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Sample records for drug use

  1. Substance use - prescription drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance use; Oxycodone - substance use; Hydrocodone - substance use; Morphine - substance use; Fentanyl - substance use ... fluff, hydros, v-itamin, vic, vike, Watson-387. Morphine. Drugs include Avinza, Duramorph, Kadian, Ormorph, Roxanol. Street ...

  2. [Ilicit drugs frequently used by drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Cirriez, J P

    2015-03-01

    Drugs stimulate the brain causing mental and physical effects. The effects of drugs can be stimulating, narcotic or mind-altering. This article briefly discusses some commonly used illicit drugs, namely heroin, cocaine, cannabis, ecstasy, amphetamines, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms and poppers. PMID:26571792

  3. Drug Use by Students of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Ronald; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of differences in the use of certain psychoactive drugs among students who enrolled for an elective drug abuse course and students not enrolled, or who have not previously taken a drug abuse course. (Author)

  4. Club Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... MDMA ("ecstasy"), GHB ("liquid ecstasy"), flunitrazepam ("roofies") and ketamine ("special K"). They have many other slang names. ... also can become addicted if they use GHB, ketamine and flunitrazepam repeatedly. These drugs can cause severe ...

  5. [Drug use in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U

    2005-01-01

    Drug use in pregnancy is associated with a number of serious complications for mother and fetus. There are safe data on destructive effects of alcohol, cocain, marijuana and tobacco on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Of importance is the fact that for many drugs similar effects on pregnancy could be observed: vasoconstriction of the placental vessels resulting in placental abruption, preterm labour (mother), spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preterm delivery and stillbirth (fetus). Symptoms of withdrawal and neurodevelopmental disorders are the most important problems of the neonate. However, only small data exist about the effects of recently popular party drugs like ecstasy or LSD. In addition, from most drugs, with exception of alcohol, safe information about the risk of congenital malformations doesn't exist. Nevertheless they may be a useful guide in the diagnostic of potential malformations by ultrasound. Most of pregnant women using drugs are poly-drug users and are often in reduced general condition. They need therefore the intensive care of the obstetrician in cooperation with other specialists (internal medicine, psychiatry).

  6. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  7. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  8. Drugs Used in COPD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  9. Drug Use in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses drug use in U.S. history. Argues that a "get-tough" approach did not work in the past and will not work in the future. Suggests that history can provide a scholarly assessment of drugs, foster understanding of drugs in contemporary society, and enable students to evaluate drug policies more objectively. (DK)

  10. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  11. Drug use first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... addiction is gradual. And some drugs (such as cocaine ) can cause addiction after only a few doses. ... Saunders; 2013:chap 150. Rao RB, Hoffman RS. Cocaine and other sympathomimetics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ...

  12. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  13. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  14. Chronic Drug Use and Crime.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T.; McGeary, Kerry Anne; Chitwood, Dale D.; McCoy, Clyde B.; Inciardi, James A.; McBride, Duane

    2000-06-01

    This paper used bivariate and multivariate analyses to estimate the relationships between chronic drug use and various measures of criminal activity. The data for these analyses were derived from the 1993 (1) and 1995 (2) National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). Measures of criminal justice system contact and criminal activity included ever arrested, arrested during the previous year, commission of a predatory crime (e.g., assault, fighting) during the previous year, and commission of a property crime (e.g., theft, property damage, car theft, breaking and entering) during the previous year. The analysis was conducted separately for males, females, and age groups, and it distinguished between chronic drug users, nonchronic drug users, and nondrug users. The results consistently showed a significant linear relationship between criminal activity and frequency of drug use. These findings have implications regarding the potential reduction in predatory and property crime that could occur from a decrease in drug use. Significant differences in criminal behavior between chronic drug users and other cohorts may signal a critical need to develop targeted interventions for this particular type of drug user.

  15. Performance-enhancing drug use.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary A

    2009-09-01

    According to Gary Green, MD, everyone who deals with athletes is a "stakeholder" in the issue of performance-enhancing drugs and can influence athletes in a positive or negative role. In this issue of ORTHOPEDICS, Dr Green shares his thoughts on testing, prevention, and education of performance-enhancing drug use.

  16. Female drug use: some observations.

    PubMed

    Suffet, F; Brotman, R

    1976-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of recent social science drug research, summarizes the main findings on female drug use and speculates on its future direction. The findings include the following: women are usually initiated into illicit drug use by men; rates of illicit drug use are lower among females than males (which may reflect the greater personal freedom traditionally granted to males), although the difference narrows among younger persons and among those who subscribe to more liberal values and life styles; women are more likely than men to use psychotherapeutic drugs (which may reflect strains resulting from their unequal status vis-à-vis men); and female opiate addicts, although they tend to hold conventional values, are often involved in such deviant activity as prostitution. To the extent that women gain social equality with men and subscribe to greater personal lifestyle freedom, they may be expected to show a higher rate of illicit drug use, particularly of a recreational kind. On the other hand, the rate of psychotherapeutic drug use may decrease, although if the tensions of the workplace eventually substitute for the tensions of status inequality, the resultant changes in rates and patterns of substance use are problematic. PMID:767261

  17. Smoking and Illicit Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Mark S., Ed.

    The biological mechanisms of nicotine dependence are described, the prevalence of tobacco dependency among those using other mood-altering drugs is examined, and the most efficacious way to address this dependency is discussed. New data on the relationship of smoking addiction to other addictions are examined. Topics include: (1) "Tobacco Smoking…

  18. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  19. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  20. Hypothermia following antipsychotic drug use

    PubMed Central

    Wegewijs, Michelle A.; Loonen, Anton J. M.; Beers, Erna

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hypothermia is an adverse drug reaction (ADR) of antipsychotic drug (APD) use. Risk factors for hypothermia in ADP users are unknown. We studied which risk factors for hypothermia can be identified based on case reports. Method Case reports of hypothermia in APD-users found in PUBMED or EMBASE were searched for risk factors. The WHO international database for Adverse Drug Reactions was searched for reports of hypothermia and APD use. Results The literature search resulted in 32 articles containing 43 case reports. In the WHO database, 480 reports were registered of patients developing hypothermia during the use of APDs which almost equals the number of reports for hyperthermia associated with APD use (n = 524). Hypothermia risk seems to be increased in the first days following start or dose increase of APs. APs with strong 5-HT2 antagonism seem to be more involved in hypothermia; 55% of hypothermia reports are for atypical antipsychotics. Schizophrenia was the most prevalent diagnosis in the case reports. Conclusion Especially in admitted patients who are not able to control their own environment or physical status, frequent measurements of body temperature (with a thermometer that can measure low body temperatures) must be performed in order to detect developing hypothermia. PMID:17401555

  1. Social Problems of Drug Use and Drug Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Joel

    The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…

  2. Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use and Personality Factors on Adult Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Sybille M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined stability of adolescent drug use into young adulthood and explored influence of personality on adolescent and adult drug use. Participants (n=640) in longitudinal study completed questionnaires assessing tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drug use. General drug use factor in adolescence significantly predicted young adult drug use.…

  3. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e- ...

  4. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  5. Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2011-01-01

    This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon. PMID:23805068

  6. Club Drug Use in Hispanic College Students

    PubMed Central

    Resor, Michelle R.; Cooper, Theodore V.

    2010-01-01

    Club drug use and correlates were examined among 251 Hispanic college students on the Texas - México border. Participants completed questionnaires on substance use, club drug attitudes and beliefs, sexual risk-taking behaviors, depressive symptoms, and acculturation. One-quarter of participants reported club drug use. Regression analyses demonstrated that frequency and history of lifetime use were consistently associated with more permissive drug attitudes and other substance use but not sexual risk-taking, depression symptoms, or acculturation. Acculturation was negatively associated with frequency of club drug use, yet positively associated with use of other illicit substances. Avenues for future studies are suggested. PMID:20653638

  7. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for...

  8. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for...

  9. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for...

  10. Smart drugs: Implications of student use.

    PubMed

    Canterbury, R J; Lloyd, E

    1994-03-01

    The use of Smart Drugs to enhance intelligence, improve memory and maximize cognitive functioning in healthy individuals has attracted the attention of the popular press. This paper discusses the implication of the nonmedical college student use of "nootropic" Smart Drugs, a class of pharmaceuticals legally available in other countries to treat diseases associated with mental decline or dysfunction. Nootropic drug use is compared to steroid use in a student population. In a survey of college students, 5% of the males reported casual use of a drug to increase their intelligence, enhance their memory and make them smarter: 2.5% of these students probably used a nootropic drug.

  11. Emotional Stability and Student Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffenhagen, R. A.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Using the MMPI Scale as a measure of emotional stability, drug users and nonusers were analyzed to indicate and predict the extent of emotional problems within the college population. Drug use was shown to be merely symptomatic of emotional problems. Presented at the First International Conference on Student Drug Surveys, Newark, N.J., 1971.…

  12. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)

  13. Adjunctive drug use among opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Navaratnam, V; Foong, K

    1990-01-01

    In a study of 249 opiate (mainly heroin) addicts special attention was paid to adjunctive drug use. Generally, nicotine (cigarette smoking), alcohol and cannabis preceded the use of heroin, and continued to be used as adjunctive drugs after the establishment of heroin addiction. Nicotine was the most common substance used together with opiates. Alcohol and cannabis were used as adjunctive drugs in about two-thirds of the cases. In the late stages of heroin addiction, benzodiazepines were also used concomitantly with opiates. The most frequently reported reason for the use of adjunctive drugs was to intensify the effect of the opiate. Three-quarters or more of the addicts had used different adjunctive drugs to boost the euphoric feeling derived from the primary drug, i.e. heroin. Attempt at self-treatment of withdrawal symptoms was a less frequently reported reason for adjunctive drug use. The findings show that heroin addiction is the major problem. The use of adjunctive drugs, especially benzodiazepines, can be partly explained on economic grounds. They must be clearly distinguished from the primary drug of abuse, heroin. For policy-making decisions, it is important that the elimination of heroin abuse through effective prevention measures would ultimately wipe out the problem of adjunctive drug use, while reduction of the overall supply of heroin without reduction in actual demand might result in an increasing trend to adjunctive drug use.

  14. Sacramental and spiritual use of hallucinogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Móró, Levente; Noreika, Valdas

    2011-12-01

    Arguably, the religious use of hallucinogenic drugs stems from a human search of metaphysical insight rather than from a direct need for cognitive, emotional, social, physical, or sexual improvement. Therefore, the sacramental and spiritual intake of hallucinogenic drugs goes so far beyond other biopsychosocial functions that it deserves its own category in the drug instrumentalization list.

  15. Kindergarten Children and Drugs: Beliefs, Use and Expected Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Williamson, Doug

    A study identified correlates of selected beliefs about drugs, personal drug use, and expected drug use among kindergarten children. As part of a state-wide drug education project, 112 kindergarten children from 5 elementary schools were individually interviewed. Analysis of the data indicated significant relationships between personal use of…

  16. Emerging Drug Use Trends in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Chooi, Weng-Tink; Zaharim, Norzarina Mohd; Ahmad, Imran; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Azhar; Syed Jaapar, Sharifah Z; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Chawarski, Marek C

    2016-01-01

    The primarily rural and agrarian Kelantan province of Malaysia has high rates of drug use and is characterized by unique sociocultural factors. Combining qualitative and ethnographic methods, we investigated drug use and treatment needs of people who use drugs (PWUD) in rural areas of Kelantan. In February 2014, field visits, participant observation, and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 27 active PWUD were conducted in rural areas surrounding the capital city of Kelantan. The findings indicate a high prevalence of opiate and amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) use in these areas. FGD participants reported initiating drug use at early ages due to peer influences, to relieve boredom, to cope with problems, and a high saturation of villages with other PWUD was reported as a major contributor to their own continued drug use. They reported a trend of drug use initiation at younger ages and increased drug use among females. Participants were interested in treatment; however, their limited knowledge about treatment options and perceived limited availability of services were barriers to treatment seeking. Easy access to drugs, primarily from Thailand and facilitated by the use of mobile phones, resulted in an expanding prevalence of drug use that underscores the need to bolster education and prevention efforts and accessibility of treatment services in Kelantan. PMID:27224011

  17. Drug Use by Urban and Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaton, Thomas J., Jr.; Smith, Sidney P.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated drug use behaviors of rural and urban students in Georgia. Data from 1,897 response forms indicated experimental use of alcoholic beverages was high (approximately two-thirds for rural and urban samples), while approximately one-third reported marijuana use. Males exceed females in weekly and daily drug use. (Author)

  18. The use of drugs in swimming.

    PubMed

    Puffer, J C

    1986-01-01

    The use of drugs to enhance athletic performance poses tremendous potential risk to amateur sport. The aquatic sports are not immune from this risk. Although the exact incidence of drug usage among aquatic athletes is not known, empirical evidence would suggest that there are indeed athletes who are using substances in an effort to enhance performance. A number of the commonly used substances have been discussed and their risks and side effects reviewed. Future success in eradicating drug usage in sport will only result from increased efforts directed at enhancement of athlete education, development of strict policies dealing with those athletes who use banned substances, and refinement of drug testing procedures.

  19. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  20. Predictors of Illicit Drug Use Among Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Rowell-Cunsolo, Tawandra L.; Sampong, Stephen A.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States of America currently has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and approximately 80% of incarcerated individuals have a history of illicit drug use. Despite institutional prohibitions, drug use continues in prison, and is associated with a range of negative outcomes. Objectives To assess the relationship between prison drug use, duration of incarceration, and a range of covariates. Results Most participants self-reported a history of illicit drug use (77.5%). Seven percent reportedly used drugs during the previous six months of incarceration (n = 100). Participants who had been incarcerated for more than a year were less likely than those incarcerated for longer than a year to report using drugs (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.98). Participants aged 37–89 were less likely than younger prisoners to use drugs (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19–0.80). Heroin users were twice as likely as nonheroin users to use drugs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.04–5.03); crack cocaine users were also twice as likely as participants with no history of crack cocaine usage to report drug use (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.13–5.69). Conclusions Correctional institutions should be used as a resource to offer evidence-based services to curb drug usage. Drug treatment programs for younger prisoners, heroin and crack cocaine users, and at the beginning of a prisoner's sentence should be considered for this population. PMID:26789438

  1. Differences in Background and Drug Use History Among Three Types of Drug Users Entering Drug Therapy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Bill; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    1977-01-01

    The 26,316 patients who entered drug therapy programs participating in the DARP from June, 1971, to March, 1973, and who had used drugs for at least two years were grouped into three drug use categories. Differences were observed among these three groups regarding the first drug used daily and the age at first drug use. (Author)

  2. [Eating Disorders and drug use in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Bisetto Pons, David; Botella Guijarro, Álvaro; Sancho Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show whether there was a connection between drug use and Eating Disorders, as well as to identify the type of drugs most widely used and to ascertain whether they are used to suppress appetite. An "ad hoc" scale was developed using the items of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, whose aim is to detect cases at risk of certain types of eating disorder, and items for assessing drug use. This scale was applied to samples of teenagers (n=446) aged 13-18 from various secondary schools in the Valencia Region (Comunidad Valenciana) in Spain. An association was found between teenagers that use drugs, and particularly between the variable "use of some kind of drug as an appetite suppressant", and being at risk of having an eating disorder. Tobacco was the drug most commonly used (accounting for 66% of those within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale). We conclude that those teenagers from the sample who fall within any of the risk thresholds consume more drugs than those who do not fall within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Stimulant-type drugs are those most widely used by these teenagers with the aim of suppressing appetite.

  3. Longitudinal Correlates of Hard Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Mimi S.; And Others

    Interventions designed to prevent drug abuse have typically focused on the gateway drugs of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, on the assumption that such prevention would indirectly prevent use of harder substances. Little data has been available, however, for examining the onset of harder substance use in a normal adolescent population. This…

  4. International Drug Use; Research Issues 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of resources contains 95 summaries of research conducted on drug use in countries other than the United States, and is designed to be an introductory set of readings which provide a basic familiarity with drug use patterns in foreign countries. The first section contains 23 studies on the United Kingdom while the second section…

  5. Race, Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines drug use, including alcohol, as a factor in risky sexual behavior while considering patterns across sex and race. Both factors have been given insufficient attention in prior research. The data for this study come from a survey of 1,052 college students from a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that drug use is associated with…

  6. In Vitro Drug Metabolism Using Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Knights, Kathleen M; Stresser, David M; Miners, John O; Crespi, Charles L

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the metabolic stability of newly discovered drug candidates eliminated by metabolism is essential for predicting the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters that underpin dosing and dosage frequency. Further, characterization of the enzyme(s) responsible for metabolism (reaction phenotyping) allows prediction, at least at the qualitative level, of factors (including metabolic drug-drug interactions) likely to alter the clearance of both new chemical entities (NCEs) and established drugs. Microsomes are typically used as the enzyme source for the measurement of metabolic stability and for reaction phenotyping because they express the major drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), along with others that contribute to drug metabolism. Described in this unit are methods for microsome isolation, as well as for the determination of metabolic stability and metabolite formation (including kinetics). © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27636111

  7. Progress in antiretroviral drug delivery using nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mallipeddi, Rama; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2010-08-09

    There are currently a number of antiretroviral drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). More recently, antiretrovirals are being evaluated in the clinic for prevention of HIV infection. Due to the challenging nature of treatment and prevention of this disease, the use of nanocarriers to achieve more efficient delivery of antiretroviral drugs has been studied. Various forms of nanocarriers, such as nanoparticles (polymeric, inorganic, and solid lipid), liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, cyclodextrins, and cell-based nanoformulations have been studied for delivery of drugs intended for HIV prevention or therapy. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the application of nanocarrier systems to the delivery of anti-HIV drugs, specifically antiretrovirals. For anti-HIV drugs to be effective, adequate distribution to specific sites in the body must be achieved, and effective drug concentrations must be maintained at those sites for the required period of time. Nanocarriers provide a means to overcome cellular and anatomical barriers to drug delivery. Their application in the area of HIV prevention and therapy may lead to the development of more effective drug products for combating this pandemic disease.

  8. Progress in antiretroviral drug delivery using nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Mallipeddi, Rama; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2010-01-01

    There are currently a number of antiretroviral drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). More recently, antiretrovirals are being evaluated in the clinic for prevention of HIV infection. Due to the challenging nature of treatment and prevention of this disease, the use of nanocarriers to achieve more efficient delivery of antiretroviral drugs has been studied. Various forms of nanocarriers, such as nanoparticles (polymeric, inorganic, and solid lipid), liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, cyclodextrins, and cell-based nanoformulations have been studied for delivery of drugs intended for HIV prevention or therapy. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the application of nanocarrier systems to the delivery of anti-HIV drugs, specifically antiretrovirals. For anti-HIV drugs to be effective, adequate distribution to specific sites in the body must be achieved, and effective drug concentrations must be maintained at those sites for the required period of time. Nanocarriers provide a means to overcome cellular and anatomical barriers to drug delivery. Their application in the area of HIV prevention and therapy may lead to the development of more effective drug products for combating this pandemic disease. PMID:20957115

  9. Using Diaries to Assess Nonprescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acocella, Cecilia M.

    2005-01-01

    Nonprescription drug use among university students was investigated using survey and behavioral diary methodologies to assess usage of nonprescription drug use and to compare survey and diary methodologies. Surveys were completed by 183 students (136 females and 47 males) that asked how often they used nonprescription drugs and what those drugs…

  10. Illicit Drug Use and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research. PMID:25938114

  11. Intelligence and Past Use of Recreational Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmoth, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    One motivation for trying recreational drugs is the desire for novel experiences. More intelligent people tend to value novelty more highly and may therefore be more likely to have tried recreational drugs. Using data from a national survey, it is shown that intelligence tends to be positively related to the probabilities of having tried alcohol,…

  12. Patterns of Drug Use: School Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bernard; And Others

    This study surveyed students in grades 7-12 in eight Alaskan school districts. The study was designed to obtain information on the use or nonuse of a broad spectrum of chemical substances, ranging from legal, socially sanctioned drugs for those of legal age such as alcohol and tobacco, to illegal and unsanctioned drugs taken for nonmedical…

  13. Decisions about Drug Use. Adolescent Decisions Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others

    This teacher's manual for drug abuse education is one volume of a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: drug (substance) use and abuse, sexuality and social relationships, juvenile law, work and people and government.…

  14. Monitoring problem drug use in Bristol.

    PubMed

    Parker, J; Pool, Y; Rawle, R; Gay, M

    1988-02-01

    A prospective multi-agency survey of problem drug use associated with illicit drugs and solvents in the city of Bristol in 1984-1985 found 759 problem drug users, giving a period prevalence rate of 0.4-0.8% of those aged 10-44 years. The group was a young one, with 92% under the age of 35. Over half had problems associated with opiates, mainly illicit heroin; 17% had problems associated with solvents, 9% with cannabis, 13% with stimulants, mainly illicit amphetamine, and 3% with hallucinogens. There was little indication of problematic use of barbiturates or cocaine. The problems associated with drugs and solvents were wide-ranging and not specific for individual drugs. Future community surveys would find it cost-effective to concentrate on the five best sources identified here, and to supplement these with indications of drug-taking among teenagers. The difficulties of using the definition of problem drug use for research and the value of case-register surveys for community drug monitoring are discussed. PMID:3262395

  15. Illicit Drug Use and Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2008-01-01

    With the acquisition of adult social roles such as marriage, more deviant or socially disapproved behaviors such as drug use often decrease. The objective of this work was to examine patterns of illicit drug use in a community sample of adults during the transition and early years of marriage. Additionally, this work examined if couples who were discrepant in their drug use (i.e., one individual reported past year drug use and the partner reported no use) experience sharper declines in marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Multilevel regression models explored these issues over the first four years of marriage (N= 634 couples). Although rates of illicit drug use decline over the first four years of marriage, a significant number of husbands and wives continued to use illicit drugs (21% and 16%, respectively). At the transition to marriage, both husbands and wives who had discrepant drug use behaviors experienced lower levels of marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Over the first four years of marriage, couples in each group experienced significant declines in marital satisfaction. PMID:17945436

  16. The Life Course Perspective on Drug Use: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Drug Use Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Longshore, Douglas; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the life course perspective on drug use, including conceptual and analytic issues involved in developing the life course framework to explain how drug use trajectories develop during an individual's lifetime and how this knowledge can guide new research and approaches to management of drug dependence. Central concepts…

  17. Promoting Appropriate Use of Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Yewale, Vijay N.; Dharmapalan, Dhanya

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of appropriate and safe drugs in children is the need of the hour globally. Pediatric population by itself is a spectrum of different physiologies with significant variation in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Unfortunately, 50–90% of drugs used in children today have never been actually studied in this population, and the results of drug studies done in adults are often extrapolated for use in children. Many medicines in pediatrics are off label or unlicensed. There is a spurt in drug resistance due to the overzealous prescription of antimicrobials not indicated, such as, using inadequate dosage or duration of drug regime leading to partially treated infections, using the wrong antimicrobial due to ignorance of causative organism, and finally using indigenous, irrational combinations. Availability of properly labeled and safe pediatric formulations, regular audit by pharmacists, judicious prescriptions, proper counseling about drug administration, surveillance of adverse effects, and pediatric drug trials can be the best possible interventions to offer appropriate medicines to children and thereby save millions of lives. PMID:22645620

  18. MSM and drug use: A latent class analysis of drug use and related sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    McCarty-Caplan, David; Jantz, Ian; Swartz, James

    2014-07-01

    This study examined patterns of drug use among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to identify sub-categories of men whose drug use and sexual behavior place them at especially high risk for HIV. A latent class analysis of a sample of MSM yielded a four-class model with two distinct high drug use sub-groups: one whose drug use concentrated on "sex-drugs" (SDU); and a distinct polydrug use class that showed higher probabilities of using all other drugs assessed. Comparative follow-up analyses indicated the SDU group was also more likely to engage in particular potentially high-risk sexual behaviors, be older, and to be HIV positive. Implications of distinguishing between patterns of drug use for HIV-risk prevention efforts with MSM are discussed.

  19. Tocolytic Drugs for Use in Veterinary Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a literature review of two tocolytic agents used in veterinary obstetrics: isoxsuprine and clenbuterol. The medical background from which these drugs emerged for human use and to which is linked their application in animal medicine is described. Each drug is reviewed according to its pharmacology, basic considerations for its clinical use and the reports on its application in the treatment and management of obstetrical disorders in veterinary medicine. PMID:17422462

  20. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.

    PubMed

    Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

    2013-02-01

    Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

  1. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  2. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  3. The Development of a Test to Assess Drug Using Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Michael E.

    The objective of the study was to develop a test which could measure both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-using behavior, including such factors as attitudes toward drugs, experience with drugs, and knowledge about drugs. The Drug Use Scale was developed containing 134 items and dealing with five classes of drugs: marijuana,…

  4. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  5. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  6. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use. PMID:27462857

  7. Drug Use Among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebstock, James; Young, Sarah

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the Broward Community College's investigation of student use of illegal (marijuana, cocaine), and socially approved drugs (alcohol, cigarettes), which found marijuana and alcohol to be used most frequently by the predominantly white, middle class, under 23 population; and gender and income to have a significant influence on use. (TP)

  8. Contraception, punishment and women who use drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of the recent debate on the use of financial incentives to promote long-acting contraception and sterilisation among women who use illicit drugs we discuss attitudes to contraception, pregnancy and parenting among Australian women who inject drugs. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 90 women of reproductive age about contraceptive use, preferences, reproductive histories, attitudes to and experiences of parenting. All women were either currently, or had previously injected drugs. The in-depth, semi-structured interviews were compared and contrasted for themes relating to drug use, contraception, pregnancy and parenting. Results Participants aspired to control their fertility, expressed individual contraceptive preferences and concerns for their children (both born and unborn). Most had tried a number of contraceptive methods interspersed by periods of non-use related to experiences of side-effects, being single or abstinent, believing that they were infertile and trying to conceive. Attitudes varied from woman to woman and in the same individual over their life course. Some believed that they were not likely to be capable, but most aspired to be successful mothers. Conclusions Women’s drug use should not automatically be associated with an inability to make informed health care choices or to care for children. Evidence suggests that women who use drugs do not need to be paid to limit or end their fertility. Rather, programs that aim to reduce barriers to obtaining free, non-discriminating reproductive advice and parenting assistance would better utilise women’s agency to improve their own reproductive health. PMID:24405890

  9. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. PMID:24894458

  10. Pricing, distribution, and use of antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Prices of new antimalarial drugs are targeted at the "travellers' market" in developed countries, which makes them unaffordable in malaria-endemic countries where the per capita annual drug expenditures are US$ 5 or less. Antimalarials are distributed through a variety of channels in both public and private sectors, the official malaria control programmes accounting for 25-30% of chloroquine distribution. The unofficial drug sellers in markets, streets, and village shops account for as much as half of antimalarials distributed in many developing countries. Use of antimalarials through the health services is often poor; drug shortages are common and overprescription and overuse of injections are significant problems. Anxiety over drug costs may prevent patients from getting the necessary treatment for malaria, especially because of the seasonal appearance of this disease when people's cash reserves are very low. The high costs may lead them to unofficial sources, which will sell a single tablet instead of a complete course of treatment, and subsequently to increased, often irrational demand for more drugs and more injections. Increasingly people are resorting to self-medication for malaria, which may cause delays in seeking proper treatment in cases of failure, especially in areas where chloroquine resistance has increased rapidly. Self-medication is now widespread, and measures to restrict the illicit sale of drugs have been unsuccessful. The "unofficial" channels thus represent an unacknowledged extension of the health services in many countries; suggestions are advanced to encourage better self-medication by increasing the knowledge base among the population at large (mothers, schoolchildren, market sellers, and shopkeepers), with an emphasis on correct dosing and on the importance of seeking further treatment without delay, if necessary. PMID:1893512

  11. Drug Use and Cognitions about Drug Use amongst Students: Changes over the University Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Brian; Conner, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Studied the hypothesis that students would exhibit changes in their levels of, and cognitions about, drug use throughout their university careers. Responses from a sample of 380 undergraduates (response rate, 63%) show no evidence of an increase in the percentage of undergraduates using drugs over their university careers, but there was a…

  12. Using C. elegans for antimicrobial drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Desalermos, Athanasios; Muhammed, Maged; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The number of microorganism strains with resistance to known antimicrobials is increasing. Therefore, there is a high demand for new, non-toxic and efficient antimicrobial agents. Research with the microscopic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can address this high demand for the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. In particular, C. elegans can be used as a model host for in vivo drug discovery through high-throughput screens of chemical libraries. Areas covered This review introduces the use of substitute model hosts and especially C. elegans in the study of microbial pathogenesis. The authors also highlight recently published literature on the role of C. elegans in drug discovery and outline its use as a promising host with unique advantages in the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. Expert opinion C. elegans can be used, as a model host, to research many diseases, including fungal infections and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, high-throughput techniques, for screening chemical libraries, can also be facilitated. Nevertheless, C. elegans and mammals have significant differences that both limit the use of the nematode in research and the degree by which results can be interpreted. That being said, the use of C. elegans in drug discovery still holds promise and the field continues to grow, with attempts to improve the methodology already underway. PMID:21686092

  13. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  14. Drug use by tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Lund, A K; Preusser, D F; Blomberg, R D; Williams, A F

    1988-05-01

    Blood or urine samples or both were obtained from 317 of 359 randomly selected tractor-trailer drivers asked to participate in a driver health survey conducted at a truck weighing station on Interstate 40 in Tennessee. Altogether, 29% of the drivers had evidence of alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, prescription or nonprescription stimulants, or some combination of these, in either blood or urine. Cannabinoids were found in 15% of the drivers' blood or urine; nonprescription stimulants such as phenylpropanolamine were found in 12%; prescription stimulants such as amphetamine were found in 5%; cocaine metabolites were found in 2%; and alcohol was found in less than 1%. These results provide the first objective information about the use of potentially abusive drugs by tractor-trailer drivers. The extent of driver impairment attributable to the observed drugs is uncertain because of the complex relationship between performance and drug concentrations.

  15. Drug use and abuse: the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Almond, B

    1992-01-01

    Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use. PMID:1638919

  16. Illicit drug use and HIV risk in the Dominican Republic: tourism areas create drug use opportunities.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas. PMID:25330110

  17. Illicit drug use and HIV risk in the Dominican Republic: tourism areas create drug use opportunities.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas.

  18. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  19. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  20. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  1. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  2. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  3. Maltese Survey of Adolescent Drug Use, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ronald D.; Gleaton, Thomas J.

