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Sample records for drug-facilitated sexual assault

  1. [Drug facilitated sexual assault].

    PubMed

    Alempijević, Djordje; Savić, Slobodan; Stojanović, Jovan; Spasić, Andjelka

    2007-01-01

    In line with the fact that there is little information regarding drug facilitated sexual assault in national medical literature, the authors aimed to prepare a review of the phenomenon based on available international references. Therefore we offered a definition of the concept of sexual assault, and rape in particular. Consent and ability for valid consent for sexual intercourse were defined as well. A review contains discussion about the basic elements of a concept of drug-facilitated sexual assault. There is also available information in regard to pharmacology of common data rape drugs, i.e. flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. We indicate the utmost importance of prompt collecting of biological samples for toxicological screening in patients who are suspected victims of drug facilitated sexual assault.

  2. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault.

  3. Criminal poisoning: drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a complex and ever-prevalent problem presenting to emergency departments. Emergency personnel should consider DFSA in patients who are amnestic to the specific details of the event following a reported sexual assault. The presence of ethanol or a positive routine drug screen in a sexual assault victim does not exclude the potential of a surreptitious drug being present. In addition, a negative routine drug screen does not exclude all potential agents that are used in DFSA. This article discusses agents reported in DFSA. It is imperative for emergency personnel to clearly document the history and the presenting signs and symptoms to assist laboratory personnel to hone in and detect the correct agent used in a DFSA.

  4. The epidemiology of drug facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael; Parker, Helen; Wells, David L

    2006-05-01

    The files of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine were reviewed for all cases of alleged drug facilitated sexual assault for the 12 month period concluding in April 2003. Seventy-six cases were identified from a total of 434 (17.5%) cases of adult sexual assault. The median delay from alleged incident to time of examination was 20 h. Alcohol consumption in the hours prior to the assault was reported by 77%. Alcohol was still present in 37% when subsequently examined, with an average blood alcohol concentration of 0.11% at the time of examination. Forty-nine percent reported using prescription medications and 26% reported the use of recreational drugs. Drugs not reportedly consumed by the subject were detected in 15 cases (20%) of the study group or 3% of all adult sexual assault cases. The drugs detected included cannabis (four cases), antidepressants (4), amphetamines (3), benzodiazepines (4) and opiates (3). The study indicates that covert administration of drugs in the setting of adult sexual assault appears uncommon. The true incidence however may be higher (due to non or delayed reporting) or lower (due to inaccurate self reporting of drug consumption) however the frequent findings of high concentrations of alcohol has implications for the health and safety of these individuals.

  5. Drug-facilitated sexual assault using tetrahydrozoline.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Siewert, Dennis J

    2012-05-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has been defined as the use of a chemical agent to facilitate a sexual assault. We report two cases of the use of tetrahydrozoline for DFSA. We believe this is the first report with urinary quantification of tetrahydrozoline levels postassault. Blood and urine were obtained c. 20 h postexposure in two cases of reported DFSA. Tetrahydrozoline was not detected in blood but was identified in urine in both victims. After initial identification in the urine using the 2010 update to the AAFS mass spectrometry database library, tetrahydrozoline was quantified at 114 and 150 ng/mL, respectively, using GC/MS. Two unique clinical features reported in these cases were intermittent periods of consciousness and postexposure vomiting. Use of GC/MS was successful in identifying tetrahydrozoline in the 100 ng/mL range up to 20 h postexposure. For victims with late presentation, urine may be a better sample for evaluation for tetrahydrozoline.

  6. Drug facilitated sexual assault--a review.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Moore, C B T

    2008-07-01

    This review was undertaken to identify the evolutionary process in the current understanding of allegations of drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), so that those who work in this field may gain a better understanding of the complexities involved in such cases. Several definitions of DFSA are provided as well as a list of intoxicating substances which have so far been incriminated in this crime. Perception and alcohol use is addressed, whilst an examination of intoxication and victim outcomes reveals disturbing but important information which needs to be centrally placed within health education campaigns with a degree of urgency. The review identifies the effects of alcohol on sexual behaviour, drinking patterns and specific quantitative research indicating very high alcohol levels in some instances. In practical terms, suggestions are made following Operation Matisse, to address prevention, early detection and easier identification of DFSA cases so that victims' needs are prioritised and appropriately addressed.

  7. Challenges of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, M A; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    This article provides the reader with an understanding of the numerous challenges of drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA). The challenges are categorized as follows: the drugs, reporting the crime, evidence collection, and laboratory analysis of specimens. The challenges associated with the drugs used to commit DFSA emphasizes the pharmacological effects of strong central nervous system depressants and how the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs create difficulties in an investigation. For example, while sexual assaults are generally considered to be a significantly underreported crime, the drug effects further complicate victims' reporting to law enforcement. Any delay in reporting decreases the ability of a laboratory to detect the presence of drugs or metabolites in useful evidentiary specimens such as blood and urine. Finally, differences in instrumentation and mission from one laboratory to the next will impact the ability to provide consistent identification of DFSA drugs or metabolites in these cases. Although the true prevalence of DFSAs will never be fully known, acknowledgment of the many challenges that come with these cases provides insight as to how to improve chances of successfully investigating DFSA allegations.

