Drugs containing polymeric particles, plain drug particles, solute-containing liposomes, and inclusion complexes of drug and carrier have been formulated using this technology. Also, polymer separation using this technology is enabling the selection of a pure fraction of a polymer, thereby allowing a more precise control of drug release from polymeric delivery systems.

  4. Assessing drug target association using semantic linked data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Ding, Ying; Wild, David J

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly increasing amount of public data in chemistry and biology provides new opportunities for large-scale data mining for drug discovery. Systematic integration of these heterogeneous sets and provision of algorithms to data mine the integrated sets would permit investigation of complex mechanisms of action of drugs. In this work we integrated and annotated data from public datasets relating to drugs, chemical compounds, protein targets, diseases, side effects and pathways, building a semantic linked network consisting of over 290,000 nodes and 720,000 edges. We developed a statistical model to assess the association of drug target pairs based on their relation with other linked objects. Validation experiments demonstrate the model can correctly identify known direct drug target pairs with high precision. Indirect drug target pairs (for example drugs which change gene expression level) are also identified but not as strongly as direct pairs. We further calculated the association scores for 157 drugs from 10 disease areas against 1683 human targets, and measured their similarity using a [Formula: see text] score matrix. The similarity network indicates that drugs from the same disease area tend to cluster together in ways that are not captured by structural similarity, with several potential new drug pairings being identified. This work thus provides a novel, validated alternative to existing drug target prediction algorithms. The web service is freely available at: http://chem2bio2rdf.org/slap.

  5. Health care utilization among drug-using and non-drug-using women.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Claire E; Theall, Katherine P; Elifson, Kirk W

    2002-12-01

    This article explores patterns of health care utilization among urban female illegal drug users and nonusers. Interviews were conducted between August 1997 and August 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia, among current drug-using and nonusing women aged 18 to 71 years (n = 235). Women were recruited using outreach and targeted sampling. Data were examined with multivariate and bivariate methods. Compared to nonusers, the most frequent users were significantly more likely to fail to seek needed health care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 9.29) and to use a hospital emergency room as their primary source for care (aOR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.97, 18.56). Multivariate results also suggest that age, self-rated health, alcohol use, insurance coverage, financial strain, and the presence of minor children are associated with health service utilization. Future health policy and research among similar populations must continue to address individual and sociodemographic factors that influence service utilization and seek to incorporate preventive care for vulnerable populations within emergency room settings.

  6. Unemployment, drug use, and HIV risk among American Indian and Alaska Native drug users.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, G L; Fisher, D G; Estrada, A L; Trotter, R

    2000-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have had low employment in recent history. Drug users also have low employment due to cycles of drug use and relapse,and the impact of the type of drug abused on levels of functioning. Drug use is associated with increased HIV risk through injection drug use, frequency of injection, and needle sharing. Data from three sites of the NIDA Cooperative Agreement for Community Based-Outreach/Intervention Research were analyzed to determine the relationship among race/ethnicity, age, and level of educational attainment on employment and unemployment at intake interview and six-month follow-up. HIV risk for those employed and unemployed was then assessed. American Indian and Alaska Native drug users were younger, less educated, and less likely to have a paid job at both intake and follow-up than non-Native drug users. Those participants who were unemployed at baseline interview who were American Indian/Alaska Native were less likely to transition to employment at six-month follow-up than other race/ethnicity groups in the cohort. However, all participants showed low levels of employment at follow-up. Individuals who were employed at baseline and those who transitioned to employment had lower levels of injection drug use and needle sharing than those who were unemployed at both baseline and follow-up. American Indian and Alaska Native drug users may be at risk for acquisition of HIV due to drug risk behaviors that appear to be associated with unemployment.

  7. Design of Novel Ophthalmic Formulation Containing Drug Nanoparticles and Its Usefulness as Anti-glaucoma Drugs.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

     The ophthalmic application of drugs is the primary route of administration for the therapy of glaucoma; however, in traditional formulations, only small amounts of the administered drug penetrate the cornea to reach the desired intraocular tissue due to corneal barriers. Recently, nanoparticulate drug delivery is expected as a technology to overcome the difficulties in delivering drugs across biological barriers (improvement of bioavailability). In this study, we attempted to establish a new method for preparing solid drug nanoparticles by using a bead mill and various additives, and succeeded in preparing a high quality dispersion containing drug nanoparticles. For a more concrete example, a mean particle size of disulfiram (DSF) treated with bead mill is 183 nm. The corneal penetration and corneal residence time of DSF from the ophthalmic dispersion containing DSF nanoparticles were significantly higher than those from a 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin solution containing DSF (DSF solution). It is known that the administration of DSF has intraocular pressure (IOP)-reducing effects. The IOP-reducing effects of the ophthalmic dispersion containing DSF nanoparticles were significantly greater than those of the DSF solution in rabbits (the IOP was enhanced by placing the rabbits in a dark room for 5 h). In addition, the ophthalmic dispersion containing DSF nanoparticles is better tolerated by corneal epithelial cells than DSF solution. It is possible that dispersions containing DSF nanoparticles provide new possibilities for effectively treating glaucoma, and that ocular drug delivery systems using drug nanoparticles may expand their usage for therapy in the ophthalmologic field.

  8. Membrane–drug interactions studied using model membrane systems

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Jacqueline; Suhendro, Daniel K.; Zieleniecki, Julius L.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Köper, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The direct interaction of drugs with the cell membrane is often neglected when drug effects are studied. Systematic investigations are hindered by the complexity of the natural membrane and model membrane systems can offer a useful alternative. Here some examples are reviewed of how model membrane architectures including vesicles, Langmuir monolayers and solid supported membranes can be used to investigate the effects of drug molecules on the membrane structure, and how these interactions can translate into effects on embedded membrane proteins. PMID:26586998

  9. Integrating Underage Drinking and Drug Use Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfsberg, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    During the year 2004, 20% of eighth-graders and 60.3% of twelfth-graders reported that they had gotten drunk at least once over the course of just one year, according to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Of the 10.7 million underage youth who drink, 7.2 million or 31% of all high school students binge drink with a frequency of at least…

  10. Integrating Underage Drinking and Drug Use Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfsberg, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    During the year 2004, 20% of eighth-graders and 60.3% of twelfth-graders reported that they had gotten drunk at least once over the course of just one year, according to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Of the 10.7 million underage youth who drink, 7.2 million or 31% of all high school students binge drink with a frequency of at least…

  11. The role of drug use sequencing pattern in further problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Maurício; Martins, Silvia S.; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Nicastri, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been considerable debate regarding what typically occurs after experimentation with drugs throughout the life of young people who used various drugs. Aims To evaluate the clinical importance of the most common sequence for the first use of a drug by two models(the ‘gateway model’ and the ‘alternative model’, which is the most popular sequence for Brazilian university students according to a previous study) regarding the problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drugs, assessed by ASSIST. Method People who had already experimented with three or more drugs across different stages of the two models were selected from a representative sample of university students from 27 Brazilian capitals(n=12, 711). Findings There were no differences regarding the problematic use of the most consumed drugs in Brazil(alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) between the models. Multiple drug seekers and violators had more problematic use of illegal drugs other than cannabis than individuals in the model sequence. However, in the case of violators, this was only evident in the alternative model. Conclusions Multiple drug seekers and violators deserve special attention due to their increased risk of problematic use of other illegal drugs. Declaration of interest None. PMID:25188583

  12. Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

  13. Factors Associated with Illegal Drug Use in Rural Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Ted L.; And Others

    To ascertain the incidence of drug use in a rural area and to provide insight into the covariates of illegal drug use which might be useful in developing prevention programs, data were collected in the spring of 1981 from 2,060 or 83.2% of all students grades 8 through 12 in a southern Georgia county. Data were collected during regularly scheduled…

  14. Use of microwave in processing of drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Wong, T W

    2008-04-01

    Microwave has received a widespread application in pharmaceuticals and food processing, microbial sterilization, biomedical therapy, scientific and biomedical analysis, as well as, drug synthesis. This paper reviews the basis of application of microwave to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms such as agglomerates, gel beads, microspheres, nanomatrix, solid dispersion, tablets and film coat. The microwave could induce drying, polymeric crosslinkages as well as drug-polymer interaction, and modify the structure of drug crystallites via its effects of heating and/or electromagnetic field on the dosage forms. The use of microwave opens a new approach to control the physicochemical properties and drug delivery profiles of pharmaceutical dosage forms without the need for excessive heat, lengthy process or toxic reactants. Alternatively, the microwave can be utilized to process excipients prior to their use in the formulation of drug delivery systems. The intended release characteristics of drugs in dosage forms can be met through modifying the physicochemical properties of excipients using the microwave.

  15. Impact of the heroin 'drought' on patterns of drug use and drug-related harms.

    PubMed

    Longo, Marie C; Henry-Edwards, Susan M; Humeniuk, Rachel E; Christie, Paul; Ali, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    Since late 2000, anecdotal reports from drug users and health professionals have suggested that there was a reduction in the supply of heroin in Adelaide in the first half of 2001, referred to as a heroin 'drought'. The aim of this paper was to critically review evidence for this, using data obtained from 100 injecting drug users surveyed for the 2001 Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS). This project is carried out annually in all Australian jurisdictions, and collects up-to-date information on the markets for heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis. This paper also investigates the possible implications of this 'drought' on patterns of drug use and drug-related harms. The 2001 IDRS found consistent reports by users of an increase in the price of heroin, together with decreases in purity and availability. These factors resulted in a decrease in the frequency of self-reported heroin use among those surveyed in 2001, and a concomitant increase in the use of other drugs, in particular methamphetamine and morphine. The heroin 'drought' appears to have had a substantial impact on several indices of drug-related harm. There was a marked decrease in the number of opioid-related fatalities, and hospital data also showed reductions in heroin-related presentations. Treatment service data showed an increase in the number of admissions related to amphetamines. There is a need for health promotion and education on the adverse effects of methamphetamine use, and the development of improved treatment protocols for methamphetamine abuse and dependence.

  16. Drugs at the campsite: Socio-spatial relations and drug use at music festivals.

    PubMed

    Dilkes-Frayne, Ella

    2016-07-01

    Music festivals have received relatively little research attention despite being key sites for alcohol and drug use among young people internationally. Research into music festivals and the social contexts of drug use more generally, has tended to focus on social and cultural processes without sufficient regard for the mediating role of space and spatial processes. Adopting a relational approach to space and the social, from Actor-Network Theory and human geography, I examine how socio-spatial relations are generated in campsites at multiple-day music festivals. The data are drawn from ethnographic observations at music festivals around Melbourne, Australia; interviews with 18-23 year olds; and participant-written diaries. Through the analysis, the campsite is revealed as a space in process, the making of which is bound up in how drug use unfolds. Campsite relations mediate the formation of drug knowledge and norms, informal harm reduction practices, access to and exchange of drugs, and rest and recovery following drug use. Greater attendance to socio-spatial relations affords new insights regarding how festival spaces and their social effects are generated, and how they give rise to particular drug use practices. These findings also point to how festival harm reduction strategies might be enhanced through the promotion of enabling socio-spatial relations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of illicit drug use in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Madonna L; Reid, Gary; Baldwin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the prevalence of drug use in Asia and the Pacific. It is based on the report "Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific", commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. Review of existing estimates of the prevalence of people who use illicit drugs from published and unpublished literature and information from key informants and regional institutions was undertaken for the period 1998 - 2004. Estimates of the prevalence of people who use illicit drugs were conducted for 12 Asian and six Pacific Island countries. The estimated prevalence of those using illicit drugs ranges from less than 0.01% to 4.6%. Countries with estimated prevalence rates higher than 2% are Cambodia, Hong Kong, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Laos and Malaysia. China, Myanmar and Vietnam have estimated prevalence rates ranging between less than 0.01% and 2%. Data to estimate prevalence rates was not available for Pacific Island countries and Brunei. Estimates of the prevalence of drug use are critical to policy development, planning responses and measuring the coverage of programs. However, reliable estimates of the numbers of people using illicit drugs are rare in Asia, particularly the Pacific.

  18. Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Isaac C; David Hawkins, J; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2011-05-01

    This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings.

  19. Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts

    PubMed Central

    Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings. PMID:21414831

  20. Cognitive Motivations for Drug Use among Adolescents: Longitudinal Tests of Gender Differences and Predictors of Change in Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined cognitive motivations for alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents. Identified four factors for drug use. Boys were more motivated to use alcohol and cannabis for Social Cohesion and cannabis for Enhancing Positive Affect and Creativity than girls. Older, more than younger, adolescents used drugs to Reduce Negative Affect. All…

  1. Drug scene, drug use and drug-related health consequences and responses in Kulob and Khorog, Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    Latypov, Alisher; Otiashvili, David; Zule, William

    2014-01-01

    Background Tajikistan and other Central Asian republics are facing intertwined epidemics of injecting drug use and HIV. This paper aims to examine drug scene, drug use, drug-related infectious diseases, drug treatment and other responses to health consequences of drug injecting in two Tajik cities of Kulob (Khatlon Region) and Khorog (Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast). Methods We conducted twelve focus group discussions in Kulob and Khorog and analysed peer-reviewed literature, published and unpublished programme and country reports and other publications that focused on substance use and/or HIV/AIDS in Tajikistan and included the Khatlon and Gorno-Badakhshan regions. Results In both Kulob and Khorog, heroin is used by the overwhelming majority of people who inject drugs (PWID), with one dose of heroin in Khorog costing less than a bottle of vodka. Opioid overdose among PWID in Tajikistan is a serious issue that appears to be substantially underestimated and inadequately addressed at the policy and practice levels. In integrated bio-behavioural surveys (IBBS), HIV and HCV prevalence in both Kulob and Khorog varied widely over a short period of time, raising questions over the quality and reliability of these data. Access to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) by PWID is either lacking or inadequate. Very few women who inject drugs access needle and syringe programmes in Kulob and Khorog. HCV treatment cannot be afforded by the overwhelming majority of PWID due to high costs. Conclusion Tajikistan IBBS data point to the potential problems in using composite national prevalence as an adequate reflection of the HIV epidemic among PWID in the country and highlight the importance of examining site-specific prevalence rates for better understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic over time as well as potential problems related to the reliability of data. Furthermore, our analysis highlights that in a country where almost all PWID inject

  2. Optimizing drug development of anti-cancer drugs in children using modelling and simulation

    PubMed Central

    van Hasselt, Johan GC; van Eijkelenburg, Natasha KA; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan HM; Huitema, Alwin DR

    2013-01-01

    Modelling and simulation (M&S)-based approaches have been proposed to support paediatric drug development in order to design and analyze clinical studies efficiently. Development of anti-cancer drugs in the paediatric population is particularly challenging due to ethical and practical constraints. We aimed to review the application of M&S in the development of anti-cancer drugs in the paediatric population, and to identify where M&S-based approaches could provide additional support in paediatric drug development of anti-cancer drugs. A structured literature search on PubMed was performed. The majority of identified M&S-based studies aimed to use population PK modelling approaches to identify determinants of inter-individual variability, in order to optimize dosing regimens and to develop therapeutic drug monitoring strategies. Prospective applications of M&S approaches for PK-bridging studies have scarcely been reported for paediatric oncology. Based on recent developments of M&S in drug development there are several opportunities where M&S could support more informative bridging between children and adults, and increase efficiency of the design and analysis of paediatric clinical trials, which should ultimately lead to further optimization of drug treatment strategies in this population. PMID:23216601

  3. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  4. Gender Differences in Psychopathy Links to Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2015-01-01

    While the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between two criminally-relevant constructs, a) psychopathy and its factors and b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and in women, Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. PMID:26571339

  5. The Use of Antimicrobial Drugs in Office Practice

    PubMed Central

    Achong, Michael R.