    A national survey to obtain adolescent drug use patterns in Malta was conducted on November 29, 1991. A total of 20,815 students were surveyed in Malta and Gozo. Ages ranged from 11 to 17 years. Tabular reports were prepared for each participating school, regionally, and for the total or national sample. The overwhelming majority of students…

  4. The Use of Drugs in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Steven

    Indications, precautions, contraindications, and side effects of drugs most frequently used by athletic trainers in treating injuries are discussed: (1) aspirin; (2) arylalkanoic derivatives; (3) butazolidin and tandearil; (4) corticosteroids; (5) oral corticosteroids; (6) muscle relaxants; (7) analgesics; (8) cold medications; (9) antidiarrheal…

  5. Teen Drug Use: Impacts and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casemore, Bradley P.

    Each generation of adolescents is exposed to a wider array of stressors and environmental deficits. Use, abuse, and dependence on alcohol and other drugs greatly impairs youths' ability to develop fully, and exacerbates and compounds other biopsychosocial problems. Physiologically, the onset of secondary sex characteristics, the growth spurt,…

  6. [Levels of evidence in drug therapy for alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use].

    PubMed

    Burucker, J; Kropp, S

    2012-12-01

    Substance-related disorders are clinically and socially very important. In Germany over a million people of varying ages are affected. Depending on the substance and stage of treatment, drugs and different treatment methods are used. Through a literature search we examined the current knowledge of what drugs and therapies are used to date, and what randomised trials have been carried out to prove the efficacy of drug therapy. The aim was to define for each drug or pharmacological therapy a specific level of evidence. For the pharmacological treatment of alcohol, cocaine and opiate withdrawal syndromes and their relapses, prophylaxis or replacement therapy drugs are found to have a high level of evidence. Efficacy has been proven scientifically for processes such as behaviour therapy, contingency management or motivational interviewing.

  7. Benchmarking antimicrobial drug use in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Omar M; Polk, Ron E

    2012-04-01

    Measuring and monitoring antibiotic use in hospitals is believed to be an important component of the strategies available to antimicrobial stewardship programs to address acquired antimicrobial resistance. Recent efforts to organize large numbers of hospitals into networks allow for interhospital comparisons of a variety of healthcare processes and outcomes, a process often called 'benchmarking'. For comparisons of antimicrobial use to be valid, usage figures must be risk-adjusted to account for differences in patient mix and hospital characteristics. The purpose of this review is to describe recent methods to benchmark antimicrobial drug use and to critically assess the potential advantages and the remaining challenges. While many methodological challenges remain, and the clinical outcomes resulting from benchmarking programs have yet to be determined, recent developments suggest that benchmarking antimicrobial drug use will become an important component of antimicrobial stewardship program activities.

  8. Understanding performance-enhancing drug use.

    PubMed

    Wang, David

    2012-09-01

    Performance-enhancing drug use is a prevalent problem in sports. It is a problem that has captured the world's attention as the media highlights story after story of athletes who have transformed their bodies over a short period of time, those who have simply defied the aging process in an attempt to prolong a career and those whose careers have been tarnished because of drug use. The baseball investigations and the Mitchell Report of 2007 opened our eyes and gave us a glimpse of a secretive underground world. This "world" is much more intelligent and sophisticated than it is given credit for. It is the goal of this article to increase the awareness of the medical provider about the types of steroids and other medications used, the influence these substances have on the athletes, and how and why they use them. PMID:23061215

  9. Understanding performance-enhancing drug use.

    PubMed

    Wang, David

    2012-09-01

    Performance-enhancing drug use is a prevalent problem in sports. It is a problem that has captured the world's attention as the media highlights story after story of athletes who have transformed their bodies over a short period of time, those who have simply defied the aging process in an attempt to prolong a career and those whose careers have been tarnished because of drug use. The baseball investigations and the Mitchell Report of 2007 opened our eyes and gave us a glimpse of a secretive underground world. This "world" is much more intelligent and sophisticated than it is given credit for. It is the goal of this article to increase the awareness of the medical provider about the types of steroids and other medications used, the influence these substances have on the athletes, and how and why they use them.

  10. The Relationship between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The purposes of this study are (1) to provide descriptive information on drug testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and (2) to examine the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by…

  11. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

  12. Using a drug-word Stroop task to differentiate recreational from dependent drug use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dana G; Ersche, Karen D

    2014-06-01

    Distinguishing dependent from recreational drug use can be a surprisingly difficult task, and the current means for identifying substance abuse can be inadequate or even misleading. In subjective self-reports, those who are most at risk may down play their consumption, not admitting to the full extent of their habit, and measures purely of quantity of use rarely capture the true nature of an individual's relationship to the drug, such as a psychological dependence on the substance. This trend is particularly true for heavy stimulant use, which is absent of the physical withdrawal symptoms that can help identify opiate or alcohol dependence. As such, a simple objective measure to help identify substance abuse, particularly in individuals who might not otherwise raise suspicion, would be a valuable tool in both clinical and experimental settings. We propose that the drug-word Stroop task, an objective assessment of attentional bias and distraction to salient drug-related stimuli, would be a valuable tool in helping to make these categorizations. This measure has been shown to correlate with drug craving, as well as to successfully distinguish dependent from recreational stimulant users and to help to predict outcomes in treatment-seeking individuals. Here, we survey prior literature on the drug-word Stroop task and provide a perspective on using the assessment as a potential diagnostic for drug use severity.

  13. Urological complications of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, Sean C; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2014-03-01

    Illicit drug use is prevalent worldwide; over 24 million people are estimated to have used recreational drugs during the past month in the UK and USA alone. Illicit drug use can result in a wide spectrum of potential medical complications that include many urological manifestations. To ensure optimal care and treatment, urologists need to be cognizant of these complications in their patients, particularly among youths. Ketamine uropathy is thought to affect over one-quarter of ketamine users and can lead to severe lower urinary tract symptoms, as well as upper tract obstruction. Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, prostate cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumours in case-control studies. Fournier's gangrene has been reported following injection of heroin and cocaine into the penis. Excessive use of cough medicines can lead to the development of radiolucent stones composed of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin. As the current evidence is mostly limited to case reports and case series, future epidemiological studies are needed to fully address this issue. PMID:24535583

  14. The Effects of Social Contact on Drug Use: Behavioral Mechanisms Controlling Drug Intake

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The social environment plays a critical role in determining the likelihood that an individual will use drugs or will develop a drug use disorder. Recent evidence obtained from preclinical studies reveals that proximal social factors (i.e., those factors that are immediately present at the time of drug exposure) exert a particularly strong influence on both drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. These studies are advancing our understanding of the role of the social environment in drug use by showing that the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs depend on (1) whether other individuals are immediately present and (2) whether those individuals are also using drugs. Furthermore, the preclinical literature examining the role of social learning in behavior maintained by nondrug reinforcers reveals a number of behavioral mechanisms by which social contact may influence drug use, as well as potential ways the social environment may be modified to prevent or reduce drug use. Additional research is needed to determine potential age and sex differences in the effects of social contact on drug use, to determine the generality of the current findings across different pharmacological classes of drugs, and to determine the role of social contact on drug intake during different transitional stages of drug use disorders; however, enough evidence now exists to begin implementing social interventions in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:24188170

  15. Magnesium, a drug of diverse use.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mohammad Irfan; Ullah, Hameed; Hamid, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium has evolved as a drug with diverse clinical applications. Mg++ is an important caution and its homeostasis is very important for normal body functioning. The physiological role of Mg is due to its calcium channel blocking properties at smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and conduction system levels. The analgesic properties are due to NMDA receptor blocking action. Mg++ is beneficial in acute Myocardial Infarction, protection during open heart surgery and treatment and prevention of heart rhythm disturbances. Mg has an established role in the management of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Magnesium prevents or controls convulsions by blocking neuromuscular transmission and decreasing the release of acetylcholine at the motor nerve terminals. The use of MgSO4 in treating tetanus and acute asthma is established. In conclusion, Mg is a cost effective, widely used drug with multidisciplinary applications. Its majority of physiological effects are attributed to calcium channel blocking properties. PMID:22355971

  16. Patterns of Drug Use Among College Students. A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizner, George L.; And Others

    Initial data from a survey of drug usage among college students was presented. A large-scale effort was made to produce reliable figures on: (1) drug use patterns; (2) attitudes toward drug use; and (3) incidence of drug use among college students. Questionnaires were answered by 26,000 college students from the Denver-Boulder area, who were…

  17. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... current illegal use of drugs and who— (i) Has successfully completed a supervised drug rehabilitation... Rehabilitation Act to an individual on the basis of that individual's current illegal use of drugs, if the... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section...

  18. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  20. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  1. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  2. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  3. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  4. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.709 Retrospective drug use review. (a)...

  5. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug use review program. 456.703 Section 456.703... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a)...

  6. Drug Use Among the Young: As Teenagers See It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Elizabeth; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Reports responses of 205 students to a children's Bureau inquiry on teenage drug usage. Youth were asked how teenagers feel about use of various kinds of drugs, what makes some teenagers use drugs and keeps others from using them, and what adults should do about teenage drug usage. (NH)

  7. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  8. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence.

    PubMed

    Werb, Dan; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-07-21

    Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252). Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5%) individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4%) individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1%) individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine) use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach.

  9. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252). Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5%) individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4%) individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1%) individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine) use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach. PMID:19622171

  10. [Determinants of street drug use in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Angbo-Effi, Kachi Odile; Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Yao, Gnissan Henri Auguste; Douba, Alfred; Secki, Richmond; Kadjo, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to assess street drug use in an urban setting. The study was conducted in Abidjan city center (Adjamé). The general aim of the study was to contribute to the fight against street drug consumption by identifying the determinants of drug use. The objectives of this paper are to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of street drug users, to determine the type of drugs purchased, and to identify the factors influencing drug purchase. Based on a sample of 300 individuals, the study found that the use of street drugs is a widespread phenomenon, as shown by its prevalence in the surveyed population (216 individuals out of a total of 300, i.e. 72% of the surveyed population). The study found that most drug users were young, male (32%) and worked in the informal sector. More than half of the drug users (58%) had a monthly income below 50,000 CFA and had no health insurance. The low cost of drugs was found to be the main reason for drug use (69%). The most commonly used drugs were analgesics (75%), antimalarial drugs (72%) and antibiotics (48%). Because of the lack of medical knowledge of drug sellers, drug users are exposed to serious health risks. The results of this study suggest the need for greater public awareness of the dangers of street drugs and emphasize the importance of promoting access to essential generic drugs. PMID:22365044

  11. 42 CFR 456.703 - Drug use review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.703 Drug use review program. (a) General... outpatient drugs dispensed by a hospital using drug formulary systems and billed to the plan at no more...

  12. USING SEMANTIC PREDICATIONS TO UNCOVER DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN CLINICAL DATA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Cairelli, Michael J.; Fiszman, Marcelo; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we report on potential drug-drug interactions between drugs occurring in patient clinical data. Results are based on relationships in SemMedDB, a database of structured knowledge extracted from all MEDLINE citations (titles and abstracts) using SemRep. The core of our methodology is to construct two potential drug-drug interaction schemas, based on relationships extracted from SemMedDB. In the first schema, Drug1 and Drug2 interact through Drug1’s effect on some gene, which in turn affects Drug2. In the second, Drug1 affects Gene1, while Drug2 affects Gene2. Gene1 and Gene2, together, then have an effect on some biological function. After checking each drug pair from the medication lists of each of 22 patients, we found 19 known and 62 unknown drug-drug interactions using both schemas. For example, our results suggest that the interaction of Lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor commonly prescribed for hypertension, and the antidepressant sertraline can potentially increase the likelihood and possibly the severity of psoriasis. We also assessed the relationships extracted by SemRep from a linguistic perspective and found that the precision of SemRep was 0.58 for 300 randomly selected sentences from MEDLINE. Our study demonstrates that the use of structured knowledge in the form of relationships from the biomedical literature can support the discovery of potential drug-drug interactions occurring in patient clinical data. Moreover, SemMedDB provides a good knowledge resource for expanding the range of drugs, genes, and biological functions considered as elements in various drug-drug interaction pathways. PMID:24448204

  13. The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Drug Users and Religion on Drug Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Joon; Johnson, Byron R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research finds drug-using peers and religiosity to be key predictors of drug use among youth, but the effects of childhood exposure to drug users and religion on later drug use have been understudied. The authors hypothesize a child's exposure to parental drug use and religious upbringing have a causal influence on drug use in youth…

  14. Timing of alcohol and other drug use.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    Many Americans who drink alcohol are polydrug users--that is, they also use other psychoactive drugs, such as nicotine, pharmaceuticals, cannabis, and other illicit substances. Polydrug use is a general term that describes a wide variety of substance use behaviors. Different types of polydrug use can be described with regard to the timing of the ingestion of multiple substances. Concurrent polydrug use (CPU) is the use of two or more substances within a given time period, such as a month or a year. Simultaneous polydrug use (SPU) is the use of two or more substances in combination (i.e., at the same time or in temporal proximity) (Grant and Harford 1990a). Thus, although all simultaneous polydrug users are, by definition, concurrent users, concurrent users may or may not be simultaneous users. This article describes the functions of SPU for substance users, as well as the measurement, prevalence, patterns, and consequences of SPU. PMID:23584811

  15. Predictors of Illicit Drug/s Use Among University Students in Northern Ireland, Wales and England

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Walid El; Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Stock, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of illicit drug/s among university students is a public health concern. Nevertheless, many UK studies investigated a narrow spectrum of variables to explore their association/s with illicit drug/s use. Methods: We assessed the associations between a wide range of socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and having used illicit drug/s regularly, occasionally or never in life (dependent variables). Data (3706 students) were collected from seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: About 5% of the sample had regularly used illicit drug/s, 25% occasionally, and 70% never. Regular drug use (RDU) was significantly more likely among males aged 21-29 years, daily smokers, those with heavy episodic drinking or possible alcohol dependency (CAGE test), and those who perceived their academic performance better than their peers. RDU was less likely among students with high health awareness and those living with parents. The predictors of occasional drug use (ODU) were similar to those of RDU. However, in addition, students with higher perceived stress were less likely, and students who felt financial burden/s were more likely to report ODU, while no association with academic performance was found. Never use of illicit drug/s was inversely associated with most of the variables listed above, and was positively associated with religiosity. Illicit drug/s use goes along with other substance use (alcohol and smoking). The finding that illicit drug/s use was higher among students reporting good academic performance was surprising and raises the question of whether illicit drug/s may be used as performance enhancing drugs. Conclusion: The factors identified with illicit drug/s use in this study could be utilized to develop appropriate public health policies and preventive measures for the health of students. Multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic

  16. A weighted and integrated drug-target interactome: drug repurposing for schizophrenia as a use case

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational pharmacology can uniquely address some issues in the process of drug development by providing a macroscopic view and a deeper understanding of drug action. Specifically, network-assisted approach is promising for the inference of drug repurposing. However, the drug-target associations coming from different sources and various assays have much noise, leading to an inflation of the inference errors. To reduce the inference errors, it is necessary and critical to create a comprehensive and weighted data set of drug-target associations. Results In this study, we created a weighted and integrated drug-target interactome (WinDTome) to provide a comprehensive resource of drug-target associations for computational pharmacology. We first collected drug-target interactions from six commonly used drug-target centered data sources including DrugBank, KEGG, TTD, MATADOR, PDSP Ki Database, and BindingDB. Then, we employed the record linkage method to normalize drugs and targets to the unique identifiers by utilizing the public data sources including PubChem, Entrez Gene, and UniProt. To assess the reliability of the drug-target associations, we assigned two scores (Score_S and Score_R) to each drug-target association based on their data sources and publication references. Consequently, the WinDTome contains 546,196 drug-target associations among 303,018 compounds and 4,113 genes. To assess the application of the WinDTome, we designed a network-based approach for drug repurposing using mental disorder schizophrenia (SCZ) as a case. Starting from 41 known SCZ drugs and their targets, we inferred a total of 264 potential SCZ drugs through the associations of drug-target with Score_S higher than two in WinDTome and human protein-protein interactions. Among the 264 SCZ-related drugs, 39 drugs have been investigated in clinical trials for SCZ treatment and 74 drugs for the treatment of other mental disorders, respectively. Compared with the results using other

  17. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  18. Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of 'use'?

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Ramasamy, Anand; Sen, Sumalya; Mondal, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), described as a classical hallucinogen, began its journey from the middle of the last century following an accidental discovery. Since then, it was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its beneficial role as an adjunct to psychotherapy was much unknown, until some 'benevolent' experiments were carried out over time to explore some of its potential uses. But, many of its effects were unclear and seemed to be a psychedelic enigma. In this review article, we have described the receptor pharmacology, mechanism of action, effects and adverse effects of LSD on the normal body system. We have also highlighted its addictive potentials and the chances of developing tolerance. We have assimilated some of the interesting therapeutic uses of this drug, such as an antianxiety agent, a creativity enhancer, a suggestibility enhancer, and a performance enhancer. We have also described LSD to be successfully used in drug and alcohol dependence, and as a part of psychedelic peak therapy in terminally ill patients. The relevant chronological history and literature in the light of present knowledge and scenarios have been discussed. Based on available evidence, LSD could be tried therapeutically in certain specific conditions under controlled settings. But as we mention, due to all the safety concerns, the use of this nonaddictive 'entheogen' in actual practice warrants a lot of expertise, caution, cooperation and ethical considerations. PMID:27354909

  19. Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of 'use'?

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Ramasamy, Anand; Sen, Sumalya; Mondal, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), described as a classical hallucinogen, began its journey from the middle of the last century following an accidental discovery. Since then, it was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its beneficial role as an adjunct to psychotherapy was much unknown, until some 'benevolent' experiments were carried out over time to explore some of its potential uses. But, many of its effects were unclear and seemed to be a psychedelic enigma. In this review article, we have described the receptor pharmacology, mechanism of action, effects and adverse effects of LSD on the normal body system. We have also highlighted its addictive potentials and the chances of developing tolerance. We have assimilated some of the interesting therapeutic uses of this drug, such as an antianxiety agent, a creativity enhancer, a suggestibility enhancer, and a performance enhancer. We have also described LSD to be successfully used in drug and alcohol dependence, and as a part of psychedelic peak therapy in terminally ill patients. The relevant chronological history and literature in the light of present knowledge and scenarios have been discussed. Based on available evidence, LSD could be tried therapeutically in certain specific conditions under controlled settings. But as we mention, due to all the safety concerns, the use of this nonaddictive 'entheogen' in actual practice warrants a lot of expertise, caution, cooperation and ethical considerations.

  20. [Drugs used to treat nicotine addiction].

    PubMed

    Zieleń, Iwona; Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking in Poland is fairly widespread on a large scale. Research suggests that the early twenty-first century, the percentage of female daily smokers aged 20 and above was 26%, and men the same age 43%. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown that smoking was the cause of approximately sixty-nine thousand deaths in Poland (including fifty-seven thousand men and twelve thousand women). It is common ground that cigarette smoking has a negative effect on our body. It represents one of the main and most commonly defined risk factors for many diseases that can be eliminated. Smoking often leads to addiction, and nicotine is an addictive drug. Nicotine addiction is characterized by symptoms such as: "hunger" smoking, difficulty in controlling behavior on smoking or the number of cigarettes smoked, nicotine withdrawal, the occurrence of tolerance, neglect of interests, as well as devoting more time on activities related to smoking, follow-up smoking despite knowledge of its dangers. The most commonly used in Poland, a questionnaire to identify nicotine dependence is a test Fagerstöma. Currently assigned some importance, "the doctor a conversation the patient" and motivating him to stop smoking and maintain abstinence as long as possible. But beyond the "conversation" is also used as an aid to medical treatment for the patient to stop smoking, especially to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. The first attempts of pharmacological help in the effort to weaning from smoking began in the thirties. Were conducted fairly successful, although uncontrolled trials with lobeline, an alkaloid of action similar to nicotine. In Poland, the drugs of first choice in the treatment of nicotine dependence are nicotine replacement therapies (nicotine gum and patches that contain nicotine) and bupropion SR. Quite a popular drugs to help in the fight against addiction are also cytisine and varenicline. The choice of the drug is usually the result of medical experience in the use

  1. Rational use of generic psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-05-01

    individual patients since the pharmacokinetic properties of each generic may differ from the innovator drug in opposing directions. Ideally, therapeutic equivalence studies in addition to pharmacokinetic equivalence studies would be performed for each generic, reflecting the full variability of clinical responses due to changes of pharmacokinetic properties related to age, sex, ethnicity, genetic factors, and body mass index. This is particularly relevant, as bioequivalence studies are based on single-dose studies in healthy controls who are likely not representative of the patients who are prescribed the psychotropic medications. Additionally, individual case reports suggest potential clinical effects during brand-generic switches. Knowledge and consideration of intra-individual variations can help guide the clinical management during brand-generic or generic-generic switch periods. To optimize outcomes, clinicians need to consider that when using generic psychotropic medications, a change in the patient's clinical status can be related to psychological, interactional, physiological, and pharmacological factors that may or may not be related to the change to a generic drug. In addition, throughout all treatment periods, clinicians need to be aware of the currently dispensed product (i.e., branded or exact generic formulation), particularly when evaluating clinical changes in efficacy, tolerability, and adherence. If clinical problems occur, the first response should be an assessment of adherence and a careful dose adjustments of the generic drug rather than an immediate switch back to the originator.

  2. Assembling the dominant accounts of youth drug use in Australian harm reduction drug education.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    Education programs are a central element of Australian harm reduction drug policy. Considered less judgmental and more effective than the punitive policies of Australia's past, harm reduction drug education is premised on the goal of reducing 'risks' and harms associated with illicit drug use rather than an elimination of use per se. In this article I analyse two sets of key texts designed to reduce drug related harm in Australia: harm reduction teaching resources designed for classroom use and social marketing campaigns that are targeted to a more general audience. I identify two significant accounts of young people's drug use present in Australian harm reduction drug education: 'damaged mental health' and 'distress'. I then draw on some of Deleuze and Guattari's key concepts to consider the harm reducing potential these accounts may have for young people's drug using experiences. To demonstrate the potential limitations of current drug education, I refer to an established body of work examining young people's experiences of chroming. From here, I argue that the accounts of 'damaged mental health' and 'distress' may work to limit the capacity of young drug users to practice safer drug use. In sum, current Australian harm reduction drug education and social marketing may be producing rather than reducing drug related harm.

  3. Local arterial wall drug delivery using balloon catheter system.

    PubMed

    Tesfamariam, Belay

    2016-09-28

    Balloon-based drug delivery systems allow localized application of drugs to a vascular segment to reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Drugs are coated onto balloons using excipients as drug carriers to facilitate adherence and release of drug during balloon inflation. Drug-coated balloon delivery system is characterized by a rapid drug transfer that achieves high drug concentration along the vessel wall surface, intended to correspond to the balloon dilation-induced vascular injury and healing processes. The balloon catheter system allows homogenous drug delivery to the vessel wall, such that the drug release per unit surface area is kept constant along balloons of different lengths. Optimization of the balloon coating matrix is essential for efficient drug transfer and tissue retention until the artery remodels to a normal set point. Challenges in the development of balloon-based drug delivery to the arterial wall include finding suitable excipients for drug formulation to enable drug release to a targeted lesion site effectively, maintain coating integrity during transit, prolong tissue retention and reduce particulate generation. This review highlights various factors involved in the successful design of balloon-based delivery systems, including drug release kinetics, matrix coating transfer, transmural drug partitioning, dissolution rate and release of unbound active drug. PMID:27473765

  4. Low prosocial attachment, involvement with drug-using peers, and adolescent drug use: a longitudinal examination of mediational mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kimberly L

    2008-06-01

    The process of disengagement from prosocial entities (e.g., family and school) and either simultaneous or subsequent engagement with antisocial entities (e.g., friends who use drugs) is a critical contributor to adolescent drug use and delinquency. This study provides a series of formal mediation tests to demonstrate the relationship between poor family attachment, poor school attachment, involvement with friends who use drugs, and a student's own use of drugs. Results indicate that poor family attachment exerts its effect on drug use through poor school attachment and involvement with friends who use drugs. In addition, poor school attachment exerts its effect on drug use through involvement with friends who use drugs. The results of this study corroborate theories that suggest disengagement from prosocial entities is associated with involvement with antisocial entities and eventual involvement in drug use. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed.

  5. Unemployment, Drug Use, and HIV Risk among American Indian and Alaska Native Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Grace L.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Estrada, Antonio L.; Trotter, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Study and 6-month followup of 3,622 drug users in Tucson, Flagstaff, and Anchorage found that American Indian and Alaska Native drug users were younger, less educated, and less likely to be employed than non-Native subjects. Individuals employed at intake or followup had lower levels of HIV risk factors: injection drug use and needle sharing.…

  6. Patterns of Drug Use in Fatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Pollini, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize drug prevalence among fatally injured drivers, identify significant associations (i.e., day of week, time of day, age, gender), and compare findings with those for alcohol. Design Descriptive and logistic mixed-model regression analyses of Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Setting U.S. states with drug test results for >80% of fatally injured drivers, 1998-2010. Participants Drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes on public roads who died at the scene of the crash (N=16,942). Measurements Drug test results, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gender, age, and day and time of crash. Findings Overall, 45.1% of fatally injured drivers tested positive for alcohol (39.9% BAC>0.08) and 25.9% for drugs. The most common drugs present were stimulants (7.2%) and cannabinols (7.1%), followed by “other” drugs (4.1%), multiple drugs (4.1%), narcotics (2.1%), and depressants (1.5%). Drug-involved crashes occurred with relative uniformity throughout the day while alcohol-involved crashes were more common at night (p<.01). The odds of testing positive for drugs varied depending upon drug class, driver characteristics, time of day, and the presence of alcohol. Conclusions Fatal single vehicle crashes involving drugs are less common than those involving alcohol and the characteristics of drug-involved crashes differ depending upon drug class and whether alcohol is present. Concerns about drug-impaired driving should not detract from the current law enforcement focus on alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:23600629

  7. Alcohol and Drug Use among "Street" Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirnan, David J.; Johnson, Tina

    Although adolescent alcohol and drug use is decreasing, many teenagers continue to use alcohol and drugs. Studies of adolescent alcohol use typically sample intact high school populations, excluding dropouts and adolescents alienated from straight high school populations. Alcohol and drug use and alcohol related attitudes were measured in 62…

  8. Highlights from Student Drug Use in America 1975-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This report presents findings from a national survey of the 1975-80 high school classes, focusing on drug use and related attitudes of American high school seniors. The materials highlight data on grade of first use, usage trends at earlier grade levels, intensity of drug use, attitudes and beliefs about various types of drug use, and students'…

  9. Sequence of onset of different drug use among opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Navaratnam, V; Foong, K

    1989-01-01

    The temporal sequence of drug use should reveal which drugs are precursors to heroin and which drugs are used subsequent to the establishment of heroin addiction as adjunctive drugs. This temporal sequence was examined in an epidemiological study. Out of 249 opiate addicts interviewed in the area of Penang, Malaysia, this sequence of drugs could be obtained in 248 cases. The mean (median) age for first use of nicotine is 15.5 (15) years, alcohol 18.4 (18) years, cannabis 17.8 (17) years, heroin 21.8 (21) years, opium 22.8 (22) years, and benzodiazepines 25.8 (25) years. The age of first use of different drug types is presented in some detail. The patterns of sequence of drug use was analyzed for the five major and most frequently reported drugs, i.e. alcohol, cannabis, heroin, opium and benzodiazepines. Nicotine, used as first drug in almost all cases, was omitted in this analysis. A clear trend to multiple drug abuse emerges from this analysis; the biggest number of cases were users of 4 drugs (81 cases), followed by 3 drugs (59 cases) and 5 drugs (58 cases). Thus, nicotine, alcohol and cannabis are precursors of heroin addiction. Other adjunctive drugs become important only after heroin addiction. Among these substances, opium and benzodiazepines are numerically preponderant.

  10. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  11. Peer influence and drug use among adolescents in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, B E; Kingery, P M; Mirzaee, E; Heuberger, G; Hurley, R S

    1991-01-01

    A sample of 1,004 eighth and tenth grade students in twenty-three small Central/East Texas communities was assessed to determine 1) their perception of the number of their friends who use drugs, 2) the amount of information they received about drugs from their friends, and 3) the connection between those perceptions and drug use. A multiple regression model which included grade, gender, the degree to which friends are perceived to use drugs and the amount of information about drugs received from friends explained 39 percent of the variance in the degree to which rural adolescents were involved in drug use. An item specific analysis of the subcomponents of these composite variables explained 44 percent of the variance in the degree to which rural adolescents were involved in drug use. This same four-factor model accurately classified over 81 percent of non-drug-users and 67 percent of users using discriminant analysis. Students who perceived a higher degree of drug use among their friends and who received more information about drugs from their friends used drugs more frequently. Lower marijuana use in these rural areas as compared to the nation, both as a peer perception and as a fact, may protect these students to a degree from broader patterns of drug use. The findings of this study support the theory that peer pressure is related to drug abuse, even in rural areas.

  12. Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Email ... with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Many people are unaware that the increased risk ...