  8. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault on Campus: Challenges and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.…

  9. Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed.

  10. Laboratory Management of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Cases.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, M A

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) have increased in forensic laboratories in many parts of the world. Investigators of DFSA allegations know of the many challenges associated with these cases, but forensic toxicologists find that delays in the reporting of such crimes to law enforcement and subsequent lags in specimen collection are particularly important concerns. These delays are usually a result of the traumatic experience of sexual assaults, as well as the amnesic effect of the drugs typically used to commit DFSA. Unfortunately, such a delay in specimen collection may be the difference between detecting traces of a drug (or metabolite) and reporting a negative result. Therefore, it is imperative for toxicology laboratories to properly prepare for DFSA cases by developing forms, policies, and procedures to ensure that truly meaningful analyses are performed. This article provides guidance in the steps laboratories may take to best prepare themselves to analyze evidentiary specimens from DFSA investigations.

  11. The Frequency of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Investigations.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, M A; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    While there is a general belief throughout parts of the world that drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases have dramatically increased in recent times, the true prevalence of DFSA will never be fully realized. This is due to the general underreporting of sexual assaults, the pharmacodynamics of the drugs used to commit these crimes, the challenges that delayed reporting can impose on the charges associated with these cases, and the lack of a uniform system of defining and statistically capturing data on sexual assaults that are facilitated by drugs. Over the years, a number of studies have attempted to quantitate the frequency of DFSA in various countries throughout the world. Unfortunately, no two studies have taken the same approach in their assessment of DFSA; therefore, it is difficult to combine their results to allow for a realistic evaluation of how prevalent DFSA really is. This manuscript reviews the studies that have attempted such an assessment of DFSA prevalence to compare and contrast their results.

  12. Unusual Case of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault using Chloroform.

    PubMed

    Richeval, Camille; Allorge, Delphine; Lopez, Vincent; Boyer, Baptiste; Gaulier, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-22

    Despite its well-known sedative properties, chloroform is rarely used for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) as its administration cannot be achieved without the victim's knowledge: we report an unusual case of DFSA using this solvent. A 26-year-old woman declared that her partner get her to sleep using chloroform the previous night. When she waked up at 3 am, her hands were tied. She immediately suspected violence and sexual penetration. Toxicological blood screening using a liquid chromatography-electrospray coupled tandem mass spectrometry method highlighted the presence of bamifylline and theophylline, two therapeutics of asthma. A screening method for volatile substances using a headspace-gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method showed (i) the presence of chloroform in blood at a concentration subsequently estimated at 580 µg/L using an external calibration, and (ii) chloroform traces on a piece of a scarf brought by the patient and suspected to have been used to put her to sleep. These results were consistent with an exposure to chloroform by inhalation and demonstrate that there is no limit in the use of chemical weapons in DFSA.

  13. Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Negrusz, Adam; Gaensslen, R E

    2003-08-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated with sexual assault is long and among others includes flunitrazepam with other benzodiazepines such as diazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, as well as gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and scopolamine. We discuss the most recent analytical developments in the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated rape designed to reveal drug presence and that may help successfully prosecute perpetrators.

  14. Drug facilitated sexual assault using an over-the-counter ocular solution containing tetrahydrozoline (Visine).

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Rogers, Jacqualine; Sawyer, Tama S

    2007-07-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has been defined as sexual activity occurring where consent is invalid or absent due to the effects of drugs and or alcohol. We report the use of a commonly available over-the-counter drug to induce an obtunded compliant victim with no memory of the period during the sexual assault. An adult male repeatedly used tetrahydrozoline to induce a comatose state in an adult female and four female children for the purposes of sexual assault. It may be warranted to include imidazoline derivatives in the testing for cases of DFSA.

  15. Drug-facilitated sexual assault involving gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Matthew E

    2002-09-01

    The first case involving an alleged sexual assault linked to the use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in Oklahoma is reported. A-48-year-old Caucasian woman taking amitriptyline was known to have voluntarily ingested a sports drink containing a relaxing health product. She purportedly experienced unconsciousness that persisted for approximately 4 h. The toxicological testing on urine identified GHB, amitriptyline, and nortriptyline using a capillary Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas chromatograph coupled to a Hewlett-Packard 5973 mass selective detector (MSD). The GHB concentration in urine was 26.9 microg/mL. Urine concentrations of amitriptyline and nortriptyline were not determined. The analytical method used for identifying and quantitating GHB can be applied to matters of forensic interests.

  16. An exploratory analysis of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault seen in a hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Margaret J; Lipowska, Magdalena; Shah, Seema; Du Mont, Janice; De Siato, Christine

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective review of sexual assault cases seen in an emergency department from 1993 to 1999 examined rates and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Overall, 12% of cases were identified as suspected DFSAs. The rate of suspected DFSA in 1999 was more than double that in the preceding six years. As well, compared to other sexual assaults, suspected DFSA cases had a longer time delay in presenting to the hospital, were less likely to involve the police, and had a lower occurrence of both genital and extra-genital injury. The clinical implications of these findings, particularly in terms of toxicology evidence collection, are discussed.