    1982-01-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are used extensively, but not well. Widespread and indiscriminate use of these drugs encourages the development of antibiotic resistance. Before prescribing an antimicrobial drug, physicians should ask themselves whether prophylactic or empirical therapy is justified, what is (are) the most likely micro-organism(s) involved, what is the best antimicrobial drug for this patient, and what is the optimal dosage and duration of treatment. The penicillins, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, cotrimoxazole and trimethoprim are discussed in the light of these questions. PMID:20469389

  6. [Rational drug use: an economic approach to decision making].

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniel Marques; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; Sudo, Elisa Cazue; Ortún, Vicente

    2008-04-01

    The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU) from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.

  7. Negative memories of childhood and current drug use.

    PubMed

    Moen, Cecilia; Ohlund, Lennart S

    2003-01-01

    Data on drug abuse and memories of the childhood were collected through a self-report questionnaire from a group of current drug users and a group of non-using controls. Both samples were unidentified as groups by the society and were identified by the researchers throw snowball sampling. Earlier results of an unstable childhood and a poor social situation from studies that used other sampling methods were replicated. The drug users had an earlier nicotine and alcohol debut, and perceived themselves as unloved, physically abused children that were afraid of their parents during childhood. In addition, depression, suicide attempts and convictions were more common among the drug users.

  8. Drug Use and Spatial Dynamics of Household Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Brown, Emma J

    2016-01-01

    Household space allocation by women who consume drugs in New York and North Florida is depicted to demonstrate the complex character of household space and social relations. Some parents attempt to hide their drug consumption through the allocation space in the household for drug use. Women allocation of space for drug use within their households and the impact of this on the household are relevant issues with implications for therapy and prevention. Objective The use of household space has not been a focus of social scientists. Middle class households have been used by decoration literature to specify space utilization. Modest literature pay attention to the utilization of household space among drug focused households. Analysis herein looks at the lived social relations of drug users to their children through controlling household space. Methods Data presented comes from two studies, New York and Florida. The studies involved a total of 158 participants in 72 families from New York and 26 participants in 23 families in North Florida. Both researches used an ethnographic methodology focusing on a variety of behavior patterns and conduct norms occurring within drug abusing households. Repeated interviews and observations took place in households which were visited at different times and days of the week. Florida study was conducted over a 2-year period; New York study took place over a 5-year period. Results Data suggest parents attempted to conceal their drug use from their offspring by using various strategies. Mental, social, and physical were tied together in space allocation. Household space acquired a different meaning and arose from use practice. Conclusion In urban and rural settings a pattern of household allocation space and drug consumption is emerging. Although drug consumption is still prominent, it is not all consuming or the primary focus in the lives of women who use drugs. These women may have learned to integrate their consumption into their daily

  9. Competence and drug use: theoretical frameworks, empirical evidence and measurement.

    PubMed

    Lindenberg, C S; Solorzano, R; Kelley, M; Darrow, V; Gendrop, S C; Strickland, O

    1998-01-01

    Statistics show that use of harmful substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine) among women of childbearing age is widespread and serious. Numerous theoretical models and empirical studies have attempted to explain the complex factors that lead individuals to use drugs. The Social Stress Model of Substance Abuse [1] is one model developed to explain parameters that influence drug use. According to the model, the likelihood of an individual engaging in drug use is seen as a function of the stress level and the extent to which it is offset by stress modifiers such as social networks, social competencies, and resources. The variables of the denominator are viewed as interacting with each other to buffer the impact of stress [1]. This article focuses on one of the constructs in this model: that of competence. It presents a summary of theoretical and conceptual formulations for the construct of competence, a review of empirical evidence for the association of competence with drug use, and describes the preliminary development of a multi-scale instrument designed to assess drug protective competence among low-income Hispanic childbearing women. Based upon theoretical and empirical studies, eight domains of drug protective competence were identified and conceptually defined. Using subscales from existing instruments with psychometric evidence for their validity and reliability, a multi-scale instrument was developed to assess drug protective competence. Hypothesis testing was used to assess construct validity. Four drug protective competence domains (social influence, sociability, self-worth, and control/responsibility) were found to be statistically associated with drug use behaviors. Although not statistically significant, expected trends were observed between drug use and the other four domains of drug protective competence (intimacy, nurturance, goal directedness, and spiritual directedness). Study limitations and suggestions for further psychometric testing

  10. Drug Interaction Alert Override Rates in the Meaningful Use Era

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, A.D.; Fletcher, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Interruptive drug interaction alerts may reduce adverse drug events and are required for Stage I Meaningful Use attestation. For the last decade override rates have been very high. Despite their widespread use in commercial EHR systems, previously described interventions to improve alert frequency and acceptance have not been well studied. Objectives (1) To measure override rates of inpatient medication alerts within a commercial clinical decision support system, and assess the impact of local customization efforts. (2) To compare override rates between drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy interaction alerts, between attending and resident physicians, and between public and academic hospitals. (3) To measure the correlation between physicians’ individual alert quantities and override rates as an indicator of potential alert fatigue. Methods We retrospectively analyzed physician responses to drug-drug and drug-allergy interaction alerts, as generated by a common decision support product in a large teaching hospital system. Results (1) Over four days, 461 different physicians entered 18,354 medication orders, resulting in 2,455 visible alerts; 2,280 alerts (93%) were overridden. (2) The drug-drug alert override rate was 95.1%, statistically higher than the rate for drug-allergy alerts (90.9%) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in override rates between attendings and residents, or between hospitals. (3) Physicians saw a mean of 1.3 alerts per day, and the number of alerts per physician was not significantly correlated with override rate (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.41). Conclusions Despite intensive efforts to improve a commercial drug interaction alert system and to reduce alerting, override rates remain as high as reported over a decade ago. Alert fatigue does not seem to contribute. The results suggest the need to fundamentally question the premises of drug interaction alert systems. PMID:25298818

  11. New Antituberculosis Drugs: From Clinical Trial to Programmatic Use

    PubMed Central

    Gualano, Gina; Capone, Susanna; Matteelli, Alberto; Palmieri, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease, highlighting the need for of new drugs. For the first time in more than 50 years, two new anti-TB drugs were approved and released. Bedaquiline is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound that showed durable culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials. Delamanid is the first drug of the nitroimidazole class to enter clinical practice. Similarly to bedaquiline results of phase IIb studies showed increased sputum-culture conversion at 2 months and better final treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB. Among repurposed drugs linezolid and carbapenems may represent a valuable drug to treat cases of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB. The recommended regimen for MDR-TB is the combination of at least four drugs to which M. tuberculosis is likely to be susceptible for the duration of 20 months. Drugs are chosen with a stepwise selection process through five groups on the basis of efficacy, safety, and cost. Clinical phase III trials on new regimen are ongoing that could prove transformative against MDR-TB, by being shorter (six months), simpler (an all-oral regimen) and safer than current standard therapy. It is fundamental that the adoption of the new drugs is done responsibly to avoid inappropriate use. Concentration of in-patient MDR-TB treatment in specialized centers could be considered in countries with low numbers of cases in order to provide appropriate clinical case management and to prevent emergence of drug resistance. PMID:27403268

  12. Use of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to simulate drug-drug interactions between antineoplastic and antiretroviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Moltó, José; Rajoli, Rajith; Back, David; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Owen, Andrew; Clotet, Bonaventura; Siccardi, Marco

    2017-03-01

    Co-administration of antineoplastics with ART is challenging due to potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, trials specifically assessing such DDIs are lacking. Our objective was to simulate DDIs between the antineoplastics erlotinib and gefitinib with key antiretroviral drugs and to predict dose adjustments using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. In vitro data describing chemical properties and pharmacokinetic processes of each drug and their effect on cytochrome P450 isoforms were obtained from the literature. Plasma drug-concentration profiles were simulated in a virtual population of 50 individuals receiving erlotinib or gefitinib alone or with darunavir/ritonavir, efavirenz or etravirine. Simulated pharmacokinetic parameters and the magnitude of DDIs with probe drugs (midazolam, maraviroc) were compared with literature values. Erlotinib and gefitinib pharmacokinetics with and without antiretrovirals were compared and dose-adjustment strategies were evaluated. Simulated parameters of each drug and the magnitude of DDIs with probe drugs were in agreement with reference values. Darunavir/ritonavir increased erlotinib and gefitinib exposure, while efavirenz and etravirine decreased erlotinib and gefitinib concentrations. Based on our predictions, dose-adjustment strategies may consist of once-daily dosing erlotinib at 25 mg and gefitinib at 125 mg with darunavir/ritonavir; or erlotinib at 200 mg and gefitinib at 375 mg with etravirine. The interaction with efavirenz was not overcome even after doubling erlotinib or gefitinib doses. PBPK models predicted the in vivo pharmacokinetics of erlotinib, gefitinib and the antiretrovirals darunavir/ritonavir, efavirenz and etravirine, and the DDIs between them. The simulated dose-adjustments may represent valuable strategies to optimize antineoplastic therapy in HIV-infected patients.

  13. [Drug use in neonatology units of 6 Spanish hospitals].

    PubMed

    Feal Cortizas, B; Barroso Pérez, C; Carcelen Andrés, J; Fábrega Bosacoma, C; Gallego Lago, V; Hidalgo Albert, E; Pozas Del Río, M T; Puy Goyache, M; Revert Molina-Niñirola, A; Valverde Molina, E; Wood Wood, M A

    2003-01-01

    To determine the status of drug use in Neonatology units regarding: 1. Frequency of use for drugs unauthorised by DirecciA(3)n General de Farmacia y Productos Sanitarios. 2. Suitability of commercial presentations regarding actual needs of patients. Two cut-off points were established for 100% of patients admitted to Neonatology Units in 6 Spanish hospitals. Data on demography and therapeutic drug profile were collected, as well as on whether doses were or not prepared by Pharmacy departments. Approval for each drug regarding indication, age range, dosage and administration route was assessed. The number of patients included was 346. In all, 17.6% of patients were under treatment with unauthorised drugs, the reason being age in 78.7% and indication in 21.3%. Master formula preparation was needed for 22% of patients because of a lack of commercial preparations suited for paediatric age. Pharmacy departments prepared 25% of prescribed drugs. The use of unauthorised drugs in Neonatology is a common fact. Pharmacy departments are actively involved in Neonatology-related drug therapies: counselling and/or processing for compassionate unauthorised drug use, master formula preparation, intravenous mixtures, etc. Therapeutics in Neonatology benefits from specialised pharmaceutical involvement.

  14. Using mass media to reduce adolescent involvement in drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Romer, D

    1994-06-01

    Drug trafficking among adolescents is a newly recognized high-risk behavior that seems to be involving large numbers of youths. Strategies to prevent and/or alter this behavior must be developed and evaluated. In view of the high exposure of adolescents to the mass media, interventionists seeking to reduce adolescent risk behavior have increasingly employed the media in their efforts to reduce adolescent risk behaviors in general. However, not all risk behaviors may be amendable to change as a result of this approach. Therefore, before utilizing this approach to address adolescent drug trafficking, it is important to investigate previous efforts targeting related risk behaviors. Mass media campaigns against the use of drugs have been common in the US and seem to have played a role in reducing consumption of both legal and illegal drugs. The most effective messages seem to focus on the risks of drug use and the social disapproval that attends use. The mass media may increase the influence of these antidrug messages by changing the social climate surrounding drug use. The mass media may be a particularly effective way to reach adolescents and their parents in communities in which adolescent drug trafficking is prevalent and to unite the institutions that could influence adolescents against involvement in the drug trade. However, intervention efforts must also contend with the economic incentives of the drug trade in poor, central-city communities.

  15. Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a

  16. Methamphetamine use in nonurban and urban drug court clients.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Tindall, Michele Staton; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Leukefeld, Carl

    2005-06-01

    Population-based surveys suggest that methamphetamine use and abuse may be rising in the United States. However, little is known about methamphetamine use in eastern sections of the United States, particularly nonurban areas. The purpose of the present study was (a) to explore reported methamphetamine use and its correlates among Kentucky drug court clients and(b) to determine whether differences exist between methamphetamine users by drug court location. Of the 500 drug court clients surveyed, approximately 32% n=161) reported lifetime methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine users and nonusers differed in their drug-use profiles, self-reported criminal history, and number of criminal offenses. Nonurban and urban methamphetamine users differed in their drug-use profiles, psychological functioning, self-reported criminal history, and number of criminal offenses. These results suggest that differences exist between these populations and clinicians, and criminal justice officials may need to consider these differences when planning treatment and rehabilitation strategies.

  17. The relationship between club drug use and other drug use: a survey of New York City middle school students.

    PubMed

    Goldsamt, Lloyd A; O'Brien, Julie; Clatts, Michael C; McGuire, Laura Silver

    2005-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between use of club drugs (crystal methamphetamine, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine), and use of other drugs, survey data collected from 23,780 middle school students in New York City during 2002-2003 was examined. Results of HGLM analyses (a generalization of HLM to accommodate nonlinear outcomes), controlling for the effect of school, indicate that Black students are less likely than White students to use club drugs depending on the timeframe of use. The use of alcohol and/or marijuana predict club drug use regardless of the timeframe of use, and lifetime cigarette use predicts lifetime club drug use. Recommendations for future research and prevention efforts are discussed.