  13. Student Drug Use and Driving: A University Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to examine drug use by university students and to identify significant associations among biographical, drug use, and driving variables. Results are presented, and conclusions are drawn. (MT)

  14. Imaging and drug delivery using theranostic nanoparticles☆

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle technologies are significantly impacting the development of both therapeutic and diagnostic agents. At the intersection between treatment and diagnosis, interest has grown in combining both paradigms into clinically effective formulations. This concept, recently coined as theranostics, is highly relevant to agents that target molecular biomarkers of disease and is expected to contribute to personalized medicine. Here we review state-of-the-art nanoparticles from a therapeutic and a diagnostic perspective and discuss challenges in bringing these fields together. Major classes of nanoparticles include, drug conjugates and complexes, dendrimers, vesicles, micelles, core–shell particles, microbubbles, and carbon nanotubes. Most of these formulations have been described as carriers of either drugs or contrast agents. To observe these formulations and their interactions with disease, a variety of contrast agents have been used, including optically active small molecules, metals and metal oxides, ultrasonic contrast agents, and radionuclides. The opportunity to rapidly assess and adjust treatment to the needs of the individual offers potential advantages that will spur the development of theranostic agents. PMID:20709124

  15. The Variation in Arrestees' Disclosure of Recent Drug Use Across Locations, Drugs, and Demographic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Liberty, Hilary James; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive multivariate analysis of drug use disclosure among arrestees interviewed between 2000 and 2001 at 37 sites across the U.S. served by the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program. Rates varied widely by drug and across sites. The marijuana disclosure rate varied from 68% in Fort Lauderdale to 93% in Spokane. The cocaine/crack disclosure rate varied from 28% in Chicago to 70% in Kansas City. Moreover, covariates of disclosure differed across drugs. This wide variation in disclosure suggests extreme caution be used when comparing self-reports of prevalence across drugs, locations, and individual characteristics – certainly at least for arrestees. PMID:18852842

  16. Drug-drug Interaction Discovery Using Abstraction Networks for “National Drug File – Reference Terminology” Chemical Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Christopher; Zheng, Ling; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Zakharchenko, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The National Drug File – Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology. NDF-RT provides important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles. It is difficult to comprehend large, complex terminologies like NDF-RT. In previous studies, we introduced abstraction networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies. In this paper, we introduce the Ingredient Abstraction Network to summarize NDF-RT’s Chemical Ingredients and their associated drugs. Additionally, we introduce the Aggregate Ingredient Abstraction Network, for controlling the granularity of summarization provided by the Ingredient Abstraction Network. The Ingredient Abstraction Network is used to support the discovery of new candidate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) not appearing in First Databank, Inc.’s DDI knowledgebase. PMID:26958234

  17. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  18. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  19. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  20. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  1. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  2. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  3. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  4. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  5. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  6. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  7. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  8. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  9. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  10. Job Mobility and Drug Use: An Event History Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of 1,325 young adults aged 24 to 25, to investigate the relationship between patterns of drug use and job separations. The relationships observed between job mobility and drug use support the general hypothesis that drug use predicts job turnover and decreased tenure on the job. (JDH)

  11. Drugs and Sex. The Nonmedical Use of Drugs and Sexual Behavior. National Institute on Drugs Research Issues 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report represents the second in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews some of the major research findings which explore the relationship between nonmedical drug use and sexual behavior. The research is summarized and…

  12. Early-onset drug use and risk for drug dependence problems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Storr, Carla L.; Anthony, James C.

    2009-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis dependence problems surface more quickly when use of these drugs starts before adulthood, but the evidence based on other internationally regulated drugs (e.g., cocaine) is meager. With focus on an interval of up to 24 months following first drug use, we examine drug-specific and age-specific variation in profiles of early-emerging clinical features associated with drug dependence. Based upon the United States National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted in 2000–2002, the risk of experiencing drug dependence problems was robustly greater for adolescent recent-onset users of cocaine, psychostimulant drugs other than cocaine, analgesics, anxiolytic medicines, inhalants drugs, and cannabis, as compared to adult recent-onset users (odds ratio=1.5~4.3, p<0.05). This was not the case for the NSDUH hallucinogens group (e.g., LSD). The adolescent onset associated excess risk was not constant across all clinical features. Our evidence suggests promoting earlier detection and interventions, as well as greater parent and peer awareness of drug dependence clinical features that may develop early among young people who have just started using drugs. PMID:19022584

  13. Drug Delivery Systems and Combination Therapy by Using Vinca Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Huang, Yen-Wei; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing new methods for chemotherapy drug delivery has become a topic of great concern. Vinca alkaloids are among the most widely used chemotherapy reagents for tumor therapy; however, their side effects are particularly problematic for many medical doctors. To reduce the toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficiency of vinca alkaloids, many researchers have developed strategies such as using liposome-entrapped drugs, chemical- or peptide-modified drugs, polymeric packaging drugs, and chemotherapy drug combinations. This review mainly focuses on the development of a vinca alkaloid drug delivery system and the combination therapy. Five vinca alkaloids (eg, vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vindesine, and vinflunine) are reviewed. PMID:25877096

  14. Drug use in the high intensity drug trafficking area of the US Southwest border.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L D; Kennedy, N J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use in the Southwest border region of the United States. Based on the seriousness of drug trafficking in the area, the Southwest border has been designated a "High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area." Yet there is little quantitative data on the nature and magnitude of drug use in the Southwest border region. This paper examines the prevalence of drug use in the area by extracting data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. The data show that drug use rates in the Southwest border area are very similar to those found throughout the remainder of the United States. Hispanics, who constitute about 41% of the Southwest border population, have lower prevalence rates for most classes of drugs than non-Hispanics. The border Hispanics exhibit even lower prevalence rates than Hispanics in the remainder of the United States. However, many of these differences are attributable to the lower levels of drug use among women, and youth and older adults. As these demographic subgroups become increasingly acculturated, their drug use could come to more closely resemble that of their peers in the remainder of the United States.

  15. FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159779.html FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug Differin Gel 0.1% is first retinoid ... July 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Good news for acne sufferers: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has ...

  16. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products...

  17. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products...

  18. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products...

  19. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products...

  20. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products...

  1. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  2. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall...

  3. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  4. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  5. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  6. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  7. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  8. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall...

  9. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  10. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  11. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall...

  12. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  13. Stage of Alcohol and Drug Use among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined stages of drug habit acquisition and change among college students, basing the proposed stages of drug use on the Multi-Component Motivational Stages prevention model. Surveys indicated the model helped explain the stages of substance use. The proportion of youths at each stage differed by type of drug. (SM)

  14. Prevalence and determinants of resistance to use drugs among adolescents who had an opportunity to use drugs*

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Neumark, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Background As drugs remain ubiquitous and their use increasingly viewed as socially normative, vulnerable population groups such as adolescents face continued and growing risk. A better understanding of the factors that discourage individuals from initiating drug use, particularly in enabling scenarios, is therefore needed. This study aims to identify individual, interpersonal and school-contextual factors associated with resistance to using drugs in the presence of a drug use opportunity among adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods Data are analyzed from 724 school-attending adolescents (15.1 years, SD=1.3) who have had an opportunity to use drugs. Schools were selected in a multistage probability cluster sample. Random intercept multilevel logistic regression models were implemented to estimate the effect of individual, interpersonal and school-contextual level variables on the likelihood of resisting using drugs. Results Drug use resistance was observed in less than half (41.4%) of those students who experienced an opportunity to use drugs. Drug use resistance was strongly associated with having experienced a passive drug use opportunity (AOR=3.1, 95%CI=2.0, 4.9), the number of drugs offered (AOR=0.7, 95% CI=0.6, 0.8) and family factors such as not having a drug-using first-degree relative (AOR=2.3, 95%CI=1.2, 4.3) and a high degree of parental supervision (AOR=1.9, 95%CI=1.0, 3.2). Conclusions A large proportion of students who experienced a drug-use opportunity did not initiate drug use despite living in a context of high drug availability and social disorganization. The findings highlight the need for effective family-based drug use prevention interventions within the Colombian context. PMID:25659896

  15. Punishing parents: child removal in the context of drug use.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    New amendments to child welfare policy in New South Wales turn a spotlight on parents who use drugs and raise concerns about adequate provision of services for families facing issues with alcohol and other drug use. Sections of the new legislation are explicitly focused on parents who use illicit drugs, expanding the reach of child protection services over expectant parents during pregnancy. This targeting of women who are 'addicted' highlights the ambiguous scientific and moral attention to drug use in pregnancy. It also raises practical questions about the potential for the legislation to increase stigma towards drug use and disproportionately affect vulnerable and disadvantaged families.

  16. Epidemiology of DSM-5 Drug Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Bridget F.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Ruan, W. June; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Smith, Sharon M.; Pickering, Roger P.; Huang, Boji; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Current information on the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical profiles of individuals in the general population with DSM-5 drug use disorder (DUD) is limited. Given the present societal and economic context in the United States and the new diagnostic system, up-to-date national information is needed from a single uniform data source. OBJECTIVE To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 DUD diagnoses overall and by severity level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In-person interviews were conducted with 36 309 adults in the 2012–2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III, a cross-sectional representative survey of the United States. The household response rate was 72%; person-level response rate, 84%; and overall response rate, 60.1%. Data were collected April 2012 through June 2013 and analyzed from February through March 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Twelve-month and lifetime DUD, based on amphetamine, cannabis, club drug, cocaine, hallucinogen, heroin, nonheroin opioid, sedative/tranquilizer, and/or solvent/inhalant use disorders. RESULTS Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime DUD were 3.9% and 9.9%, respectively. Drug use disorder was generally greater among men, white and Native American individuals, younger and previously or never married adults, those with lower education and income, and those residing in the West. Significant associations were found between 12-month and lifetime DUD and other substance use disorders. Significant associations were also found between any 12-month DUD and major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.09–1.64), dysthymia (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09–2.02), bipolar I (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.06–2.05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.27–2.10), and antisocial (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.11–1.75), borderline (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.41–2.24), and schizotypal (OR, 1

  17. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B

    2012-01-01

    One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs.

  18. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  19. Do national medicinal drug policies and essential drug programs improve drug use?: a review of experiences in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ratanawijitrasin, S; Soumerai, S B; Weerasuriya, K

    2001-10-01

    Increasing concerns regarding access to and appropriateness of medicinal drug use have led many governments in developing countries to develop national policies and regulations intended to increase the affordability, supply, safety, and rational use of pharmaceuticals. However, little is known about the intended and unintended impacts of these social experiments on actual drug use. We conducted a critical review and synthesis of the international literature in an attempt to define the current state of knowledge regarding drug policy effects on drug use, and to extract from the evidence important lessons for future policy and research. Literature sources included the archives and computerized databases, articles published in medical and pharmacy journals, as well as published annotated bibliographies. The evaluated interventions included three broad categories: (1) multi-component national drug policies including essential drug programs; (2) drug supply and cost-sharing programs; and (3) regulatory measures. Most of these studies utilized weak research designs that evaluated programs solely on the basis of post-intervention measures. Only two studies measured pre-policy utilization, but did not include a control group. Thus, none of the results are conclusive, and the findings represent, at best, hypotheses for more rigorous studies of policy impacts. Some suggestive findings include an association between increases in the supply of essential drugs (combined with training) and more appropriate use of medications in primary care settings. In addition, preliminary data suggest some unintended effects of de-registration of drugs or upward reclassification of specific medicines. Similarly, loosening restrictions have sometimes been accompanied by increased dispensing of specific drugs by unqualified personnel. The available studies focused only on a few categories of national and regulatory policies. Because of poor study design, the results do not provide valid data to

  20. The role of serotonin in drug use and addiction.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian P; Homberg, Judith R

    2015-01-15

    The use of psychoactive drugs is a wide spread behaviour in human societies. The systematic use of a drug requires the establishment of different drug use-associated behaviours which need to be learned and controlled. However, controlled drug use may develop into compulsive drug use and addiction, a major psychiatric disorder with severe consequences for the individual and society. Here we review the role of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the establishment of drug use-associated behaviours on the one hand and the transition and maintenance of addiction on the other hand for the drugs: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), morphine/heroin, cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine. Results show a crucial, but distinct involvement of the 5-HT system in both processes with considerable overlap between psychostimulant and opioidergic drugs and alcohol. A new functional model suggests specific adaptations in the 5-HT system, which coincide with the establishment of controlled drug use-associated behaviours. These serotonergic adaptations render the nervous system susceptible to the transition to compulsive drug use behaviours and often overlap with genetic risk factors for addiction. Altogether we suggest a new trajectory by which serotonergic neuroadaptations induced by first drug exposure pave the way for the establishment of addiction.

  1. The role of serotonin in drug use and addiction.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian P; Homberg, Judith R

    2015-01-15

    The use of psychoactive drugs is a wide spread behaviour in human societies. The systematic use of a drug requires the establishment of different drug use-associated behaviours which need to be learned and controlled. However, controlled drug use may develop into compulsive drug use and addiction, a major psychiatric disorder with severe consequences for the individual and society. Here we review the role of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the establishment of drug use-associated behaviours on the one hand and the transition and maintenance of addiction on the other hand for the drugs: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), morphine/heroin, cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine. Results show a crucial, but distinct involvement of the 5-HT system in both processes with considerable overlap between psychostimulant and opioidergic drugs and alcohol. A new functional model suggests specific adaptations in the 5-HT system, which coincide with the establishment of controlled drug use-associated behaviours. These serotonergic adaptations render the nervous system susceptible to the transition to compulsive drug use behaviours and often overlap with genetic risk factors for addiction. Altogether we suggest a new trajectory by which serotonergic neuroadaptations induced by first drug exposure pave the way for the establishment of addiction. PMID:24769172

  2. Interdisciplinary Team Review of Psychotropic Drug Use in Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore A.; Walsh, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    This response to a description of a psychotropic drug review process, TAPER, suggests that the data supporting the reported low rate and dosage level of psychotropic drug use resulting from the process were misleading and inaccurate. Implications of such a drug review process for facilities serving people with developmental disabilities are drawn.…

  3. 14 CFR 120.33 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of...

  4. Pharmacogenomic study using bio- and nanobioelectrochemistry: Drug-DNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    Small molecules that bind genomic DNA have proven that they can be effective anticancer, antibiotic and antiviral therapeutic agents that affect the well-being of millions of people worldwide. Drug-DNA interaction affects DNA replication and division; causes strand breaks, and mutations. Therefore, the investigation of drug-DNA interaction is needed to understand the mechanism of drug action as well as in designing DNA-targeted drugs. On the other hand, the interaction between DNA and drugs can cause chemical and conformational modifications and, thus, variation of the electrochemical properties of nucleobases. For this purpose, electrochemical methods/biosensors can be used toward detection of drug-DNA interactions. The present paper reviews the drug-DNA interactions, their types and applications of electrochemical techniques used to study interactions between DNA and drugs or small ligand molecules that are potentially of pharmaceutical interest. The results are used to determine drug binding sites and sequence preference, as well as conformational changes due to drug-DNA interactions. Also, the intention of this review is to give an overview of the present state of the drug-DNA interaction cognition. The applications of electrochemical techniques for investigation of drug-DNA interaction were reviewed and we have discussed the type of qualitative or quantitative information that can be obtained from the use of each technique.

  5. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  6. 14 CFR 120.33 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of...

  7. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  8. 14 CFR 120.33 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of...

  9. What You Can Do about Drug Use in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This guide, part of the Drug-Free Communities Series, is a comprehensive overview of drug use and what can be done about it. It is directed toward individuals, specifically toward parents, asserting that change in the community needs to be reinforced by change at home. Information about alcohol and other drugs, their physiological effects, and how…

  10. An Endangered Generation: Impact of Perinatal Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melanie M.

    This article reviews some of the literature on educational approaches for drug-exposed children. Common effects of prenatal and perinatal drug use on the female user, the developing fetus, and the neonate are reviewed. It is noted that female drug users have an increased incidence of medical complications during pregnancy; that the specific…

  11. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... directly or by contract, any air traffic control function while that individual has a prohibited drug, as...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall...

  12. The Changing Face of Recreational Drug Use.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Our author writes that recent data from the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime indicate that 540 different drugs classified as new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been identified worldwide as of 2014, and this number is expected to rise. His article describes the complexity of the NPS problem, what is known about the molecular mechanisms of action, and the pharmacological effects of NPS. It also highlights some of the considerable challenges in dealing with this emerging issue. PMID:27408674

  13. Social background and attitudes towards drugs as predictors of drug use among Malaysian students.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V

    1980-06-01

    Those Malaysian secondary schoolchildren who have ever used an illicit drug do not differ significantly in terms of social class background, ethnicity or rural/urban location, from the majority of their contemporaries who have not used drugs. The cross-sectional data show a rapid secular trend towards the sexes being equally involved in drug use. Significant differences between ever and never users are, however, found in their attitudes towards drug taking and their beliefs about the properties of drugs, although both groups share the same rather negative image of the typical drug user. Thus, drug users have accepted some of the attitudes towards drug issues which are normative in the non-user group, whilst developing other attitudes which are consistent with their continuing use. It is argued that adolescent drug abuse in Malaysia is not to be linked specifically with social deprivation, but should be seen as being part of the life style of particular groups in all strata of society.

  14. Solid state drug-polymer miscibility studies using the model drug ABT-102.

    PubMed

    Jog, Rajan; Gokhale, Rajeev; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-07-25

    Amorphous solid dispersions typically suffer storage stability issues due to: their amorphous nature, high drug loading, uneven drug:stabilizer ratio and plasticization effects as a result of hygroscopic excipients. An extensive solid state miscibility study was conducted to aid in understanding the mechanisms involved in drug/stabilizer interactions. ABT-102 (model drug) and nine different polymers with different molecular weights and viscosities were selected to investigate drug/polymer miscibility. Three different polymer:drug ratios (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1, w/w) were analyzed using: DSC, FTIR and PXRD. Three different techniques were used to prepare the amorphous solid dispersions: serial dilution, solvent evaporation and spray drying. Spray drying was the best method to obtain amorphous solid dispersions. However, under certain conditions amorphous formulations could be obtained using solvent evaporation. Melting point depression was used to calculate interaction parameters and free energy of mixing for the various drug polymer mixtures. The spray dried solid dispersions yielded a negative free energy of mixing which indicated strong drug-polymer miscibility compared to the solvent evaporation and serial dilution method. Soluplus was the best stabilizer compared to PVP and HPMC, which is probably a consequence of strong hydrogen bonding between the two CO moieties of soluplus and the drug NH moieities.

  15. Social background and attitudes towards drugs as predictors of drug use among Malaysian students.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V

    1980-06-01

    Those Malaysian secondary schoolchildren who have ever used an illicit drug do not differ significantly in terms of social class background, ethnicity or rural/urban location, from the majority of their contemporaries who have not used drugs. The cross-sectional data show a rapid secular trend towards the sexes being equally involved in drug use. Significant differences between ever and never users are, however, found in their attitudes towards drug taking and their beliefs about the properties of drugs, although both groups share the same rather negative image of the typical drug user. Thus, drug users have accepted some of the attitudes towards drug issues which are normative in the non-user group, whilst developing other attitudes which are consistent with their continuing use. It is argued that adolescent drug abuse in Malaysia is not to be linked specifically with social deprivation, but should be seen as being part of the life style of particular groups in all strata of society. PMID:7379697

  16. [Are there any sex/gender differences in drug use and drug addiction?].

    PubMed

    Mendrek, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    Drug use and drug addiction have been traditionally considered to be a male problem, however the gender gap has been decreasing over the past few decades. Thus, while the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and nicotine dependence is still overall greater among men than among women, sex/gender differences in the abuse of stimulants and opiates seem to have disappeared. Moreover, women appear to be more prone to develop drug dependence, suffer more severe physical and psychological consequences of drug abuse, and have more difficulties quitting the habit. Numerous psychological, socio-cultural and biological factors have been implicated in these changing statistics. For example, while a large proportion of men initiate drug use to induce feelings of elation, energy or focus, women frequently start taking drugs to alleviate pre-existing mental health problems, including high levels of stress, feelings of alienation, depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder. This maladaptive self-medication strategy often results in a faster transition to a habitual drug use and eventually a more severe dependence. In addition, the socio-cultural norms (particularly in the Western society) have changed dramatically over the past few decades. Thus, while there is still a more severe stigma and prejudice against women who use drugs (especially if they are pregnant of have children), overall there is much greater acceptance of women's drug use than it was several decades ago. Moreover, women have much greater access to various drugs of abuse than they used to have. Finally, over the past couple of decades new research started emerging pointing to some neurobiological factors that could also contribute to sex differences in drug addiction. Thus, there is now evidence that dopamine system, which for decades has been strongly implicated in drug reinforcement, is sexually dimorphic. The number of dopaminergic neurons, the density of the dopaminergic terminals, as well as

  17. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use: New Trends and Prominent Issues.

    PubMed

    Roy, Élise; Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-03-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other "high-income countries." Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  18. Drug use patterns and demographics of employed drug users: data from the 1988 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Kopstein, A; Gfroerer, J

    1990-01-01

    This paper has identified some characteristics of full-time working populations who are at higher risk to be substance abusers. In summary, employed people who use drugs are generally between the ages of 18 and 34. Heavy drinkers fall mainly between 18 and 25 years of age. Males are much more likely than females to use marijuana, cocaine, or other illicit drugs and alcohol on a frequent basis. For males, past month use of any illicit drugs and marijuana was higher among those with the lowest personal incomes. For females, past year use of cocaine was higher among those with the highest personal incomes. Females and males with high personal incomes were also more likely than their low income counterparts to use alcohol on a weekly basis. Industries with high percentages of male substance abusers were: construction, wholesale trade, finance, repair services and professionals. Industries with substantial numbers of female drug abusers were manufacturing, retail trade and professionals.

  19. Discovery of Anthelmintic Drug Targets and Drugs Using Chokepoints in Nematode Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christina M.; Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A.; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Powell, Kerrie; Schedl, Tim; Pearce, Edward J.; Abubucker, Sahar; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic roundworm infections plague more than 2 billion people (1/3 of humanity) and cause drastic losses in crops and livestock. New anthelmintic drugs are urgently needed as new drug resistance and environmental concerns arise. A “chokepoint reaction” is defined as a reaction that either consumes a unique substrate or produces a unique product. A chokepoint analysis provides a systematic method of identifying novel potential drug targets. Chokepoint enzymes were identified in the genomes of 10 nematode species, and the intersection and union of all chokepoint enzymes were found. By studying and experimentally testing available compounds known to target proteins orthologous to nematode chokepoint proteins in public databases, this study uncovers features of chokepoints that make them successful drug targets. Chemogenomic screening was performed on drug-like compounds from public drug databases to find existing compounds that target homologs of nematode chokepoints. The compounds were prioritized based on chemical properties frequently found in successful drugs and were experimentally tested using Caenorhabditis elegans. Several drugs that are already known anthelmintic drugs and novel candidate targets were identified. Seven of the compounds were tested in Caenorhabditis elegans and three yielded a detrimental phenotype. One of these three drug-like compounds, Perhexiline, also yielded a deleterious effect in Haemonchus contortus and Onchocerca lienalis, two nematodes with divergent forms of parasitism. Perhexiline, known to affect the fatty acid oxidation pathway in mammals, caused a reduction in oxygen consumption rates in C. elegans and genome-wide gene expression profiles provided an additional confirmation of its mode of action. Computational modeling of Perhexiline and its target provided structural insights regarding its binding mode and specificity. Our lists of prioritized drug targets and drug-like compounds have potential to expedite the discovery

  20. Use of PET Imaging to Evaluate Transporter-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Langer, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Several membrane transporters belonging to the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) families can transport drugs and drug metabolites and thereby exert an effect on drug absorption, distribution, and excretion, which may potentially lead to transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Some transporter-mediated DDIs may lead to changes in organ distribution of drugs (eg, brain, liver, kidneys) without affecting plasma concentrations. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive imaging method that allows studying of the distribution of radiolabeled drugs to different organs and tissues and is therefore the method of choice to quantitatively assess transporter-mediated DDIs on a tissue level. There are 2 approaches to how PET can be used in transporter-mediated DDI studies. When the drug of interest is a potential perpetrator of DDIs, it may be administered in unlabeled form to assess its influence on tissue distribution of a generic transporter-specific PET tracer (probe substrate). When the drug of interest is a potential victim of DDIs, it may be radiolabeled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 and used in combination with a prototypical transporter inhibitor (eg, rifampicin). PET has already been used both in preclinical species and in humans to assess the effects of transporter-mediated DDIs on drug disposition in different organ systems, such as brain, liver, and kidneys, for which examples are given in the present review article. Given the growing importance of membrane transporters with respect to drug safety and efficacy, PET is expected to play an increasingly important role in future drug development. PMID:27385172

  1. 77 FR 735 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalosporin Drugs; Extralabel Animal Drug Use; Order of Prohibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... and animal drugs in animals. In the Federal Register of November 7, 1996 (61 FR 57732), FDA published... INFORMATION: I. Background A. History In the Federal Register of July 3, 2008 (73 FR 38110), FDA published an... Federal Register of August 18, 2008 (73 FR 48127), extended the comment period for the order for 60...

  2. 76 FR 1174 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... and other parties in response to various DESI notices covering relevant products. \\3\\ 38 FR 34481 (December 14, 1973). \\4\\ 38 FR 4006 (February 9, 1973) and 37 FR 15022 (July 27, 1972). All drugs covered by... Federal Register on May 25, 1982 (47 FR 22606), FDA revoked the temporary exemption that permitted...

  3. 76 FR 11790 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In a notice published in the Federal Register of January 7, 2011 (76 FR..., 1982 (47 FR 22610), FDA revoked the temporary exemption that permitted these drug products, and those... (49 FR 32681) that the Agency was withdrawing approval of NDAs 8-306, 8-604, and 11-265 pertaining...

  4. Drug Guru: a computer software program for drug design using medicinal chemistry rules.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kent D; Shiroda, Melisa; James, Craig A

    2006-10-15

    Drug Guru (drug generation using rules) is a new web-based computer software program for medicinal chemists that applies a set of transformations, that is, rules, to an input structure. The transformations correspond to medicinal chemistry design rules-of-thumb taken from the historical lore of drug discovery programs. The output of the program is a list of target analogs that can be evaluated for possible future synthesis. A discussion of the features of the program is followed by an example of the software applied to sildenafil (Viagra) in generating ideas for target analogs for phosphodiesterase inhibition. Comparison with other computer-assisted drug design software is given.

  5. Defining Known Drug Space Using DFT.

    PubMed

    Matuszek, Anna M; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2016-02-01

    A density functional theory (DFT) study was performed on a collection of clinically approved drugs, or Known Drug Space (KDS), to determine the statistical distribution of four properties: dipole moment (DM), polarisability (POL), ionisation potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA). The DM and POL are linked to cell permeability of drugs whereas IP and EA reflect their redox stability thus ease of metabolism. A benchmarking exercise showed a good correlation between experimental values and their predicted counterparts. It was found that KDS occupies the volume of chemical space defined by: DM≤10 D, POL≤68 Å(3) , IP 6.0-9.0 V and EA-1.5-2.0 eV. Only 16 % of the drugs are outside one or more of these parameters. Three categories based on known oral absorption and bioavailability (low/medium/high) were established and compared. Predominately, drugs designated as 'low' were found outside the established parameters. The properties were compared with mainstream molecular descriptors and a strong correlation was seen for POL to MW (r(2) =0.899), which can explain the success of the latter since POL reflects the ability of molecules to interact with polar and non-polar environments such as water and interior of a membrane. PMID:27491789

  6. Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

  7. Family Structure and Mediators of Adolescent Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.; Li, Xin; Reckase, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how family structure is associated with adolescent drug use and how parenting, peer use, religiosity, and neighborhood problems may mediate the relationship. The authors use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between family structure and drug use across race, and examine potential mediators. Using data…

  8. Pathway-based drug repositioning using causal inference

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent in vivo studies showed new hopes of drug repositioning through causality inference from drugs to disease. Inspired by their success, here we present an in silico method for building a causal network (CauseNet) between drugs and diseases, in an attempt to systematically identify new therapeutic uses of existing drugs. Methods Unlike the traditional 'one drug-one target-one disease' causal model, we simultaneously consider all possible causal chains connecting drugs to diseases via target- and gene-involved pathways based on rich information in several expert-curated knowledge-bases. With statistical learning, our method estimates transition likelihood of each causal chain in the network based on known drug-disease treatment associations (e.g. bexarotene treats skin cancer). Results To demonstrate its validity, our method showed high performance (AUC = 0.859) in cross validation. Moreover, our top scored prediction results are highly enriched in literature and clinical trials. As a showcase of its utility, we show several drugs for potential re-use in Crohn's Disease. Conclusions We successfully developed a computational method for discovering new uses of existing drugs based on casual inference in a layered drug-target-pathway-gene- disease network. The results showed that our proposed method enables hypothesis generation from public accessible biological data for drug repositioning. PMID:24564553

  9. Central Nervous System Drug Evaluation Using Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Jun; Shimada, Hitoshi; Nogami, Tsuyoshi; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Takano, Harumasa; Higuchi, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Okubo, Yoshiro; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    In conventional pharmacological research in the field of mental disorders, pharmacological effect and dose have been estimated by ethological approach and in vitro data of affinity to the site of action. In addition, the frequency of administration has been estimated from drug kinetics in blood. However, there is a problem regarding an objective index of drug effects in the living body. Furthermore, the possibility that the concentration of drug in blood does not necessarily reflect the drug kinetics in target organs has been pointed out. Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made progress for more than 20 years, and made it possible to measure the distribution and kinetics of small molecule components in living brain. In this article, we focused on rational drug dosing using receptor occupancy and proof-of-concept of drugs in the drug development process using PET. PMID:23431048

  10. The nonmedical use of prescription drugs by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter D; Copley, LaRae

    2009-04-01

    The abuse of prescription drugs such as opioids, stimulants, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills is the fastest-growing class of drugs being abused by adolescents. Among this class of drugs, prescription opioids are being abused the most, although the abuse of prescription stimulants has been studied the most. There is a paucity of information on the nonmedical use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills. In this article we will discuss the specific prescription drugs that are most commonly abused by adolescents and how physicians need to be cautious when prescribing these drugs. The issue of screening for the abuse of these drugs will be addressed, as will the importance of parents' monitoring the use of these drugs by their own children. PMID:19492687

  11. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... occurred recently enough to justify a reasonable belief that there is continuing illegal drug use by a... required by 42 CFR 2.31; and (iii) Authorizes the PHA to receive such information from the drug abuse... household member to the PHA's public housing program in accordance with § 960.203. (See the Public...

  12. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... occurred recently enough to justify a reasonable belief that there is continuing illegal drug use by a... required by 42 CFR 2.31; and (iii) Authorizes the PHA to receive such information from the drug abuse... household member to the PHA's public housing program in accordance with § 960.203. (See the Public...

  13. School-Based Drug Prevention: What Kind of Drug Use Does It Prevent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Paddock, Susan; Chiesa, James

    School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for…

  14. Mental Health Status, Drug Treatment Use, and Needle Sharing among Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…

  15. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  16. The Knowledge About Drugs, Attitudes Towards Them And Drug Use Rates Of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejer, Dianne; Smart, Reginald G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about them and the use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit and psychoactive drugs was conducted among 4,693 high school students. Knowledge level and permissive attitudes tended to increase with grade level. Knowledge scores also increased, but attitudes became less permissive with increasing academic…

  17. Differentiation of drug and non-drug Cannabis using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay.

    PubMed

    Rotherham, D; Harbison, S A

    2011-04-15

    Cannabis sativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have the potential to assay Cannabis material unsuitable for analysis using conventional means including seeds, pollen and severely degraded material. The purpose of this research was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for the differentiation of "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis plants. An assay was developed based on four polymorphisms within a 399 bp fragment of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, utilising the snapshot multiplex kit. This SNP assay was tested on 94 Cannabis plants, which included 10 blind samples, and was able to differentiate between "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis in all cases, while also differentiating between Cannabis and other species. Non-drug plants were found to be homozygous at the four sites assayed while drug Cannabis plants were either homozygous or heterozygous.