  17. A case of drug-facilitated sexual assault involving 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Céline; Cathala, Philippe; Fabresse, Nicolas; Galea, Yves; Mathieu-Daudé, Jean-claude; Baccino, Eric; Peyrière, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Typical scenarios of drug-facilitated sexual assaults usually involve victims having ingested a drink after which they had little, partial or no recollection of events for a period of time. We were surprised by the case of a woman who was sexually assaulted and described a state of amazement, leading to an incapacity to resist physically or verbally to her aggressor, and who remembered everything. Alcohol was first suspected but toxicological analysis revealed the presence of 3,4-methylene-dioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In the literature review, a few cases of sexual assault involving involuntarily MDMA intake are described.

  18. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: College Women's Risk Perception and Behavioral Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…

  19. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: College Women's Risk Perception and Behavioral Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…

  20. [A prospective study of drug-facilitated sexual assault in Barcelona].

    PubMed

    Xifró-Collsamata, Alexandre; Pujol-Robinat, Amadeo; Barbería-Marcalain, Eneko; Arroyo-Fernández, Amparo; Bertomeu-Ruiz, Antonia; Montero-Núñez, Francisco; Medallo-Muñiz, Jordi

    2015-05-08

    To determine the frequency and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) among the victims of sexual assault in Barcelona. Prospective study of every adult consulting an emergency service because of alleged sexual assault and receiving forensic assessment in the city of Barcelona in 2011. A total of 35 of 114 cases (30.7%) met suspected DFSA criteria. Compared with the other victims, suspected DFSA cases were more likely to experience amnesia, to have been assaulted by night, after a social situation and by a recently acquainted man, to have used alcohol before the assault and to be foreigners. In this group ethanol was detected in blood or urine in 48.4% of analyzed cases; their mean back calculated blood alcohol concentration was 2.29g/l (SD 0.685). Also, at least one central nervous system drug other than ethanol was detected in 60,6%, mainly stimulant drugs of abuse. Suspected DFSA is frequent among victims of alleged sexual assault in Barcelona nowadays. The depressor substance most commonly encountered is alcohol, which contributes to victims' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A case of drug-facilitated sexual assault by the use of flunitrazepam.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, T

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault on a female intoxicated with flunitrazepam. The male assailant added flunitrazepam (1 mg) to the female's soft drink, and had sexual intercourse with her while her consciousness was impaired. The complainant did not recall the events due to benzodiazepine-induced anterograde amnesia. The use of flunitrazepam was uncovered when its major metabolite, 7-amino flunitrazepam, was detected in a urine specimen collected when the complainant attended hospital approximately one day after consuming the adulterated drink.

  2. Drug-facilitated sexual assault in Ontario, Canada: toxicological and DNA findings.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Rotbard, Nomi; Bainbridge, Deidre; Asllani, Eriola; Smith, Norman; Cohen, Marsha M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which persons reporting sexual assault to a hospital-based treatment centre may have been covertly drugged and to provide information about whether a sexual assault may have occurred. Each consecutive adolescent and adult presenting at a sexual assault treatment centre was screened for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Urine was collected and tested for central nervous system active drugs. Oral, vaginal, and/or rectal swabs were tested for male DNA. Unexpected drugs were defined as those not reported as having been voluntarily consumed within the previous 72 h. Positive swabs for unexpected DNA were determined by whether the person reported having had consensual intercourse in the previous week. A total of 184 of 882 eligible participants met suspected DFSA criteria. Mean age was 25.8 years (SD=8.5), 96.2% were female and 64.7% White. Urine samples were positive for drugs in 44.9% of cases, alcohol in 12.9%, and both drugs and alcohol in 18.0%. The drugs found on toxicological screening were unexpected in 87 of the 135 (64.4%) cases with a positive drug finding and included cannabinoids (40.2%), cocaine (32.2%), amphetamines (13.8%), MDMA (9.2%), ketamine (2.3%), and GHB (1.1%). Male DNA was unexpected in 30 (46.9%) of 64 cases where it was found. Among those persons presenting to a sexual assault treatment centre with a suspicion of DFSA, the presence of unexpected drugs and male DNA was common, lending support for their contention that they had been intentionally drugged and sexually assaulted. Most unexpected drugs found were not those typically described as 'date rape drugs'.

  3. Measurement of drug facilitated sexual assault agents in simulated sweat by ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Demoranville, Leonard T; Verkouteren, Jennifer R

    2013-03-15

    Ion mobility spectrometry has found widespread use for the detection of explosives and illicit drugs. The technique offers rapid results with high sensitivity and little sample preparation. As such, it is well suited for field deployed screening settings. Here the response of ion mobility spectrometers for three drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) agents - flunitrazepam, ketamine, and MDMA - and related metabolites has been studied in the presence of a simulated sweat. While all three DFSA agents present certain challenges for qualitative identification, IMS can provide useful information to guide the early treatment and investigation of sexual assault cases. Used as a presumptive test, the identification of DFSA agents would later require confirmatory analysis by other techniques.