  18. QRAR models for cardiovascular system drugs using biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sumin; Yang, Gengliang; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Haiyan; Li, Zhiwei

    2007-02-01

    The capability of biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) to describe and estimate pharmacological parameters of cardiovascular system drugs has been studied. The retention of cardiovascular system drugs was studied using different pH of Brij-35 as micellar mobile phase in modified C(18) stationary phase. Quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRAR) in BMC were investigated for these compounds. An adequate correlation between the retention factors (log k) and the toxicity (LD(50)) of cardiovascular system drugs was obtained.

  19. The Parents' Experience: Coping with Drug Use in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rachael; Bauld, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The families of drug users are often overlooked in the planning and delivery of services. This paper is based on interviews with parents of heroin users and staff from a support agency that worked with families affected by drug use. Findings highlight the devastation parents experienced in learning that their child was using heroin, and the…

  20. Factors Associated with Illegal Drug Use among Older Methadone Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The overall aims of this study are to describe the life stressors of, exposure to illegal drug use of, and illegal drug use by older methadone clients. Design and Methods. The current study focuses on a sub-sample of the larger administrative data of a methadone clinic that is limited to African American and White clients over the age of…

  1. Student Drug Use, Risk-Taking and Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Beatrice A.; Ewing, John A.

    This study seeks: (1) to detect whether an increase in drug use occurred in the two years since a previous similar study; (2) to determine the kinds and levels of risk which the students associated with the nonprescription use of various drugs; and (3) to examine the extent to which the marihuana groups showed alienation. The study drew a…

  2. The use of drug detection dogs in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Matthew; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-11-01

    At present there is little research into the use of drug detection dogs. The present study sought to explore the use of detection dogs in Sydney, Australia, utilising multiple data sources. DESIGN AND METHODS; Data were taken from interviews with 100 regular ecstasy users and 20 key experts as part of the 2006 New South Wales arm of the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System, and secondary data sources. The majority of regular ecstasy users reported taking some form of precaution if made aware that dogs would be at an event they were attending. A small proportion of the sample reported consuming their drugs when coming into contact with detection dogs. One group of key experts viewed the use of detection dogs as useful; one group disliked the use of detection dogs though cooperated with law enforcement when dogs were used; and one group considered that detection dogs contribute to greater harm. Secondary data sources further suggested that the use of detection dogs do not significantly assist police in identifying and apprehending drug suppliers. The present study suggests that regular ecstasy users do not see detection dogs as an obstacle to their drug use. Future research is necessary to explore in greater depth the experiences that drug users have with detection dogs; the effect detection dogs may have on deterring drug consumption; whether encounters with detection dogs contribute to drug-related harm; and the cost-benefit analysis of this law enforcement exercise.

  3. Chicano Drug Abuse Patterns: Using Archival Data to Test Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan C.

    1985-01-01

    The records of 274,709 clients admitted to federally funded drug treatment programs in California between 1975 and early 1981 were examined to determine Chicano drug abuse patterns. The study confirmed the disproportionate use of heroin and inhalants by Chicanos and indicated that phencyclidine was disproportionately used by Chicanos. (NQA)

  4. Student Drug Use and Driving: A University Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.

    A survey of 857 students at a large midwestern university provided information regarding the frequency and type of drugs used by students at any time and shortly before driving. The drugs most frequently used at least once in the prior year were alcohol, marijauna, caffeine, and nicotine. Significant association was found between alcohol use…

  5. An Exploration of Recent Club Drug Use among Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Raves are characterized by large numbers of youth dancing for long periods of time and by the use of "club drugs," such as 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). While a small body of research has explored the use of ecstasy and other club drugs (EOCD) among club rave attendees in the United States, we are…

  6. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use among Black Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha-Silva, Lee; And Others

    The Centre for Alcohol and Drug Studies, Johannesburg (South Africa) commissioned a study of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among historically disadvantaged black youth aged 10 to 21 years. A national survey explored the prevalence of substance use in this age group through responses of 1,376 children and youths. An in-depth study examined…

  7. An Exploration of Recent Club Drug Use among Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Raves are characterized by large numbers of youth dancing for long periods of time and by the use of "club drugs," such as 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). While a small body of research has explored the use of ecstasy and other club drugs (EOCD) among club rave attendees in the United States, we are…

  8. The Parents' Experience: Coping with Drug Use in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rachael; Bauld, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The families of drug users are often overlooked in the planning and delivery of services. This paper is based on interviews with parents of heroin users and staff from a support agency that worked with families affected by drug use. Findings highlight the devastation parents experienced in learning that their child was using heroin, and the…

  9. Young People, Drug Use and Family Conflict: Pathways into Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…

  10. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  11. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  12. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  13. Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Unpredictable Danger Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 Monitoring the Future 2016 Survey Results Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 Teens and E-cigarettes View ...

  14. Age of First Use of Drugs among Rural Midwestern Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Among 3,907 seventh-twelfth grade students in rural Illinois, ages at first use for alcohol, tobacco, and drugs were lower than national averages. Specific drug and alcohol education programs should be implemented before age of first use for 10 percent of students. Contains 20 references and 3 data tables. (SV)

  15. Drug Use in Rural Kansas Fifth- and Sixth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Hannah J.

    The use and abuse of dangerous and illicit drugs, particularly among young people, continues to rise despite recent efforts to develop and implement drug education programs in schools. This study investigated substance use by rural Kansas fifth and sixth graders. Independent variables were gender, family structure, perceived relationship with…

  16. Drug Use Patterns among High School Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Adam H.; Gardner, Doug; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2001-01-01

    High school students (N=1,515) in Massachusetts were surveyed about whether participation in athletics promoted a healthier lifestyle and decreased use of recreational drugs. Participation in athletics did promote a healthier lifestyle and athletes were significantly less likely to use cocaine, psychedelic drugs, or smoke cigarettes. However, work…

  17. Levels and Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, John A.; Glickman, Nita W.

    1986-01-01

    Trends and patterns of adolescent drug use were examined through consideration of over 125 psychosocial correlates with drug use and nonuse. A sample of over 480 Philadelphia high school students was given personal interviews and a survey questionnaire that included several psychological scales and test batteries. (Author/LMO)

  18. Drug Use Patterns among High School Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Adam H.; Gardner, Doug; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2001-01-01

    High school students (N=1,515) in Massachusetts were surveyed about whether participation in athletics promoted a healthier lifestyle and decreased use of recreational drugs. Participation in athletics did promote a healthier lifestyle and athletes were significantly less likely to use cocaine, psychedelic drugs, or smoke cigarettes. However, work…

  19. Student Drug Use and Driving: A University Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.

    A survey of 857 students at a large midwestern university provided information regarding the frequency and type of drugs used by students at any time and shortly before driving. The drugs most frequently used at least once in the prior year were alcohol, marijauna, caffeine, and nicotine. Significant association was found between alcohol use…

  20. Comparative Survey of Drug Use in a Community Service System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharia, E. S.; Struxness, L.

    1991-01-01

    Drug use patterns were surveyed in Colorado's community services system for 1,282 individuals with developmental disabilities. A psychotropic drug use rate of 18.6 percent compared favorably to other reported rates and rates in Colorado's institutional settings. Substantial experience with psychotropic and anticonvulsant medications across all…

  1. Adolescent Drug Use in Nebraska, 1988. Technical Report 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Anderson, Carolyn S.

    This research report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among a representative sample of 7,187 Nebraska junior and senior high school students. The research is from an ongoing project: the Nebraska Adolescent Drug Use survey, which was initiated in 1982. The stated purpose of the project is to provide baseline and updated survey…

  2. Comparative Survey of Drug Use in a Community Service System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharia, E. S.; Struxness, L.

    1991-01-01

    Drug use patterns were surveyed in Colorado's community services system for 1,282 individuals with developmental disabilities. A psychotropic drug use rate of 18.6 percent compared favorably to other reported rates and rates in Colorado's institutional settings. Substantial experience with psychotropic and anticonvulsant medications across all…

  3. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  4. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  5. Alcohol use, illicit drug use, and road rage.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Inmaculada; Morales, Claudia; Alvarez, F Javier

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the relationship between the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs and the experience of road-rage victimization and perpetration among drivers and nondrivers in the general population. A cross-sectional survey was designed with 2,500 subjects, ages 14-70 years, living in Castile and León, Spain, of which 1,276 (51 %) were males and 1,224 (49%) females. The Alcohol-Use And Drug-Use Survey of Castile and León, Spain 2008 focused on patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug consumption. Potential risk factors for road-rage experience for the previous 12 months was assessed, including sociodemographics (7 variables), patterns of alcohol consumption (7 variables), and patterns of drug consumption (10 variables). Among drivers, driving under the influence of alcohol and/or cannabis during the previous year was associated with being a perpetrator of road rage (odds ratio [OR] = 3.72, 95% CI [1.71, 8.10] and 6.77 [1.55, 29.48], respectively), being both a victim and perpetrator of road rage (OR = 1.80 [1.05, 3.07] for alcohol, 5.34 [1.64, 17.41] for cannabis, and 4.81 [1.09, 21.16] for alcohol and cannabis), and with serious road-rage perpetration (OR = 4.97 [2.40, 10.30] for alcohol and 17.75 [5.88, 53.56] for cannabis). Problem drinking (CAGE scores ≥ 2) was associated with being both a victim and perpetrator of road rage (OR = 2.74 [1.67, 4.50]) and with low (OR = 1.77 [1.09, 2.85]) and serious (OR = 3.47 [1.65, 7.30]) road-rage perpetration. Driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis and being a problem drinker are associated with the perpetration of serious road-rage behavior, as well as experiencing road-rage victimization and perpetration.

  6. Cause of death and drug use pattern in deceased drug addicts in Sweden, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Anna K; Holmgren, Per; Druid, Henrik; Ahlner, Johan

    2007-07-04

    Compared with their contemporaries, individuals abusing illicit drugs suffer a higher risk of premature death. In Sweden, a simple protocol for registration of fatalities among abusers of alcohol, pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, or other substances, has been used by the forensic pathologists since 2001. This routine was introduced to allow for an evaluation of the cause and manner of death, and patterns of abuse among different groups of abusers. We explored the data on drug abusers (i.e. abusers of illicit drugs) subjected to a forensic autopsy 2002-2003. The Swedish forensic pathologists examined 10,273 dead victims during the study period and 7% (743/10,273) of the cases were classified as drug abusers. Toxicological analyses were carried out in 99% (736/743) and illicit drugs were detected in 70% (514/736) of these. On average, 3.8 substances (legal or illegal) were found per case. The most common substances were ethanol and morphine, detected in 43 and 35% of the cases, respectively. When exploring the importance of the different substances for the cause of death, we found that the detection of some substances, such as fentanyl and morphine, strongly indicated a poisoning, whereas certain other substances, such as benzodiazepines more often were incidental findings. In total, 50% (372/743) died of poisoning, whereas only 22% (161/743) died of natural causes. Death was considered to be directly or indirectly due to drug abuse in 47% (346/743), whereas evidence of drug abuse was an incidental finding in 21% (153/743) or based on case history alone in 33% (244/743). We believe that this strategy to prospectively categorize deaths among drug addicts constitutes a simple means of standardizing the surveillance of the death toll among drug addicts that could allow for comparisons over time and between countries.

  7. Drug use and opioid substitution treatment for prisoners

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Drug use is prevalent throughout prison populations, and, despite advances in drug treatment programmes for inmates, access to and the quality of these programmes remain substantially poorer than those available for non-incarcerated drug users. Because prisoners may be at greater risk for some of the harms associated with drug use, they deserve therapeutic modalities and attitudes that are at least equal to those available for drug users outside prison. This article discusses drug use by inmates and its associated harms. In addition, this article provides a survey of studies conducted in prisons of opioid substitution therapy (OST), a clinically effective and cost-effective drug treatment strategy. The findings from this overview indicate why treatment efforts for drug users in prison are often poorer than those available for drug users in the non-prison community and demonstrate how the implementation of OST programmes benefits not only prisoners but also prison staff and the community at large. Finally, the article outlines strategies that have been found effective for implementing OST in prisons and offers suggestions for applying these strategies more broadly. PMID:20642849

  8. [Anticancer drugs use evaluation: limits of the approved labeling].

    PubMed

    Debrix, Isabelle; André, Thierry; Flahault, Antoine; Kalu, Ogbe; Gligorov, Joseph; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Milleron, Bernard; Pene, Françoise; Boukari, Yasmine; Becker, Annie

    2004-05-01

    A practice survey was performed in Tenon hospital on 396 consecutive patients treated for solid tumors during 4 weeks in november 2002. 33% of anticancer drugs were off label used. The wording heterogeneity of the different anticancer drugs approved labeling and the lack of anticancer drugs in a number of cancers can explain those results. On one hand, randomised comparative clinical trial, considered as the best level of evidence to obtain a label used, is not always possible in cancerology, especially for rare tumors. One the other hand, pharmaceutical firm are not obliged to asked a label used for an anticancer drugs in spite of high level of evidence. So, label used can not be the own references for anticancer drugs prescribing, therapeutic advanced can be realised and disseminated before their taking into account in the label used.

  9. Antimicrobial drug use in three Canadian general hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, T. L.; Guyatt, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Total amounts of antimicrobial drugs used to treat inpatients during 1975 were calculated for three Canadian general hospitals, one of them the principal teaching hospital of a medical school. Use of drugs was compared with that reported for Boston City Hospital during periods when antimicrobial therapy was and was not supervised by infectious disease consultants. Ampicillin, tetracyclines, cephalosporins, erythromycin and aminoglycosides for prophylactic oral administration were used excessively in the three hospitals. The degree of overuse was comparable to that at Boston City Hospital during years when drug use was uncontrolled. Overuse or improper choice of antimicrobial drug decreases the quality of patient care and increases its cost. More rigorous education is needed for both medical students and practising physicians in the rational use of antimicrobial drugs. Informal consultation with an infectious disease unit should be required before certain overly popular or toxic antibiotics are administered to hospitalized patients. PMID:837301

  10. Licit and illicit drug use in cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Govare, Amelie; Leroux, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Cluster headache patients seem to use more licit and illicit substances than the general population. The epidemiologic data supporting this is growing. We included the licit drugs in this review because their use seems to be driven by the same addiction mechanisms leading to illicit drug abuse. Some drugs may be used in an attempt to treat cluster headache, especially cocaine and hallucinogens. Drug exposure may also play a role in CH pathophysiology, as suggested by interesting data on tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure. A common factor may contribute both to CH and drug use predisposition. Genetic factors may be at play, and the dopaminergic and orexinergic pathways could be targeted for future studies.