  18. Using Nonexperts for Annotating Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction Mentions in Product Labeling: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Yifan; Hernandez, Andres; Horn, John R; Jacobson, Rebecca; Boyce, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Background Because vital details of potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions are often described in free-text structured product labels, manual curation is a necessary but expensive step in the development of electronic drug-drug interaction information resources. The use of nonexperts to annotate potential drug-drug interaction (PDDI) mentions in drug product label annotation may be a means of lessening the burden of manual curation. Objective Our goal was to explore the practicality of using nonexpert participants to annotate drug-drug interaction descriptions from structured product labels. By presenting annotation tasks to both pharmacy experts and relatively naïve participants, we hoped to demonstrate the feasibility of using nonexpert annotators for drug-drug information annotation. We were also interested in exploring whether and to what extent natural language processing (NLP) preannotation helped improve task completion time, accuracy, and subjective satisfaction. Methods Two experts and 4 nonexperts were asked to annotate 208 structured product label sections under 4 conditions completed sequentially: (1) no NLP assistance, (2) preannotation of drug mentions, (3) preannotation of drug mentions and PDDIs, and (4) a repeat of the no-annotation condition. Results were evaluated within the 2 groups and relative to an existing gold standard. Participants were asked to provide reports on the time required to complete tasks and their perceptions of task difficulty. Results One of the experts and 3 of the nonexperts completed all tasks. Annotation results from the nonexpert group were relatively strong in every scenario and better than the performance of the NLP pipeline. The expert and 2 of the nonexperts were able to complete most tasks in less than 3 hours. Usability perceptions were generally positive (3.67 for expert, mean of 3.33 for nonexperts). Conclusions The results suggest that nonexpert annotation might be a feasible option for comprehensive

  19. Relationship between stress symptoms and drug use among secondary students.

    PubMed

    Frade, Iracema Francisco; De Micheli, Denise; Monezi Andrade, André Luiz; de Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drug use and four kinds of stress symptoms in 954 Brazilian students from the 6th to the 11th grades, in 4 public and 5 private schools in the city of Sao Paulo. Based on their answers to the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R) and to the Stress Scale for Adolescents (SSA), we compared regular drug users with non/occasional drug users regarding the frequency of four kinds of stress symptoms (psychological, cognitive, physiological, interpersonal), and the period in which it happened. When compared to non/occasional drug users, regular drug users presented higher levels of psychological, cognitive and physiological symptoms of stress and these symptoms were in the most severe spectrum of severity (near to exhaustion and exhaustion). The association between drug use and stress was even stronger in the youngest age group (11 to 13 years old). Most of the regular drug users were 16 years old and over, from upper-middle class families, had poor family relationships and more academic problems. These results confirm the association between drug use and stress in adolescents and highlight the need for early screening and intervention in both drug use and stressful situations.

  20. Relationship between stress symptoms and drug use among secondary students.

    PubMed

    Frade, Iracema Francisco; De Micheli, Denise; Monezi Andrade, André Luiz; de Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drug use and four kinds of stress symptoms in 954 Brazilian students from the 6th to the 11th grades, in 4 public and 5 private schools in the city of Sao Paulo. Based on their answers to the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R) and to the Stress Scale for Adolescents (SSA), we compared regular drug users with non/occasional drug users regarding the frequency of four kinds of stress symptoms (psychological, cognitive, physiological, interpersonal), and the period in which it happened. When compared to non/occasional drug users, regular drug users presented higher levels of psychological, cognitive and physiological symptoms of stress and these symptoms were in the most severe spectrum of severity (near to exhaustion and exhaustion). The association between drug use and stress was even stronger in the youngest age group (11 to 13 years old). Most of the regular drug users were 16 years old and over, from upper-middle class families, had poor family relationships and more academic problems. These results confirm the association between drug use and stress in adolescents and highlight the need for early screening and intervention in both drug use and stressful situations. PMID:23866235

  1. Students' Evaluations of Their Psychoactive Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joel W.

    1975-01-01

    Evaluations were obtained with the same questionnaire item in 1968, 1969, 1970, and 1972 at Carnegie-Mellon University. Evaluations varied by drug, but were predominantly "beneficial and helpful" (marijuana, hallucinogens, tranquilizers and barbiturates) or had "no particular effect" (amphetamines, beer, liquor, tobacco, and narcotics). (Author)

  2. Students' Evaluations of Their Psychoactive Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joel W.

    Evaluations were obtained with the same questionnaire item in 1968, 1969, 1970, and 1972 at Carnegie-Mellon University. The evaluations of marijuana and LSD experiences reported in 1968 were very similar to those at California Institute of Technology in 1967. Evaluations varied by drug, but were predominantly "beneficial and helpful" (marijuana,…

  3. Teacher Drug Use: A Response to Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Short, Alvin P.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship of work-related stress in teachers with wanting to leave the teaching profession and drug use in 277 teachers. Teachers reported higher rates than a national sample of lifetime alcohol, amphetamine, and tranquilizer use and higher rates of alcohol use. Selected measures of stress were correlated with drug use, particularly…

  4. Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

  5. [Rational use of psychotropic drugs and social communication role].

    PubMed

    Montero, F

    1994-06-01

    Extra-clinical factors about the influences affecting the prescription and use of drugs are reviewed. Special attention is given to regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and mass media. The problems and public health consequences of the irrational use of drugs are rarely documented in Latin America. Analysis of these factors, information sources, and rational use of psychotropic drugs will require multiple strategies such as social communication and policy formulation to define goals and objectives related to population information, doctors' and individual citizens' decision making processes, and participation of consumers in improving the use of psychotropic drugs.

  6. Surveillance of gastrointestinal disease in France using drug sales data.

    PubMed

    Pivette, Mathilde; Mueller, Judith E; Crépey, Pascal; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2014-09-01

    Drug sales data have increasingly been used for disease surveillance during recent years. Our objective was to assess the value of drug sales data as an operational early detection tool for gastroenteritis epidemics at national and regional level in France. For the period 2008-2013, we compared temporal trends of drug sales for the treatment of gastroenteritis with trends of cases reported by a Sentinel Network of general practitioners. We benchmarked detection models to select the one with the best sensitivity, false alert proportion and timeliness, and developed a prospective framework to assess the operational performance of the system. Drug sales data allowed the detection of seasonal gastrointestinal epidemics occurring in winter with a distinction between prescribed and non-prescribed drugs. Sales of non-prescribed drugs allowed epidemic detection on average 2.25 weeks earlier than Sentinel data. These results confirm the value of drug sales data for real-time monitoring of gastroenteritis epidemic activity. PMID:25240898

  7. The Relationship Between Drug Use, Drug-related Arrests, and Chronic Pain Among Adults on Probation.

    PubMed

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Walters, Scott T; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S

    2015-06-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=-1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89-1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03-9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety.

  8. Predicting Anticancer Drug Responses Using a Dual-Layer Integrated Cell Line-Drug Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yun; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Liu, X. Shirley

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict the response of a cancer patient to a therapeutic agent is a major goal in modern oncology that should ultimately lead to personalized treatment. Existing approaches to predicting drug sensitivity rely primarily on profiling of cancer cell line panels that have been treated with different drugs and selecting genomic or functional genomic features to regress or classify the drug response. Here, we propose a dual-layer integrated cell line-drug network model, which uses both cell line similarity network (CSN) data and drug similarity network (DSN) data to predict the drug response of a given cell line using a weighted model. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Cancer Genome Project (CGP) studies as benchmark datasets, our single-layer model with CSN or DSN and only a single parameter achieved a prediction performance comparable to the previously generated elastic net model. When using the dual-layer model integrating both CSN and DSN, our predicted response reached a 0.6 Pearson correlation coefficient with observed responses for most drugs, which is significantly better than the previous results using the elastic net model. We have also applied the dual-layer cell line-drug integrated network model to fill in the missing drug response values in the CGP dataset. Even though the dual-layer integrated cell line-drug network model does not specifically model mutation information, it correctly predicted that BRAF mutant cell lines would be more sensitive than BRAF wild-type cell lines to three MEK1/2 inhibitors tested. PMID:26418249

  9. Novel Approaches in Formulation and Drug Delivery using Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kishan; Nair, Anroop B; Kumar, Ashok; Kumria, Rachna

    2011-03-01

    The success of ocular delivery relies on the potential to enhance the drug bioavailability by controlled and extended release of drug on the eye surface. Several new approaches have been attempted to augment the competence and diminish the intrinsic side effects of existing ocular drug delivery systems. In this contest, progress has been made to develop drug-eluting contact lens using different techniques, which have the potential to control and sustain the delivery of drug. Further, the availability of novel polymers have facilitated and promoted the utility of contact lenses in ocular drug delivery. Several research groups have already explored the feasibility and potential of contact lens using conventional drugs for the treatment of periocular and intraocular diseases. Contact lenses formulated using modern technology exhibits high loading, controlled drug release, apposite thickness, water content, superior mechanical and optical properties as compared to commercial lenses. In general, this review discus various factors and approaches designed and explored for the successful delivery of ophthalmic drugs using contact lenses as drug delivery device.

  10. Novel Approaches in Formulation and Drug Delivery using Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kishan; Nair, Anroop B; Kumar, Ashok; Kumria, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    The success of ocular delivery relies on the potential to enhance the drug bioavailability by controlled and extended release of drug on the eye surface. Several new approaches have been attempted to augment the competence and diminish the intrinsic side effects of existing ocular drug delivery systems. In this contest, progress has been made to develop drug-eluting contact lens using different techniques, which have the potential to control and sustain the delivery of drug. Further, the availability of novel polymers have facilitated and promoted the utility of contact lenses in ocular drug delivery. Several research groups have already explored the feasibility and potential of contact lens using conventional drugs for the treatment of periocular and intraocular diseases. Contact lenses formulated using modern technology exhibits high loading, controlled drug release, apposite thickness, water content, superior mechanical and optical properties as compared to commercial lenses. In general, this review discus various factors and approaches designed and explored for the successful delivery of ophthalmic drugs using contact lenses as drug delivery device PMID:24826007

  11. Use of antiepileptic drugs in hepatic and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Asconapé, Jorge J

    2014-01-01

    The use of antiepileptic drugs in patients with renal or hepatic disease is common in clinical practice. Since the liver and kidney are the main organs involved in the elimination of most drugs, their dysfunction can have important effects on the disposition of antiepileptic drugs. Renal or hepatic disease can prolong the elimination of the parent drug or an active metabolite leading to accumulation and clinical toxicity. It can also affect the protein binding, distribution, and metabolism of a drug. The protein binding of anionic acidic drugs, such as phenytoin and valproate, can be reduced significantly by renal failure, causing difficulties in the interpretation of total serum concentrations commonly used in clinical practice. Dialysis can further modify the pharmacokinetic parameters or result in significant removal of the antiepileptic drugs. Antiepileptic drugs that are eliminated unchanged by the kidneys or undergo minimal metabolism include gabapentin, pregabalin, vigabatrin, and topiramate when used as monotherapy. Drugs eliminated predominantly by biotransformation include phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine, tiagabine, and rufinamide. Drugs eliminated by a combination of renal excretion and biotransformation include levetiracetam, lacosamide, zonisamide, primidone, phenobarbital, ezogabine/retigabine, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine, ethosuximide, and felbamate. Drugs in the latter group can be used cautiously in patients with either renal or liver failure. Antiepileptic drugs that are at high risk of being extracted by hemodialysis include ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, levetiracetam, pregabalin and topiramate. The use of antiepileptic drugs in the presence of hepatic or renal disease is complex and requires great familiarity with the pharmacokinetics of these agents. Closer follow-up of the patients and more frequent monitoring of serum concentrations are required to optimize clinical outcomes. PMID:24365310

  12. Use of the theory of reasoned action to predict drug and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Laflin, M T; Moore-Hirschl, S; Weis, D L; Hayes, B E

    1994-05-01

    The present study examines the role of self-esteem (SE) in the prediction of drug and alcohol use. Consistent with research on the theory of reasoned action, we suggest that alcohol and drug attitudes and subjective norms are more useful in the prediction of self-reported drug and alcohol consumption than SE. In the present study, measures of SE, drug attitudes, subjective norms, and drug use behaviors were collected from 2,074 high school and college students. Results indicate that drug attitudes and subjective norms do predict drug and alcohol use, but that SE does not add significantly to the prediction of the drug and alcohol behaviors.

  13. Assessing drug target association using semantic linked data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Ding, Ying; Wild, David J

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly increasing amount of public data in chemistry and biology provides new opportunities for large-scale data mining for drug discovery. Systematic integration of these heterogeneous sets and provision of algorithms to data mine the integrated sets would permit investigation of complex mechanisms of action of drugs. In this work we integrated and annotated data from public datasets relating to drugs, chemical compounds, protein targets, diseases, side effects and pathways, building a semantic linked network consisting of over 290,000 nodes and 720,000 edges. We developed a statistical model to assess the association of drug target pairs based on their relation with other linked objects. Validation experiments demonstrate the model can correctly identify known direct drug target pairs with high precision. Indirect drug target pairs (for example drugs which change gene expression level) are also identified but not as strongly as direct pairs. We further calculated the association scores for 157 drugs from 10 disease areas against 1683 human targets, and measured their similarity using a [Formula: see text] score matrix. The similarity network indicates that drugs from the same disease area tend to cluster together in ways that are not captured by structural similarity, with several potential new drug pairings being identified. This work thus provides a novel, validated alternative to existing drug target prediction algorithms. The web service is freely available at: http://chem2bio2rdf.org/slap.

  14. Use of the "NYC Condom" among people who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using

  15. Membrane–drug interactions studied using model membrane systems

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Jacqueline; Suhendro, Daniel K.; Zieleniecki, Julius L.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Köper, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The direct interaction of drugs with the cell membrane is often neglected when drug effects are studied. Systematic investigations are hindered by the complexity of the natural membrane and model membrane systems can offer a useful alternative. Here some examples are reviewed of how model membrane architectures including vesicles, Langmuir monolayers and solid supported membranes can be used to investigate the effects of drug molecules on the membrane structure, and how these interactions can translate into effects on embedded membrane proteins. PMID:26586998

  16. The role of drug use sequencing pattern in further problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Maurício; Martins, Silvia S.; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Nicastri, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been considerable debate regarding what typically occurs after experimentation with drugs throughout the life of young people who used various drugs. Aims To evaluate the clinical importance of the most common sequence for the first use of a drug by two models(the ‘gateway model’ and the ‘alternative model’, which is the most popular sequence for Brazilian university students according to a previous study) regarding the problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drugs, assessed by ASSIST. Method People who had already experimented with three or more drugs across different stages of the two models were selected from a representative sample of university students from 27 Brazilian capitals(n=12, 711). Findings There were no differences regarding the problematic use of the most consumed drugs in Brazil(alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) between the models. Multiple drug seekers and violators had more problematic use of illegal drugs other than cannabis than individuals in the model sequence. However, in the case of violators, this was only evident in the alternative model. Conclusions Multiple drug seekers and violators deserve special attention due to their increased risk of problematic use of other illegal drugs. Declaration of interest None. PMID:25188583

  17. Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

  18. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.131 Illegal use of... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  19. Risk Factors for Drug Use in Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested relevance of risk-factor model for predicting drug use among rural seventh graders (n=235). Nineteen of 20 risk factors were significantly related to at least 1 category of drug use. Subset of 10 risk factors was significantly associated with prevalence and frequency of use of cigarettes, beer and wine, hard liquor, marijuana, and other…

  20. Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts

    PubMed Central

    Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings. PMID:21414831

  1. Integrating Underage Drinking and Drug Use Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfsberg, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    During the year 2004, 20% of eighth-graders and 60.3% of twelfth-graders reported that they had gotten drunk at least once over the course of just one year, according to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Of the 10.7 million underage youth who drink, 7.2 million or 31% of all high school students binge drink with a frequency of at least…

  2. Drug scene, drug use and drug-related health consequences and responses in Kulob and Khorog, Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    Latypov, Alisher; Otiashvili, David; Zule, William

    2014-01-01

    Background Tajikistan and other Central Asian republics are facing intertwined epidemics of injecting drug use and HIV. This paper aims to examine drug scene, drug use, drug-related infectious diseases, drug treatment and other responses to health consequences of drug injecting in two Tajik cities of Kulob (Khatlon Region) and Khorog (Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast). Methods We conducted twelve focus group discussions in Kulob and Khorog and analysed peer-reviewed literature, published and unpublished programme and country reports and other publications that focused on substance use and/or HIV/AIDS in Tajikistan and included the Khatlon and Gorno-Badakhshan regions. Results In both Kulob and Khorog, heroin is used by the overwhelming majority of people who inject drugs (PWID), with one dose of heroin in Khorog costing less than a bottle of vodka. Opioid overdose among PWID in Tajikistan is a serious issue that appears to be substantially underestimated and inadequately addressed at the policy and practice levels. In integrated bio-behavioural surveys (IBBS), HIV and HCV prevalence in both Kulob and Khorog varied widely over a short period of time, raising questions over the quality and reliability of these data. Access to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) by PWID is either lacking or inadequate. Very few women who inject drugs access needle and syringe programmes in Kulob and Khorog. HCV treatment cannot be afforded by the overwhelming majority of PWID due to high costs. Conclusion Tajikistan IBBS data point to the potential problems in using composite national prevalence as an adequate reflection of the HIV epidemic among PWID in the country and highlight the importance of examining site-specific prevalence rates for better understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic over time as well as potential problems related to the reliability of data. Furthermore, our analysis highlights that in a country where almost all PWID inject

  3. Optimizing drug development of anti-cancer drugs in children using modelling and simulation

    PubMed Central

    van Hasselt, Johan GC; van Eijkelenburg, Natasha KA; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan HM; Huitema, Alwin DR

    2013-01-01

    Modelling and simulation (M&S)-based approaches have been proposed to support paediatric drug development in order to design and analyze clinical studies efficiently. Development of anti-cancer drugs in the paediatric population is particularly challenging due to ethical and practical constraints. We aimed to review the application of M&S in the development of anti-cancer drugs in the paediatric population, and to identify where M&S-based approaches could provide additional support in paediatric drug development of anti-cancer drugs. A structured literature search on PubMed was performed. The majority of identified M&S-based studies aimed to use population PK modelling approaches to identify determinants of inter-individual variability, in order to optimize dosing regimens and to develop therapeutic drug monitoring strategies. Prospective applications of M&S approaches for PK-bridging studies have scarcely been reported for paediatric oncology. Based on recent developments of M&S in drug development there are several opportunities where M&S could support more informative bridging between children and adults, and increase efficiency of the design and analysis of paediatric clinical trials, which should ultimately lead to further optimization of drug treatment strategies in this population. PMID:23216601

  4. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  5. Gender Differences in Psychopathy Links to Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2015-01-01

    While the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between two criminally-relevant constructs, a) psychopathy and its factors and b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and in women, Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. PMID:26571339

  6. [Rational drug use: an economic approach to decision making].

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniel Marques; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; Sudo, Elisa Cazue; Ortún, Vicente

    2008-04-01

    The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU) from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.

  7. New Antituberculosis Drugs: From Clinical Trial to Programmatic Use

    PubMed Central

    Gualano, Gina; Capone, Susanna; Matteelli, Alberto; Palmieri, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease, highlighting the need for of new drugs. For the first time in more than 50 years, two new anti-TB drugs were approved and released. Bedaquiline is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound that showed durable culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials. Delamanid is the first drug of the nitroimidazole class to enter clinical practice. Similarly to bedaquiline results of phase IIb studies showed increased sputum-culture conversion at 2 months and better final treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB. Among repurposed drugs linezolid and carbapenems may represent a valuable drug to treat cases of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB. The recommended regimen for MDR-TB is the combination of at least four drugs to which M. tuberculosis is likely to be susceptible for the duration of 20 months. Drugs are chosen with a stepwise selection process through five groups on the basis of efficacy, safety, and cost. Clinical phase III trials on new regimen are ongoing that could prove transformative against MDR-TB, by being shorter (six months), simpler (an all-oral regimen) and safer than current standard therapy. It is fundamental that the adoption of the new drugs is done responsibly to avoid inappropriate use. Concentration of in-patient MDR-TB treatment in specialized centers could be considered in countries with low numbers of cases in order to provide appropriate clinical case management and to prevent emergence of drug resistance. PMID:27403268

  8. New Antituberculosis Drugs: From Clinical Trial to Programmatic Use.

    PubMed

    Gualano, Gina; Capone, Susanna; Matteelli, Alberto; Palmieri, Fabrizio

    2016-06-24

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease, highlighting the need for of new drugs. For the first time in more than 50 years, two new anti-TB drugs were approved and released. Bedaquiline is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound that showed durable culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials. Delamanid is the first drug of the nitroimidazole class to enter clinical practice. Similarly to bedaquiline results of phase IIb studies showed increased sputum-culture conversion at 2 months and better final treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB. Among repurposed drugs linezolid and carbapenems may represent a valuable drug to treat cases of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB. The recommended regimen for MDR-TB is the combination of at least four drugs to which M. tuberculosis is likely to be susceptible for the duration of 20 months. Drugs are chosen with a stepwise selection process through five groups on the basis of efficacy, safety, and cost. Clinical phase III trials on new regimen are ongoing that could prove transformative against MDR-TB, by being shorter (six months), simpler (an all-oral regimen) and safer than current standard therapy. It is fundamental that the adoption of the new drugs is done responsibly to avoid inappropriate use. Concentration of in-patient MDR-TB treatment in specialized centers could be considered in countries with low numbers of cases in order to provide appropriate clinical case management and to prevent emergence of drug resistance.

  9. New Antituberculosis Drugs: From Clinical Trial to Programmatic Use.

    PubMed

    Gualano, Gina; Capone, Susanna; Matteelli, Alberto; Palmieri, Fabrizio

    2016-06-24

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease, highlighting the need for of new drugs. For the first time in more than 50 years, two new anti-TB drugs were approved and released. Bedaquiline is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound that showed durable culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials. Delamanid is the first drug of the nitroimidazole class to enter clinical practice. Similarly to bedaquiline results of phase IIb studies showed increased sputum-culture conversion at 2 months and better final treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB. Among repurposed drugs linezolid and carbapenems may represent a valuable drug to treat cases of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB. The recommended regimen for MDR-TB is the combination of at least four drugs to which M. tuberculosis is likely to be susceptible for the duration of 20 months. Drugs are chosen with a stepwise selection process through five groups on the basis of efficacy, safety, and cost. Clinical phase III trials on new regimen are ongoing that could prove transformative against MDR-TB, by being shorter (six months), simpler (an all-oral regimen) and safer than current standard therapy. It is fundamental that the adoption of the new drugs is done responsibly to avoid inappropriate use. Concentration of in-patient MDR-TB treatment in specialized centers could be considered in countries with low numbers of cases in order to provide appropriate clinical case management and to prevent emergence of drug resistance. PMID:27403268

  10. Drug use in a rural secondary school in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ndetei, David M; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Mutiso, Victoria; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A; Kokonya, Donald A

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related use problems among adolescents are highly prevalent and are a major concern worldwide. This study estimated the prevalence of drug abuse, knowledge about drug abuse and its effect on psychosocial well-being and induced behavioral problems among students of a public rural secondary school that admitted both girls and boys which offered both boarding and day school facilities. The students filled out a self-reporting substance use tool which measures the prevalence, frequency, and general patterns of substance use. Alcohol, tobacco, khat (catha edulis) and bhang (cannabis) were the most commonly reported substance of use, with user prevalence rates of 5.2%, 3.8%, 3.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Tobacco use was initiated at 10 years, while cannabis, hard drugs, khat, and alcohol were initiated at 11, 12, 13, and 15 years of age, respectively. Among the students 71% were aware that their schoolmates were on drugs and it was known by 49.8%, 41.7%, 37.6%, 44.3%, and 32.4% of these students that using alcohol, tobacco, khat, cannabis, and hard drugs, respectively was a behavioral problem in the school. Three quarters of the students were aware that use of drugs was harmful to their health, with majority (78.6%) indicating that drug users need help to stop the drug use behavior. However most (73.6%) of the students suggested drug users in school should be punished. The drug use behavioral problems included school dropout, poor scholastic attainment, drunken driving, delinquency, and adolescence pregnancy which threaten the stability of the education system, family as an institution (family difficulties) and society at large. Therefore, teachers have an added burden of playing an active role in guidance and counselling the survivors of drug abuse, a pandemic facing teaching institutions apart from instilling knowledge.

  11. Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a

  12. Tribological monitoring of drugs used for the treatment of arthropathies.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, L S; Chernyakova, Yu M; Kadolich, Z V; Nikolaev, V I

    2006-03-01

    Lubricating capacity of drugs injected into articular cavity were tested using a pendulum tribometer. The findings indicate that friction coefficient for a pair simulating metallopolymeric articular endoprosthesis is changed under the effect of electromagnetic field after lubrication. Regularities of these changes depend on the nature and mechanism of action of drugs. A method for rapid evaluation of the lubricating characteristics of drugs is proposed for optimizing their therapeutic effect on joints.

  13. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  14. Adolescent Drug Use in Nebraska, 1988. Technical Report 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Anderson, Carolyn S.

    This research report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among a representative sample of 7,187 Nebraska junior and senior high school students. The research is from an ongoing project: the Nebraska Adolescent Drug Use survey, which was initiated in 1982. The stated purpose of the project is to provide baseline and updated survey…

  15. An Exploration of Recent Club Drug Use among Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Raves are characterized by large numbers of youth dancing for long periods of time and by the use of "club drugs," such as 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). While a small body of research has explored the use of ecstasy and other club drugs (EOCD) among club rave attendees in the United States, we are aware of no studies that…

  16. Risk Factors for Different Dimensions of Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes which risk factors in the family, school, and peer domains have an effect on the use of different types of drugs and on frequencies of drug use. Results of a study with adolescents (N=467) show that parental monitoring, time spent with friends, and peer deviance were the most important risk factors. (Author/MKA)

  17. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  18. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  19. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  20. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  1. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  2. The Parents' Experience: Coping with Drug Use in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rachael; Bauld, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The families of drug users are often overlooked in the planning and delivery of services. This paper is based on interviews with parents of heroin users and staff from a support agency that worked with families affected by drug use. Findings highlight the devastation parents experienced in learning that their child was using heroin, and the…

  3. Interventions by Students in Friends' Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; Stoduto, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Investigated students' (N=1,184) self-reported interventions in the alcohol-, tobacco-, illicit-drug use, and drinking-driving of their friends. Results indicate that almost one-third of students intervened in friends' illegal drug use and drinking-driving, whereas about one-half intervened with smoking. Intervenors were usually older and worked…

  4. Student Drug Use, Risk-Taking and Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Beatrice A.; Ewing, John A.

    This study seeks: (1) to detect whether an increase in drug use occurred in the two years since a previous similar study; (2) to determine the kinds and levels of risk which the students associated with the nonprescription use of various drugs; and (3) to examine the extent to which the marihuana groups showed alienation. The study drew a…

  5. Young People, Drug Use and Family Conflict: Pathways into Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…

  6. Skipping School and Using Drugs: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the setting of drug use is an important factor in an adolescent's decision to use drugs. In this study, one salient setting is examined-truancy from school. A total of 1000 eleventh grade students from one district in the Mid-Western United States were invited to participate in an in-school anonymous survey in…

  7. Factors Associated with Illegal Drug Use among Older Methadone Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The overall aims of this study are to describe the life stressors of, exposure to illegal drug use of, and illegal drug use by older methadone clients. Design and Methods. The current study focuses on a sub-sample of the larger administrative data of a methadone clinic that is limited to African American and White clients over the age of…

  8. Legal sanctions and information about drugs as influences upon the decision by adolescents whether to use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V

    1980-11-01

    Although those Malaysian secondary schoolchildren who have never used drugs are consistent in their support for legal and social sanctions against drug use, it is argued that such sanctions are a relatively unimportant factor in the decision whether or not to use drugs. Non-drug users inhabit a social world separated from their drug-using contemporaries; they rely on information from public rather than direct social sources, and claim to have been little interested in information received. However, there is evidence that, for a minority of the drug-using sub-sample, public information campaigns have made them more rather than less interested in experimenting with drug substances. PMID:7460763

  9. Legal sanctions and information about drugs as influences upon the decision by adolescents whether to use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V

    1980-11-01

    Although those Malaysian secondary schoolchildren who have never used drugs are consistent in their support for legal and social sanctions against drug use, it is argued that such sanctions are a relatively unimportant factor in the decision whether or not to use drugs. Non-drug users inhabit a social world separated from their drug-using contemporaries; they rely on information from public rather than direct social sources, and claim to have been little interested in information received. However, there is evidence that, for a minority of the drug-using sub-sample, public information campaigns have made them more rather than less interested in experimenting with drug substances.

  10. Prediction of adverse drug reactions using decision tree modeling.

    PubMed

    Hammann, F; Gutmann, H; Vogt, N; Helma, C; Drewe, J

    2010-07-01

    Drug safety is of great importance to public health. The detrimental effects of drugs not only limit their application but also cause suffering in individual patients and evoke distrust of pharmacotherapy. For the purpose of identifying drugs that could be suspected of causing adverse reactions, we present a structure-activity relationship analysis of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the central nervous system (CNS), liver, and kidney, and also of allergic reactions, for a broad variety of drugs (n = 507) from the Swiss drug registry. Using decision tree induction, a machine learning method, we determined the chemical, physical, and structural properties of compounds that predispose them to causing ADRs. The models had high predictive accuracies (78.9-90.2%) for allergic, renal, CNS, and hepatic ADRs. We show the feasibility of predicting complex end-organ effects using simple models that involve no expensive computations and that can be used (i) in the selection of the compound during the drug discovery stage, (ii) to understand how drugs interact with the target organ systems, and (iii) for generating alerts in postmarketing drug surveillance and pharmacovigilance.

  11. Employment, employment-related problems, and drug use at drug court entry.

    PubMed

    Leukefeld, Carl; McDonald, Hope Smiley; Staton, Michele; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison

    2004-01-01

    The literature indicates that employment may be an important factor for retaining substance misusing clients in treatment. Given the link between employment problems and treatment retention for Drug Court clients, the current project builds upon the existing services provided by Drug Courts in order to develop and implement an innovative model that focuses on obtaining, maintaining, and upgrading employment for Drug Court participants. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the employment intervention used in Kentucky Drug Courts, which is grounded in established job readiness and life skill training approaches; and (2) profile those participants who were employed full-time prior to Drug Court and those who were not. Findings suggest that those employed full-time were more likely to have higher incomes and more earned income from legitimate job sources, although there were no differences in the types of employment (major jobs included food service and construction). In addition, study findings suggest that full-time employment was not "protective" since there were few differences in drug use and criminal activity by employment status. Employment interventions need to be examined to determine their utility for enhancing employment and keeping drug users in treatment. This article focuses on the initial 400 participants, who began entering the study in March, 2000.