  4. A review of drug-facilitated sexual assault evidence: an Irish perspective.

    PubMed

    McBrierty, Dermot; Wilkinson, Andrew; Tormey, William

    2013-05-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is prevalent in Western society. There is a significant degree of confusion regarding the definition and prevalence of DFSA. It is a subject with medical, scientific and legal aspects. These facets are explored in this review through a detailed examination of published data. The legal issues are defined in the context of the Irish judicial system. Several key case-law studies are presented to aid in understanding unresolved difficulties that persist in this complex field of forensics. The aim of this paper is to aid individuals from disparate disciplines to increase their evidence base in the complex and evolving issue of DFSA.

  5. Attempted Drug-facilitated Sexual Assault-Xylazine Intoxication in a Child.

    PubMed

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie; Mueller, Alexander; Anders, Sven

    2017-01-01

    There are only a few cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults on children reported in the literature so far. Here, a case of a four-year-old boy is presented. He was unconscious, and the accompanying adults reported that the child had been at a playground on his own. Returning home, he complained of having been stung and collapsed immediately. Urine and serum samples of the child were investigated. In the toxicological analysis, xylazine, a sedative and muscle relaxant used in animals, was detected. Subsequent quantification by GC/MS after solid-phase extraction revealed 0.053 mg/L xylazine in serum and approximately 0.63 mg/L in urine. Furthermore, the child was examined by a forensic medical specialist. Police investigations revealed that the godfather, who had been previously accused of sexual abuse of children, had injected the child with the drug, possibly in preparation for a shared bath.

  6. Drug-facilitated sexual assault provoked by the victim's religious beliefs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maravelias, Constantine; Stefanidou, Maria; Dona, Artemis; Athanaselis, Sotiris; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2009-12-01

    The number of drug-facilitated sexual assault incidents has lately been increased all over the world leading law enforcement agencies and hospital doctors to constant alert. The drugs involved may be benzodiazepines, hypnotics, other sedatives, anesthetics, drugs of abuse or ethanol. The detection of these agents in biologic fluids is difficult, since most of them are shortly acting, and provoke victim's amnesia which in turn leads the victim to report the allegation late. An unusual case-study of a 35-year-old, married woman who was admitted to the hospital with dizziness and loss of memory for a period of 10 days is here reported. The toxicological analysis of the victim's blood and urine for unknown sedative drugs, achieved by GC-MS, revealed the presence of zolpidem (Stilnox), a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. Concentration of zolpidem in blood, 11 hours after the last supposedly intake, was 47 microg/L. After family counseling at the hospital, the victim's husband confessed that he was replacing the contents of Losec capsules of his wife, with Stilnox tablets. This unjust act was committed by the husband in order for him to have sex with his wife, since she was not willing to participate in a sexual intercourse due to her religious restraints for a fasting period of 40 days. The aim of this article is 2-fold. First, to emphasize the fact that a sexual assault can take place not only between 2 strangers, but also within a happily married couple. Second, to remind doctors that any case of sexual assault must be examined toxicologically, for a better and thorough investigation.

  7. A case of drug-facilitated sexual assault leading to death by chloroform poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Yvan; Masson-Seyer, Marie Françoise; Giroud, Michel; Roussot, Jean François; Prevosto, Jean Michel

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the cause of death of a 13-year-old girl, where none was immediately evident. Our analysis showed it to be a very unusual case of a drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), which led to the tragic death of the young rape victim and then to the suicide of the rapist. The incapacitating agent used was chloroform. The post-mortem analysis revealed a blood concentration of 833.9 mg/l for the girl, whereas the quantitation of chloroform in various fluids and viscera of the rapist proved that he had recently been handling the solvent (with concentrations in fat tissues 20 times higher than in his blood). This case draws attention to the need for broad searches for volatile substances in such investigations.

  8. Forcible, Drug-Facilitated, and Incapacitated Rape and Sexual Assault among Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyer, Steven; Resnick, Heidi; Bakanic, Von; Burkett, Tracy; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. Participants: College-student females (n = 314). Methods: Volunteers reported experiences with forcible…

  9. Forcible, Drug-Facilitated, and Incapacitated Rape and Sexual Assault among Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyer, Steven; Resnick, Heidi; Bakanic, Von; Burkett, Tracy; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. Participants: College-student females (n = 314). Methods: Volunteers reported experiences with forcible…

  10. Drug facilitated sexual assault with lethal outcome: GHB intoxication in a six-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard; Hess, Cornelius

    2016-02-01

    A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were analysed by a LC-MS/MS method. The following GHB concentrations were determined: cardiac blood: 150 mg/l; bile: 292mg/l; vitreous humour: 58mg/l; liver: 100 mg/kg; kidney: 124.5 mg/kg, brain: 110 mg/kg. Very high GHB levels were found in the proximal part of the hair sample (about 40.9 ng/mg). In distal segments of hair - up to 12 cm distant from the hair scalp - GHB concentrations were higher than the overall found endogenous range of 2-3 ng/mg. Police investigations revealed that the uncle had also administered GHB to the older half-sister. Therefore, a sample of her hair was analysed accordingly, but unremarkable results were obtained. Comparing our toxicological results with police investigations and the offender's statements it can be assumed that the 6-year-old girl had ingested GHB. By exclusion of other causes of death a lethal intoxication with GHB could be confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ≥ 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually

  12. Drug-facilitated sexual assault and analytical toxicology: the role of LC-MS/MS A case involving zolpidem.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Dumestre-Toulet, Véronique; Ludes, Bertrand

    2005-02-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. Drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals, such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc.), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some histamine H1-antagonists) or anaesthetics (gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine), drugs of abuse, such as cannabis, ecstasy or lysergide, or more often ethanol. Drugs said to be used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). We present here a case involving a 23-year old girl that declared a sexual assault 6 days after the event was said to have occurred. To the Police, the victim claimed a total amnesia of the offense associated with intense sedation. Toxicological analyses for unknown sedative drugs achieved by LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of zolpidem (Stilnox), a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic. Concentrations after 6 days were 16 and 32 pg/mL in blood and urine, respectively. The drug tested also positive in the corresponding hair segment at 0.75 pg/mg. The requested extraordinary sensitivity of LC-MS/MS appears as a pre-requisite to document any case involving drug-facilitated sexual assault.

  13. An estimate of the proportion of drug-facilitation of sexual assault in four U.S. localities.

    PubMed

    Juhascik, Matthew P; Negrusz, Adam; Faugno, Diana; Ledray, Linda; Greene, Pam; Lindner, Alice; Haner, Barbara; Gaensslen, R E

    2007-11-01

    In recent years, drugs including flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, and ethanol, have become popularly associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault. Other drugs are also candidates as factors in "drug facilitated sexual assault" (DFSA). The true extent of DFSA is not known, and is difficult to estimate. We recruited sexual assault complainants at four clinics in different parts of the U.S. to anonymously provide urine and hair specimens, and to answer questions about suspected drugging, drug use, and the sexual assault incident. Urine and hair specimens were tested for 45 drugs, including ethanol, and those pharmacologically capable of inducing sedation, amnesia, or impairment of judgment. Analytical test results were used to estimate the proportion of subjects, and the proportion of all complainants to the clinic in the same time period, who were victims of DFSA. Overall, cases of 43% of 144 subjects, and 7% of 859 complainants, were characterized as DFSA. Subjects underreported their use of drugs. The role of toxicological results and history in characterizing DFSA cases is discussed.

  14. Current clinical aspects of drug-facilitated sexual assaults in sexually abused victims examined in a forensic emergency unit.

    PubMed

    Marc, Bernard

    2008-04-01

    Sexual assault is defined as any undesired physical contact of a sexual nature perpetrated against another person and is a prevalent problem presenting at emergency departments, emergency forensic medicine units, and rape crisis centres worldwide. Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a complex problem that is encountered with increasing frequency. But this problem is often underrepresented because most DFSAs are not reported by the frightened victims or are diagnosed as an acute drug or alcohol intoxication, thereby bypassing sexual abuse diagnosis and appropriate care. Proper care must be taken to ensure the chain of custody. Emergency physicians need to be aware of the phenomenon and work together with reference emergency forensic medicine units and rape crisis centres, which are capable of taking care of the male and female victims of sexual abuse. If no attention is given to the risk of DFSA, then toxicological samples (urine, blood, hair) and other biologic evidence may remain unidentified and semen, vaginal secretions, and vaginal epithelial cells cannot be genetically typed by a crime laboratory. This article reports the main clinical aspects of DFSA encountered in emergency departments at the beginning of the 21st century and the experience of an emergency forensic medicine unit based at a hospital (Compiègne, France). Guidelines are proposed for clinical examination of DFSA victims, clinical forensic medical examination, and accurate samplings for further toxicological and biological evidence.

  15. Characterizing Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Subtypes and Treatment Engagement of Victims at a Hospital-Based Rape Treatment Center.

    PubMed

    Richer, Laurie A; Fields, Laurie; Bell, Shannon; Heppner, Jennifer; Dodge, Jessica; Boccellari, Alicia; Shumway, Martha

    2015-06-10

    Variation among existing studies in labeling, defining, identifying, and subtyping cases of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) poses challenges to integrating research findings for public health purposes. This descriptive study addressed methodological issues of nomenclature and DFSA operational definitions to improve case identification and was designed to distinguish assault subtypes. We studied a 2-year ethnically diverse cohort of 390 patients who presented acutely to an urban rape treatment center (RTC). We abstracted data from RTC medical and mental health records via chart review. Assault incidence rates; engagement into medical, forensic, and mental health services; injury sustained; and weapon use were calculated separately for assault subtypes and compared. DFSA accounted for over half of the total sexual assault (SA) cases. Involuntary DFSA (in which an incapacitating substance was administered to victims without their knowledge or against their will) increased from 25% to 33% of cases over the 2-year period. DFSA victims presented sooner, and more often attended medical follow-up and psychotherapy than non-DFSA victims. Incidence rates indicated increasing risk for young males. These findings indicate that DFSA continues to be a growing and complex phenomenon and suggest that DFSA victims have greater service needs. The field would benefit from innovations to address symptomatology arising from this novel type of trauma and the unique risks and needs of male victims, as well as underscoring the ongoing need for DFSA-specific prevention efforts for both victims and perpetrators.