  11. Using Potentiometric Free Drug Sensors to Determine the Free Concentration of Ionizable Drugs in Colloidal Systems.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy; Chakraborty, Anjan; Xi, Xi; Bohets, Hugo; Cornett, Claus; Tsinman, Konstantin; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-05-23

    The present study investigates the use of free drug sensors (FDS) to measure free ionized drug concentrations in colloidal systems, including micellar solutions, emulsions, and lipid formulations during in vitro lipolysis. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and loperamide hydrochloride (LOP) were selected as model drugs. Self-diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance studies were performed and confirmed the entrapment of drugs in micelles in Brij 35 and sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC)/phosphatidylcholine (PC) micellar solutions. The FDS measurements indicated that with a constant level of drug, the percentage of free DPH and LOP decreased from 84% to 57% and from 51% to 18%, respectively, as the concentration of Brij 35 was increased from 4.7 to 22 mM; and from 99% to 46% and from 100% to 21%, respectively, as the concentration of TDC/PC was increased from 0.49/0.04 to 8.85/0.78 mM. During the in vitro lipolysis of a lipid formulation, free drug concentration decreased with lipolysis time. The percentage of free DPH was higher than for LOP in the same colloidal system because DPH is less lipophilic than LOP. The study showed that FDS can be used to monitor the free drug concentration in colloidal systems with fast response, no sample treatment and simple data analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug Use Patterns in Severely Mentally Ill Medicare Beneficiaries: Impact of Discontinuities in Drug Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Zuckerman, Ilene H; Shaffer, Thomas; Blanchette, Christopher M; Stuart, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the extent of drug coverage among severely mentally ill Medicare beneficiaries and to determine whether and to what extent discontinuities in prescription drug coverage influence the use of medications used to treat serious mental health conditions. Data Source 1997–2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Surveys. Study Design We use a zero-inflated negative binomial model to estimate: (1) the probability of not receiving any mental health drug and (2) the number of medications received, adjusting for age, race, income, census region, health status, and comorbidity. Severe mental illness is defined using inpatient and outpatient claims with ICD-9 codes of schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders, bipolar disorders, and major depression. Mental health medications include antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotics, and stimulants. Prescription drug coverage is assessed as full coverage (0 percent discontinuities), no coverage (100 percent discontinuities), or as discontinuous coverage, measured as 1–25, 26–50, and 51–99 percent of time without coverage. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We constructed three 3-year longitudinal cohorts of severely mentally ill Medicare beneficiaries residing in the community (n = 901). Principal Findings Severely mentally ill Medicare beneficiaries with drug coverage discontinuities are more likely than their continuously insured peers not to receive medications used to treat mental health disorders, with the most significant impact seen in the probability of receiving any psychiatric medications. Analysis of two therapeutic classes—antidepressants and antipsychotics—revealed varying impacts of drug gaps on both probability of any drug use, as well as number of medications received among users. Conclusions Severely mentally ill Medicare beneficiaries may be particularly vulnerable to the Medicare Part D drug benefit design and, as such, warrant close evaluation and

  13. Religiosity and teen drug use reconsidered: a social capital perspective.

    PubMed

    Bartkowski, John P; Xu, Xiaohe

    2007-06-01

    Although religiosity has often been shown to have a deterrent effect on teen drug use, noteworthy theoretic gaps and contradictory findings have left important questions unanswered. Conceptualizing religion as a measure of social capital and using cross-sectional data from Monitoring the Future (1996), a nationally representative sample of American high school seniors collected annually, this study is designed to shed new light on the relationship between religiosity and drug use among American youth. Levels of teen drug use for three different components of faith-based social capital-exposure to and internalization of religious norms, integration within religious networks, and trust in religious phenomena-are explored with respect to high school seniors' use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs during the year prior to the survey. In addition, drug use associated with faith-based and secular forms of civic engagement among teens (e.g., participation in religious youth groups vs secular organizations such as sports and school clubs, theistic trust vs secular trust) are compared. Among religiosity variables, integration within congregational networks (i.e., worship service attendance) exhibits the most consistent negative association with youth drug use. Theistic trust is not associated with teen drug use, but secular trust and civic participation in secular organizations are associated with less drug use. Elements of both religious and secular social capital are associated with lower reported drug use, thereby suggesting that multiple avenues for the prevention of teen drug use might be pursued. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Multiple Drug Use and Overdose Among Young People Who Inject Drugs.

    PubMed

    Riley, Elise D; Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Briceno, Alya; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    To determine the association between multiple drug use and nonfatal overdose among young people (younger than 30 years) who inject drugs. We completed a longitudinal study of 173 injection drug users younger than 30 years living in San Francisco, California, between April 2012 and February 2014. The odds of nonfatal overdose increased significantly as heroin and benzodiazepine pill-taking days increased and when alcohol consumption exceeded 10 drinks per day compared with 0 drinks per day. Heroin, benzodiazepine, and alcohol use were independently associated with nonfatal overdose over time among young people who inject drugs. Efforts to address multiple central nervous system depressant use remain an important component of a comprehensive approach to overdose, particularly among young people.

  15. The Use of Antibodies in Small-Molecule Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Catherine J; Eckersley, Sonia; Hebditch, Max; Kvist, Alexander J; Milner, Roy; Mitchell, Danielle; Warwicker, Juli; Marley, Anna E

    2014-07-01

    Antibodies are powerful research tools that can be used in many areas of biology to probe, measure, and perturb various biological structures. Successful drug discovery is dependent on the correct identification of a target implicated in disease, coupled with the successful selection, optimization, and development of a candidate drug. Because of their specific binding characteristics, with regard to specificity, affinity, and avidity, coupled with their amenability to protein engineering, antibodies have become a key tool in drug discovery, enabling the quantification, localization, and modulation of proteins of interest. This review summarizes the application of antibodies and other protein affinity reagents as specific research tools within the drug discovery process.

  16. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Use in Horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, Heather K

    2017-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents and are arguably the most commonly used class of drugs in equine medicine. This article provides a brief review of the mechanism of action, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects associated with their use in horses. The use of COX-2 selective NSAIDs in veterinary medicine has increased over the past several years and special emphasis is given to the use of these drugs in horses. A brief discussion of the use of NSAIDs in performance horses is also included.

  17. Biological Markers of Drug Use in the Club Setting*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Furr-Holden, Debra; Johnson, Mark B.; Holder, Harold; Voas, Robert; Keagy, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of drug and alcohol use among patrons of clubs featuring electronic music dance events was determined by using biological assays at entrance and exit. Method: Using a portal methodology that randomly selects groups of patrons on arrival at clubs, oral assays for determining level and type of drug use and level of alcohol use were obtained anonymously. Patrons provided self-reported data on their personal characteristics. A total of 362 patrons were interviewed at entrance and provided oral assay data, and 277 provided data at both entrance and exit. Results: Overall, one quarter of all patrons surveyed at entrance were positive for some type of drug use. Based on our exit sample, one quarter of the sample was positive at exit. Individual drugs most prevalent at entrance or exit included cocaine, marijuana, and amphetamines/stimulants. Only the amphetamine/stimulant category increased significantly from entrance to exit. Drug-using patrons arrive at the club already using drugs; few patrons arrive with no drug use and leave with detectable levels of drug use. Clubs vary widely in drug-user prevalence at entrance and exit, suggesting that both events and club policies and practices may attract different types of patrons. Approximately one half of the total entrance sample arrived with detectable alcohol use, and nearly one fifth arrived with an estimated blood alcohol concentration of .08 or greater. Based on our exit sample data, one third of patrons were intoxicated, and slightly less than one fifth were using both drugs and alcohol at exit. Clubs attract a wide array of emerging adults, with both genders and all ethnicities well represented. Clubs also attract emerging adults who are not in college and who are working full time. Conclusions: At clubs featuring electronic music dance events, drug use and/or high levels of alcohol use were detected using biological assays from patrons at entrance and exit from the clubs. Thus, these clubs

  18. [Estimating mortality attributed to illegal drug use in Spain].

    PubMed

    Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Royuela, Luis; Bravo, María J; de la Fuente, Luis; Regidor, Enrique

    2004-12-04

    The impact of illegal drug consumption on general mortality in Spain is unknown. We aimed to quantify this impact for the period 1994-2000. Number of directly drug-related deaths from HIV among injecting drug users as well as others -- both taken from the General Mortality Register (GMR). Next, corrections were made, multiplying the aforementioned figures by the percentage of injecting drug users in the AIDS register in the first case, and by the underestimation index in the second. This index was calculated comparing the GMR with the specific drug-related register in certain areas. In Spain, mortality from illegal drug use fell from 22.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, aged 15-49 years (16.4% of all deaths) in 1996 to 8.9/100,000 in 2000 (7.8% of all deaths), meaning a 58% decrease in general mortality. In 2000, drug-related deaths surpassed AIDS mortality in the group of men aged 15-49 years. Illegal drug use continues to be an important cause of death among young people in Spain. Overdose is the most likely primary cause of death in drug consumers.

  19. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  20. Adolescents, sex and injecting drug use: risks for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present data on the HIV-related risks for adolescents growing up in an area where injecting drug use is prevalent and HIV infection has been identified among local injecting drug users. We report on young peoples' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of drug use and injectors; HIV and AIDS; sex, safer sex and condom use. These adolescents had an extensive and practically oriented knowledge of illicit drugs and drug injectors. The majority of adolescents contacted had an unsophisticated but approximate understanding of HIV transmission dynamics and how to guard against infection. Our data suggest that many adolescents find issues relating to sex awkward, embarrassing and difficult subjects for discussion. In a final section we consider some of the policy implications of our work focussing in particular on the prevention of injecting, the promotion of condom use, and the necessity of avoiding a focus upon risk groups.

  1. Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association with Student Drug Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…

  2. Assessment and use of drug information references in Utah pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Krystal L; Macdonald, Elyse A; Trovato, Anthony; Tak, Casey R

    2017-01-01

    To determine which drug references Utah pharmacists use most frequently. To determine which types of drug information questions are most commonly asked, and whether Utah pharmacists have access to adequate references to respond to these questions. A 19-question survey was created using Qualtrics, LLC (Provo, Utah) software. An electronic survey link was sent to 1,431 pharmacists with a valid e-mail address listed in the Department of Professional Licensing database. Questions focused on available references in the participant's pharmacy, how current the references are, and the participant's use of the references. Surveys were analyzed for participants practicing in either community or hospital pharmacies in the state of Utah. A total of 147 responses were included in the analysis. Approximately 44% of respondents practiced in the community, and 56% practiced in a hospital setting. The most commonly used references by Utah pharmacists are Micromedex, Lexicomp, UpToDate, Clinical Pharmacology, and Drug Facts & Comparisons. Pharmacists in the community frequently receive questions related to adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and over-the-counter medications. Pharmacists in the hospital frequently receive questions relating to dosage and administration, drug interactions, and adverse drug reactions. About 89% of community pharmacists and 96% of hospital pharmacists feel available references are adequate to answer the questions they receive. Utah pharmacists generally use large reference suites to answer drug information questions. The majority of pharmacists consider the references available to them to be adequate to answer the questions they receive.

  3. Enhanced active liposomal loading of a poorly soluble ionizable drug using supersaturated drug solutions.

    PubMed

    Modi, Sweta; Xiang, Tian-Xiang; Anderson, Bradley D

    2012-09-10

    Nanoparticulate drug carriers such as liposomal drug delivery systems are of considerable interest in cancer therapy because of their ability to passively accumulate in solid tumors. For liposomes to have practical utility for antitumor therapy in patients, however, optimization of drug loading, retention, and release kinetics are necessary. Active loading is the preferred method for optimizing loading of ionizable drugs in liposomes as measured by drug-to-lipid ratios, but the extremely low aqueous solubilities of many anticancer drug candidates may limit the external driving force, thus slowing liposomal uptake during active loading. This report demonstrates the advantages of maintaining drug supersaturation during active loading. A novel method was developed for creating and maintaining supersaturation of a poorly soluble camptothecin analogue, AR-67 (7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), using a low concentration of a cyclodextrin (sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin) to inhibit crystallization over a 48 h period. Active loading into liposomes containing high concentrations of entrapped sodium or calcium acetate was monitored using drug solutions at varying degrees of supersaturation. Liposomal uptake rates increased linearly with the degree of supersaturation of drug in the external loading solution. A mathematical model was developed to predict the rate and extent of drug loading versus time, taking into account the chemical equilibria inside and outside of the vesicles and the transport kinetics of various permeable species across the lipid bilayer and the dialysis membrane. Intraliposomal sink conditions were maintained by the high internal pH caused by the efflux of acetic acid and exchange with AR-67, which undergoes lactone ring-opening, ionization, and membrane binding in the interior of the vesicles. The highest drug to lipid ratio achieved was 0.17 from a supersaturated solution at a total drug concentration of 0.6 mg/ml. The rate and extent of

  4. Novel films for drug delivery via the buccal mucosa using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Antonijevic, Milan D; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-10-01

    Bioadhesive buccal films are innovative dosage forms with the ability to adhere to the mucosal surface and subsequently hydrate to release and deliver drugs across the buccal membrane. This study aims to formulate and characterize stable carrageenan (CAR) based buccal films with desirable drug loading capacity. The films were prepared using CAR, poloxamer (POL) 407, various grades of PEG (plasticizer) and loaded with paracetamol (PM) and indomethacin (IND) as model soluble and insoluble drugs, respectively. The films were characterized by texture analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and in vitro drug release studies. Optimized films were obtained from aqueous gels comprising 2.5% w/w κ-CAR 911, 4% w/w POL 407 and 6% w/w (PM) and 6.5% w/w (IND) of PEG 600 with maximum drug loading of 1.6% w/w and 0.8 % w/w for PM and IND, respectively. TGA showed residual water content of approximately 5% of films dry weight. DSC revealed a T(g) at 22.25 and 30.77°C for PM and IND, respectively, implying the presence of amorphous forms of both drugs which was confirmed by XRPD. Drug dissolution profiles in simulated saliva showed cumulative percent release of up to 45 and 57% of PM and IND, respectively, within 40 min of contact with dissolution medium simulating saliva.