  12. Motives for drug use: an application of Cohen's typology.

    PubMed

    Bowker, L H

    1977-12-01

    A modified version of Cohen's typology of motives leading to drug use was studied in three private schools, Grades 7 through 12, two colleges, and a random sample of adults in two cities in a rural county located in the Intermountain West. The distribution of motives for the use of 12 categories of drugs was summarized for each population and comparisons made for age and sex differences. Younger respondents reported a higher use of drugs for adventure/curiosity reasons than older respondents. Students using drugs at a college having unusually low drug use showed a higher level of general motive satisfaction than students at a college having average drug use. Females reported a somewhat higher level of general motive satisfaction than males, but the sex differences observed were not consistent with common sex role stereotypes. By applying these motive distributions in a given community or institution, and following Cohen's suggestions for alternatives to drug use, it would be possible to build an effective program aimed at the prevention of drug abuse and related problems. PMID:564880

  13. Patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use in drug using university students.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Pihl, Robert O

    2006-06-01

    Simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) is a common phenomenon, yet little is known about how various substances are used with one another. In the present study 149 drug-using university students completed structured interviews about their use of various substances. For each substance ever used, participants provided details about the type, order and amount of all substances co-administered during its most recent administration. Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis were frequently co-administered with each other and with all other substances. Chi-squared tests revealed that when alcohol was used in combination with any of cannabis, psilocybin, MDMA, cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate (ps < 0.01) or LSD (p < 0.05) its initial use preceded the administration of the other substance. Paired samples t-tests revealed that when alcohol was used with cocaine (p < 0.01) or methylphenidate (p < 0.05) it was ingested in greater quantities than when used in their absence. Patterns of cannabis use were not systematically related to other substances administered. Finally, using one-sample t-tests, tobacco use was demonstrated to be increased relative to 'sober' smoking rates when used with alcohol, cannabis, psilocybin, MDMA, cocaine, amphetamine (ps < 0.001), LSD (p < 0.01) or methylphenidate (p < 0.05). Results suggest that many substances are routinely used in a SPU context and that the pattern in which a substance is used may be related to other substances co-administered.

  14. The relationship between female criminality and drug use.

    PubMed

    James, J; Gosho, C; Wohl, R W

    1979-02-01

    A 2-year study of four groups of women (N = 268)--addicts, prostitute-addicts, prostitutes, and female offenders--reveals that the link between female criminal activity and female drug involvement is significant. All four groups report "drug costs" as a major percentage of their monthly expenses. Prostitutes and female offenders report purchasing drugs mainly for resale. Female offenders report most of their income as coming from drugs sales, shoplifting, and larceny. For all of the women addicted to heroin, reselling drugs and prostitution were the usual means of support. There is insufficient evidence at this point in the research to link the use of a specific category of drugs to specific types of offenses. The main determinants in choice of crime for these subjects were skill and opportunity.

  15. Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association with Student Drug Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…

  16. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  17. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  18. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  19. 21 CFR 530.10 - Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... drugs. An approved new animal drug or human drug intended to be used for an extralabel purpose in an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs. 530.10 Section 530.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. 21 CFR 530.10 - Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... drugs. An approved new animal drug or human drug intended to be used for an extralabel purpose in an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs. 530.10 Section 530.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. 21 CFR 530.10 - Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... drugs. An approved new animal drug or human drug intended to be used for an extralabel purpose in an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs. 530.10 Section 530.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  2. 21 CFR 530.10 - Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... drugs. An approved new animal drug or human drug intended to be used for an extralabel purpose in an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs. 530.10 Section 530.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  3. 21 CFR 530.10 - Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... drugs. An approved new animal drug or human drug intended to be used for an extralabel purpose in an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Provision permitting extralabel use of animal drugs. 530.10 Section 530.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. [Illegal aspects of illicit drugs use in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Torres, Ruth Magdalena; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to obtain the opinions of a group of people about legal issues regarding addiction. Data collection was performed using a structured questionnaire with four themes. In order to participate, the individual could not use any drugs but should have a close relationship with a drug user. The data was processed using SPSS V. 14. There were 100 participants, 75% of whom were women, and 38% had a drug user as a friend, mainly cocaine and marijuana users. The participants had one opinion in common: laws should be more severe for people who use, sell, or transport drugs. The current laws do not improve consumers' criminal behavior. There is a need for further studies addressing people's opinion about this phenomenon in order to obtain a more realistic view of this drug issue. PMID:20011902

  5. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  6. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  7. Adolescents, sex and injecting drug use: risks for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present data on the HIV-related risks for adolescents growing up in an area where injecting drug use is prevalent and HIV infection has been identified among local injecting drug users. We report on young peoples' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of drug use and injectors; HIV and AIDS; sex, safer sex and condom use. These adolescents had an extensive and practically oriented knowledge of illicit drugs and drug injectors. The majority of adolescents contacted had an unsophisticated but approximate understanding of HIV transmission dynamics and how to guard against infection. Our data suggest that many adolescents find issues relating to sex awkward, embarrassing and difficult subjects for discussion. In a final section we consider some of the policy implications of our work focussing in particular on the prevention of injecting, the promotion of condom use, and the necessity of avoiding a focus upon risk groups. PMID:2085532

  8. Adolescents, sex and injecting drug use: risks for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present data on the HIV-related risks for adolescents growing up in an area where injecting drug use is prevalent and HIV infection has been identified among local injecting drug users. We report on young peoples' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of drug use and injectors; HIV and AIDS; sex, safer sex and condom use. These adolescents had an extensive and practically oriented knowledge of illicit drugs and drug injectors. The majority of adolescents contacted had an unsophisticated but approximate understanding of HIV transmission dynamics and how to guard against infection. Our data suggest that many adolescents find issues relating to sex awkward, embarrassing and difficult subjects for discussion. In a final section we consider some of the policy implications of our work focussing in particular on the prevention of injecting, the promotion of condom use, and the necessity of avoiding a focus upon risk groups.

  9. Deep Learning Applications for Predicting Pharmacological Properties of Drugs and Drug Repurposing Using Transcriptomic Data.

    PubMed

    Aliper, Alexander; Plis, Sergey; Artemov, Artem; Ulloa, Alvaro; Mamoshina, Polina; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Deep learning is rapidly advancing many areas of science and technology with multiple success stories in image, text, voice and video recognition, robotics, and autonomous driving. In this paper we demonstrate how deep neural networks (DNN) trained on large transcriptional response data sets can classify various drugs to therapeutic categories solely based on their transcriptional profiles. We used the perturbation samples of 678 drugs across A549, MCF-7, and PC-3 cell lines from the LINCS Project and linked those to 12 therapeutic use categories derived from MeSH. To train the DNN, we utilized both gene level transcriptomic data and transcriptomic data processed using a pathway activation scoring algorithm, for a pooled data set of samples perturbed with different concentrations of the drug for 6 and 24 hours. In both pathway and gene level classification, DNN achieved high classification accuracy and convincingly outperformed the support vector machine (SVM) model on every multiclass classification problem, however, models based on pathway level data performed significantly better. For the first time we demonstrate a deep learning neural net trained on transcriptomic data to recognize pharmacological properties of multiple drugs across different biological systems and conditions. We also propose using deep neural net confusion matrices for drug repositioning. This work is a proof of principle for applying deep learning to drug discovery and development. PMID:27200455

  10. Deep Learning Applications for Predicting Pharmacological Properties of Drugs and Drug Repurposing Using Transcriptomic Data.

    PubMed

    Aliper, Alexander; Plis, Sergey; Artemov, Artem; Ulloa, Alvaro; Mamoshina, Polina; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Deep learning is rapidly advancing many areas of science and technology with multiple success stories in image, text, voice and video recognition, robotics, and autonomous driving. In this paper we demonstrate how deep neural networks (DNN) trained on large transcriptional response data sets can classify various drugs to therapeutic categories solely based on their transcriptional profiles. We used the perturbation samples of 678 drugs across A549, MCF-7, and PC-3 cell lines from the LINCS Project and linked those to 12 therapeutic use categories derived from MeSH. To train the DNN, we utilized both gene level transcriptomic data and transcriptomic data processed using a pathway activation scoring algorithm, for a pooled data set of samples perturbed with different concentrations of the drug for 6 and 24 hours. In both pathway and gene level classification, DNN achieved high classification accuracy and convincingly outperformed the support vector machine (SVM) model on every multiclass classification problem, however, models based on pathway level data performed significantly better. For the first time we demonstrate a deep learning neural net trained on transcriptomic data to recognize pharmacological properties of multiple drugs across different biological systems and conditions. We also propose using deep neural net confusion matrices for drug repositioning. This work is a proof of principle for applying deep learning to drug discovery and development.

  11. Deep learning applications for predicting pharmacological properties of drugs and drug repurposing using transcriptomic data

    PubMed Central

    Aliper, Alexander; Plis, Sergey; Artemov, Artem; Ulloa, Alvaro; Mamoshina, Polina; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is rapidly advancing many areas of science and technology with multiple success stories in image, text, voice and video recognition, robotics and autonomous driving. In this paper we demonstrate how deep neural networks (DNN) trained on large transcriptional response data sets can classify various drugs to therapeutic categories solely based on their transcriptional profiles. We used the perturbation samples of 678 drugs across A549, MCF‐7 and PC‐3 cell lines from the LINCS project and linked those to 12 therapeutic use categories derived from MeSH. To train the DNN, we utilized both gene level transcriptomic data and transcriptomic data processed using a pathway activation scoring algorithm, for a pooled dataset of samples perturbed with different concentrations of the drug for 6 and 24 hours. In both gene and pathway level classification, DNN convincingly outperformed support vector machine (SVM) model on every multiclass classification problem, however, models based on a pathway level classification perform better. For the first time we demonstrate a deep learning neural net trained on transcriptomic data to recognize pharmacological properties of multiple drugs across different biological systems and conditions. We also propose using deep neural net confusion matrices for drug repositioning. This work is a proof of principle for applying deep learning to drug discovery and development. PMID:27200455

  12. Illicit Drug Use and Adverse Birth Outcomes: Is It Drugs or Context?

    PubMed Central

    Strobino, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal drug use is commonly associated with adverse birth outcomes, yet no studies have controlled for a comprehensive set of associated social, psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical risk factors. We examined the degree to which adverse birth outcomes associated with drug use are due to the drugs versus surrounding factors. Data are from a clinical sample of low-income women who delivered at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1995 and 1996 (n = 808). Use of marijuana, cocaine, and opiates was determined by self-report, medical record, and urine toxicology screens at delivery. Information on various social, psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical risk factors was gathered from a postpartum interview or the medical record. Multivariable regression models of birth outcomes (continuous birth weight and low birth weight ([LBW] <2,500 g)) were used to assess the effect of drug use independent of associated factors. In unadjusted results, all types of drug use were related to birth weight decrements and increased odds of LBW. However, only the effect of cocaine on continuous birth weight remained significant after adjusting for all associated factors (−142 g, p = 0.05). No drug was significantly related to LBW in fully adjusted models. About 70% of the unadjusted effect of cocaine use on continuous birth weight was explained by surrounding psychosocial and behavioral factors, particularly smoking and stress. Most of the unadjusted effects of opiate use were explained by smoking and lack of early prenatal care. Thus, prevention efforts that aim to improve newborn health must also address the surrounding context in which drug use frequently occurs. PMID:18791865

  13. Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemingway, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…

  14. Drug Use in a Rural Secondary School in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Mutiso, Victoria; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A.; Kokonya, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related use problems among adolescents are highly prevalent and are a major concern worldwide. This study estimated the prevalence of drug abuse, knowledge about drug abuse and its effect on psychosocial well-being and induced behavioral problems among students of a public rural secondary school that admitted both girls…

  15. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  16. The Relationship between Assertiveness, Conformity, and Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the assertiveness, conformity, and drug use of 16 university students. Subjects were exposed to a series of 10 conformity tasks based on Asch's classic paradigm. One-way analyses of variance revealed that alcohol-marijuana users were less assertive and more compliant than "hard" drug users. (Author)

  17. An Empirical Examination of the Anomie Theory of Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between anomie theory, as measured by Srole's Anomie Scale, and self-admitted drug use in an adult population (N=1,449). Bivariate cross-comparison correlations indicated anomie was significantly correlated with several drug variables, but these associations were extremely weak and of little explanatory value.…

  18. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug ... conducted over the telephone. The Family component collects information on ... Questions about strategies to reduce prescription drug cost are from the ...

  19. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  20. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  1. Steroids in sports: are drugs the only ones being used?

    PubMed

    Matheson, Gordon O

    2005-05-01

    Given the nature of the testimony at the Congressional hearings on anabolic steroids in baseball in March, I continue to harbor concerns over drug use and other harmful trends in sports (see my editorials in the January through March issues). But now I'm worried that current sports ethics, already impaired by drugs, have also tainted those who care for the athletes.

  2. Validation of the POSIT: Comparing Drug Using and Abstaining Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.; Richardson, Brad; Spears, Julie; Rembert, Julia K.

    1998-01-01

    The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) is validated by comparing 42 drug-using and -abstaining youth on several social and behavioral characteristics. All 10 POSIT domain scores for drug users are greater than those for abstainers. Construct validity is established by comparing POSIT domain scores with other instruments.…

  3. Competence and Drug Use: Theoretical Frameworks, Empirical Evidence and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenberg, Cathy Strachan; Solorzano, Rosa; Kelley, Maureen; Darrow, Vicki; Gendrop, Sylvia C.; Strickland, Ora

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Social Stress Model of Substance Abuse. Summarizes theoretical and conceptual formulations for the construct of competence, reviews empirical evidence for the association of competence with drug use, and describes the preliminary development of a multiscale instrument designed to assess drug-protective competence among low-income…

  4. AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use: A Growing Menace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Vicente; Blanton, Carlton

    1994-01-01

    Needle sharing by intravenous drug users has been a means of transmission of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus. Educational efforts have been directed at reduction of needle sharing, and some cities have supplied free needles. While transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through intravenous drug use remains significant problem, there…

  5. Patterns of drug use amongst Malaysian secondary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V

    1980-05-01

    A representative sampling of the secondary school population of two states of Malaysia (sample size 16166) indicated that 11% of students had had experience of drug use. Use of a single drug was the common pattern, with cannabis reported most often by older students, and sedatives most often by younger students. A quarter of those who had used drugs reported experience with four or more substances and were likely to have progressed rapidly to heroin. This progression may be facilitated by the ready availability of heroin and the local tradition of smoking or inhaling rather than injecting opiates. Descriptions of drug migration patterns based on Western samples are not fully appropriate worldwide, because the youthful abuser is much influenced both by local market forces and by cultural traditions, even though the epidemic of youthful drug abuse is itself worldwide.

  6. Patterns of drug use amongst Malaysian secondary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V

    1980-05-01

    A representative sampling of the secondary school population of two states of Malaysia (sample size 16166) indicated that 11% of students had had experience of drug use. Use of a single drug was the common pattern, with cannabis reported most often by older students, and sedatives most often by younger students. A quarter of those who had used drugs reported experience with four or more substances and were likely to have progressed rapidly to heroin. This progression may be facilitated by the ready availability of heroin and the local tradition of smoking or inhaling rather than injecting opiates. Descriptions of drug migration patterns based on Western samples are not fully appropriate worldwide, because the youthful abuser is much influenced both by local market forces and by cultural traditions, even though the epidemic of youthful drug abuse is itself worldwide. PMID:7371500

  7. Text mining for pharmacovigilance: Using machine learning for drug name recognition and drug-drug interaction extraction and classification.

    PubMed

    Ben Abacha, Asma; Chowdhury, Md Faisal Mahbub; Karanasiou, Aikaterini; Mrabet, Yassine; Lavelli, Alberto; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is defined by the World Health Organization as the science and activities related to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem. An essential aspect in PV is to acquire knowledge about Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs). The shared tasks on DDI-Extraction organized in 2011 and 2013 have pointed out the importance of this issue and provided benchmarks for: Drug Name Recognition, DDI extraction and DDI classification. In this paper, we present our text mining systems for these tasks and evaluate their results on the DDI-Extraction benchmarks. Our systems rely on machine learning techniques using both feature-based and kernel-based methods. The obtained results for drug name recognition are encouraging. For DDI-Extraction, our hybrid system combining a feature-based method and a kernel-based method was ranked second in the DDI-Extraction-2011 challenge, and our two-step system for DDI detection and classification was ranked first in the DDI-Extraction-2013 task at SemEval. We discuss our methods and results and give pointers to future work. PMID:26432353

  8. Loneliness and suicidal ideation in drug-using college students.

    PubMed

    Lamis, Dorian A; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Patel, Amee B

    2014-12-01

    The college years are marked by social changes and behavioral experimentation which may increase risk of suicidal ideation. We propose a novel pathway for the development of suicidal thoughts between two established suicide risk factors, loneliness and drug use, which have not been examined in a nonclinical sample. Data were collected from 207 undergraduate drug-using students at a large southeastern university. As hypothesized, suicidal ideation was positively correlated with both loneliness (r = .40) and drug use (r = .29). After controlling for several demographic variables, social desirability, and anxiety sensitivity, drug use was tested as a potential mediator in the loneliness-suicidal ideation link using a single-mediator model. Results indicated a significant indirect (mediated) effect of loneliness on suicidal ideation via drug use (ab = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02-0.18), suggesting that loneliness may contribute to suicidal ideation through increased drug use among college students. Identification of and intervention with students reporting loneliness and drug use may be a promising suicide prevention strategy on college campuses.

  9. The relationship between drug use, drug-related arrests, and chronic pain among adults on probation

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=−1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89–1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03–9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety. PMID:25595302

  10. Assessment of Club Patrons’ Alcohol and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy C.; Voas, Robert; B. Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adulthood (ages 18–25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. Purpose This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected anonymously during 2010–2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. Results At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%–0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Conclusions Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harms is indicated by the findings. PMID:24139778

  11. Sexual issues and condom use among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    White, D; Phillips, K; Mulleady, G; Cupitt, C

    1993-01-01

    Recent surveys of injecting drug users reveal that their injecting behaviours have changed in the light of HIV, but their sexual behaviours have not and, in particular, they remain reluctant to use condoms to reduce the risks of sexual transmission. In an attempt to explore this issue further the present study assessed the behaviours and attitudes of injecting drug users to sexual issues, including condom use. Condom use was low. Obstacles to their use included for some a desire to conceive, for many a belief in their infertility, a perceived invulnerability to HIV infection through their sexual behaviour patterns, a dislike of condoms and difficulty in negotiating condom use with partners. The lifestyle of drug users may also have an influence on condom use. Many drug users funded their habit through illegal activities including prostitution, theft and fraud. The association between these and other factors and condom use are explored.

  12. The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Källén, Bengt; Borg, Natalia; Reis, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    CNS-active drugs are used relatively often during pregnancy. Use during early pregnancy may increase the risk of a congenital malformation; use during the later part of pregnancy may be associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth disturbances and neonatal morbidity. There is also a possibility that drug exposure can affect brain development with long-term neuropsychological harm as a result. This paper summarizes the literature on such drugs used during pregnancy: opioids, anticonvulsants, drugs used for Parkinson’s disease, neuroleptics, sedatives and hypnotics, antidepressants, psychostimulants, and some other CNS-active drugs. In addition to an overview of the literature, data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1996–2011) are presented. The exposure data are either based on midwife interviews towards the end of the first trimester or on linkage with a prescribed drug register. An association between malformations and maternal use of anticonvulsants and notably valproic acid is well known from the literature and also demonstrated in the present study. Some other associations between drug exposure and outcome were found. PMID:24275849

  13. Drug use and social control: The negotiation of moral ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Michael; Winstock, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Illicit drugs occupy an ambivalent position in late modern society; one that revolves around the twin themes of pleasure and disapproval. Drawing on Freudian psychoanalysis and Eliasian sociology this article considers how people, particularly those who use drugs, negotiate such ambivalence. Patterns of drug use and associated attitudes are examined on the basis of the Crime Survey for England and Wales and a specialist survey of largely recreational drug users in the United Kingdom. Although illicit drugs have become increasingly familiar, their use is still widely thought to be harmful and morally dubious, creating a series of challenges for those who engage in such behaviour. Ambivalence among drug users is evident in an awareness of potential costs as well as benefits; a tendency to avoid more harmful substances; a general emphasis on moderation; and a desire to use less. Building on previous work, which highlights the role of neutralisations in sustaining drug using behaviour, particular attention is paid to users' judgements about how their levels of consumption compare with other users. The analysis identifies a tendency among users to downplay their relative levels of use, which, it is argued, serves to shield them from some of the imperatives that may lead to decisions to cut down. As such, normalisation is said to be an intra-personal as well inter-personal process. The article concludes by discussing the potential of web-based personalised feedback as a harm reduction approach. PMID:26123884

  14. The use of hepatocytes to investigate drug toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lechón, María José; Castell, José V; Donato, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The liver is very active in metabolizing foreign compounds and the major target for toxicity caused by drugs. Hepatotoxicity may be the result of the drug itself or, more frequently, a result of the bioactivation process and the production of reactive metabolites. Prioritization of compounds based on human hepatotoxicity potential is currently a key unmet need in drug discovery, as it can become a major problem for several lead compounds in later stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Therefore, evaluation of potential hepatotoxicity represents a critical step in the development of new drugs. Cultured hepatocytes are increasingly used by the pharmaceutical industry for the screening of hepatotoxic potential of new molecules. Hepatocytes in culture retain hepatic key functions and constitute a valuable tool to identify chemically induced cellular damage. Their use has notably contributed to the understanding of mechanisms responsible for hepatotoxicity (disruption of cellular energy status, alteration of Ca(2+) homeostasis, inhibition of transport systems, metabolic activation, oxidative stress, covalent binding, etc.). Assessment of current cytotoxicity and hepatic-specific biochemical effects is limited by the inability to measure a wide spectrum of potential mechanistic changes involved in the drug-induced toxic injury. A convenient selection of endpoints allows a multiparametric evaluation of drug toxicity. In this regard, cytomic, proteomic, toxicogenomic and metabonomic approaches help to define patterns of hepatotoxicity for early identification of potential adverse effects of the drug to the liver.

  15. An exploratory study of drug use in bar environments

    PubMed Central

    Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431

  16. Antidepressant drug use & the risk of suicide.

    PubMed

    Healy, David; Aldred, Graham

    2005-06-01

    There have been longstanding concerns about the propensity of antidepressants to precipitate suicidality in vulnerable individuals. To investigate this further, first we have analyzed all clinical trials, and in particular trials submitted to regulators for evidence on the relative risk of antidepressants versus placebo for this hazard. Second, we have compiled current epidemiological evidence germane to the issue. Third, we have constructed a model (Investigative Medication Routine; IMR) to shed light on the interactions between drug uptake, patient numbers on treatment and suicidal events. The clinical trial data gives rise to a relative risk of suicide on antidepressants over placebo of the order of a 2.0-2.5 times greater risk with treatment. These figures are supported by epidemiological findings. Investigative Medication Routine translates such findings into estimates of likely adverse outcomes, and explains why apparently increasing consumption of antidepressants would not be expected to lead to increased national suicide rates. From this data, we conclude that there is a clear signal that suicides and suicidal acts may be linked to antidepressant usage. It would seem likely that explicit warnings and monitoring in the early stages of treatment could greatly minimize these hazards. PMID:16194787

  17. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  18. Patterns, Trends, and Meanings of Drug Use by Dance-Drug Users in Edinburgh, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sarah C. E.; Hayward, Emma

    2004-01-01

    A survey of drug use in the past year was completed by 124 clubbers (50% male, 50% female, age range 14-44, mean 24 years). Participants were self selecting and recruited in clubs and pre-club bars. Prevalence rates for alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy were over 80%; 63% reported cocaine and 53% amphetamine use, 15%-43% used ketamine, psilocybin,…

  19. Determinants of drug use: a test of the coping hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, R D; Gove, W R

    1984-01-01

    This paper uses a national probability sample to examine major correlates of drug use among American adults. Demographic correlates of alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, tranquilizer, sleeping pill and stimulant use are explained in terms of a self medication or coping perspective of drug use. Two analysis procedures are used. In the first, respondents were asked to list strategies they use when they have problems. These responses are 'broken down' by drug use categories or 'taking pills'. In the second procedure, attempts are made to interpret the correlations between age, sex, marital status, education and drug use by introducing variables which measure how respondents were experiencing fundamental aspects of their lives (role stress items) and mental health variables. A substantial portion of the variance in drug use that is explained by demographic variables appears to operate through social role and mental health variables, that is, these latter variables interpret the demographic/drug use relationships in a way that is consistent with a coping perspective. The authors conclude that these data and this analysis provided cautious support for a coping perspective. PMID:6143404

  20. Determinants of drug use: a test of the coping hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, R D; Gove, W R

    1984-01-01

    This paper uses a national probability sample to examine major correlates of drug use among American adults. Demographic correlates of alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, tranquilizer, sleeping pill and stimulant use are explained in terms of a self medication or coping perspective of drug use. Two analysis procedures are used. In the first, respondents were asked to list strategies they use when they have problems. These responses are 'broken down' by drug use categories or 'taking pills'. In the second procedure, attempts are made to interpret the correlations between age, sex, marital status, education and drug use by introducing variables which measure how respondents were experiencing fundamental aspects of their lives (role stress items) and mental health variables. A substantial portion of the variance in drug use that is explained by demographic variables appears to operate through social role and mental health variables, that is, these latter variables interpret the demographic/drug use relationships in a way that is consistent with a coping perspective. The authors conclude that these data and this analysis provided cautious support for a coping perspective.

  1. Teachers' social representations on drug use in a secondary school.

    PubMed

    Martini, Jussara Gue; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Increased concern regarding drug abuse among adolescents contributes to the elaboration of prevention programs at schools. This investigation aims to know teachers' social representations, regarding drug abuse, in a secondary school in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A total of 16 teachers of the 5th to 8th grades participated in the study. Data were collected through associations elaborated by teachers in response to the expression: drugs use/abuse. The teacher's representations are organized around a central concept - the vulnerable other: a needy adolescent, who becomes drugs user, highlighting the family, everyday coping, and the school's (in)visibility in prevention actions, as factors related. The complexity of factors involving drugs production, distribution and its commercialization, demands the implementation of actions that go beyond the scopes of education and health. The elaboration of inter-sector prevention programs considering local characteristics is necessary.

  2. Overcome Cancer Cell Drug Resistance Using Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Yang, Hua Li; Yang, Ying Juan; Wang, Lan; Lee, Shao Chin

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment methods for cancer. However, failure in chemotherapy is not uncommon, mainly due to dose-limiting toxicity associated with drug resistance. Management of drug resistance is important towards successful chemotherapy. There are many reports in the Chinese literature that natural products can overcome cancer cell drug resistance, which deserve sharing with scientific and industrial communities. We summarized the reports into four categories: (1) in vitro studies using cell line models; (2) serum pharmacology; (3) in vivo studies using animal models; and (4) clinical studies. Fourteen single compounds were reported to have antidrug resistance activity for the first time. In vitro, compounds were able to overcome drug resistance at nontoxic or subtoxic concentrations, in a dose-dependent manner, by inhibiting drug transporters, cell detoxification capacity, or cell apoptosis sensitivity. Studies in vivo showed that single compounds, herbal extract, and formulas had potent antidrug resistance activities. Importantly, many single compounds, herbal extracts, and formulas have been used clinically to treat various diseases including cancer. The review provides comprehensive data on use of natural compounds to overcome cancer cell drug resistance in China, which may facilitate the therapeutic development of natural products for clinical management of cancer drug resistance. PMID:26421052

  3. Brief interventions for illicit drug use among peripartum women.

    PubMed

    Farr, Sherry L; Hutchings, Yalonda L; Ondersma, Steven J; Creanga, Andreea A

    2014-10-01

    We review the evidence and identify limitations of the current literature on the effectiveness of brief interventions (≤5 intervention sessions) on illicit drug use, treatment enrollment/retention, and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant and postpartum women; and consider this evidence in the context of the broader brief intervention literature. Among 4 published studies identified via systematic review and meeting a priori quality criteria, we found limited, yet promising evidence of the benefit of brief interventions to reduce illicit drug use among postpartum women. Two of the 4 randomized controlled trials tested similar computer-delivered single-session interventions; both demonstrate effects on postpartum drug use. Neither of the 2 randomized controlled trials that assessed treatment use found differences between intervention and control groups. Studies examining brief interventions for smoking and alcohol use among pregnant women, and for illicit drug use in the general adult population, have shown small but statistically significant results of the effectiveness of such interventions. Larger studies, those that examine the effect of assessment alone on illicit drug use, and those that use technology-delivered brief interventions are needed to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions for drug use in the peripartum period.

  4. Pharmacoeconomic consequences of measurement and modification of hospital drug use.

    PubMed

    Ioannides-Demos, L L; Eckert, G M; McLean, A J

    1992-07-01

    Patterns of drug usage affect hospital-based delivery of healthcare in a variety of ways. Adverse reactions to drugs (ADR) precipitate some 5% of admissions and prejudice the care of some 20% of patients who are in hospital, while inadequate drug therapy prejudices outcomes and prolongs hospital stay. Conversely, appropriate application of drugs can promote recovery and increase the quality of care. Well documented examples include prevention of deep vein thrombosis and postoperative wound infections. Accordingly, optimisation of drug use represents a major quality assurance issue in addition to determining cost-efficiency of healthcare delivery. Drug utilisation review (DUR) requires all elements of the quality assurance process. In practice, therapeutically meaningful and cost-efficient exercises can only be mounted if there is knowledge of the linkage between patterns of drug use and clinical outcomes. These processes of measurement are currently rate-limiting in quality assurance. There are various ways that hospital drug usage can be measured. These range from readily available and relatively cheap quantitative methods to methods requiring the availability of expert staff. There is a sequence of methods involving increasing costs and increasing resource demands yielding increasing detail of information obtained. This sequence commences with pharmacy purchases, followed by pharmacy issues to particular clinical areas, prescription or treatment sheet survey, clinical record review, and finally the reports of trained investigators working in the clinical area. The simpler methods can provide useful information and an efficient basis for choosing and planning definitive studies. Once a category of drug use is appropriately targeted for intervention, drug use can be modified by planned intervention with improvement in clinical outcomes and reduced economic costs in many instances. The intervention strategies to modify drug usage may be classed as re

  5. Using Literature-Based Discovery to Explain Adverse Drug Effects.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Dimitar; Kastrin, Andrej; Dinevski, Dejan; Burgun, Anita; Žiberna, Lovro; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    We report on our research in using literature-based discovery (LBD) to provide pharmacological and/or pharmacogenomic explanations for reported adverse drug effects. The goal of LBD is to generate novel and potentially useful hypotheses by analyzing the scientific literature and optionally some additional resources. Our assumption is that drugs have effects on some genes or proteins and that these genes or proteins are associated with the observed adverse effects. Therefore, by using LBD we try to find genes or proteins that link the drugs with the reported adverse effects. These genes or proteins can be used to provide insight into the processes causing the adverse effects. Initial results show that our method has the potential to assist in explaining reported adverse drug effects. PMID:27318993

  6. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  7. Gendered Pathways: Violent Childhood Maltreatment, Sex Exchange, and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Verona, Edelyn; Murphy, Brett; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder. Method We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 304 (130 women) adults with recent histories of violence and/or drug use, who completed a substance use diagnostic interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and a sex exchange questionnaire. Results First, structural equation modeling revealed that childhood sexual and physical abuse were related to increased drug engagement in women and men, respectively, above the influence of early childhood contextual variables (e.g., neighborhood, family) and age. Second, sexual abuse was related to sex exchange, which in turn was related to drug use symptoms in women but not men. Conclusions These data provide empirical support for distinct trauma-related pathways to drug use problems in men and women, which has implications for gendered explanations and prevention approaches. PMID:26229728

  8. [Multicenter study on the use of drugs during pregnancy in Spain (II). Drugs used during pregnancy. Spain DUP workshop].