  16. Retrospective drug detection in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault: challenges and perspectives for the forensic toxicologist.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Mark C; Brailsford, Alan D

    2009-08-01

    Reported incidences of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) are on the increase worldwide. These cases represent a particular challenge for the forensic toxicologist due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate evidence of drug administration. Primarily, this is due to the nature and diversity of the drugs involved, their pharmacology and sampling timescales. Evaluating whether a drug has been administered to a victim for the purpose of sexual assault can often be difficult, if not impossible. This review draws attention to this burgeoning crime and focuses on the unique challenges DFSA cases present in terms of evidential analysis. Current analytical methodologies for investigating DFSA are highlighted and discussed along with developments in improving analytical procedures. In particular, enlarging detection windows by adopting emerging LC-MS techniques is also discussed. This review also highlights the use of cutting-edge technologies such as ultra-HPLC and the use of alternative matrices for addressing the problem of improved retrospective drug detection.

  17. The involvement of drugs and alcohol in drug-facilitated sexual assault: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Beynon, Caryl M; McVeigh, Clare; McVeigh, Jim; Leavey, Conan; Bellis, Mark A

    2008-07-01

    The rate of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA; when an incapacitating drug is administered surreptitiously to facilitate sexual assault) is perceived to be increasing in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, causing international concern. This article examines evidence that quantifies the contribution of drugs in instances of alleged DFSA, identifies the substances involved, and discusses the implications of these findings. Of 389 studies examined, 11 were included in this review. The only study to consider covert drugging reported that 2% of alleged DFSA cases were attributable to surreptitious drug administration. Other studies failed to remove voluntary drug consumption from their cohort, biasing results. A study by the United Kingdom's National Forensic Services found no evidence to suggest that flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) had been used for DFSA during its 3-year investigation. In the United States, flunitrazepam is used recreationally, providing a likely explanation for its presence in samples of some alleged DFSA victims.

  18. Mock juror sensitivity to forensic evidence in drug facilitated sexual assaults.

    PubMed

    Schuller, Regina A; Ryan, Alison; Krauss, Daniel; Jenkins, Gwen

    2013-01-01

    Mock jurors' reactions to variations in the quality of toxicological evidence regarding the presence of drugs in a sexual assault trial were examined. In Study 1, participants received a trial summary in which a negative test result, a negative test result plus expert testimony, or no test result was presented. The time taken by the complainant to report the alleged sexual assault was manipulated. The negative test result influenced participants' judgments, but this effect was minimized by the presence of expert testimony. The complainant's delay in reporting had little impact on judgments. In Study 2, complainant time to report was again manipulated along with the outcome of the test result (negative finding and no result). Results revealed that men were less conviction prone when the negative test result was obtained early as opposed to late. In contrast, when the test result was unavailable, men were more conviction prone when the complainant reported late as oppose to early.

  19. Ecstasy (MDMA), methamphetamine, and date rape (drug-facilitated sexual assault): a consideration of the issues.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Karl L R; Theron, Lynn

    2006-03-01

    The term "date rape drug" has traditionally been applied by the media to powerful sedatives, such as gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), which can render a person unconscious and hence unable to resist and/or recall an assault. However, some law enforcement agents and others have recently obtained convictions by arguing that the empathy-generating and sensual effects of MDMA, and an occasional increase in disinhibition and sexual desire linked with methamphetamine use, remove a person's ability to give a reasoned consent, turning the person into "a helpless slave" to their own sexual desires and those of the alleged perpetrator. The argument holds that the victim becomes part of the assault because they may appear to be cooperating and colluding with activity which they would not have consented to without taking these drugs. This interpretation of the term "date rape" has been fed by data that sometimes finds MDMA and amphetamines in samples taken from sexual assault victims, and hence these prosecutions sometimes rely on expert testimony from toxicologists, pathologists and police officers rather than psychologists and psychiatrists who are expert in the human effects of these drugs. Some of those in the latter group have dismissed claims that MDMA is an aphrodisiac or a date rape drug as myths propagated by the media. In this article, these arguments and their respective strengths and weaknesses will be examined to assist professionals and others who may become involved in these cases.

  20. An unusual case of drug-facilitated sexual assault using aromatic solvents.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María A; Ballesteros, Salomé

    2006-09-01

    This report documents a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) under the influence of solvents. The victim was a 13-year-old female. Upon contact with law enforcement, she was still confused and could hardly explain the facts. She told authorities that she had been kidnapped 4 h previously when two individuals with covered faces put a cloth soaked in a solvent over her mouth. She spent a few hours in a room, during which she lost consciousness. The girl awakened semi-nude in the street with memory loss. No alcohol was present in the subject's body; no odor of alcohol was detected on the subject's breath. No lesions were observed during a gynecological exam. A blood sample was taken with the intent to investigate the use of chloroform or similar anesthetics. Toxicological analysis of the victim's blood revealed the presence of 7.6 mg/L of benzene, 24.8 mg/L of toluene, and 0.6 mg/L of xylene (mixture of isomers). As for other analytical findings, diazepam (0.02 mg/L) was also found. The aromatic solvents involved in this case were detected using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) and confirmed using GC-mass spectrometry (MS) in full scan mode after liquid-liquid extraction of the whole blood sample. Quantitation of the aromatic solvents was carried out using GC-FID. Diazepam was detected using GC with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) and confirmed using GC-MS with full scan mode after solid-phase extraction of the whole blood sample using Bond-Elut Certify columns. Quantitation of diazepam was carried out using GC-NPD. No other drugs, including ethanol, were detected. Recoveries for benzene, toluene, and xylene (mixture of isomers) in whole blood at 5 mg/L were 89.2%, 90.8%, and 93.4%, respectively. Intraday precisions were 5.3%, 5.0%, and 4.9%, respectively, and interday precisions were 12.1%, 11.6%, and 11.5%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 30 and 100 microg/L, respectively. The linearity