  5. Improved measurement of drug exposure in the brain using drug-specific correction for residual blood

    PubMed Central

    Fridén, Markus; Ljungqvist, Helena; Middleton, Brian; Bredberg, Ulf; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge associated with the determination of the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of a drug (Kp,uu,brain), is the error associated with correction for the drug in various vascular spaces of the brain, i.e., in residual blood. The apparent brain vascular spaces of plasma water (Vwater, 10.3 μL/g brain), plasma proteins (Vprotein, 7.99 μL/g brain), and the volume of erythrocytes (Ver, 2.13 μL/g brain) were determined and incorporated into a novel, drug-specific correction model that took the drug-unbound fraction in the plasma (fu,p) into account. The correction model was successfully applied for the determination of Kp,uu,brain for indomethacin, loperamide, and moxalactam, which had potential problems associated with correction. The influence on correction of the drug associated with erythrocytes was shown to be minimal. Therefore, it is proposed that correction for residual blood can be performed using an effective plasma space in the brain (Veff), which is calculated from the measured fu,p of the particular drug as well as from the estimates of Vwater and Vprotein, which are provided in this study. Furthermore, the results highlight the value of determining Kp,uu,brain with statistical precision to enable appropriate interpretation of brain exposure for drugs that appear to be restricted to the brain vascular spaces. PMID:19756019

  6. [Perceived norms among Peruvian students for drug use among peers].

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Inés V; Strike, Carol; Brands, Bruna; Cunningham, John; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    to evaluate the difference between perceived norms about drug use among peer and actual drug use as reported by the same university students. The students were between 18 and 24 years old and attended health courses. cross-sectional study based on a survey, using an anonymous questionnaire filled out by the students. There were 306 participants. Senior students used drugs as follows: 51.3% used tobacco, 90.8% used alcohol, 5.9% used marijuana, and 0.7% used cocaine. Differences were observed between perceived norms and actual drug use for tobacco (70% vs. 51.3%), marijuana (10% vs. 5.9%) and cocaine (8.3% vs. 0.7%). university students presented an overestimated rate for the use of tobacco, marijuana and cocaine among their peers.

  7. New use of prescription drugs prior to a cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Cancers often have considerable induction periods. This confers a risk of reverse causation bias in studies of cancer risk associated with drug use, as early symptoms of a yet undiagnosed cancer might lead to drug treatment in the period leading up to the diagnosis. This bias can be alleviated by disregarding exposure for some time before the cancer diagnosis (lag time). We aimed at assessing the duration of lag time needed to avoid reverse causation bias. Methods We identified all Danish patients with incident cancer between 2000 and 2012 (n = 353 087). Incident use of prescription drugs was assessed prior to their cancer diagnosis as well as among population controls (n = 1 402 400). Analyses were conducted for all cancers and for breast, lung, colon and prostate cancer individually. Further, analyses were performed for a composite measure of all incident drug use as well as for nine pre‐specified individual drug classes, representing drug treatment likely to be prescribed for symptoms of the given cancers. Results The incidence rate for new drug treatment among cancer cases was stable around 130 per 1000 persons per month until 6 months prior to cancer diagnosis where it increased gradually and peaked at 434 in the month immediately preceding the cancer diagnosis. Considerable variation was observed among cancers, for example, breast cancer showed almost no such effect. The pre‐selected drug classes showed a stronger increase prior to cancer diagnoses than drugs overall. Conclusions Incident use of drugs increases in the months prior to a cancer diagnosis. To avoid reverse causation, 6 months' lag time would be sufficient for most drug‐cancer associations. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27889931

  8. Deep Learning Applications for Predicting Pharmacological Properties of Drugs and Drug Repurposing Using Transcriptomic Data.

    PubMed

    Aliper, Alexander; Plis, Sergey; Artemov, Artem; Ulloa, Alvaro; Mamoshina, Polina; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-07-05

    Deep learning is rapidly advancing many areas of science and technology with multiple success stories in image, text, voice and video recognition, robotics, and autonomous driving. In this paper we demonstrate how deep neural networks (DNN) trained on large transcriptional response data sets can classify various drugs to therapeutic categories solely based on their transcriptional profiles. We used the perturbation samples of 678 drugs across A549, MCF-7, and PC-3 cell lines from the LINCS Project and linked those to 12 therapeutic use categories derived from MeSH. To train the DNN, we utilized both gene level transcriptomic data and transcriptomic data processed using a pathway activation scoring algorithm, for a pooled data set of samples perturbed with different concentrations of the drug for 6 and 24 hours. In both pathway and gene level classification, DNN achieved high classification accuracy and convincingly outperformed the support vector machine (SVM) model on every multiclass classification problem, however, models based on pathway level data performed significantly better. For the first time we demonstrate a deep learning neural net trained on transcriptomic data to recognize pharmacological properties of multiple drugs across different biological systems and conditions. We also propose using deep neural net confusion matrices for drug repositioning. This work is a proof of principle for applying deep learning to drug discovery and development.

  9. Deep learning applications for predicting pharmacological properties of drugs and drug repurposing using transcriptomic data

    PubMed Central

    Aliper, Alexander; Plis, Sergey; Artemov, Artem; Ulloa, Alvaro; Mamoshina, Polina; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is rapidly advancing many areas of science and technology with multiple success stories in image, text, voice and video recognition, robotics and autonomous driving. In this paper we demonstrate how deep neural networks (DNN) trained on large transcriptional response data sets can classify various drugs to therapeutic categories solely based on their transcriptional profiles. We used the perturbation samples of 678 drugs across A549, MCF‐7 and PC‐3 cell lines from the LINCS project and linked those to 12 therapeutic use categories derived from MeSH. To train the DNN, we utilized both gene level transcriptomic data and transcriptomic data processed using a pathway activation scoring algorithm, for a pooled dataset of samples perturbed with different concentrations of the drug for 6 and 24 hours. In both gene and pathway level classification, DNN convincingly outperformed support vector machine (SVM) model on every multiclass classification problem, however, models based on a pathway level classification perform better. For the first time we demonstrate a deep learning neural net trained on transcriptomic data to recognize pharmacological properties of multiple drugs across different biological systems and conditions. We also propose using deep neural net confusion matrices for drug repositioning. This work is a proof of principle for applying deep learning to drug discovery and development. PMID:27200455

  10. Mining severe drug-drug interaction adverse events using Semantic Web technologies: a case study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Liu, Hongfang; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a major contributing factor for unexpected adverse drug events (ADEs). However, few of knowledge resources cover the severity information of ADEs that is critical for prioritizing the medical need. The objective of the study is to develop and evaluate a Semantic Web-based approach for mining severe DDI-induced ADEs. We utilized a normalized FDA Adverse Event Report System (AERS) dataset and performed a case study of three frequently prescribed cardiovascular drugs: Warfarin, Clopidogrel and Simvastatin. We extracted putative DDI-ADE pairs and their associated outcome codes. We developed a pipeline to filter the associations using ADE datasets from SIDER and PharmGKB. We also performed a signal enrichment using electronic medical records (EMR) data. We leveraged the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) grading system and classified the DDI-induced ADEs into the CTCAE in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We identified 601 DDI-ADE pairs for the three drugs using the filtering pipeline, of which 61 pairs are in Grade 5, 56 pairs in Grade 4 and 484 pairs in Grade 3. Among 601 pairs, the signals of 59 DDI-ADE pairs were identified from the EMR data. The approach developed could be generalized to detect the signals of putative severe ADEs induced by DDIs in other drug domains and would be useful for supporting translational and pharmacovigilance study of severe ADEs.

  11. Psychotropic and General Drug Use by Mentally Retarded Persons: A Test of the Status Model of Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachron, Ann E.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the use of prescribed psychotropic drugs among the mentally retarded. Analyzes data on over 7,000 retarded adolescents to empirically test a proposed model of drug use. Suggests that interventions should provide needed changes in the individual's social environment as well as psychological and medical care. (CMG)

  12. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  13. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. (a...

  14. 21 CFR 530.10 - Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs. 530.10 Section 530.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... drugs. An approved new animal drug or human drug intended to be used for an extralabel purpose in...

  15. Changing adolescent propensities to use drugs: results from Project ALERT.

    PubMed

    Ellickson, P L; Bell, R M; Harrison, E R

    1993-01-01

    Do successful drug prevention programs suppress the risk factors they were intended to modify? This paper addresses that issue for Project ALERT, a school-based program for seventh and eighth graders that has been shown to curb both cigarette and marijuana use. Evaluated with over 4,000 students in an experimental test that included 30 diverse California and Oregon schools, the curriculum seeks to help young people develop both the motivation to avoid drugs and the skills they need to resist pro-drug pressures. Using regression analyses, we examine the program's impact on the intervening (cognitive) variables hypothesized to affect actual use: adolescent beliefs in their ability to resist, perceived consequences of use, normative perceptions about peer use and tolerance of drugs, and expectations of future use. The analysis depicts program effects for perceptions linked to each target substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana), across all students and for those at different levels of risk for future use. Results show that the curriculum successfully dampened cognitive risk factors from each of the above categories for both cigarettes and marijuana, indicating that social influence programs can mitigate a broad range of beliefs associated with the propensity to use drugs. However, it had a limited impact on beliefs about alcohol, the most widely used and socially accepted of the three drugs. Implications for drug prevention programs and practitioners are discussed.

  16. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  17. Drug Use in a Rural Secondary School in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Mutiso, Victoria; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A.; Kokonya, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related use problems among adolescents are highly prevalent and are a major concern worldwide. This study estimated the prevalence of drug abuse, knowledge about drug abuse and its effect on psychosocial well-being and induced behavioral problems among students of a public rural secondary school that admitted both girls…

  18. Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemingway, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to…

  19. Adolescent Drug Use: Trends in Abuse, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Susan M.

    This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…

  20. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  1. Drug and Alcohol Use among Youth in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ruth W.

    This paper compares data on the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use by students in grades 8 and 12 across four sizes of communities. Data from the American Drug and Alcohol Survey (ADAS), administered in approximately 250 communities during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 school years, were analyzed for four community sizes: very small (population…

  2. Validation of the POSIT: Comparing Drug Using and Abstaining Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.; Richardson, Brad; Spears, Julie; Rembert, Julia K.

    1998-01-01

    The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) is validated by comparing 42 drug-using and -abstaining youth on several social and behavioral characteristics. All 10 POSIT domain scores for drug users are greater than those for abstainers. Construct validity is established by comparing POSIT domain scores with other instruments.…

  3. An Empirical Examination of the Anomie Theory of Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between anomie theory, as measured by Srole's Anomie Scale, and self-admitted drug use in an adult population (N=1,449). Bivariate cross-comparison correlations indicated anomie was significantly correlated with several drug variables, but these associations were extremely weak and of little explanatory value.…

  4. An Empirical Examination of the Anomie Theory of Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between anomie theory, as measured by Srole's Anomie Scale, and self-admitted drug use in an adult population (N=1,449). Bivariate cross-comparison correlations indicated anomie was significantly correlated with several drug variables, but these associations were extremely weak and of little explanatory value.…

  5. Long Term Effects of Drug Use on General Mental Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Charles C.

    A private corporation conducted a study for the United States Air Force in 1973, investigating the long term effects of drug use on general mental ability. The air force personnel selected for participation in the study were 3741 known drug users and 6772 controls. Subjects received requests to sign a form allowing their high schools to release…

  6. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  7. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  8. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  9. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  10. Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemingway, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to…

  11. Stabilization of Drug Use Patterns on the American Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    1972-01-01

    Patterns of drug use on large U.S. campuses have been institutionalized to such an extent that they are no longer a disruptive element in education and adjustment. Looking at the stages of the institutionalization process may help us in understanding the scope of drug abuse and in recognizing parallel processes in other populations. (Author)

  12. Steroids in sports: are drugs the only ones being used?

    PubMed

    Matheson, Gordon O

    2005-05-01

    Given the nature of the testimony at the Congressional hearings on anabolic steroids in baseball in March, I continue to harbor concerns over drug use and other harmful trends in sports (see my editorials in the January through March issues). But now I'm worried that current sports ethics, already impaired by drugs, have also tainted those who care for the athletes.

  13. Drug Use in a Rural Secondary School in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Mutiso, Victoria; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A.; Kokonya, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related use problems among adolescents are highly prevalent and are a major concern worldwide. This study estimated the prevalence of drug abuse, knowledge about drug abuse and its effect on psychosocial well-being and induced behavioral problems among students of a public rural secondary school that admitted both girls…

  14. The Relationship between Assertiveness, Conformity, and Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the assertiveness, conformity, and drug use of 16 university students. Subjects were exposed to a series of 10 conformity tasks based on Asch's classic paradigm. One-way analyses of variance revealed that alcohol-marijuana users were less assertive and more compliant than "hard" drug users. (Author)

  15. Consolidating drug data on a global scale using Linked Data.

    PubMed

    Jovanovik, Milos; Trajanov, Dimitar

    2017-01-21

    Drug product data is available on the Web in a distributed fashion. The reasons lie within the regulatory domains, which exist on a national level. As a consequence, the drug data available on the Web are independently curated by national institutions from each country, leaving the data in varying languages, with a varying structure, granularity level and format, on different locations on the Web. Therefore, one of the main challenges in the realm of drug data is the consolidation and integration of large amounts of heterogeneous data into a comprehensive dataspace, for the purpose of developing data-driven applications. In recent years, the adoption of the Linked Data principles has enabled data publishers to provide structured data on the Web and contextually interlink them with other public datasets, effectively de-siloing them. Defining methodological guidelines and specialized tools for generating Linked Data in the drug domain, applicable on a global scale, is a crucial step to achieving the necessary levels of data consolidation and alignment needed for the development of a global dataset of drug product data. This dataset would then enable a myriad of new usage scenarios, which can, for instance, provide insight into the global availability of different drug categories in different parts of the world. We developed a methodology and a set of tools which support the process of generating Linked Data in the drug domain. Using them, we generated the LinkedDrugs dataset by seamlessly transforming, consolidating and publishing high-quality, 5-star Linked Drug Data from twenty-three countries, containing over 248,000 drug products, over 99,000,000 RDF triples and over 278,000 links to generic drugs from the LOD Cloud. Using the linked nature of the dataset, we demonstrate its ability to support advanced usage scenarios in the drug domain. The process of generating the LinkedDrugs dataset demonstrates the applicability of the methodological guidelines and the

  16. Patterns of drug use amongst Malaysian secondary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V

    1980-05-01

    A representative sampling of the secondary school population of two states of Malaysia (sample size 16166) indicated that 11% of students had had experience of drug use. Use of a single drug was the common pattern, with cannabis reported most often by older students, and sedatives most often by younger students. A quarter of those who had used drugs reported experience with four or more substances and were likely to have progressed rapidly to heroin. This progression may be facilitated by the ready availability of heroin and the local tradition of smoking or inhaling rather than injecting opiates. Descriptions of drug migration patterns based on Western samples are not fully appropriate worldwide, because the youthful abuser is much influenced both by local market forces and by cultural traditions, even though the epidemic of youthful drug abuse is itself worldwide.