    PubMed

    1991-01-12

    A structured questionnaire administered to the 1,371 participating women was used for data collection on drug use in the multicentric study on Drug Use during Pregnancy in Spain. This paper describes and discusses the pattern of the use of medicines during pregnancy. Only 104 women (7%) stated that they had not taken any drug during their pregnancy, while 627 (45%) had taken 3 or more medicines; 39% of all medicines used were fixed-dose combinations of two or more drugs, the mean number of these taken by the participating women being 8.9. The most frequent reason for taking medicines during pregnancy was vitamin supplementation (823 women, 60%), and out of the 1,119 medicines taken to this end, 443 (30%) contained vitamin A. Other reasons for using medicines were the treatment of anaemia (497, 36%), dispepsia (235, 17%), nausea and/or vomiting (204, 14%), colds, pain, urinary tract infections, headache, and genital infections.

  9. First-trimester drug use and congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Aselton, P; Jick, H; Milunsky, A; Hunter, J R; Stergachis, A

    1985-04-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of certain major congenital disorders among live-born infants of 6509 mothers in a prepaid health plan for the 30-month period of January 1, 1980 through June 30, 1982 who used a wide variety of drugs during the first trimester of pregnancy. The results were similar to those obtained in this population in a prior 30-month study. No strong associations between any of the commonly used drugs and the congenital disorders studied were present.

  10. Development of new drug delivery system for protein drugs using silicone (I).

    PubMed

    Kajihara, M; Sugie, T; Mizuno, M; Tamura, N; Sano, A; Fujioka, K; Kashiwazaki, Y; Yamaoka, T; Sugawara, S; Urabe, Y

    2000-05-01

    A novel technique, by which protein drugs effective in small doses can be released over a long period, was developed using silicone and a water-soluble substance. In this study, interferon (IFN) was used as a model of the protein drugs. The IFN-silicone formulation released IFN over long periods of time in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in nude mice for about 100 days after a single administration. This indicates that physiologically active IFN is released over a prolonged period of time from the IFN-silicone formulation in vivo. Silicone formulations are expected to be a practically feasible sustained-release formulation. PMID:10708878

  11. Electrolyte disorders associated with the use of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Liamis, George; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2016-04-15

    The use of anticancer drugs is beneficial for patients with malignancies but is frequently associated with the occurrence of electrolyte disorders, which can be hazardous and in many cases fatal. The review presents the electrolyte abnormalities that can occur with the use of anticancer drugs and provides the related mechanisms. Platinum-containing anticancer drugs induce hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalcemia. Moreover, platinum-containing drugs are associated with hyponatremia, especially when combined with large volumes of hypotonic fluids aiming to prevent nephrotoxicity. Alkylating agents have been linked with the occurrence of hyponatremia [due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)] and Fanconi's syndrome (hypophosphatemia, aminoaciduria, hypouricemia and/or glucosuria). Vinca alkaloids are associated with hyponatremia due to SIADH. Epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody inhibitors induce hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalcemia. Other, monoclonal antibodies, such as cixutumumab, cause hyponatremia due to SIADH. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are linked to hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors induce hyponatremia (due to aldosterone resistance), hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia. Other drugs such as immunomodulators or methotrexate have been also associated with hyponatremia. The administration of estrogens at high doses, streptozocin, azacitidine and suramin may induce hypophosphatemia. Finally, the drug-related tumor lysis syndrome is associated with hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia. The prevention of electrolyte derangements may lead to reduction of adverse events during the administration of anticancer drugs.

  12. Electrolyte disorders associated with the use of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Liamis, George; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2016-04-15

    The use of anticancer drugs is beneficial for patients with malignancies but is frequently associated with the occurrence of electrolyte disorders, which can be hazardous and in many cases fatal. The review presents the electrolyte abnormalities that can occur with the use of anticancer drugs and provides the related mechanisms. Platinum-containing anticancer drugs induce hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalcemia. Moreover, platinum-containing drugs are associated with hyponatremia, especially when combined with large volumes of hypotonic fluids aiming to prevent nephrotoxicity. Alkylating agents have been linked with the occurrence of hyponatremia [due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)] and Fanconi's syndrome (hypophosphatemia, aminoaciduria, hypouricemia and/or glucosuria). Vinca alkaloids are associated with hyponatremia due to SIADH. Epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody inhibitors induce hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalcemia. Other, monoclonal antibodies, such as cixutumumab, cause hyponatremia due to SIADH. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are linked to hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors induce hyponatremia (due to aldosterone resistance), hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia. Other drugs such as immunomodulators or methotrexate have been also associated with hyponatremia. The administration of estrogens at high doses, streptozocin, azacitidine and suramin may induce hypophosphatemia. Finally, the drug-related tumor lysis syndrome is associated with hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia. The prevention of electrolyte derangements may lead to reduction of adverse events during the administration of anticancer drugs. PMID:26939882

  13. Targeted drug delivery using genetically engineered diatom biosilica.

    PubMed

    Delalat, Bahman; Sheppard, Vonda C; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Rao, Shasha; Prestidge, Clive A; McPhee, Gordon; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Donoghue, Jacqueline F; Pillay, Vinochani; Johns, Terrance G; Kröger, Nils; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-01-01

    The ability to selectively kill cancerous cell populations while leaving healthy cells unaffected is a key goal in anticancer therapeutics. The use of nanoporous silica-based materials as drug-delivery vehicles has recently proven successful, yet production of these materials requires costly and toxic chemicals. Here we use diatom microalgae-derived nanoporous biosilica to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer cells. The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is genetically engineered to display an IgG-binding domain of protein G on the biosilica surface, enabling attachment of cell-targeting antibodies. Neuroblastoma and B-lymphoma cells are selectively targeted and killed by biosilica displaying specific antibodies sorbed with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Treatment with the same biosilica leads to tumour growth regression in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. These data indicate that genetically engineered biosilica frustules may be used as versatile 'backpacks' for the targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs to tumour sites.

  14. The Changing Drug Culture: Use and Misuse of Cognition-Enhancing Drugs.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    There has been an increase in diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with approximately 9% of American children now diagnosed, and a concomitant increase in the use of stimulants (eg, amphetamines, methylphenidate) to manage ADHD. Nonstimulant drugs (eg, atomoxetine, guanfacine, clonidine) also are used, but most patients are treated with stimulants. All of these drugs are effective for management of ADHD, and, overall, use in childhood does not seem to increase the risk of substance abuse later in life. However, widespread use has resulted in prescription stimulants being diverted for nonmedical uses, particularly by high school and college students seeking cognitive enhancement for improved academic performance. Studies of ADHD drugs for improving cognition in patients without ADHD have mixed results, and any improvements appear to be modest and short-term. Other substances also are used for cognitive enhancement. Drugs for Alzheimer disease are being used for mild cognitive impairment, though there is no evidence that they are effective. Creatine may have mild cognition-enhancing properties, but study results often are confounded by the addition of exercise, which by itself is thought to improve cognition. There is no evidence that other supplements, such as vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids, improve cognitive function.

  15. The Changing Drug Culture: Use and Misuse of Cognition-Enhancing Drugs.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    There has been an increase in diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with approximately 9% of American children now diagnosed, and a concomitant increase in the use of stimulants (eg, amphetamines, methylphenidate) to manage ADHD. Nonstimulant drugs (eg, atomoxetine, guanfacine, clonidine) also are used, but most patients are treated with stimulants. All of these drugs are effective for management of ADHD, and, overall, use in childhood does not seem to increase the risk of substance abuse later in life. However, widespread use has resulted in prescription stimulants being diverted for nonmedical uses, particularly by high school and college students seeking cognitive enhancement for improved academic performance. Studies of ADHD drugs for improving cognition in patients without ADHD have mixed results, and any improvements appear to be modest and short-term. Other substances also are used for cognitive enhancement. Drugs for Alzheimer disease are being used for mild cognitive impairment, though there is no evidence that they are effective. Creatine may have mild cognition-enhancing properties, but study results often are confounded by the addition of exercise, which by itself is thought to improve cognition. There is no evidence that other supplements, such as vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids, improve cognitive function. PMID:26881770

  16. Drug use and nightlife: more than just dance music

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research over the last decade has focused almost exclusively on the association between electronic music and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") or other stimulant drug use in clubs. Less attention has been given to other nightlife venues and music preferences, such as rock music or southern/funky music. This study aims to examine a broader spectrum of nightlife, beyond dance music. It looks at whether certain factors influence the frequency of illegal drug and alcohol use: the frequency of going to certain nightlife venues in the previous month (such as, pubs, clubs or goa parties); listening to rock music, dance music or southern and funky music; or sampling venues (such as, clubs, dance events or rock festivals). The question of how these nightlife variables influence the use of popular drugs like alcohol, MDMA, cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines is addressed. Methods The study sample consisted of 775 visitors of dance events, clubs and rock festivals in Belgium. Study participants answered a survey on patterns of going out, music preferences and drug use. Odds ratios were used to determine whether the odds of being an illegal substance user are higher for certain nightlife-related variables. Furthermore, five separate ordinal regression analyses were used to investigate drug use in relation to music preference, venues visited during the last month and sampling venue. Results Respondents who used illegal drugs were 2.5 times more likely to report that they prefer dance music. Goa party visitors were nearly 5 times more likely to use illegal drugs. For those who reported visiting clubs, the odds of using illegal drugs were nearly 2 times higher. Having gone to a pub in the last month was associated with both more frequent alcohol use and more frequent illegal substance use. People who reported liking rock music and attendees of rock festivals used drugs less frequently. Conclusions It was concluded that a more extended recreational

  17. Measuring Drug Metabolism Kinetics and Drug-Drug Interactions Using Self-Assembled Monolayers for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lyndsey L; Berns, Eric J; Bugga, Pradeep; George, Alfred L; Mrksich, Milan

    2016-09-01

    The competition of two drugs for the same metabolizing enzyme is a common mechanism for drug-drug interactions that can lead to altered kinetics in drug metabolism and altered elimination rates in vivo. With the prevalence of multidrug therapy, there is great potential for serious drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. In an effort to prevent adverse drug reactions, the FDA mandates the evaluation of the potential for metabolic inhibition by every new chemical entity. Conventional methods for assaying drug metabolism (e.g., those based on HPLC) have been established for measuring drug-drug interactions; however, they are low-throughput. Here we describe an approach to measure the catalytic activity of CYP2C9 using the high-throughput technique self-assembled monolayers for matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (SAMDI) mass spectrometry. We measured the kinetics of CYP450 metabolism of the substrate, screened a set of drugs for inhibition of CYP2C9 and determined the Ki values for inhibitors. The throughput of this platform may enable drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions to be interrogated at a scale that cannot be achieved with current methods. PMID:27467208

  18. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  19. Use of antifungal drugs in hematology

    PubMed Central

    Nucci, Marcio

    2012-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used. PMID:23125547

  20. 21 CFR 500.25 - Anthelmintic drugs for use in animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anthelmintic drugs for use in animals. 500.25 Section 500.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 500.25 Anthelmintic drugs for use in animals. (a) The Commissioner of Food and Drugs has...

  1. Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

  2. Punishing versus reinforcing strategies of drug discontinuance: effect of persuaders' drug use.

    PubMed

    Le Poire, B A; Erlandson, K T; Hallett, J S

    1998-01-01

    This study tests and extends inconsistent nurturing as control theory (Le Poire, 1992,1995) by exploring the use of reinforcing and punishing drug discontinuance strategies based on the drug-use status of the functional/persuading partners (past abuse, current abuse, current use, and nonuse). All partners were inconsistent in their use of reinforcement and punishment of substance abuse, with past abusers punishing the substance abuse most before they labeled the drug use as problematic, and current users and nonusers punishing the substance abuse the most following the labeling and in the postfrustration period. Additionally, current abusers were the most reinforcing of alternative behavior during every time period, a strategy that was most highly related to reduction in relapse. Furthermore, nonusers utilized the most indulgence and antidrink strategies, that are in opposition based on their reinforcing and punishing natures. Past abusers were rated as most persuasively effective by their partners, whereas nonusers were evaluated as the least persuasively effective. Finally, drug use was related to the mental health of the persuading partner, in that current abusers and nonusers were significantly more depressed and anxious than past abusers or current users.

  3. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyen La, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Phuc Pham, Van; Huyen Nguyen, Thi Minh; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-03-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  4. Use of therapeutic touch in treatment of drug addictions.

    PubMed

    Hagemaster, J

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the efficacy of Therapeutic Touch (TT) as a form of treatment intervention with persons who abuse alcohol and/or other drugs. A between-subjects design compared treatment outcomes of three groups of alcohol and other drug abusers over five months. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Beck Depression Inventory (BI), and Personal Experiences: Therapeutic Touch and Frequency of Alcohol/Drug Use questionnaires were administered to the group receiving TT (Group A) and both control groups (Mimic TT Group B and No Intervention Group C) at various points in the study. Preliminary findings indicate that the use of TT could be effective in prolonging periods of abstinence for alcohol and other drug abusers.

  5. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Drug Design Using a Molecular Hybridization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Melo, Thais Regina Ferreira; Vizioli, Ednir Oliveira; dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Chung, Man Chin

    2011-01-01

    The design of new drugs with better physiochemical properties, adequate absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, effective pharmacologic potency and lacking toxicity remains is a challenge. Inflammation is the initial trigger of several different diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, cancer; and disorders such as obesity and sexual dysfunction. Although inflammation is not the direct cause of these disorders, inflammatory processes often increase related pain and suffering. New anti-inflammatory drugs developed using molecular hybridization techniques to obtain multiple-ligand drugs can act at one or multiple targets, allowing for synergic action and minimizing toxicity. This work is a review of new anti-inflammatory drugs developed using the molecular modification approach.

  7. Using Aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shengnan; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2014-02-01

    Systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. Most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). Antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. Identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. We used Aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tractable sexual cycle and calcofluor white as a model antifungal agent to cross-reference our results with other studies. Within 2 weeks from inoculation on sublethal doses of calcofluor white, we isolated 24 A. nidulans adaptive strains from sectoring colonies. Meiotic analysis showed that these strains had single-gene mutations. In each case, the resistance was specific to calcofluor white, since there was no cross-resistance to caspofungin (echinocandin). Mutation sites were identified in two mutants by next-generation sequencing. These were confirmed by reengineering the mutation in a wild-type strain using a gene replacement strategy. One of these mutated genes was related to cell wall synthesis, and the other one was related to drug metabolism. Our strategy has wide application for many fungal species, for antifungal compounds used in agriculture as well as health care, and potentially during protracted drug therapy once drug resistance arises. We suggest that our strategy will be useful for keeping ahead in the drug resistance arms race. PMID:24363365

  8. When the drug of choice is a drug of confusion: embalming fluid use in inner city Hartford, CT.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill; Mirhej, Greg; Shaw, Susan; Saleheen, Hassan; Vivian, James; Hastings, Erica; Rohena, Lucy; Jennings, DeShawn; Navarro, Juhem; Santelices, Claudia; Wu, Alan H B; Smith, Andrew; Perez, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a new illicit drug--embalming fluid mixtures--in Hartford, CT based on a recent assessment of drug consumption in an outreach-recruited sample of 242 not-in-treatment active drug users. Sociodemographic, drug use, and health and social problems of drug users who do and do not use embalming fluid mixture are presented, revealing some notable differences between these two groups of street drug users. Despite regular consumption, we report that embalming fluid mixture users are often uncertain about what is in this new drug, despite experiencing often powerful effects. Urine toxicology findings from a subsample of individuals who used embalming fluid mixtures in the last 48 hours, reveal the frequent presence of phencyclidine (PCP) as well as other drugs. The public health implications of this new wave of PCP use are assessed.

  9. Predicting Heavy Drug Use. Results of a Longitudinal Study, Youth Characteristics Describing and Predicting Heavy Drug Use by Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildhaus, Sam; Shaw-Taylor, Yoku; Pedlow, Steven; Pergamit, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the movement of adolescents and young adults into and out of drug use and to predict heavy drug use. The data source is the Department of Labor's National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which began in 1979 with a sample of 12,686 adolescents aged 14-21. After 17 rounds and 19 years, the response rate in…

  10. International trends in alcohol and drug use among vehicle drivers.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included.

  11. New Drug for Use in Bone Scans Approved

    Cancer.gov

    The FDA has approved a New Drug Application (NDA) from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, for a new strength of a previously approved drug, Sodium Fluoride F18, for use in bone scans. In contrast to Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), which has been the only approved radioactive tracer for bone scans, Sodium Fluoride F18 is not subject to the supply problems that have led to recent nationwide shortages of Tc-99m.

  12. Drugs and Pregnancy: The Effects of Nonmedical Use of Drugs on Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Neonates. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse presents this report as the fifth in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the the issues of drug use and abuse. Included in this volume are summaries of the major research findings concerning the effects of nonmedical drug use on pregnancy.…

  13. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs. 5.35 Section 5.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or...

  14. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs. 5.35 Section 5.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or...

  15. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs. 5.35 Section 5.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or...

  16. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs. 5.35 Section 5.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or...

  17. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs. 5.35 Section 5.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or...

  18. Use of prescription drugs in athletes.

    PubMed

    Alaranta, Antti; Alaranta, Hannu; Helenius, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Although athletes are young and generally healthy, they use a variety of non-doping classified medicines to treat injuries, cure illnesses and obtain a competitive edge. Athletes and sports medicine physicians try to optimize the treatment of symptoms related to extreme training during an elite athlete's active career. According to several studies, the use of antiasthmatic medication is more frequent among elite athletes than in the general population. The type of training and the kind of sport influence the prevalence of asthma. Asthma is most common among those competing in endurance events, such as cycling, swimming, cross-country skiing and long-distance running. Recent studies show that athletes use also NSAIDs and oral antibacterials more commonly than age-matched controls, especially athletes competing in speed and power sports. Inappropriately high doses and concomitant use of several different NSAIDs has been observed. All medicines have adverse effects that may have deleterious effects on elite athletes' performance. Thus, any unnecessary medication use should be minimized in elite athletes. Inhaled beta(2)-agonists may cause tachycardia and muscle tremor, which are especially harmful in events requiring accuracy and a steady hand. In experimental animal models of acute injury, especially selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors have been shown to be detrimental to tissue-level repair. They have been shown to impair mechanical strength return following acute injury to bone, ligament and tendon. This may have clinical implications for future injury susceptibility. However, it should be noted that the current animal studies have limited translation to the clinical setting. Adverse effects related to the CNS and gastrointestinal adverse reactions are commonly reported in connection with NSAID use also in elite athletes. In addition to the potential for adverse effects, recent studies have shown that NSAID use may negatively regulate muscle growth by inhibiting

  19. Hair Drug Testing Results and Self-reported Drug Use among Primary Care Patients with Moderate-risk Illicit Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P.; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study sought to examine the utility of hair testing as a research measure of drug use among individuals with moderate-risk drug use based on the internationally-validated Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Methods This study is a secondary analysis using baseline data from a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug misuse, in which 360 adults with moderate-risk drug use were recruited from two community clinics in New Mexico, USA. The current study compared self-reported drug use on the ASSIST with laboratory analysis of hair samples using a standard commercially-available 5-panel test with assay screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) confirmation. Both self-report and hair testing covered a 3 month period. Results Overall concordance between hair testing and self-report was 57.5% (marijuana), 86.5% (cocaine), 85.8% (amphetamines), and 74.3% (opioids). Specificity of hair testing at standard laboratory cut-offs exceeded 90% for all drugs, but sensitivity of hair testing relative to self-report was low, identifying only 52.3% (127/243) of self-disclosed marijuana users, 65.2% (30/46) of cocaine users, 24.2% (8/33) of amphetamine users, and 2.9% (2/68) of opioid users. Among participants who disclosed using marijuana or cocaine in the past 3 months, participants with a negative hair test tended to report lower-frequency use of those drugs (p< .001 for marijuana and cocaine). Conclusions Hair testing can be useful in studies with moderate-risk drug users, but the potential for under-identification of low-frequency use suggests that researchers should consider employing low detection cut-offs and using hair testing in conjunction with self-report. PMID:24932945

  20. Drugs and Personality: Personality Correlates and Predictors of Non-Opiate Drug Use. Research Issues 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of abstracts from current research and theoretical studies explores various aspects of the relationship between non-opiate drug use and personality. The literature covers a period from 1968 through 1975 and focuses on tests that were conducted on adolescents and college students from the United States, Canada and Sydney, Australia.…

  1. From recreational to functional drug use: the evolution of drugs in American higher education, 1960–2014

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of so-called cognitive-enhancing drugs is well documented in American higher education. There has been little historical analysis, however, specifically exploring the role of postsecondary institutions in this evolving drug narrative. This paper traces substance use and research trends in American higher education over the past half-century, divided into three eras defined by their disparate approaches to drug policy and public health. Contextualised by historic events, shifting policies and epidemiological data, this multidisciplinary analysis contends that functional, academically oriented drug use is likely to continue rising on US campuses, while recreational drug use will evolve and persist. As history provides a useful lens for understanding the involvement of academe in the first era of drug concern in America, ongoing innovations in medical and social science may be instructive to help ensure that institutions respond judiciously in the present era of new drug synthesis and drug policy recession. PMID:27499559

  2. Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Kharal, Athar

    2009-01-01

    Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence.

  3. Drug Delivery via Cell Membrane Fusion Using Lipopeptide Modified Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Efficient delivery of drugs to living cells is still a major challenge. Currently, most methods rely on the endocytotic pathway resulting in low delivery efficiency due to limited endosomal escape and/or degradation in lysosomes. Here, we report a new method for direct drug delivery into the cytosol of live cells in vitro and invivo utilizing targeted membrane fusion between liposomes and live cells. A pair of complementary coiled-coil lipopeptides was embedded in the lipid bilayer of liposomes and cell membranes respectively, resulting in targeted membrane fusion with concomitant release of liposome encapsulated cargo including fluorescent dyes and the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin. Using a wide spectrum of endocytosis inhibitors and endosome trackers, we demonstrate that the major site of cargo release is at the plasma membrane. This method thus allows for the quick and efficient delivery of drugs and is expected to have many invitro, ex vivo, and invivo applications. PMID:27725960

  4. Transdermal drug delivery in vitro using diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Bartosova, L; Bajgar, J

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of percutaneous absorption of molecules is a very important step in the evaluation of any dermal or transdermal drug delivery system. In order to perform percutaneous drug absorption studies, it is essential that the methods are standardized and that the integrity of the skin is monitored and maintained to ensure that the data obtained are valid and relevant. Reproducible data on percutaneous absorption in humans are as well required to predict the systemic risk from dermal exposure to chemicals, such as hazardous substances at the workplace, agrochemicals and cosmetic ingredients. In vitro and animal models provide important tools for screening a series of drug formulations, evaluation of skin permeation enhancing properties and mechanism of action of the carrier systems and estimation of rank of skin transport for a series of drug molecules. In this review, we have summarized in vitro testing of skin absorption using static Franz-type diffusion cells.

  5. Biocompatible hydrodispersible magnetite nanoparticles used as antibiotic drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, Alexandra; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Vasile, Bogdan Ştefan; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Pop, Corina Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a newly synthesized vectorizing nanosystem, based on hydrodispersible magnetite nanoparticles (HMNPs) with an average size less than 10 nm, obtained by precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in basic solution of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis coupled with thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA) and bioevaluated for cytotoxicity and antibiotic delivery in active forms. The obtained data demonstrate that HMNPs can be used as an efficient drug delivery system, for clinically relevant antimicrobial drugs. HMNPs antimicrobial activity depended on the loaded drug structure and the tested microbial strain, being more efficient against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, comparing with the Escherichia coli strain. The novel HMNPs demonstrated an acceptable biocompatibility level, being thus a very good candidate for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery or targeting.

  6. Sex Work and Drug Use in a Subculture of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Kiley, Marion C.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the subculture of violence thesis as it relates to female street sex workers in Miami. Interview and focus group methods were used to study the intersections of childhood trauma, drug use, and violent victimization among 325 women. Using targeted sampling, crack- and heroin-using sex workers were recruited through street…

  7. [Nicotine--drug addiction--AIDS. Drug use habits of Vienna addicts].

    PubMed

    Loimer, N; Vedovelli, H; Presslich, O; Werner, E; Hollerer, E; Pfersmann, V; Schmid-Siegel, B

    1991-01-01

    In Austria it is illegal to sell tobacco to young adolescents. A diverse sample of 358 narcotic addicts was investigated at the Psychiatric University Clinic of Vienna. Data were obtained from on site confidential interviews and a HIV-test was conducted. The individual drug use history was recorded and, interestingly, tobacco addiction was the first stage in starting a drug career. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between onset of heroin use and HIV-1 infection. It is concluded that in Austria not only the availability nicotine and alcohol to young adolescents should be prohibited, but also their use should be punishable. Easy access to nicotine as in public restaurants or from automatic distributors, has to be withdrawn. Tobacco advertisements may drive vulnerable young adolescents to early nicotine abuse and this may be followed by addition to other drugs and diseases causing death, including AIDS. Socioeconomic data, as well as the methadone data are presented. 180 out of the 358 patients were on methadone maintenance. Methadone treatment offers a first step toward social rehabilitation for drug addicts who have been living as criminals on the fringe of society. Physicians have a clear responsibility to lead the effort on all fronts against tobacco, especially in view of the HIV epidemic. PMID:1763508

  8. Development of novel drug delivery systems using phage display technology for clinical application of protein drugs

    PubMed Central

    NAGANO, Kazuya; TSUTSUMI, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic proteins for cancer, hepatitis, and autoimmune conditions, but their clinical applications are limited, except in the cases of drugs based on erythropoietin, granulocyte colony–stimulating factor, interferon-alpha, and antibodies, owing to problems with fundamental technologies for protein drug discovery. It is difficult to identify proteins useful as therapeutic seeds or targets. Another problem in using bioactive proteins is pleiotropic actions through receptors, making it hard to elicit desired effects without side effects. Additionally, bioactive proteins have poor therapeutic effects owing to degradation by proteases and rapid excretion from the circulatory system. Therefore, it is essential to establish a series of novel drug delivery systems (DDS) to overcome these problems. Here, we review original technologies in DDS. First, we introduce antibody proteomics technology for effective selection of proteins useful as therapeutic seeds or targets and identification of various kinds of proteins, such as cancer-specific proteins, cancer metastasis–related proteins, and a cisplatin resistance–related protein. Especially Ephrin receptor A10 is expressed in breast tumor tissues but not in normal tissues and is a promising drug target potentially useful for breast cancer treatment. Moreover, we have developed a system for rapidly creating functional mutant proteins to optimize the seeds for therapeutic applications and used this system to generate various kinds of functional cytokine muteins. Among them, R1antTNF is a TNFR1-selective antagonistic mutant of TNF and is the first mutein converted from agonist to antagonist. We also review a novel polymer-conjugation system to improve the in vivo stability of bioactive proteins. Site-specific PEGylated R1antTNF is uniform at the molecular level, and its bioactivity is similar to that of unmodified R1antTNF. In the future, we hope that many innovative protein drugs will

  9. Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

    2014-09-01

    Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. PMID:25038195

  10. Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

    2014-09-01

    Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents.