  1. The impact of negative forensic evidence on mock jurors' perceptions of a trial of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gwen; Schuller, Regina A

    2007-08-01

    Legal concerns with regard to the adverse impact of a negative toxicological screening for date-rape drugs in a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) were the focus of a recent Canadian case (R. v. Alouache, 2003). To assess the impact of a negative forensic report, as well as the impact of expert testimony explaining the many factors that may contribute to a negative outcome, participants (N=171) received a written trial stimulus in which the forensic evidence (negative report, negative report plus expert testimony, no negative report and no expert testimony control) and the complainant's beverage consumption (alcohol, cola) were systematically varied. Results indicate that a negative finding in the absence of expert testimony produced greater verdict leniency and more favourable evaluations of the defendant's case. In contrast, no differences were found between the case in which the expert testified and a case in which the negative report and expert testimony were omitted.

  2. Testing for the undetectable in drug-facilitated sexual assault using hair analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry as evidence.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Ludes, Bertrand

    2004-04-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. Drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some histamine H, antagonists), or anesthetics (gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine), drugs of abuse such as cannabis, ecstasy, or lysergide, or more often ethanol. Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties, and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). In these situations, blood or even urine can be of little interest. This is the reason why this laboratory developed an original approach based on hair testing. Hair was suggested as a valuable specimen in situations where, as a result of a delay in reporting the crime, natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biologic specimens. Although there are many papers focused on the identification of drugs in hair following chronic drug use, those dealing with a single dose are very scarce. The experience of the authors is documented in cases involving zolpidem, GHB, lorazepam, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and flunitrazepam. The expected concentrations in hair are in the low picogram per milligram range for the hypnotics. Drug exposure is demonstrated by hair segmentation. Hair analysis may be a useful adjunct to conventional drug testing in sexual assault. It should not be considered as an alternative to blood and urine analyses but as a complement. MS/MS technologies appear to be a prerequisite.

  3. The behavioral and cognitive effects of two benzodiazepines associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Sheila M; Strong, Mary Jane; Janicak, Philip G; Negrusz, Adam

    2002-09-01

    Recently, sexual assaults have included the use of benzodiazepines to impair the victim. Our aim was to examine the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral effects of flunitrazepam (FN) and clonazepam (CLO). In the first study, ten healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 2 mg of FN. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), behavioral reports and staff observations were then collected. In the second study, ten healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 3 mg of CLO. Vital signs, performance on the MMSE and Digit Symbol Substitution Test, and behavioral changes were examined. FN significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure 4 h post drug ingestion with diastolic remaining low at 6 h. CLO was associated with changes in temperature and decreased systolic pressure. FN affected memory and attention 4 h following ingestion. CLO affected memory and attention throughout the study (6 h), and psychomotor performance was decreased 2 h post ingestion. In both studies, subjects were disinhibited and did not perceive their own impairment.

  4. Identification of GHB and morphine in hair in a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Riccardo; Lancia, Massimo; Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Oliva, Antonio; Fucci, Nadia

    2009-04-15

    The authors present the case of a 24-year-old girl who was sexually assaulted after administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and morphine. She had been living in an international college for foreign students for about 1 year and often complained of a general unhealthy feeling in the morning. At the end of the college period she returned to Italy and received at home some video clips shot by a mobile phone camera. In these videos she was having sex with a boy she met when she was studying abroad. Toxicological analysis of her hair was done: the hair was 20-cm long. A 2/3-cm segmentation of all the length of the hair was performed. Morphine and GHB were detected in hair segments related to the period of time she was abroad. The analyses of hair segments were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and the concentration of morphine and GHB were calculated. A higher value of GHB was found in the period associated with the possible criminal activity and was also associated with the presence of morphine in the same period.

  5. Hair analysis of drugs involved in drug-facilitated sexual assault and detection of zolpidem in a suspected case.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Alberto; Gerace, Enrico; Di Corcia, Daniele; Martra, Gianmario; Petrarulo, Michele; Vincenti, Marco

    2012-05-01

    In drug-facilitated crimes, victims are subjected to nonconsensual acts while they are incapacitated by the effects of a drug. A specific LC-MS/MS protocol for determining benzodiazepines and hypnotics at low concentration in hair specimens was developed and validated in order to target the allegedly administered drugs on a chronological basis. In the case hereby reported, a 26-year-old woman claimed to have been sexually assaulted after being administered an allegedly drugged coffee, but toxicological analysis of urine and blood provided no evidence of any drug intake. Subsequently, a second woman accused the same man of sexual abuse. Hence, the suspect was prosecuted. Specimens were collected from four subjects (two alleged victims, the suspect and his wife) and segmental hair analysis was performed. The results revealed that zolpidem was present at low picogram per milligram concentration in three out of eleven segments of hair specimen obtained from the first of the alleged victims, offering plain evidence of single or sporadic exposure, whereas the agent was detected in the high picogram per milligram range in the hair collected from suspect's wife, coherently with therapeutic administration. The presence of interfering signals typical of the keratin-containing matrix was found and possible hair degradation by cosmetic treatments was investigated by electron microscopy, so as to obtain a judicious interpretation of the analytical findings.