  17. Targeted Cellular Drug Delivery using Tailored Dendritic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kolhe, Parag; Kannan, Sujatha; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2002-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorble, ‘peripheral’ functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug and gene delivery. The large number of end groups can also be tailored to create special affinity to targeted cells, and can also encapsulate drugs and deliver them in a controlled manner. We are developing tailor-modified dendritic systems for drug delivery. Synthesis, in-vitro drug loading, in-vitro drug delivery, and the targeting efficiency to the cell are being studied systematically using a wide variety of experimental tools. Polyamidoamine and Polyol dendrimers, with different generations and end-groups are studied, with drugs such as Ibuprofen and Methotrexate. Our results indicate that a large number of drug molecules can be encapsulated/attached to the dendrimers, depending on the end groups. The drug-encapsulated dendrimer is able to enter the cells rapidly and deliver the drug. Targeting strategies being explored

  18. Is the quality of brief motivational interventions for drug use in primary care associated with subsequent drug use?

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Cheng, Debbie M; Bernstein, Judith A; Palmisano, Joseph; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A; Goodness, Tracie; Saitz, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Although a number of brief intervention approaches for drug use are based on motivational interviewing (MI), relatively little is known about whether the quality of motivational interviewing skills is associated with intervention outcomes. The current study examined whether indices of motivational interviewing skill were associated with subsequent drug use outcomes following two different MI-based brief interventions delivered in primary care; a 15 min Brief Negotiated Interview (BNI) and a 45 min adaptation of motivational interviewing (MOTIV). Audio recordings from 351 participants in a randomized controlled trial for drug use in primary care were coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Scale, (MITI Version 3.1.1). Separate negative binomial regression analyses, stratified by intervention condition, were used to examine the associations between six MITI skill variables and the number of days that the participant used his/her main drug 6 weeks after study entry. Only one of the MITI variables (% reflections to questions) was significantly associated with the frequency of drug use in the MOTIV condition and this was opposite to the hypothesized direction (global p=0.01, adjusted IRR 1.50, 95%CI: 1.03-2.20 for middle vs. lowest tertile [higher skill, more drug use]. None were significantly associated with drug use in the BNI condition. Secondary analyses similarly failed to find consistent predictors of better drug outcomes. Overall, this study provides little evidence to suggest that the level of MI intervention skills are linked with better drug use outcomes among people who use drugs and receive brief interventions in primary care. Findings should be considered in light of the fact that data from the study are from negative trial of SBI and was limited to primary care patients. Future work should consider alternative ways of examining these process variables (i.e., comparing thresholds of proficient versus non-proficient skills) or

  19. Prediction of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions using endogenous compounds.

    PubMed

    Fromm, M F

    2012-11-01

    Therapy with two or more drugs is more the rule than the exception, particularly in aging societies. Drug-drug interactions are frequently undesirable and may lead to increased toxicity and mortality. Inhibition of transporters is one major mechanism underlying drug-drug interactions. The myriad of potential drug combinations makes it very challenging to predict drug-drug interactions. This Commentary discusses potential advantages and limitations of endogenous compounds for predicting transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions.

  20. Text mining for pharmacovigilance: Using machine learning for drug name recognition and drug-drug interaction extraction and classification.

    PubMed

    Ben Abacha, Asma; Chowdhury, Md Faisal Mahbub; Karanasiou, Aikaterini; Mrabet, Yassine; Lavelli, Alberto; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is defined by the World Health Organization as the science and activities related to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem. An essential aspect in PV is to acquire knowledge about Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs). The shared tasks on DDI-Extraction organized in 2011 and 2013 have pointed out the importance of this issue and provided benchmarks for: Drug Name Recognition, DDI extraction and DDI classification. In this paper, we present our text mining systems for these tasks and evaluate their results on the DDI-Extraction benchmarks. Our systems rely on machine learning techniques using both feature-based and kernel-based methods. The obtained results for drug name recognition are encouraging. For DDI-Extraction, our hybrid system combining a feature-based method and a kernel-based method was ranked second in the DDI-Extraction-2011 challenge, and our two-step system for DDI detection and classification was ranked first in the DDI-Extraction-2013 task at SemEval. We discuss our methods and results and give pointers to future work.

  1. Limitations to antiarrhythmic drug use in patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Karin H.; Kerr, Charles R.; Steinbuch, Michael; Dorian, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Background Of the antiarrhythmic agents currently marketed in Canada, 5 are commonly used to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). The impact of contraindications, warnings and precautions for the use of these drugs in patients with AF is not known. We evaluated the proportion of patients with AF for whom contraindications, warnings and/or precautions might limit the use of these commonly prescribed drugs and the proportion of patients actually receiving antiarrhythmic drugs despite the presence of contraindications and/or warnings. Methods A total of 723 patients with electrocardiographically confirmed, new-onset paroxysmal AF who were enrolled in the Canadian Registry of Atrial Fibrillation were used in this analysis. The 1996 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties was used to obtain contraindications, warnings and precautions for use of 5 antiarrhythmic drugs: flecainide, quinidine, sotalol, amiodarone and propafenone. Proportions of patients with contraindications, warnings and/or precautions for use of any of these drugs owing to comorbid conditions or concomitant drug therapy were calculated, regardless of whether the drugs had been prescribed. We then calculated the proportion of patients taking each antiarrhythmic drug at 3 months despite contraindications and/or warnings. Results At baseline, when conditions for contraindications and warnings were combined, 414 (57%), 235 (33%), 327 (45%), 285 (39%) and 272 (38%) patients had restrictions for the use of flecainide, quinidine, sotalol, amiodarone and propafenone respectively. Among 465 patients actually taking these medications at 3-month follow-up, 33.3% (2/6), 83.3% (40/48), 36.4% (92/253), 64.1% (25/39) and 34.5% (41/119) respectively had contraindications and/or warnings against their use. The burden of comorbid disease among patients with AF was noteworthy: 404 (56%) had structural heart disease, which included 227 (31%) with ischemic heart disease, 158 (22%) with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

  2. Peer Pressure and Drug Use--Exploding the Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Margaret A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated marijuana knowledge, attitudes, use, and peer pressure among Canadian adolescents. Results indicated that peer pressure is not pervasive, that it can be resisted, and that it is not stigmatizing to not use drugs. (BL)

  3. Drug Use in Pregnancy; a Point to Ponder!

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Punam; Patel, B. G.; Patel, B. K.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy is a special physiological condition where drug treatment presents a special concern because the physiology of pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of medications used and certain medications can reach the fetus and cause harm. Total avoidance of pharmacological treatment in pregnancy is not possible and may be dangerous because some women enter pregnancy with medical conditions that require ongoing and episodic treatment (e.g. asthma, epilepsy, hypertension). Also during pregnancy new medical problems can develop and old ones can be exacerbated (e.g. migraine, headache) requiring pharmacological therapy. The fact that certain drugs given during pregnancy may prove harmful to the unborn child is one of the classical problems in medical treatment. In 1960's pregnant ladies who ingested thalidomide gave birth to children with phocomalia. Various other examples of teratogenic effects of drugs are known. It has been documented that congenital abnormalities caused by human teratogenic drugs account for less than 1% of total congenital abnormalities. Hence in 1979, Food and Drug Administration developed a system that determines the teratogenic risk of drugs by considering the quality of data from animal and human studies. FDA classifies various drugs used in pregnancy into five categories, categories A, B, C, D and X. Category A is considered the safest category and category X is absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy. This provides therapeutic guidance for the clinician. This article focuses on various aspects relating to drug use during pregnancy. PMID:20177448

  4. The relationship between drug use, drug-related arrests, and chronic pain among adults on probation

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=−1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89–1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03–9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety. PMID:25595302

  5. Predicting drug-target interactions using restricted Boltzmann machines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: In silico prediction of drug-target interactions plays an important role toward identifying and developing new uses of existing or abandoned drugs. Network-based approaches have recently become a popular tool for discovering new drug-target interactions (DTIs). Unfortunately, most of these network-based approaches can only predict binary interactions between drugs and targets, and information about different types of interactions has not been well exploited for DTI prediction in previous studies. On the other hand, incorporating additional information about drug-target relationships or drug modes of action can improve prediction of DTIs. Furthermore, the predicted types of DTIs can broaden our understanding about the molecular basis of drug action. Results: We propose a first machine learning approach to integrate multiple types of DTIs and predict unknown drug-target relationships or drug modes of action. We cast the new DTI prediction problem into a two-layer graphical model, called restricted Boltzmann machine, and apply a practical learning algorithm to train our model and make predictions. Tests on two public databases show that our restricted Boltzmann machine model can effectively capture the latent features of a DTI network and achieve excellent performance on predicting different types of DTIs, with the area under precision-recall curve up to 89.6. In addition, we demonstrate that integrating multiple types of DTIs can significantly outperform other predictions either by simply mixing multiple types of interactions without distinction or using only a single interaction type. Further tests show that our approach can infer a high fraction of novel DTIs that has been validated by known experiments in the literature or other databases. These results indicate that our approach can have highly practical relevance to DTI prediction and drug repositioning, and hence advance the drug discovery process. Availability: Software and datasets are available

  6. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk among Juvenile Drug Court Offenders

    PubMed Central

    TOLOU-SHAMS, MARINA; HOUCK, CHRISTOPHER D.; NUGENT, NICOLE; CONRAD, SELBY M.; REYES, AYANARIS; BROWN, LARRY K.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile drug courts (JDC) largely focus on marijuana and other drug use interventions. Yet, JDC offenders engage in other high-risk behaviors, such as alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, which can compromise their health, safety and drug court success. An examination of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among 52 male substance abusing young offenders found that over 50% were using alcohol, 37% reported current marijuana use and one-third of all sexual intercourse episodes were unprotected. After accounting for recent marijuana use, the odds of a juvenile having vaginal or anal sex was 6 times greater if they had recently used alcohol. Juvenile drug courts may benefit from delivering alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions to fully address the needs of these young offenders. PMID:22997487

  7. The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Källén, Bengt; Borg, Natalia; Reis, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    CNS-active drugs are used relatively often during pregnancy. Use during early pregnancy may increase the risk of a congenital malformation; use during the later part of pregnancy may be associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth disturbances and neonatal morbidity. There is also a possibility that drug exposure can affect brain development with long-term neuropsychological harm as a result. This paper summarizes the literature on such drugs used during pregnancy: opioids, anticonvulsants, drugs used for Parkinson’s disease, neuroleptics, sedatives and hypnotics, antidepressants, psychostimulants, and some other CNS-active drugs. In addition to an overview of the literature, data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1996–2011) are presented. The exposure data are either based on midwife interviews towards the end of the first trimester or on linkage with a prescribed drug register. An association between malformations and maternal use of anticonvulsants and notably valproic acid is well known from the literature and also demonstrated in the present study. Some other associations between drug exposure and outcome were found. PMID:24275849

  8. Drug use and social control: The negotiation of moral ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Michael; Winstock, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Illicit drugs occupy an ambivalent position in late modern society; one that revolves around the twin themes of pleasure and disapproval. Drawing on Freudian psychoanalysis and Eliasian sociology this article considers how people, particularly those who use drugs, negotiate such ambivalence. Patterns of drug use and associated attitudes are examined on the basis of the Crime Survey for England and Wales and a specialist survey of largely recreational drug users in the United Kingdom. Although illicit drugs have become increasingly familiar, their use is still widely thought to be harmful and morally dubious, creating a series of challenges for those who engage in such behaviour. Ambivalence among drug users is evident in an awareness of potential costs as well as benefits; a tendency to avoid more harmful substances; a general emphasis on moderation; and a desire to use less. Building on previous work, which highlights the role of neutralisations in sustaining drug using behaviour, particular attention is paid to users' judgements about how their levels of consumption compare with other users. The analysis identifies a tendency among users to downplay their relative levels of use, which, it is argued, serves to shield them from some of the imperatives that may lead to decisions to cut down. As such, normalisation is said to be an intra-personal as well inter-personal process. The article concludes by discussing the potential of web-based personalised feedback as a harm reduction approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescent use of prescription drugs to get high in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron

    2012-12-01

    To present epidemiologic information on adolescent use of prescription drugs to get high, and not for medical purposes, in Canada. Data were obtained from 44 344 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 living across Canada's 10 provinces who completed the Youth Smoking Survey in 2008/2009. Nationally, 5.9% of adolescents in grades 7 to 12 reported the use of prescription drugs to get high in the past 12 months in 2008/2009. Females were more likely to report use of pain relievers, sedatives, or tranquilizers to get high, while males were more likely to report the use of prescription stimulants for this purpose. The use of prescription drugs to get high was elevated among older youth, those living in British Columbia, and those who identified as First Nations, Métis, or Inuit. School connectedness was associated with a reduction in this form of prescription drug misuse for all adolescents; however, this protective effect was particularly strong for Aboriginal youth, and may be an important preventative factor for this population. Use of prescription drugs to get high was prevalent among adolescents in Canada in 2008/2009. Findings highlight the need for clinicians to include questions about prescription drugs when screening adolescents for substance abuse in Canada. Findings also highlight the need for evidence-informed strategies to reduce prescription drug misuse among Aboriginal youth living outside First Nations communities in Canada. The results of this study suggest school connectedness may be a particularly important target for these interventions.