  11. [Drug use among students in Cali, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bergonzoli Peláez, G; Rico, O; Ramírez, A; Paz, M I; Ramírez, J; Rivas, J C; Salinas, A; Rodríguez, O; Salazar, O; Rincón, N

    1989-01-01

    The use of alcohol, tobacco, marihuana, cocaine, and bazuco was examined in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 512 secondary-school students enrolled in public and private schools in Cali, Colombia. The overall prevalence of use for any of these substances was 59.38% in the public schools and 36.96% in the private schools (z = 4.6, P less than 0.05). The probability of finding an alcohol user was about 55.26%. The frequency of use for all the substances was 18.9% in the public schools and 7.46% in the private ones. Experience with marihuana, cocaine, and bazuco was more frequent in the public schools. The average age of users (19.91 years) was higher than that of non-users (16.25 years): t = 8.34, P less than 0.05. Students in the public schools with a family history of mental illness had almost a ninefold greater risk of being substance users (RR = 8.84, IC 95% = 1.22-3.37); among students in the private schools, having personal conflicts with authority figures (teachers and the police) was a significant risk factor (RR = 2.03, IC 95% = 1.22-3.37). PMID:2525388

  12. Drug diffusion and biological responses of arteries using a drug-eluting stent with nonuniform coating

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Noboru; Mori, Yuhei; Uchiyama, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a nonuniform coating, abluminal-gradient coating (AGC), which leaves the abluminal surface of the curves and links parts of the stent free from the drug coating, on the diffusion direction of the drug and the biological responses of the artery to drug-eluting stent (DES) by comparing the AGC-sirolimus stent and the conventional full-surface coating (CFC) sirolimus stent. The study aimed to verify whether the AGC approach was appropriate for the development of a safer DES, minimizing the risks of stent thrombosis due to delayed endothelialization by the drug and distal embolization due to cracking of the coating layer on the hinge parts of the DES on stent expansion. In the in vitro local drug diffusion study, we used rhodamine B as a model drug, and rhodamine B released from the AGC stent diffused predominantly into the abluminal side of the alginate artery model. Conversely, rhodamine B released from the CFC stent quickly spread to the luminal side of the artery model, where endothelial cell regeneration is required. In the biological responses study, the luminal surface of the iliac artery implanted with the AGC-sirolimus stent in a rabbit iliac artery for 2 weeks was completely covered with endothelial-like cells. On the other hand, the luminal surface of the iliac artery implanted with the CFC-sirolimus stent for 2 weeks only showed partial coverage with endothelial-like cells. While thrombosis was observed in two of the three CFC-sirolimus stents, it was observed in only one of the three AGC-sirolimus stents. Taken together, these findings indicate that the designed nonuniform coating (AGC) is an appropriate approach to ensure a safer DES. However, the number of studies is limited and a larger study should be conducted to reach a statistically significant conclusion. PMID:27051322

  13. Employment Trajectories: Exploring Gender Differences and Impacts of Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, David Y.C.; Evans, Elizabeth; Hara, Motoaki; Weiss, Robert E.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of drug use on employment over 20 years among men and women, utilizing data on 7,661 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Growth mixture modeling was applied, and five distinct employment trajectory groups were identified for both men and women. The identified patterns were largely similar for men and women except that a U-shape employment trajectory was uniquely identified for women. Early-initiation drug users, users of “hard” drugs, and frequent drug users were more likely to demonstrate consistently low levels of employment, and the negative relationship between drug use and employment was more apparent among men than women. Also, positive associations between employment and marriage became more salient for men over time, as did negative associations between employment and childrearing among women. Processes are dynamic and complex, suggesting that throughout the life course, protective factors that reduce the risk of employment problems emerge and change, as do critical periods for maximizing the impact of drug prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:21765533

  14. Use of psychotropic drugs and associated dental diseases.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Giovanni; Manzon, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Patients with problems related to central nervous system dysfunctions are often treated with psychotropic drugs. These include antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants, and drugs blocking specific receptors in the brain such as anticholinergics or beta-blockers. However, these medications have serious side effects affecting the oral health. In addition, many dental patients make use of psychoactive drugs, such as amphetamine, ecstasy, and cocaine. This article aims to review data on the psychotropic drugs being used in the last 30 years, their pharmacological profile, with special attention to the side effects related to the oral health. Oral diseases such as bruxism, orofacial dystonia, oromandibular dyskinesia, and rabbit syndrome are related to extrapyramidal effects of antipsychotic drugs because of their antagonist activity on the dopaminergic receptors. Drugs with anticholinergic and/or antiadrenergic effects such as tricyclic antidepressants may cause dry mouth and related complications such as candidiasis and other oral infections. Among mood stabilizers, lithium treatment induces a wide range of side effects on oral system including dry mouth, sialorrhea, infections, and ulceration of the oral cavity. Psychostimulants may instead provoke xerotomia, gingival enlargements, bruxism, dental erosion, mucosal ulceration, and oral/nasal lesions. This literature review supports the idea that the higher prevalence of oral diseases among patients with mental disorders may be attributed to the side effects of their medications mediated by complex interactions between different targeted receptors. Thus, dentists must be aware of the possible risks of these medications in order to take appropriate precautions in treating these patients. PMID:25492713

  15. Using personal digital assistants to access drug information.

    PubMed

    McCreadie, Scott R; Stevenson, James G; Sweet, Burgunda V; Kramer, Mike

    2002-07-15

    The use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) to access drug information in a health system is described. Given the widespread use of PDAs at an 872-bed university health system, an opportunity existed to provide current drug information to physicians via these devices. As part of the health system's intranet, extensive online content had been made available through a browser; extension to PDAs was a natural next step. There were two primary requirements: the ability to synchronize information with the database server when a PDA was used and the development of content and applications by using existing staff. Mobile enterprise software was chosen that supports multiple PDA platforms, is easy to use, and does not require programming skills. The software works through customized "channels," or collections of information from a content provider. The customized channel service works over the Internet. Two channels of content were created, an ambulatory care channel and an inpatient care channel. The ambulatory care channel contains a list of preferred ambulatory care agents, poison control information, the locations of outpatient pharmacies, drug information, and safety tips for prescribing. The inpatient channel contains the inpatient formulary, current news and events, information on currrent drug shortages and recalls, pharmacy contact information, and medication safety tips. When a user synchronizes his or her PDA, the software contacts the department's intranet servers and processes the request. The data are compressed and downloaded to the user's PDA. A university health system successfully used PDAs to access drug and other information. PMID:12132560

  16. Setting goals for drug policy: harm reduction or use reduction?

    PubMed

    Caulkins, J P; Reuter, P

    1997-09-01

    Historically, United States drug policy has focused on use reduction; harm reduction is a prominent alternative. This paper aims to provoke and inform more debate about the relative merits of these two. Since harm is not necessarily proportional to use, use reduction and harm reduction differ. Both terms are somewhat ambiguous; precisely defining them clarifies thinking and policy implications. Measures associated with use reduction goals are poor; those associated with harm reduction are even worse. National goals influence the many decentralized individuals who collectively make drug policy; clearly enunciating goals makes some policy choices transparent and goals serve a variety of purposes besides guiding programmatic decisions. We recommend that the overall objective be to minimize the total harm associated with drug production, distribution, consumption and control. Reducing use should be seen as a principal means of attaining that end.

  17. 21 CFR 530.30 - Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Extralabel Use of Human and Animal Drugs in Animals Not Intended for Human Consumption § 530.30 Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals. (a) Because extralabel use of animal and human drugs in nonfood-producing animals does...

  18. 21 CFR 530.30 - Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Extralabel Use of Human and Animal Drugs in Animals Not Intended for Human Consumption § 530.30 Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals. (a) Because extralabel use of animal and human drugs in nonfood-producing animals does...

  19. 21 CFR 530.30 - Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Extralabel Use of Human and Animal Drugs in Animals Not Intended for Human Consumption § 530.30 Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals. (a) Because extralabel use of animal and human drugs in nonfood-producing animals does...

  20. 21 CFR 530.30 - Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Extralabel Use of Human and Animal Drugs in Animals Not Intended for Human Consumption § 530.30 Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals. (a) Because extralabel use of animal and human drugs in nonfood-producing animals does...

  1. 21 CFR 530.30 - Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Extralabel Use of Human and Animal Drugs in Animals Not Intended for Human Consumption § 530.30 Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals. (a) Because extralabel use of animal and human drugs in nonfood-producing animals does...

  2. Patterns and Correlates of Drug Use Among Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Killip, Jack; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A drug-use survey was administered in a large metropolitan, middle class high school to test two hypotheses: a. drug users can be divided according to the types of drugs used (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana vs. opiates, LSD, amphetamines, etc.); and, b. respondents' drug use is significantly related to their peers drug use. Both hypotheses were…

  3. 21 CFR 316.40 - Treatment use of a designated orphan drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment use of a designated orphan drug. 316.40... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Open Protocols for Investigations § 316.40 Treatment use of a designated orphan drug. Prospective investigators seeking to obtain treatment use of designated orphan...

  4. [Self-concept and drug use in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and drug use among adolescents. From the responses of 632 participants (47.5% females) aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.88 years, SD = 1.71 years), results showed negative relationships between family, academic and physical self-concept, and drug use. Although a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use was found, this significant relationship disappeared once the age and sex of adolescents was controlled statistically. Moreover, the study includes other adjustment indicators in adolescence (psychological adjustment, personal competence, antisocial behavior and parenting). Results support the idea of self-concept as an important correlate of psychological well-being and a basic theoretical construct for explaining adjusted and adaptive behaviors in adolescence. Likewise, our results underline the need for statistical control of the effect of a third variable (sex), which could explain some contradictory results reported in the literature (a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use), so as to avoid reaching conclusions based on spurious relationships. self-concept, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, adolescence, psychosocial adjustment, drug use.

  5. Cannabis Use, Beliefs about "Hard Drugs" and "Soft Drugs", and the Ineffectiveness of Anti-Drug Interventions in French High-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study drug-related beliefs among adolescents, and specifically their propensity to distinguish "soft drugs" from "hard drugs"; to investigate factors associated with such a propensity as well as its relationship with cannabis use. Design & setting: A cross-sectional self-administered survey conducted among a random sample of 5,812…

  6. The use of skin models in drug development.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Stephanie H; Ruffner, Heinz; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) tissue models of the human skin are probably the most developed and understood in vitro engineered constructs. The motivation to accomplish organotypic structures was driven by the clinics to enable transplantation of in vitro grown tissue substitutes and by the cosmetics industry as alternative test substrates in order to replace animal models. Today a huge variety of 3D human skin models exist, covering a multitude of scientific and/or technical demands. This review summarizes and discusses different approaches of skin model development and sets them into the context of drug development. Although human skin models have become indispensable for the cosmetics industry, they have not yet started their triumphal procession in pharmaceutical research and development. For drug development these tissue models may be of particular interest for a) systemically acting drugs applied on the skin, and b) drugs acting at the site of application in the case of skin diseases or disorders. Although quite a broad spectrum of models covering different aspects of the skin as a biologically acting surface exists, these are most often single stand-alone approaches. In order to enable the comprehensive application into drug development processes, the approaches have to be synchronized to allow a cross-over comparison. Besides the development of biological relevant models, other issues are not less important in the context of drug development: standardized production procedures, process automation, establishment of significant analytical methods, and data correlation. For the successful routine use of engineered human skin models in drug development, major requirements were defined. If these requirements can be accomplished in the next few years, human organotypic skin models will become indispensable for drug development, too.

  7. State prescription drug price Web sites: how useful to consumers?

    PubMed

    Tu, Ha T; Corey, Catherine G

    2008-02-01

    To aid consumers in comparing prescription drug costs, many states have launched Web sites to publish drug prices offered by local retail pharmacies. The current push to make retail pharmacy prices accessible to consumers is part of a much broader movement to increase price transparency throughout the health-care sector. Efforts to encourage price-based shopping for hospital and physician services have encountered widespread concerns, both on grounds that prices for complex services are difficult to measure and compare accurately and that quality varies substantially across providers. Experts agree, however, that prescription drugs are much easier to shop for than other, more complex health services. However, extensive gaps in available price information--the result of relying on Medicaid data--seriously hamper the effectiveness of state drug price-comparison Web sites, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). An alternative approach--requiring pharmacies to submit price lists to the states--would improve the usefulness of price information, but pharmacies typically oppose such a mandate. Another limitation of most state Web sites is that price information is restricted to local pharmacies, when online pharmacies, both U.S. and foreign, often sell prescription drugs at substantially lower prices. To further enhance consumer shopping tools, states might consider expanding the types of information provided, including online pharmacy comparison tools, lists of deeply discounted generic drugs offered by discount retailers, and lists of local pharmacies offering price matches. PMID:18494180

  8. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  9. Childhood Family, Ethnicity, and Drug Use over the Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Klepinger, Daniel H.

    2007-01-01

    Using multiply imputed data from 5 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8,294), we investigated whether childhood family characteristics and childhood religious affiliation explain ethnic differences in marijuana and cocaine use in the last year. None of the childhood factors explained ethnic differences in drug use, though…

  10. Perceptions of power equality among drug-using women.

    PubMed

    Fenaughty, Andrea M

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the associations between perceptions of the power equality in a current sexual relationship and each of several alternative indicators of power in a sample of drug-using women. Using targeted sampling, 262 women were recruited from the streets of Anchorage, Alaska. A battery of face-to-face questionnaires was administered to adult women who gave evidence of recent drug use (track marks or positive urinalysis) and had been recently sexually active. Perceived power equality was associated with physical, verbal, and sexual abuse, self-efficacy, sexual communication, and income for main partners, and the trade of sex and traditionalism of her views on home and family for casual partners. These findings suggest that power is a complex, multifaceted construct, and that type of relationship must be considered when trying to understand the meaning of power within drug-using women's lives. Implications for risk behavior interventions are discussed.

  11. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  12. A test of Tiffany's cognitive model of drug urges and drug-use behavior.

    PubMed

    Bradizza, C M; Lisman, S A; Payne, D G

    1995-08-01

    Tiffany's (1990) cognitive model proposes that drug urges and drug use result from distinct (i.e., controlled versus automatic) cognitive processes. This study tested Tiffany's cognitive model utilizing innovative methods derived from the Multiple Resource Theory of cognitive psychology. Forty-two male and 42 female heavy drinking college students were assigned to 1 of 6 groups in two separate 1 (task) x 3 (treatment) factorial experiments in which half the subjects performed a math task while the other half performed a tracking task. Subjects received 1 of 3 treatments: Urge generation, "Drug" (Placebo) Consumption, or a Water control. The predictions were that urges would interfere with performance on the math task, and "drug" consumption would interfere with performance on the tracking task. The main dependent variables were measures of task performance. The results of this study do not clearly support the model; however, several suggestions for future tests of the cognitive model are discussed. Our findings highlight both the difficulty in testing the model, as well as opportunities for further integration of cognitive psychology and behavioral approaches to addictions.

  13. The Changing Drug Culture: Use and Misuse of Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing Drugs.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Awareness of the prevalence of the use of appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) is increasing. Users range from professional athletes and bodybuilders to amateurs and adolescents. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are the most widely used APEDs, typically for purposes of building muscle mass, in forms that include pills, injections, topical preparations, and transdermal systems. AASs are often used in combination with augmenting drugs taken to enhance androgen production and, for men, to decrease estrogen production. These include aromatase inhibitors, clomiphene, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and human chorionic gonadotropin. Other drugs used with the intention of improving athletic performance include human growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor 1, insulin, erythropoietin, stimulants, diuretics, levothyroxine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Use of APEDs is increasing, with up to 5% of male and 2% of female college athletes using AASs and reports of a more than 20% usage rate among teenagers. Although many of these substances can increase muscle mass when combined with high levels of exercise and specific diets, it is not clear that they improve athletic performance. Furthermore, they are associated with a variety of serious adverse effects. AASs, in particular, can cause hepatotoxicity and acute cardiac events. Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms also can occur.

  14. The Changing Drug Culture: Use and Misuse of Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing Drugs.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Awareness of the prevalence of the use of appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) is increasing. Users range from professional athletes and bodybuilders to amateurs and adolescents. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are the most widely used APEDs, typically for purposes of building muscle mass, in forms that include pills, injections, topical preparations, and transdermal systems. AASs are often used in combination with augmenting drugs taken to enhance androgen production and, for men, to decrease estrogen production. These include aromatase inhibitors, clomiphene, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and human chorionic gonadotropin. Other drugs used with the intention of improving athletic performance include human growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor 1, insulin, erythropoietin, stimulants, diuretics, levothyroxine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Use of APEDs is increasing, with up to 5% of male and 2% of female college athletes using AASs and reports of a more than 20% usage rate among teenagers. Although many of these substances can increase muscle mass when combined with high levels of exercise and specific diets, it is not clear that they improve athletic performance. Furthermore, they are associated with a variety of serious adverse effects. AASs, in particular, can cause hepatotoxicity and acute cardiac events. Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms also can occur. PMID:26881771

  15. SEX DIFFERENCES IN DRUG USE AMONG POLYSUBSTANCE USERS

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Methods Participants (N=543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Results Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Conclusions Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. PMID:25454410

  16. Modeling Illicit Drug Use Dynamics and Its Optimal Control Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of death and disability attributable to illicit drug use, remains a significant threat to public health for both developed and developing nations. This paper presents a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the effects of illicit drug use in the community. In our model the transmission process is captured as a social “contact” process between the susceptible individuals and illicit drug users. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction number. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in Cape Town, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Durban communities of South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate time dependent intervention strategies. PMID:26819625

  17. Modeling Illicit Drug Use Dynamics and Its Optimal Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mushayabasa, Steady; Tapedzesa, Gift

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of death and disability attributable to illicit drug use, remains a significant threat to public health for both developed and developing nations. This paper presents a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the effects of illicit drug use in the community. In our model the transmission process is captured as a social "contact" process between the susceptible individuals and illicit drug users. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction number. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in Cape Town, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Durban communities of South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate time dependent intervention strategies. PMID:26819625

  18. Use of anti-asthma drugs in New Zealand.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, B L; Clark, D W; Sears, M R

    1987-01-01

    Increased sales of anti-asthma drugs, and a second "epidemic" of asthma mortality, raised concerns about the management of asthma in New Zealand. To study this, prescriptions were obtained from randomly selected pharmacies to identify 235 patients receiving one common anti-asthma drug, 175 of whom were willing to be interviewed. The authors considered that 80% had asthma, and only 20% suffered primarily from chronic bronchitis or emphysema. The increased sales of anti-asthma drugs could not therefore be explained by their increasing use in treatment of other respiratory disorders. One third of the identified asthmatic subjects experienced daily symptoms despite regular drug treatment. Inhaled corticosteroids were used by only 42% of this group with persistent symptoms. Regular or short course oral corticosteroids, with or without inhaled steroids, had been required by 49%. All patients with domiciliary nebulisers appeared to use these appropriately, and most had peak expiratory flow meters. Despite the increased sales of anti-asthma drugs, corticosteroids appear to be as much underused in patients with chronic asthma in the community as in those who die of their disease. PMID:3686458

  19. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A. Mirel, V.

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ{sup 13}C between batches from −29.7 to −31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between −31.3 to −34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  20. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.; Bot, A.; Mirel, V.

    2013-11-01

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ13C between batches from -29.7 to -31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between -31.3 to -34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  1. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  2. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  3. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  4. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  5. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  6. 21 CFR 530.25 - Orders prohibiting extralabel uses for drugs in food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orders prohibiting extralabel uses for drugs in food-producing animals. 530.25 Section 530.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in...

  7. 21 CFR 357.810 - Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use. 357.810 Section 357.810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for Internal Use § 357.810 Active ingredients for deodorant...

  8. 21 CFR 357.810 - Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use. 357.810 Section 357.810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for Internal Use § 357.810 Active ingredients for deodorant...

  9. Moderate Adolescent Drug Use and the Development of Substance Use Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a re-conceptualization of moderate adolescent drug use. It is argued that experimentation with alcohol and other drugs during the teenage years may play an important role in the development of regulatory competency in relation to drug consumption in adulthood. When such regulatory skills fail to emerge in young people, during…

  10. [Therapeutic uses of investigational drugs: research extension, compassionate use, and expanded access].

    PubMed

    Goldim, José Roberto

    2008-03-01

    This article describes the methodological, regulatory, and ethical aspects of the different therapeutic uses of investigational drugs--research extension, compassionate use, and expanded access. Worldwide, the principle challenges of this kind of treatment are: setting minimum quality standards for researchers, as well as institutions, so that projects can include drugs at various stages of development; training of evaluation and assessment committees on the methodological, regulatory, and ethical aspects of new drug research; clearly outlining the relationship between researchers and funding organizations and between researchers and study participants; and understanding the opposition to the recent proposal to enable drug manufacturers to charge for drugs used in research studies.

  11. Perceived Drug Use Functions and Risk Reduction Practices Among High-Risk Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs has become the fastest growing drug problem in the United States, particularly among young adults. This study examines the reasons young polydrug users misuse prescription drugs, and explores how young users employ risk reduction strategies to minimize adverse consequences. The sample was recruited during 2008 and 2009 in Los Angeles and New York, and comprised 45 nonmedical users of prescription drugs, aged 16 to 25. Data from a semistructured interview were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Participants reported nonmedical use of prescription drugs to change mood, to facilitate activity, and to monitor the intake of other substances. Commonly employed risk reduction strategies included calculating pill timing, dosage, and access, and monitoring frequency of use, particularly when combining different substances. Most study participants often planned drug use to occur within socially acceptable parameters, such that prescription drug misuse was a normalized feature of their everyday lives. PMID:25477621

  12. Alcohol and Drug Use of College Students: The University's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Dennis W.; And Others

    A project was initiated at one private, liberal arts college to respond to the substance use/abuse issues on campus. As a first step in designing the project, a study was conducted to assess the nature and extent of alcohol consumption and drug use by the students. Students (N=247) completed a 10-page questionnaire addressing topics such as…

  13. Marijuana and Cocaine Effect Expectancies and Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, John; Brown, Sandra A.

    1991-01-01

    Content analyzed self-reports from 704 college students and used results to develop Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire and Cocaine Effect Expectancy Questionnaire. Identified six marijuana expectancies and five cocaine expectancies. Drug effect expectancies distinguished between patterns of nonuse and varying degrees of use of these two…

  14. Peer Effects in Drug Use and Sex among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Boisjoly, Johanne; Kremer, Michael; Levy, Dan M.; Eccles, Jacque

    2005-01-01

    Past research suggests that congregating delinquent youth increases their likelihood of problem behavior. We test for analogous peer effects in the drug use and sexual behavior of male (n = 279) and female (n = 435) college students, using data on the characteristics of first-year roommates to whom they were randomly assigned. We find that males…

  15. Adolescent Initiation of Drug Use: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…

  16. Cracking down on Youth Tobacco May Influence Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Adams, Monica; Nihls, Annie; Kim, Hyo Yeon; Hunt, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of tobacco possession-use-purchase (PUP) law enforcement and illicit drug use and offers. Twenty-four towns were randomly assigned into two conditions. Both conditions focused on reducing minors' access to commercial sources of tobacco. The communities assigned to the experimental condition also increased their…

  17. Quantitative Methods in the Study of Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huba, George J.

    1983-01-01

    Addresses the use of data sources and multivariate data analysis methods for modeling naturally occurring data. Two studies in this special section deal with longitudinal perspectives on drug use and emotional adjustment and an application of log-linear model to examine the stress-buffering function of alcohol. (LLL)

  18. Safe Use, Storage, and Disposal of Opioid Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... expose a pain patch to a source of heat, such as a heating pad, while the patch is attached to your skin. Do not change pain patches too often. Do not drive a car or use heavy machinery until you have become used to the medicine’s effects. Bibliography Food and Drug Administration. Safe Disposal of ...

  19. Scorpion Peptides: Potential Use for New Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Hmed, BenNasr; Serria, Hammami Turky; Mounir, Zeghal Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Several peptides contained in scorpion fluids showed diverse array of biological activities with high specificities to their targeted sites. Many investigations outlined their potent effects against microbes and showed their potential to modulate various biological mechanisms that are involved in immune, nervous, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. Because of their important structural and functional diversity, it is projected that scorpion-derived peptides could be used to develop new specific drugs. This review summarizes relevant findings improving their use as valuable tools for new drugs development. PMID:23843786

  20. Fragment-Based Drug Discovery Using NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Harner, Mary J.; Frank, Andreas O.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful tool for fragment-based drug discovery over the last two decades. While NMR has been traditionally used to elucidate the three-dimensional structures and dynamics of biomacromolecules and their interactions, it can also be a very valuable tool for the reliable identification of small molecules that bind to proteins and for hit-to-lead optimization. Here, we describe the use of NMR spectroscopy as a method for fragment-based drug discovery and how to most effectively utilize this approach for discovering novel therapeutics based on our experience. PMID:23686385

  1. Risk and Benefit of Drug Use During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Environmental teratogenic factors (e.g. alcohol) are preventable. We focus our analysis on human teratogenic drugs which are not used frequently during pregnancy. The previous human teratogenic studies had serious methodological problems, e.g. the first trimester concept is outdated because environmental teratogens cannot induce congenital abnormalities in the first month of gestation. In addition, teratogens usually cause specific congenital abnormalities or syndromes. Finally, the importance of chemical structures, administrative routes and reasons for treatment at the evaluation of medicinal products was not considered. On the other hand, in the so-called case-control epidemiological studies in general recall bias was not limited. These biases explain that the teratogenic risk of drugs is exaggerated, while the benefit of medicine use during pregnancy is underestimated. Thus, a better balance is needed between the risk and benefit of drug treatments during pregnancy. Of course, we have to do our best to reduce the risk of teratogenic drugs as much as possible, however, it is worth stressing the preventive effect of drugs for maternal diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus and hyperthermia) related congenital abnormalities. PMID:16007261

  2. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  3. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV–VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  4. Nanobiological studies on drug design using molecular mechanic method

    PubMed Central

    Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Mousavi, Maryam; Araghi, Mahmood; Rasoolzadeh, Reza; Hosseini, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Influenza H1N1 is very important worldwide and point mutations that occur in the virus gene are a threat for the World Health Organization (WHO) and druggists, since they could make this virus resistant to the existing antibiotics. Influenza epidemics cause severe respiratory illness in 30 to 50 million people and kill 250,000 to 500,000 people worldwide every year. Nowadays, drug design is not done through trial and error because of its cost and waste of time; therefore bioinformatics studies is essential for designing drugs. Materials and Methods: This paper, infolds a study on binding site of Neuraminidase (NA) enzyme, (that is very important in drug design) in 310K temperature and different dielectrics, for the best drug design. Information of NA enzyme was extracted from Protein Data Bank (PDB) and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) websites. The new sequences of N1 were downloaded from the NCBI influenza virus sequence database. Drug binding sites were assimilated and homologized modeling using Argus lab 4.0, HyperChem 6.0 and Chem. D3 softwares. Their stability was assessed in different dielectrics and temperatures. Result: Measurements of potential energy (Kcal/mol) of binding sites of NA in different dielectrics and 310K temperature revealed that at time step size = 0 pSec drug binding sites have maximum energy level and at time step size = 100 pSec have maximum stability and minimum energy. Conclusions: Drug binding sites are more dependent on dielectric constants rather than on temperature and the optimum dielectric constant is 39/78. PMID:26605248

  5. INCARCERATION AND INJECTION DRUG USE IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND

    PubMed Central

    Genberg, Becky L.; Astemborski, Jacquie; Vlahov, David; Kirk, Gregory D.; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS There is limited longitudinal research examining incarceration and subsequent changes in drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the US. The objective of the current study was to characterize the frequency of incarceration and estimate the association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use among current and former PWIDs in one US city. DESIGN ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) is a prospective cohort study of current and former PWIDs, with semi-annual follow-up occurring since 1988. SETTING Baltimore, Maryland, USA PARTICIPANTS A total of 3,245 participants with 48,738 study visits were included. Participants enrolled from 1988 through 2012 with a median of 13 follow-up visits per participant (interquartile range: 7–25). MEASUREMENTS Incarcerations were defined as any self-reported jail or prison stays in the previous six months that were 7 days or longer. The primary outcome was defined as any self-reported injection drug use in the previous six months. FINDINGS At baseline, 29% were female, 90% African-American, and 33% HIV-positive. Fifty-seven percent of participants experienced at least one incarceration episode. After adjusting for confounders, there was a positive association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use (AOR=1.48, 95% CI:1.37–1.59),; however stratified analysis showed that the effect was restricted to those who were not injecting at the time of incarceration (AOR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.88–2.37). CONCLUSIONS In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. PMID:25845621

  6. Pharmacogenetics: Using Genetic Information to Guide Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, KU-LANG; WEITZEL, KRISTIN; SCHMIDT, SIEGFRIED

    2016-01-01

    Clinical pharmacogenetics, the use of genetic data to guide drug therapy decisions, is beginning to be used for medications commonly prescribed by family physicians. However, clinicians are largely unfamiliar with principles supporting clinical use of this type of data. For example, genetic variability in the cytochrome P450 2D6 drug metabolizing enzyme can alter the clinical effects of some opioid analgesics (e.g., codeine, tramadol), whereas variability in the CYP2C19 enzyme affects the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel. If testing is performed, patients who are ultrarapid or poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 should avoid codeine use (and possibly tramadol, hydrocodone, and oxycodone) because of the potential for increased toxicity or lack of effectiveness. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes who are known to be poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 should consider alternate antiplatelet therapy (e.g., ticagrelor, prasugrel). Some guidelines are available that address appropriate drug therapy changes, and others are in development. Additionally, a number of clinical resources are emerging to support family physicians in the use of pharmacogenetics. When used appropriately, pharmacogenetic testing can be a practical tool to optimize drug therapy and avoid medication adverse effects. PMID:26447442

  7. Pharmacogenetics: Using Genetic Information to Guide Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Weitzel, Kristin; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-10-01

    Clinical pharmacogenetics, the use of genetic data to guide drug therapy decisions, is beginning to be used for medications commonly prescribed by family physicians. However, clinicians are largely unfamiliar with principles supporting clinical use of this type of data. For example, genetic variability in the cytochrome P450 2D6 drug metabolizing enzyme can alter the clinical effects of some opioid analgesics (e.g., codeine, tramadol), whereas variability in the CYP2C19 enzyme affects the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel. If testing is performed, patients who are ultrarapid or poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 should avoid codeine use (and possibly tramadol, hydrocodone, and oxycodone) because of the potential for increased toxicity or lack of effectiveness. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes who are known to be poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 should consider alternate antiplatelet therapy (e.g., ticagrelor, prasugrel). Some guidelines are available that address appropriate drug therapy changes, and others are in development. Additionally, a number of clinical resources are emerging to support family physicians in the use of pharmacogenetics. When used appropriately, pharmacogenetic testing can be a practical tool to optimize drug therapy and avoid medication adverse effects.

  8. Pathways between Ecstasy Initiation and Other Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Ghandour, Lilian A.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to shed light on drug use pathways associated with ecstasy use initiation. Data from 54,573 respondents aged 12-21 years old from the 2002-2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) public use data files were analyzed via Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent covariates. Our findings showed that marijuana, cocaine, and heroin were significant independent predictors of subsequent ecstasy use. Earlier ecstasy initiation was significantly associated with subsequent other illegal drug initiation (marijuana, cocaine and heroin). The strength of the association was greater for the pathway from earlier marijuana initiation to subsequent ecstasy initiation as compared to the pathway in the opposite direction. The pathway from earlier ecstasy initiation to subsequent cocaine and heroin initiation was also stronger as compared to pathways in the opposite directions. Pathways between ecstasy initiation and marijuana, cocaine and heroin initiation seem to be independent of the association between drug use and psychiatric symptoms/deviant behaviors. Ecstasy initiation seems to play a role in the subsequent initiation of cocaine and heroin. PMID:17174036

  9. Pharmacogenetics: Using Genetic Information to Guide Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Weitzel, Kristin; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-10-01

    Clinical pharmacogenetics, the use of genetic data to guide drug therapy decisions, is beginning to be used for medications commonly prescribed by family physicians. However, clinicians are largely unfamiliar with principles supporting clinical use of this type of data. For example, genetic variability in the cytochrome P450 2D6 drug metabolizing enzyme can alter the clinical effects of some opioid analgesics (e.g., codeine, tramadol), whereas variability in the CYP2C19 enzyme affects the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel. If testing is performed, patients who are ultrarapid or poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 should avoid codeine use (and possibly tramadol, hydrocodone, and oxycodone) because of the potential for increased toxicity or lack of effectiveness. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes who are known to be poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 should consider alternate antiplatelet therapy (e.g., ticagrelor, prasugrel). Some guidelines are available that address appropriate drug therapy changes, and others are in development. Additionally, a number of clinical resources are emerging to support family physicians in the use of pharmacogenetics. When used appropriately, pharmacogenetic testing can be a practical tool to optimize drug therapy and avoid medication adverse effects. PMID:26447442

  10. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  11. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  12. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  13. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  14. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a) Drugs with thyroid hormone activity have been promoted for, and continue to be dispensed and prescribed...

  15. Prevalence of psychotropic drug use in military police units.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Yonamine, Maurício; Ramos, Andrea Luciana Martins; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Rodrigues, Caroline Rego; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to verify the prevalence of psychoactive drug use (amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opioids and benzodiazepines) among military police officers in the state of Goiás. Data were obtained from urine samples voluntarily provided by the officers participating in the study, who were informed of the study methods and signed a free and informed consent form. The samples were subject to screening analysis by immunochromatography (Multi-DrugOneStep Test®), with positive tests confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results indicated the presence of the following drugs: amphetamines (0.33%), cannabinoids (0.67%) and benzodiazepines (1.34%); 97.66% showed negative results. The positive cases were distributed as follows: benzodiazepines (57.1%); cannabinoids (28.6%) and amphetamines (14.3%). In conclusion, the detection of psychoactive substances in voluntary sampling of military police officers indicates the need to implement drug testing among active military officers and preventive public policies aimed at eliminating the abusive consumption of psychotropic drugs.

  16. DINTO: Using OWL Ontologies and SWRL Rules to Infer Drug-Drug Interactions and Their Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Zazo, María; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Hastings, Janna; Martínez, Paloma

    2015-08-24

    The early detection of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is limited by the diffuse spread of DDI information in heterogeneous sources. Computational methods promise to play a key role in the identification and explanation of DDIs on a large scale. However, such methods rely on the availability of computable representations describing the relevant domain knowledge. Current modeling efforts have focused on partial and shallow representations of the DDI domain, failing to adequately support computational inference and discovery applications. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive ontology for DDI knowledge (DINTO), which is the first formal representation of different types of DDIs and their mechanisms and its application in the prediction of DDIs. This project has been developed using currently available semantic web technologies, standards, and tools, and we have demonstrated that the combination of drug-related facts in DINTO and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules can be used to infer DDIs and their different mechanisms on a large scale. The ontology is available from https://code.google.com/p/dinto/.

  17. DINTO: Using OWL Ontologies and SWRL Rules to Infer Drug-Drug Interactions and Their Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Zazo, María; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Hastings, Janna; Martínez, Paloma

    2015-08-24

    The early detection of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is limited by the diffuse spread of DDI information in heterogeneous sources. Computational methods promise to play a key role in the identification and explanation of DDIs on a large scale. However, such methods rely on the availability of computable representations describing the relevant domain knowledge. Current modeling efforts have focused on partial and shallow representations of the DDI domain, failing to adequately support computational inference and discovery applications. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive ontology for DDI knowledge (DINTO), which is the first formal representation of different types of DDIs and their mechanisms and its application in the prediction of DDIs. This project has been developed using currently available semantic web technologies, standards, and tools, and we have demonstrated that the combination of drug-related facts in DINTO and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules can be used to infer DDIs and their different mechanisms on a large scale. The ontology is available from https://code.google.com/p/dinto/. PMID:26147071

  18. International trends in alcohol and drug use among vehicle drivers.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included. PMID

  19. Proper Use of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Drugs during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kanis, S L; van der Woude, C J

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic, relapsing conditions. Patients are often diagnosed at a reproductive age, and therefore questions about fertility and reproductions often arise. Preconceptional counseling is the most important aspect in the management of IBD patients with a pregnancy wish. Patients should be counseled on the influence of IBD and IBD drugs on pregnancy. Most drugs are not related to adverse outcome while used during pregnancy. Active disease is related to adverse outcomes; therefore, it is of utmost importance to strive for remission before conception and during pregnancy. PMID:27548630

  20. Current advances in the treatment of adolescent drug use

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Bresani, Elena; Meyers, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development and efficacy of drug abuse treatment for adolescents has made great strides recently. Several distinct models have been studied, and these approaches range from brief interventions to intensive treatments. This paper has three primary aims: to provide an overview of conceptual issues relevant to treating adolescents suspected of drug-related problems, including an overview of factors believed to contribute to a substance use disorder, to review the empirical treatment outcome literature, and to identify areas of need and promising directions for future research. PMID:25429247

  1. Determination of drugs in hair using GC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Uhl, M

    1997-01-17

    An important task for the forensic toxicologist and expert witness is the detection of the noxa in biological matrices. Because of this, the identification and quantification of residues of illegal drugs in human hair is still of growing interest. Utilizing the advantages of GC/MS/MS testing human hair is performed for most common drugs of abuse like heroin and other opioides, cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine derivatives. Analyzing hair specimens for substances that present a toxicological risk is another challenge. Several quality control parameters must be observed to avoid false positive or false negative results and to gain additional information. Blank sample, blank hair as well as the combined wash extracts are tested for the presence of the relevant compounds within every series. Careful evaluation of the findings can provide an approximate measure of the intensity of drug use in the majority of cases.

  2. Predicting drug court treatment completion using the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Curtis; Powers, Bradley; Halfaker, Dale; Akeson, Steven; Ben-Porath, Yossef

    2012-12-01

    We examined the ability of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) substantive scales to predict Drug Court treatment completion in a sample of individuals identified as being at risk for failure to complete the program. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF scales Behavior/Externalizing Dysfunction, Antisocial Behavior, Aberrant Experiences, Juvenile Conduct Problems, Aggression, and Disconstraint-Revised were associated with increased risk for failure to complete treatment. These results are consistent with previous findings (O'Reilly, 2007; Sellbom, Ben-Porath, Baum, Erez, & Gregory, 2008) regarding treatment completion. Gender was also found to be associated with treatment completion, with females being more likely to complete the Drug Court program than males. Zero-order correlations and relative risk analyses indicated that the MMPI-2-RF can provide useful information regarding risk factors for failure to complete Drug Court treatment. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  3. Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

  4. Active Targeted Drug Delivery for Microbes Using Nano-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccines and antibiotics could kill or inhibit microbes, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat because of acquired resistance and adverse side effects. Nano-carriers-based technology has made significant progress for a long time and is introducing a new paradigm in drug delivery. However, it still has some challenges like lack of specificity toward targeting the infectious site. Nano-carriers utilized targeting ligands on their surface called ‘active target’ provide the promising way to solve the problems like accelerating drug delivery to infectious areas and preventing toxicity or side-effects. In this mini review, we demonstrate the recent studies using the active targeted strategy to kill or inhibit microbes. The four common nano-carriers (e.g. liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) delivering encapsulated drugs are introduced. PMID:25877093

  5. Structural Stigma and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2000–2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. PMID:25753931

  6. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-07-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. PMID:25753931

  7. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes. PMID:24447983

  8. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes.

  9. Nonmedical Drug Use among University Students -- 1967-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Edward J.; Rupprecht, Paul

    This report is a summary of a longitudinal study of nonmedical drug use among university students which was carried out by members of the staff of the University of Minnesota Health Service. The study was conducted in 2 phases. The subjects in the first phase of the study were students who registered for the first time at the University of…

  10. Student Drug Use in America 1975-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This report presents detailed statistics on the prevalence of drug use among American high school seniors in 1981, and on trends in those figures since 1975. The purposes and rationale of the study, the research design and procedures, and the representativeness and validity of the study are discussed in the introduction. Section II provides a…

  11. Depression and Drug Use in Mexican-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie; And Others

    Depression is a major problem for many people, with about 20 percent of the population having a clinically diagnosable depression sometime in their lives severe enough to make it difficult for these individuals to function in society. Depression in drug users has been researched frequently using white or black opiate and cocaine users, but rarely…

  12. The Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Leonard H.; Rooney, Theodore W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism of action and clinical pharmacology of the new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help practitioners decide which to use and how to administer them. Indications for and effects of NSAIDs are described. (MT)

  13. Drug Use in America: Different Kinds of Change, Different Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Jerald G.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    This document consists of a joint lecture/discussion co-delivered as the 1987 University Senior Research Scientist Lecture at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. The opening remarks by Jerald G. Bachman describe how the program of research into drug use among youth and young adults evolved at the Institute for Social…

  14. Drug Use Disorder (DUD) Questionnaire: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Michael; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Voas, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the ample interest in the measurement of substance abuse and dependence, obtaining biological samples from participants as a means to validate a scale is considered time and cost intensive and is, subsequently, largely overlooked. Objectives: To report the psychometric properties of the drug use disorder (DUD) questionnaire…

  15. Employment Trajectories: Exploring Gender Differences and Impacts of Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Evans, Elizabeth; Hara, Motoaki; Weiss, Robert E.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of drug use on employment over 20 years among men and women, utilizing data on 7661 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Growth mixture modeling was applied, and five distinct employment trajectory groups were identified for both men and women. The identified patterns were largely similar…

  16. Sexual Intimacy and Drug Use in TV Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Collado, Carlos F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of sexual intimacy, alcohol, tobacco, and drug use on prime time and Saturday morning television in general. Presents a separate analysis of this content, in shows heavily viewed by children, in terms of their potential for social learning in these areas. (JMF)

  17. Adult and Adolescent Perceptions of Their Community's Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Reese; And Others

    This study identified differences and similarities among the perceptions of adult and adolescent community members regarding drug use patterns and practices. A written questionnaire was administered to 5,128 adolescents from grades 7 through 12 in the rural inland northwest, and a similar questionnaire was administered to over 900 adults in the…

  18. Risk Factors for Depressive Symptomatology in a Drug Using Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, John C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effects of variables associated with the onset of a depressive episode on a group of 942 psychoactive drug-using young adults. Finds that controls were free of depressive symptoms but that methaqualone users were more prone to a depressed mood, lower self-esteem, and negative life events than nonusers. (FMW)

  19. The Use and Misuse of Drugs among High School Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Robert J.

    Due to the lack of information relating to drug use and abuse among high school athletes, the author conducted a survey of 2,063 college students in universities in eastern Kentucky. The attempt was to determine what practices these college freshmen and sophomores had observed or experienced while in high school. Over 65% of the males and 27% of…

  20. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Simeon J; Swan, Christopher D; Boutlis, Craig S; Reid, Alistair B

    2016-01-01

    Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use. PMID:27182491

  1. Drug Use among Urban Ethnic Youth: Appalachian and Other Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Clyde B.; Watkins, Virginia McCoy

    1980-01-01

    Research findings show that, compared with Black, Polish, and other ethnic urban youth, urban Appalachian teenagers exhibit greater symptomatic behavior indicating severe difficulties in coping with urban environments. Particularly striking among these patterns, which hold for both females and males, is the heavy drug use among Appalachian youth.…

  2. Drug Use Patterns and Trends in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Larson, Sharon L.; Colliver, James D.

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: This study examines the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use among adolescents and adults in 3 types of counties: "rural" (nonmetropolitan counties with urban population less than 20,000), "urbanized nonmetropolitan" (nonmetropolitan counties with urban population 20,000 or higher), and "metropolitan" (counties…

  3. Target-Independent Prediction of Drug Synergies Using Only Drug Lipophilicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of compounds have been instrumental in selecting lead compounds with increased drug-likeness. However, the relationship between physicochemical properties of constituent drugs and the tendency to exhibit drug interaction has not been systematically studied. We assembled physicochemical descriptors for a set of antifungal compounds (“drugs”) previously examined for interaction. Analyzing the relationship between molecular weight, lipophilicity, H-bond donor, and H-bond acceptor values for drugs and their propensity to show pairwise antifungal drug synergy, we found that combinations of two lipophilic drugs had a greater tendency to show drug synergy. We developed a more refined decision tree model that successfully predicted drug synergy in stringent cross-validation tests based on only lipophilicity of drugs. Our predictions achieved a precision of 63% and allowed successful prediction for 58% of synergistic drug pairs, suggesting that this phenomenon can extend our understanding for a substantial fraction of synergistic drug interactions. We also generated and analyzed a large-scale synergistic human toxicity network, in which we observed that combinations of lipophilic compounds show a tendency for increased toxicity. Thus, lipophilicity, a simple and easily determined molecular descriptor, is a powerful predictor of drug synergy. It is well established that lipophilic compounds (i) are promiscuous, having many targets in the cell, and (ii) often penetrate into the cell via the cellular membrane by passive diffusion. We discuss the positive relationship between drug lipophilicity and drug synergy in the context of potential drug synergy mechanisms. PMID:25026390

  4. Seeing is believing, looks are deceiving: what does one see in images of drugs and drug use(rs)?

    PubMed

    Montagne, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Images of drugs and drug use(rs) convey meaning, feelings, and beliefs, and what is being seen is often believed. Images can also deceive in content, meaning, and belief. Drug use(r) researchers, who use images as data, must be cautious in interpreting what is being conveyed and why. As technological advances continue to shape the creation, modification, storage, and analysis of images, researchers must be ever more vigilant about what they are seeing and believing.

  5. Alcohol and Drug Use and the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is an important neurodevelopmental period marked by rapidly escalating rates of alcohol and drug use. Over the past decade, research has attempted to disentangle pre- and post-substance use effects on brain development by using sophisticated longitudinal designs. This review focuses on recent, prospective studies and addresses the following important questions: (1) what neuropsychological and neural features predate adolescent substance use, making youth more vulnerable to engage in heavy alcohol or drug use, and (2) how does heavy alcohol and drug use affect normal neural development and cognitive functioning? Findings suggest that pre-existing neural features that relate to increased substance use during adolescence include poorer neuropsychological functioning on tests of inhibition and working memory, smaller gray and white matter volume, changes in white matter integrity, and altered brain activation during inhibition, working memory, reward, and resting state. After substance use is initiated, alcohol and marijuana use are associated with poorer cognitive functioning on tests of verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, psychomotor speed, working memory, attention, cognitive control, and overall IQ. Heavy alcohol use during adolescence is related to accelerated decreases in gray matter and attenuated increases in white matter volume, as well as increased brain activation during tasks of inhibition and working memory, relative to controls. Larger longitudinal studies with more diverse samples are needed to better understand the interactive effects of alcohol, marijuana, and other substances, as well as the role of sex, co-occurring psychopathology, genetics, sleep, and age of initiation on substance use. PMID:26984684

  6. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  7. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-06-19

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed.

  8. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  9. 'Government Patent Use': A Legal Approach To Reducing Drug Spending.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-05-01

    The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development. PMID:27140984

  10. Safety of drugs used in the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Cora; Williams, David

    2011-08-01

    A number of drug classes are licensed for the treatment of osteoporosis including bisphosphonates, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH), strontium, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) and denosumab. This review discusses the safety of osteoporosis treatments and their efficacies. Recent concerns about the safety of calcium and high-dose vitamin D are discussed. Bisphosphonates have substantial postmarketing experience and a clearer picture of safety issues is emerging. Along with the well recognized effects on the gastrointestinal tract and kidney function, recently described adverse effects such as osteonecrosis of the jaw, oesophageal cancer, atrial fibrillation, subtrochanteric femur fractures and ocular complications of bisphosphonate therapy are discussed. Therapy with PTH is limited to two years' duration because of the development of osteogenic sarcomas in animal studies, which appeared related to dose, duration and timing of therapy. Strontium should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment and its use has been associated with venous thromboembolism. The role of HRT and SERMs in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis is restricted as a result of an increased risk of stroke, venous thromboembolism and breast cancer. Postmarketing experience with denusomab is limited but a number of potential safety concerns including osteonecrosis of the jaw are emerging. All of these drugs have been proven to reduce fractures. The decision to use a drug to reduce fracture risk should be based on risk-benefit analysis of the drug and its suitability for individual patients. PMID:25083210

  11. 'Government Patent Use': A Legal Approach To Reducing Drug Spending.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-05-01

    The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development.

  12. Association between Pregnancy and Active Injection Drug Use and Sex Work among Women Injection Drug Users in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Girchenko, P; Ompad, D C; Bikmukhametov, D; Gensburg, L

    2015-06-01

    Widespread use of unsafe sexual practices among women injecting drugs both practicing and not practicing sex work leads to high levels of unplanned pregnancies in this population. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy and active drug use and sex work. Data were collected using a convenience sample of 500 women in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2013. All women had recent experience of drug use, of which 200 were pregnant at the time of the study. The study consisted of a structured interview followed by a rapid HIV test. Pregnancy was protective against both active drug use and sex work. For HIV-positive women, these associations were stronger than for HIV-negative women: drug use prevalence ratio (PR) was 0.59 vs 0.85; for sex work, the PRs were 0.36 vs 0.64. Higher levels of education were associated with a lower prevalence ratio for active drug use and sex work in all models. Having children was not associated with active drug use or sex work. Pregnancy might be an optimal time for conducting interventions aimed at cessation of drug use and sex work among women injecting drugs.

  13. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div....

  14. 76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy...

  15. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520 and 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove a... that the animal drug regulations for certain monensin free-choice Type C medicated feeds for...

  16. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health,...

  17. 75 FR 7555 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Alpharma, Inc. The ANADA provides for...

  18. 75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co....

  19. 75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  20. How To Tell If a Child Is Using Drugs. The Family Forum Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Charles; Driscoll, Maryanne

    This booklet is designed to give parents practical suggestions for guarding against their children's use of illegal drugs and to help them identify children who are already drug users. The drugs most children start out with are the two most dangerous drugs in our country, alcohol and nicotine. These drugs are dangerous because they are legal, and…

  1. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: an educational overview.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alfredo; Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol and drug use continues to be a significant global problem with many health and economic consequences. Multiple studies have shown that the majority of adults who end up with an alcohol/drug use disorder have their first contact with these substances as adolescents. This article aims to briefly summarize current prevalence and impact on society, as well as its etiology, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and treatment and prevention of adolescent drug and alcohol use. Alcohol and substance use impacts both the user and society at large, from health risks to the user to increased early pregnancies, car accidents, financial cost, and productivity cost. Substance use and abuse results from intricate interactions between genetic and environmental influences. Also, substance abuse along with a comorbid psychiatric disorder is more common than a solitary substance use disorder in adolescents. Current options for the treatment of substance abuse disorders range from various therapy-based strategies, including behavioral and family-based therapies, to the use of medications. More attention must be placed on the importance of prevention of use, as well as progression of use to dependence. Successful prevention requires a comprehensive plan that needs to include, but should not be limited to, increasing education of all gatekeepers and limiting access of substances and alcohol through policy and reinforcement of those policies. Education of parents, pediatricians, school nurses, teachers, and mental health workers is essential to ensure that children at risk are identified in time to provide appropriate interventions.

  2. Analgesic drug use and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte G; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wicklund, Kristine G; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L

    2008-06-15

    Analgesic use may reduce ovarian cancer risk, possibly through antiinflammatory or antigonadotropic effects. The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study in Washington State that included 812 women aged 35-74 years who were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 2002 and 2005 and 1,313 controls. Use of analgesics, excluding use within the previous year, was assessed via in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, acetaminophen and aspirin were associated with weakly increased risks of ovarian cancer. These associations were stronger after more than 10 years of use (acetaminophen: odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.6; aspirin: OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2) and were present for indications of headache, menstrual pain, and other pain/injury. Reduced risk was observed among aspirin users who began regular use within the previous 5 years (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 1.0) or used this drug for prevention of heart disease (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0). These results, in the context of prior findings, do not provide compelling evidence of a true increase in risk of ovarian cancer among women who use these drugs. However, they add to the weight of evidence that, in the aggregate, provides little support for the use of analgesic drugs as chemoprevention for this disease.

  3. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: an educational overview.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alfredo; Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol and drug use continues to be a significant global problem with many health and economic consequences. Multiple studies have shown that the majority of adults who end up with an alcohol/drug use disorder have their first contact with these substances as adolescents. This article aims to briefly summarize current prevalence and impact on society, as well as its etiology, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and treatment and prevention of adolescent drug and alcohol use. Alcohol and substance use impacts both the user and society at large, from health risks to the user to increased early pregnancies, car accidents, financial cost, and productivity cost. Substance use and abuse results from intricate interactions between genetic and environmental influences. Also, substance abuse along with a comorbid psychiatric disorder is more common than a solitary substance use disorder in adolescents. Current options for the treatment of substance abuse disorders range from various therapy-based strategies, including behavioral and family-based therapies, to the use of medications. More attention must be placed on the importance of prevention of use, as well as progression of use to dependence. Successful prevention requires a comprehensive plan that needs to include, but should not be limited to, increasing education of all gatekeepers and limiting access of substances and alcohol through policy and reinforcement of those policies. Education of parents, pediatricians, school nurses, teachers, and mental health workers is essential to ensure that children at risk are identified in time to provide appropriate interventions. PMID:25411992

  4. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  5. The Education-Drug Use Connection: How Successes and Failures in School Relate to Adolescent Smoking, Drinking, Drug Use, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2007-01-01

    Does success in school protect teenagers from drug use? Does drug use impair scholastic success? This book tackles a key issue in adolescent development and health--the education-drug use connection. The authors examine the links and likely causal connections between educational experiences, delinquent behavior, and adolescent use of tobacco,…

  6. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models for predicting drug-induced liver injury based on FDA-approved drug labeling annotation and using a large collection of drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjun; Hong, Huixiao; Fang, Hong; Kelly, Reagan; Zhou, Guangxu; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2013-11-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the leading causes of the termination of drug development programs. Consequently, identifying the risk of DILI in humans for drug candidates during the early stages of the development process would greatly reduce the drug attrition rate in the pharmaceutical industry but would require the implementation of new research and development strategies. In this regard, several in silico models have been proposed as alternative means in prioritizing drug candidates. Because the accuracy and utility of a predictive model rests largely on how to annotate the potential of a drug to cause DILI in a reliable and consistent way, the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug labeling was given prominence. Out of 387 drugs annotated, 197 drugs were used to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model and the model was subsequently challenged by the left of drugs serving as an external validation set with an overall prediction accuracy of 68.9%. The performance of the model was further assessed by the use of 2 additional independent validation sets, and the 3 validation data sets have a total of 483 unique drugs. We observed that the QSAR model's performance varied for drugs with different therapeutic uses; however, it achieved a better estimated accuracy (73.6%) as well as negative predictive value (77.0%) when focusing only on these therapeutic categories with high prediction confidence. Thus, the model's applicability domain was defined. Taken collectively, the developed QSAR model has the potential utility to prioritize compound's risk for DILI in humans, particularly for the high-confidence therapeutic subgroups like analgesics, antibacterial agents, and antihistamines.

  7. The Sociological and Mathematical Implications of Mandatory Urine Tests for Drug Use in the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janell; Campbell, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Mandatory drug testing of workers will create problems due to the low predictive ability of urinalysis. The predictive value of drug testing in populations of low drug incidence is illustrated using Bayes' Theorem. (MT)

  8. Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n = 965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs. PMID:24772093

  9. Ocular changes induced by drugs commonly used in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Patryn, Eliza; Czajor, Karolina; Nita, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The use of many drugs in dermatologic diseases may cause ocular side effects. Some may regress after discontinuation of the therapy, but others persist or progress even after the cessation of treatment. This review presents four groups of commonly prescribed drugs-antimalarial medicines, glucocorticoids, retinoids, and psoralens + ultraviolet A (UVA) therapy-and discusses their possible ocular side effects. The most significant complication of antimalarial drugs is retinopathy with the risk of permanent visual impairment. There are different recommendations for screening for this drug-related retinopathy. The most important ocular manifestations of steroid management are irreversible optic nerve damage in "steroid responders" (steroid glaucoma) and cataract. Some other side effects may disappear after discontinuation of the therapy. Retinoid-induced ocular side effects include ocular surface disease as well as retinal dysfunction. It is recommended to modify the therapy when night blindness occurs or after the decrease of color vision. Protective eyewear is sufficient to avoid ocular surface problems during psoralen + UVA therapy. The knowledge of screening schemes and closer cooperation between physicians may decrease the risk of serious or irreversible ocular side effects. PMID:26903180

  10. [The use of psychotropic drugs during breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Filip, Maria; Kuśmierek, Maciej; Orzechowska, Agata; Błaszczyk, Justyna; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Breast milk is the best source of nutrients and provides much better protection than immune modified milk. In the United States around 500 000 cases of mental disorders affecting pregnant women are diagnosed each year. It is estimated that approximately 1/3 of these women need psychotropic drugs in a period of breast-feeding. Despite the serious consequences of depression and its well-known effect on a newborn, the women are still reluctant to begin pharmacological treatment. The fear of side effects unfortunately still plays an important role in making such a decision. It has been proved that all psychiatric drugs can transfer into breast milk, but their levels are very low or even negligible for the newborn. Most laboratory tests do not reveal an adequate sensitivity to detect these low concentrations. One have to remember that in case of any disturbing symptoms which may result from the use of these drugs, the only procedure is to discontinue breastfeeding immediately. The knowledge of these effects of particular groups of psychotropic drugs in breast-feeding mothers is essential for every practitioner. This knowledge should also be available not only to psychiatrists, but gynecologists and pediatricians as well. For this reason, it seems to be reasonable to summarize the results of previously published studies dealing with the topic.

  11. [The use of psychotropic drugs during breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Filip, Maria; Kuśmierek, Maciej; Orzechowska, Agata; Błaszczyk, Justyna; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Breast milk is the best source of nutrients and provides much better protection than immune modified milk. In the United States around 500 000 cases of mental disorders affecting pregnant women are diagnosed each year. It is estimated that approximately 1/3 of these women need psychotropic drugs in a period of breast-feeding. Despite the serious consequences of depression and its well-known effect on a newborn, the women are still reluctant to begin pharmacological treatment. The fear of side effects unfortunately still plays an important role in making such a decision. It has been proved that all psychiatric drugs can transfer into breast milk, but their levels are very low or even negligible for the newborn. Most laboratory tests do not reveal an adequate sensitivity to detect these low concentrations. One have to remember that in case of any disturbing symptoms which may result from the use of these drugs, the only procedure is to discontinue breastfeeding immediately. The knowledge of these effects of particular groups of psychotropic drugs in breast-feeding mothers is essential for every practitioner. This knowledge should also be available not only to psychiatrists, but gynecologists and pediatricians as well. For this reason, it seems to be reasonable to summarize the results of previously published studies dealing with the topic. PMID:26277179

  12. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  13. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  14. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... required by 42 CFR 2.31; and (iii) Authorizes the PHA to receive such information from the drug abuse.... This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse treatment... household member. (2) Drug abuse treatment facility. An entity: (i) That holds itself out as providing,...

  15. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... required by 42 CFR 2.31; and (iii) Authorizes the PHA to receive such information from the drug abuse.... This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse treatment... household member. (2) Drug abuse treatment facility. An entity: (i) That holds itself out as providing,...

  16. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required by 42 CFR 2.31; and (iii) Authorizes the PHA to receive such information from the drug abuse.... This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse treatment... household member. (2) Drug abuse treatment facility. An entity: (i) That holds itself out as providing,...

  17. Dynamic aspects of prescription drug use in an elderly population.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B; Coulson, N E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores longitudinal patterns in outpatient prescription drug use in an elderly population. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Enrollment records and prescription drug claims were obtained for a sample of elderly Pennsylvanians (N = 27,301) who had enrolled in the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (PACE) program at any time between July 1984 and June 1987. Study Design. The study tracks monthly prescription fill rates for sampled PACE beneficiaries from their initial enrollment month through disenrollment, death, or the end of the study (whichever occurred first). We specify two-part multivariate models to assess the effect of calendar time, length of time in the PACE program, and progression to disenrollment or death both on the probability of any prescription use and on the level of use among those who filled at least one prescription claim per month. Control variables include age, gender, race, income, residence, and marital status. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. Data were extracted from administrative files maintained by the PACE program, checked for errors, and then formatted as person-month records. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS. We find a strong positive relationship between drug use and the length of time persons are PACE-enrolled. Persons whose death occurs within a year have much higher prescription utilization rates than do persons whose death is at least a year away, and the differential increases as death nears. Persons who fail to renew PACE coverage use significantly fewer prescription drugs in the year prior to disenrollment. Holding age and other factors constant, we find that average levels of prescription use actually declined over the study period. PMID:8514502

  18. Gender Influences on Initiation of Injecting Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Ahamad, Keith; DeBeck, Kora; Feng, Cindy; Sakakibara, Todd; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Gender differences in illicit drug use patterns and related harms (e.g. HIV infection) are becoming increasingly recognized. However, little research has examined gender differences in risk factors for initiation into injecting drug use. We undertook this study to examine the relationship between gender and risk of injection initiation among street-involved youth and to determine whether risk factors for initiation differed between genders. Methods From September 2005 to November 2011, youth were enrolled into the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox regression analyses were used to assess variables associated with injection initiation and stratified analyses considered risk factors for injection initiation among male and female participants separately. Results Among 422 street-involved youth, 133 (32.5%) were female, and 77 individuals initiated injection over study follow-up. Although rates of injection initiation were similar between male and female youth (p =0.531), stratified analyses demonstrated that, among male youth, risk factors for injection initiation included sex work (Adjusted Hazard Ratio [AHR] =4.74, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]: 1.45–15.5) and residence within the city's drug use epicentre (AHR =1.95, 95% CI: 1.12–3.41), whereas among female youth, non-injection crystal methamphetamine use (AHR =4.63, 95% CI: 1.89– 11.35) was positively associated with subsequent injection initiation. Conclusion Although rates of initiation into injecting drug use were similar for male and female street youth, the risk factors for initiation were distinct. These findings suggest a possible benefit of uniquely tailoring prevention efforts to high-risk males and females. PMID:24405226

  19. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    PubMed Central

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  20. Drug abuse? Use and misuse of psychotropic drugs in Alzheimer's care.

    PubMed

    Taft, L B; Barkin, R L

    1990-08-01

    Although psychotropic drugs are widely used to control symptoms related to dementia, concerns are raised by the potential for adverse effects and misuse. Antidepressants may be useful when depression and dementia coexist in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. In later stages, anxiety and agitation are often treated with antianxiety or antipsychotic agents. Concerns escalate about the use of antipsychotic agents as chemical restraints. Nursing home reform provisions of OBRA '87 mandate dose reductions of antipsychotics in an effort to discontinue their use. The role of the nurse is to establish and monitor therapeutic goals, to assess the incidence and severity of predictable side effects, and to provide a safe, supportive environment that reduces the need for pharmacological intervention.