  10. Identification of human drug targets using machine-learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Priyanka; Nath, Abhigyan; Chaube, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Identification of potential drug targets is a crucial task in the drug-discovery pipeline. Successful identification of candidate drug targets in entire genomes is very useful, and computational prediction methods can speed up this process. In the current work we have developed a sequence-based prediction method for the successful identification and discrimination of human drug target proteins, from human non-drug target proteins. The training features include sequence-based features, such as amino acid composition, amino acid property group composition, and dipeptide composition for generating predictive models. The classification of human drug target proteins presents a classic example of class imbalance. We have addressed this issue by using SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique) as a preprocessing step, for balancing the training data with a ratio of 1:1 between drug targets (minority samples) and non-drug targets (majority samples). Using ensemble classification learning method-Rotation Forest and ReliefF feature-selection technique for selecting the optimal subset of salient features, the best model with selected features can achieve 87.1% sensitivity, 83.6% specificity, and 85.3% accuracy, with 0.71 Matthews correlation coefficient (mcc) on a tenfold stratified cross-validation test. The subset of identified optimal features may help in assessing the compositional patterns in human drug targets. For further validation, using a rigorous leave-one-out cross-validation test, the model achieved 88.1% sensitivity, 83.0% specificity, 85.5% accuracy, and 0.712 mcc. The proposed method was tested on a second dataset, for which the current pipeline gave promising results. We suggest that the present approach can be applied successfully as a complementary tool to existing methods for novel drug target prediction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using quantitative systems pharmacology for novel drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I

    2015-12-01

    Over the past three decades, the predominant paradigm in drug discovery was designing selective ligands for a specific target to avoid unwanted side effects. However, in the last 5 years, the aim has shifted to take into account the biological network in which they interact. Quantitative and Systems Pharmacology (QSP) is a new paradigm that aims to understand how drugs modulate cellular networks in space and time, in order to predict drug targets and their role in human pathophysiology. This review discusses existing computational and experimental QSP approaches such as polypharmacology techniques combined with systems biology information and considers the use of new tools and ideas in a wider 'systems-level' context in order to design new drugs with improved efficacy and fewer unwanted off-target effects. The use of network biology produces valuable information such as new indications for approved drugs, drug-drug interactions, proteins-drug side effects and pathways-gene associations. However, we are still far from the aim of QSP, both because of the huge effort needed to model precisely biological network models and the limited accuracy that we are able to reach with those. Hence, moving from 'one molecule for one target to give one therapeutic effect' to the 'big systems-based picture' seems obvious moving forward although whether our current tools are sufficient for such a step is still under debate.

  12. An exploratory study of drug use in bar environments

    PubMed Central

    Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431

  13. 5-Year trends in use of hallucinogens and other adjunct drugs among UK dance drug users.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim; Winstock, Adam; Hunt, Neil; Mitcheson, Luke

    2007-01-01

    To describe and assess trends in the use of hallucinogens and other adjunct drugs over a 5-year period. Repeated-measures cross-sectional survey. Annual magazine-based survey targeting people who use drugs in dance contexts. Lifetime use prevalence (ever used); age of first use; current use prevalence (any use within the last month), and extent of use within the last month (number of days used) for LSD, psilocybin, ketamine, GHB and nitrates. Prevalence increases for psilocybin, ketamine, GHB and nitrates use have been detected, with a sharp recent rise in current psilocybin use in 2002-2003 contrasting with more gradual and comprehensive evidence of increased ketamine use throughout the period 1999-2003. The declining prevalence of LSD use in general population surveys is replicated in this sentinel population study. The rise in prevalence of hallucinogen and other adjunct drugs identified among dance drug users may be mirrored by wider prevalence increases among young people with a consequent need to study these trends carefully and to develop effective interventions, where required.

  14. Childhood victimization and illicit drug use in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Marmorstein, Naomi R; White, Helene Raskin

    2006-12-01

    Using a prospective cohort design, the authors examined in this study whether childhood victimization increases the risk for illicit drug use and related problems in middle adulthood. Court-documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and matched controls (N = 892) were first assessed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) during 1989-1995 and again in middle adulthood (mean age = 40 years) during 2000-2002. In middle adulthood, abused and neglected individuals were about 1.5 times more likely than controls to report using any illicit drug (in particular, marijuana) during the past year and reported use of a greater number of illicit drugs and more substance-use-related problems compared with controls. The current results reveal the long-term impact of childhood victimization on drug use in middle adulthood. These new results reinforce the need for targeted interventions with abused and neglected children, adolescents, and adults, and particularly for women.

  15. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  16. Patterns, Trends, and Meanings of Drug Use by Dance-Drug Users in Edinburgh, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sarah C. E.; Hayward, Emma

    2004-01-01

    A survey of drug use in the past year was completed by 124 clubbers (50% male, 50% female, age range 14-44, mean 24 years). Participants were self selecting and recruited in clubs and pre-club bars. Prevalence rates for alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy were over 80%; 63% reported cocaine and 53% amphetamine use, 15%-43% used ketamine, psilocybin,…

  17. Patterns, Trends, and Meanings of Drug Use by Dance-Drug Users in Edinburgh, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sarah C. E.; Hayward, Emma

    2004-01-01

    A survey of drug use in the past year was completed by 124 clubbers (50% male, 50% female, age range 14-44, mean 24 years). Participants were self selecting and recruited in clubs and pre-club bars. Prevalence rates for alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy were over 80%; 63% reported cocaine and 53% amphetamine use, 15%-43% used ketamine, psilocybin,…

  18. Short Communication: Drug Information Unit as an Effective Tool for Promoting Rational Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Singh, Harmanjit; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rapid developments in medical and biological sciences have led to emergence of huge information on drugs and various diseases. But accessing this vast information has limits and rational selection of drugs and utilization of drugs have become more complex. Information regarding the various aspects of drugs may be conveyed by drug information units which run only in specified tertiary care institutional units, to the physicians who treat the patients in the hospital and to the general practitioners outside, in emergencies and in normal situations. Methods: The queries of clients were obtained by means of phone calls from 9.00 a.m to 5. 00 pm, during 1 month’s stay in a DIU. A resident of Clinical Pharmacology collected necessary data on therapeutic problems of patients (age and sex of the patient, other drugs which were taken, present diseases, whether department was in PGIMER, the place etc.). After solving the problems by using electronic databases or hardcopy sources like established facts in standard text book of medicine , pharmacology or in standard articles and with a final approval from the senior clinical pharmacologist, resident delivered the information to the clients as early as possible, without any delay (by phone). Results and Conclusion: From the results, it was found that around 59% of the phone calls were regarding drug interactions and adverse reactions, 11% were regarding efficacy and that 30% were regarding the preferred routes and dosing. We concluded that the information that most of the healthcare professionals aimed to get, were the various drug interactions which had taken place during their therapeutic interventions. PMID:24179960

  19. Short communication: drug information unit as an effective tool for promoting rational drug use.

    PubMed

    Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Singh, Harmanjit

    2013-09-01

    The rapid developments in medical and biological sciences have led to emergence of huge information on drugs and various diseases. But accessing this vast information has limits and rational selection of drugs and utilization of drugs have become more complex. Information regarding the various aspects of drugs may be conveyed by drug information units which run only in specified tertiary care institutional units, to the physicians who treat the patients in the hospital and to the general practitioners outside, in emergencies and in normal situations. The queries of clients were obtained by means of phone calls from 9.00 a.m to 5. 00 pm, during 1 month's stay in a DIU. A resident of Clinical Pharmacology collected necessary data on therapeutic problems of patients (age and sex of the patient, other drugs which were taken, present diseases, whether department was in PGIMER, the place etc.). After solving the problems by using electronic databases or hardcopy sources like established facts in standard text book of medicine , pharmacology or in standard articles and with a final approval from the senior clinical pharmacologist, resident delivered the information to the clients as early as possible, without any delay (by phone). From the results, it was found that around 59% of the phone calls were regarding drug interactions and adverse reactions, 11% were regarding efficacy and that 30% were regarding the preferred routes and dosing. We concluded that the information that most of the healthcare professionals aimed to get, were the various drug interactions which had taken place during their therapeutic interventions.

  20. Non-addictive psychoactive drug use: Implications for behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    The newly proposed framework for non-addictive psychoactive substances postulated by Müller & Schumann (M&S) provides an interesting and plausible explanation for non-addictive drug use. However, with specific reference to the relevant behavioral addiction literature, this commentary argues that the model may unexpectedly hold utility not only for non-addictive use of drugs, but also for non-addictive use of other potentially addictive behaviors.

  1. The use of solid lipid nanoparticles for sustained drug release.

    PubMed

    Attama, Anthony A; Umeyor, Chukwuebuka E

    2015-01-01

    Novel solid lipid drug delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have attracted wide and increasing attention in recent years. It has been sought as an interesting alternative drug delivery carrier system for bioactives for a variety of delivery routes. They show major advantages such as sustained release, improved bioavailability, improved drug incorporation and very wide application. This paper presents a discussion on the production protocols of SLN, lyophilization of SLN and delivery of SLN across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention was also paid to entrapment and release of drugs from SLN and strategies to enhance drug entrapment in SLN for sustained release. Analytical methods for the characterization of SLN were also discussed. Various routes of administration of SLN were presented as well as a consideration of the ethical issues and future prospects in the production and use of SLN for sustained release of bioactives.

  2. Teachers' social representations on drug use in a secondary school.

    PubMed

    Martini, Jussara Gue; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Increased concern regarding drug abuse among adolescents contributes to the elaboration of prevention programs at schools. This investigation aims to know teachers' social representations, regarding drug abuse, in a secondary school in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A total of 16 teachers of the 5th to 8th grades participated in the study. Data were collected through associations elaborated by teachers in response to the expression: drugs use/abuse. The teacher's representations are organized around a central concept - the vulnerable other: a needy adolescent, who becomes drugs user, highlighting the family, everyday coping, and the school's (in)visibility in prevention actions, as factors related. The complexity of factors involving drugs production, distribution and its commercialization, demands the implementation of actions that go beyond the scopes of education and health. The elaboration of inter-sector prevention programs considering local characteristics is necessary.

  3. The use of hypromellose in oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi L; Martini, Luigi G; Ford, James L; Roberts, Matthew

    2005-05-01

    Hypromellose, formerly known as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), is by far the most commonly employed cellulose ether used in the fabrication of hydrophilic matrices. Hypromellose provides the release of a drug in a controlled manner, effectively increasing the duration of release of a drug to prolong its therapeutic effect. This review provides a current insight into hypromellose and its applicability to hydrophilic matrices in order to highlight the basic parameters that affect its performance. Topics covered include the chemical, thermal and mechanical properties of hypromellose, hydration of the polymer matrices, the mechanism of drug release and the influence of tablet geometry on drug-release rate. The inclusion of drug-release modifiers within hypromellose matrices, the effects of dissolution media and the influence of both the external environment and microenvironment pH within the gel matrix on the properties of the polymer are also discussed.

  4. Lack of drug preparations for use in children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Patrícia Quirino da; Rey, Luis C; Coelho, Helena Lutéscia L

    2009-01-01

    To identify drugs which are not suited for pediatric use in Brazil. A descriptive study involving the development of a national list of unlicensed and off-label medications for pediatric use (problem drugs in pediatrics, PDP) through a literature review, a comparison among sources of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, and a survey with pediatricians. Drugs coded at the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System were analyzed regarding licensing status in Brazil and recommendations/indications in pediatrics, based on the following reference sources: the list of licensed drugs of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (2005), the Brazilian Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (2005-2007) and the website www.bulas.med.br. Our literature search returned 126 PDP, but 24 drugs were excluded due to absence of national reference. To compose the final list, 24 other drugs referred by pediatricians were added. Of the 126 PDP, 23 drugs were not licensed in the country for use in children; and of the 103 licensed drugs, 24 presented age-related restrictions for pediatric use. The pharmaceutical list included 42 therapeutic groups and 68 subgroups. The groups containing larger numbers of PDP were: antibiotics for systemic use (15), antiepileptics (8), antiasthmatics (7), and analgesics (7). The most frequent problems were: inappropriate dosage (35), unlicensed for pediatric use (28), age-related restrictions (23). The lack of pediatric drug formulations in Brazil shows a profile similar to that observed in other countries, which involves a wide range of clinically important products. This study brings a contribution to the evaluation of the needs and priorities that support the development of suitable medicines for the pediatric patient.

  5. Practical optimisation of antiarrhythmic drug therapy using pharmacokinetic principles.

    PubMed

    Bauman, J L; Schoen, M D; Hoon, T J

    1991-02-01

    The optimisation of antiarrhythmic drug therapy is dependent on the definitions and methods of short term efficacy testing and the characteristics of those drugs used for rhythm disturbances. The choice of an initial antiarrhythmic drug dosage is highly empirical, and will remain so until the measurement of free concentrations, enantiomeric fractions and genetic phenotyping becomes routine. However, the clinician can devise an efficient initial dosage for efficacy testing procedures based on pharmacokinetic principles and disposition variables in the literature. In this regard, a nomogram for commonly used agents and dosages was constructed and is offered as a guide to accomplish this goal. Verification of the accuracy and usefulness of this nomogram in a prospective manner in patients with symptomatic tachyarrhythmias is still required. On a long term basis, dosage regimens can be modified by the use of pharmacokinetic principles and patient-specific target concentrations, in accordance with the methods used to monitor arrhythmia recurrence and drug-related side effects.

  6. Overcome Cancer Cell Drug Resistance Using Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Yang, Hua Li; Yang, Ying Juan; Wang, Lan; Lee, Shao Chin

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment methods for cancer. However, failure in chemotherapy is not uncommon, mainly due to dose-limiting toxicity associated with drug resistance. Management of drug resistance is important towards successful chemotherapy. There are many reports in the Chinese literature that natural products can overcome cancer cell drug resistance, which deserve sharing with scientific and industrial communities. We summarized the reports into four categories: (1) in vitro studies using cell line models; (2) serum pharmacology; (3) in vivo studies using animal models; and (4) clinical studies. Fourteen single compounds were reported to have antidrug resistance activity for the first time. In vitro, compounds were able to overcome drug resistance at nontoxic or subtoxic concentrations, in a dose-dependent manner, by inhibiting drug transporters, cell detoxification capacity, or cell apoptosis sensitivity. Studies in vivo showed that single compounds, herbal extract, and formulas had potent antidrug resistance activities. Importantly, many single compounds, herbal extracts, and formulas have been used clinically to treat various diseases including cancer. The review provides comprehensive data on use of natural compounds to overcome cancer cell drug resistance in China, which may facilitate the therapeutic development of natural products for clinical management of cancer drug resistance. PMID:26421052

  7. Drug use during pregnancy and breast-feeding. A classification system for drug information.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F; Flodh, H; Lundborg, P; Prame, B; Sannerstedt, R

    1984-01-01

    Since 1978 the Swedish catalogue of registered pharmaceutical specialties (FASS) has carried a special section entitled "Pregnancy and breast-feeding" in each product presentation, intended to form an aid for the prescription of drugs to women during childbearing and lactation. After a brief review of transplacental transport and milk secretion, reproduction-toxicology studies in animals, and methods for clinical evaluation of drugs for use during pregnancy, the classification system is presented. On the basis of available data with regard to effects on early and late stages of pregnancy and labour, all the pharmaceutical specialties concerned are assigned to one of the following pregnancy categories: A, B 1, B 2, B 3, C or D. The letters refer to information based on findings in man, and the figures to information based on animal data. For drugs in categories B 3, C or D any harmful effects observed or likely to occur in man or animals are to be specified. The pregnancy categories are defined as follows: Category A. Drugs which may be assumed to have been used by a large number of pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, without any form of definite disturbance in the reproductive process having been noted so far, e.g. an increased incidence of malformations or other direct or indirect harmful effects on the fetus. Category B. Drugs which may be assumed to have been used by only a limited number of pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, without any form of definite disturbance in the reproduction process having been noted so far, e.g. an increased incidence of malformations or other direct or indirect harmful effects on the fetus. Category C. Drugs which by their pharmacological effects have caused, or must be suspected of causing disturbances in the reproduction process that may involve risk to the fetus without being directly teratogenic. Category D. Drugs which have caused an increased incidence of fetal malformations or other permanent damage in

  8. The use of psychotropic drugs in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    Harding, T. W.; Chrusciel, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Psychotropic drug therapy combined with other forms of treatment provides an effective means for the control and treatment of a number of mental disorders. In developing countries a wide range of health workers must be prepared to use psychotropic drugs if there is to be a significant improvement in mental health care. A number of problems are involved: not all mental disorders respond to drug treatment; the range of available drugs is very wide; side effects are relatively common; patients may not take prescribed drugs regularly; and there are dangers of overuse, abuse, and overdose. Some of the problems could be overcome by: (a) focusing on a limited number of conditions of public health importance; (b) establishing a clear policy as to which drugs should be available at various points in the health service and limiting the range of such drugs; (c) adopting a more flexible system of task sharing in psychotropic drug therapy; (d) coordinating training programmes; and (e) setting up a central policy body concerned with mental health in health ministries. PMID:1084806

  9. Brief interventions for illicit drug use among peripartum women.

    PubMed

    Farr, Sherry L; Hutchings, Yalonda L; Ondersma, Steven J; Creanga, Andreea A

    2014-10-01

    We review the evidence and identify limitations of the current literature on the effectiveness of brief interventions (≤5 intervention sessions) on illicit drug use, treatment enrollment/retention, and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant and postpartum women; and consider this evidence in the context of the broader brief intervention literature. Among 4 published studies identified via systematic review and meeting a priori quality criteria, we found limited, yet promising evidence of the benefit of brief interventions to reduce illicit drug use among postpartum women. Two of the 4 randomized controlled trials tested similar computer-delivered single-session interventions; both demonstrate effects on postpartum drug use. Neither of the 2 randomized controlled trials that assessed treatment use found differences between intervention and control groups. Studies examining brief interventions for smoking and alcohol use among pregnant women, and for illicit drug use in the general adult population, have shown small but statistically significant results of the effectiveness of such interventions. Larger studies, those that examine the effect of assessment alone on illicit drug use, and those that use technology-delivered brief interventions are needed to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions for drug use in the peripartum period. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Income Level and Drug Related Harm among People Who Use Injection Drugs in a Canadian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Long, Cathy; DeBeck, Kora; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher income is generally associated with better health outcomes; however, among people who inject drugs (IDU) income generation frequently involves activities, such as sex work and drug dealing, which pose significant health risks. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between level of income and specific drug use patterns and related health risks. Methods This study involved IDU participating in a prospective cohort study in Vancouver, Canada. Monthly income was categorized based on non-fixed quartiles at each follow-up with the lowest level serving as the reference category in generalized linear mixed-effects regression. Results Among our sample of 1,032 IDU, the median average monthly income over the study follow-up was $1050 [Interquartile range=785–2000]. In multivariate analysis, the highest income category was significantly associated with sex work (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=7.65), drug dealing (AOR=5.06), daily heroin injection (AOR=2.97), daily cocaine injection (AOR=1.65), daily crack smoking (AOR=2.48), binge drug use (AOR=1.57) and unstable housing (AOR=1.67). The high income category was negatively associated with being female (AOR=0.61) and accessing addiction treatment (AOR=0.64), (all p < 0.05). In addition, higher income was strongly associated with higher monthly expenditure on drugs (>$400) (OR=97.8). Conclusion Among IDU in Vancouver, average monthly income levels were low and higher total monthly income was linked to high-risk income generation strategies as well as a range of drug use patterns characteristic of higher intensity addiction and HIV risk. These findings underscore the need for interventions that provide economic empowerment and address high intensity addiction, especially for female IDU. PMID:24380808

  11. Improving Drug Sensitivity Prediction Using Different Types of Data

    PubMed Central

    Hejase, HA; Chan, C

    2015-01-01

    The algorithms and models used to address the two subchallenges that are part of the NCI-DREAM (Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods) Drug Sensitivity Prediction Challenge (2012) are presented. In subchallenge 1, a bidirectional search algorithm is introduced and optimized using an ensemble scheme and a nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) is then applied to predict the effects of the drug compounds on breast cancer cell lines. In subchallenge 2, a weighted Euclidean distance method is introduced to predict and rank the drug combinations from the most to the least effective in reducing the viability of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line. PMID:26225231

  12. Ecstasy and Gateway Drugs: Initiating the Use of Ecstasy and Other Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Lesley W.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The main purposes of this study are to examine if, and to what extent, ecstasy use serves as a gateway to the use of hard drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine and to compare the age of onset of alcohol and marijuana use and subsequent use of cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine among young adult ecstasy users. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 268 young adult ecstasy users in Atlanta, Georgia. Subjects were solicited using the community identification process, including targeted sampling and guided recruitment. Data analysis involved discrete-time, event history analysis. Results Results suggest that the age of onset of ecstasy use influences the initiation of cocaine and methamphetamine for our sample of active ecstasy users. In addition, alcohol and marijuana use precedes the initiation of cocaine and methamphetamine, but only marijuana influences the initiation of heroin. Conclusions The sequential progression of drug use proposed in the gateway literature is not immutable. Researchers must take into account the changing popularity of drugs over time, such as the emergence of ecstasy use, when identifying patterns of drug use onset. PMID:17140814

  13. Ethnic differences in the effect of drug use and drug dependence on brief motivational interventions targeting alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Field, Craig A; Cochran, Gerald; Caetano, Raul

    2012-11-01

    We examined the effects of baseline drug use and dependence on alcohol use outcomes following brief motivational intervention for at-risk drinking (BMI-ETOH). HLM models were developed to test the interaction of drug use and dependence with BMI-ETOH for alcohol use among Hispanic (n=539), Caucasian (n=667), and black (n=287) patients admitted to a Level-1 trauma center who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Analyses of an interaction of drug dependence and BMI-ETOH at baseline showed significant positive effects among Hispanics but not Caucasians or Blacks at six- and 12-months for percent days abstinent (6-month: B=0.27, SE=0.10, p=0.006; 12-month: B=0.41, SE=0.11, p<0.001), volume per week (6-month: B=-1.91, SE=0.77, p=0.01; 12-month: B = -2.71, SE=0.86, p=0.002), and maximum amount consumed (6-month: B = -1.08, SE=0.46, p=0.02; 12-month: B = -1.62, SE=0.52, p=0.002). Baseline drug dependence did not negatively impact drinking outcomes. Among Hispanics, those with drug dependence at baseline who received a BMI-ETOH demonstrated consistent improvements across drinking outcomes. While the effects of drug use at baseline on drinking outcomes following BMI-ETOH varied by type of drug used and ethnicity, additional research is required. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Prices Skyrocket on Drugs Widely Used by Seniors: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cost of brand-name meds for chronic conditions rose nearly 130 times faster than inflation rate To ... brand-name drugs used by many older Americans rose nearly 130 times faster than inflation last year, ...

  15. Using Literature-Based Discovery to Explain Adverse Drug Effects.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Dimitar; Kastrin, Andrej; Dinevski, Dejan; Burgun, Anita; Žiberna, Lovro; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    We report on our research in using literature-based discovery (LBD) to provide pharmacological and/or pharmacogenomic explanations for reported adverse drug effects. The goal of LBD is to generate novel and potentially useful hypotheses by analyzing the scientific literature and optionally some additional resources. Our assumption is that drugs have effects on some genes or proteins and that these genes or proteins are associated with the observed adverse effects. Therefore, by using LBD we try to find genes or proteins that link the drugs with the reported adverse effects. These genes or proteins can be used to provide insight into the processes causing the adverse effects. Initial results show that our method has the potential to assist in explaining reported adverse drug effects.

  16. Pharmacogenetics and rational drug use around the world.

    PubMed

    Roederer, Mary W; Sanchez-Giron, Francisco; Kalideen, Kusha; Kudzi, William; McLeod, Howard L; Zhang, Wei

    2011-06-01

    The WHO embraces evidence-based medicine to formulate an essential medicines list (EML) considering disease prevalence, drug efficacy, drug safety and cost-effectiveness. The EML is used by developing countries to build a national formulary. As pharmacogenetics in developed countries evolves, the Pharmacogenetics for Every Nation Initiative (PGENI) convened with representatives from China, Mexico, Ghana and South Africa in August 2009 to evaluate the use of human pharmacogenetics to enhance global drug use policy. The diseases causing mortality, the lack of integration of pharmacovigilance at the national formulary level, the pharmacogenetics research agenda and pharmacogenetics clinician education did not differ greatly among the countries. While there are many unanswered questions, systematically incorporating pharmacogenetics at the national formulary level promises to improve global drug use.

  17. Intravenous drug use is associated with alloimmunization in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lappen, Justin R; Stark, Sydney; Gibson, Kelly S; Prasad, Mona; Bailit, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested an association of intravenous drug abuse with alloimmunization; however, published data are limited to case reports. The purpose of this study was to determine whether women with a history of intravenous drug abuse have an increased risk of alloimmunization. A retrospective cohort study was performed with the use of data from a single-center blood bank and perinatal database from 2008-2014. Blood bank data were used to identify women with alloimmunization, which was defined as a positive antibody screen in pregnancy not due to naturally occurring antibodies, agglutinins, autoantibodies, or Rh immunoglobulin administration. Intravenous drug abuse was ascertained from a comprehensive database that has captured all drug abuse in pregnancy since 2008. For women who contributed >1 pregnancy to the database, only the most recent pregnancy was included. The rates of alloimmunization among women with a history of intravenous drug abuse and general obstetric populations were calculated and compared. The distribution of alloantibody types, proportion of Rh-group alloantibodies, and patient Rh status were assessed for intravenous and non-intravenous drug abuse-associated alloimmunization. Characteristics and outcomes between intravenous and non-intravenous drug abuse-associated alloimmunization were assessed for women with clinically significant alloantibodies. Alloimmunization was more common in women with a history of intravenous drug abuse (11/305 women; 3.6%) compared to women without a history of intravenous drug abuse (288/16,022 women; 1.8%; relative risk, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.62). Needle-sharing was present in 7 and suspected in 4 women with an intravenous drug abuse history. Among women with a history of intravenous drug abuse, none had a history of transfusion or traditional risk factor for alloimmunization. The distribution of alloantibodies was different between intravenous drug abuse- and non-intravenous drug

  18. Predicting new indications for approved drugs using a proteochemometric method.

    PubMed

    Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Issa, Naiem T; Assefnia, Shahin; Seshasayee, Ashwini; Peters, Oakland J; Madhavan, Subha; Uren, Aykut; Brown, Milton L; Byers, Stephen W

    2012-08-09

    The most effective way to move from target identification to the clinic is to identify already approved drugs with the potential for activating or inhibiting unintended targets (repurposing or repositioning). This is usually achieved by high throughput chemical screening, transcriptome matching, or simple in silico ligand docking. We now describe a novel rapid computational proteochemometric method called "train, match, fit, streamline" (TMFS) to map new drug-target interaction space and predict new uses. The TMFS method combines shape, topology, and chemical signatures, including docking score and functional contact points of the ligand, to predict potential drug-target interactions with remarkable accuracy. Using the TMFS method, we performed extensive molecular fit computations on 3671 FDA approved drugs across 2335 human protein crystal structures. The TMFS method predicts drug-target associations with 91% accuracy for the majority of drugs. Over 58% of the known best ligands for each target were correctly predicted as top ranked, followed by 66%, 76%, 84%, and 91% for agents ranked in the top 10, 20, 30, and 40, respectively, out of all 3671 drugs. Drugs ranked in the top 1-40 that have not been experimentally validated for a particular target now become candidates for repositioning. Furthermore, we used the TMFS method to discover that mebendazole, an antiparasitic with recently discovered and unexpected anticancer properties, has the structural potential to inhibit VEGFR2. We confirmed experimentally that mebendazole inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity and angiogenesis at doses comparable with its known effects on hookworm. TMFS also predicted, and was confirmed with surface plasmon resonance, that dimethyl celecoxib and the anti-inflammatory agent celecoxib can bind cadherin-11, an adhesion molecule important in rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognosis malignancies for which no targeted therapies exist. We anticipate that expanding our TMFS method to the >27

  19. Gendered Pathways: Violent Childhood Maltreatment, Sex Exchange, and Drug Use.

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn; Murphy, Brett; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-20

    Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder. We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 304 (130 women) adults with recent histories of violence and/or drug use, who completed a substance use diagnostic interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and a sex exchange questionnaire. First, structural equation modeling revealed that childhood sexual and physical abuse were related to increased drug engagement in women and men, respectively, above the influence of early childhood contextual variables (e.g., neighborhood, family) and age. Second, sexual abuse was related to sex exchange, which in turn was related to drug use symptoms in women but not men. These data provide empirical support for distinct trauma-related pathways to drug use problems in men and women, which has implications for gendered explanations and prevention approaches.

  20. Gendered Pathways: Violent Childhood Maltreatment, Sex Exchange, and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Verona, Edelyn; Murphy, Brett; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder. Method We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 304 (130 women) adults with recent histories of violence and/or drug use, who completed a substance use diagnostic interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and a sex exchange questionnaire. Results First, structural equation modeling revealed that childhood sexual and physical abuse were related to increased drug engagement in women and men, respectively, above the influence of early childhood contextual variables (e.g., neighborhood, family) and age. Second, sexual abuse was related to sex exchange, which in turn was related to drug use symptoms in women but not men. Conclusions These data provide empirical support for distinct trauma-related pathways to drug use problems in men and women, which has implications for gendered explanations and prevention approaches. PMID:26229728