  6. LC-(TOF) MS analysis of benzodiazepines in urine from alleged victims of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2007-10-01

    The present study employs a recently reported liquid chromatography-(time of flight) mass spectrometry procedure for the simultaneous analysis of 22 benzodiazepines in human urine specimens. The analysis focused on the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepines and/or their metabolites. Using this method, the limit of quantitation for the benzodiazepines tested ranged from 2 to 10 ng/mL, while the limit of detection range was 0.5 to 3.0 ng/mL. Urine specimens collected from alleged victims of drug-facilitated sexual assault (156 specimens) were tested. Only 19 out of the 22 benzodiazepines analyzed were detected in these specimens. These same specimens were previously screened for benzodiazepines by various immunoassay techniques using a 50 ng/mL cut-off level and confirmed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method after acid hydrolysis to their benzophenone skeletons, thus making the identification of the specific benzodiazepine(s) involved impossible for most specimens. This study aims to offer an alternative methodology that would allow such identification for similar specimens. Additionally, the distribution of the individual benzodiazepines of interest among the 156 specimens as well as their prevalence in specimens originating in different U.S. states is presented.

  7. Toxicological findings in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C

    2005-08-01

    This paper outlines the toxicology results from 1014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) analysed at the Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The results were interpreted with respect to the number of drugs detected and an attempt was made to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary ingestion from information supplied. Alcohol (either alone or with an illicit and/or medicinal drug) was detected in 470 of all cases (46%). Illicit drugs were detected in 344 cases (34%), with cannabis being the most commonly detected (26% of cases), followed by cocaine (11%). In 21 cases (2%), a sedative or disinhibiting drug was detected which had not been admitted and could therefore be an instance of deliberate spiking. This included three cases in which complainants were allegedly given Ecstasy (MDMA) without their knowledge. Other drugs detected included gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) and the benzodiazepine drugs diazepam and temazepam. Another nine cases (1%) involved the complainant being either given or forced to ingest pharmaceutical tablets or an illicit drug.

  8. Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Heather K; Sachs, Carolyn J

    2011-08-01

    Sexual assault is a problem that permeates all socioeconomic classes and impacts hundreds of thousands in the United States and millions worldwide. Most victims do not report the assault; those that do often present to an emergency department. Care must encompass the patients' physical and emotional needs. Providers must be cognizant regarding handling of evidence and possible legal ramifications. This article discusses the emergency medicine approach to history taking, physical examination, evidence collection, chain of custody, psychological and medical treatment, and appropriate follow-up. Special circumstances discussed include intimate partner violence, male examinations, pediatric examinations, suspect examinations, and drug-facilitated assaults.

  9. Drug facilitated sexual assault: detection and stability of benzodiazepines in spiked drinks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Lata; Sharratt, Sarah D; Cole, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are detected in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA). Whilst blood and urine from the victim are routinely analysed, due to the delay in reporting DFSA cases and the short half lives of most of these drugs in blood and urine, drug detection in such samples is problematic. Consideration of the drinks involved and analysis for drugs may start to address this. Here we have reconstructed the 'spiking' of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, flunitrazepam and temazepam) into five drinks, an alcopop (flavoured alcoholic drink), a beer, a white wine, a spirit, and a fruit based non-alcoholic drink (J2O) chosen as representative of those drinks commonly used by women in 16-24 year old age group. Using a validated GC-MS method for the simultaneous detection of these drugs in the drinks we have studied the storage stability of the benzodiazepines under two different storage conditions, uncontrolled room temperature and refrigerator (4°C) over a 25 day period. All drugs could be detected in all beverages over this time period. Diazepam was found to be stable in all of the beverages, except the J2O, under both storage conditions. Flunitrazepam and temazepam were found not to be stable but were detectable (97% loss of temazepam and 39% loss of flunitrazepam from J2O). The recommendations from this study are that there should be a policy change and that drinks thought to be involved in DFSA cases should be collected and analysed wherever possible to support other evidence types.

  10. Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault: Detection and Stability of Benzodiazepines in Spiked Drinks Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Lata; Sharratt, Sarah D.; Cole, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are detected in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA). Whilst blood and urine from the victim are routinely analysed, due to the delay in reporting DFSA cases and the short half lives of most of these drugs in blood and urine, drug detection in such samples is problematic. Consideration of the drinks involved and analysis for drugs may start to address this. Here we have reconstructed the ‘spiking’ of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, flunitrazepam and temazepam) into five drinks, an alcopop (flavoured alcoholic drink), a beer, a white wine, a spirit, and a fruit based non-alcoholic drink (J2O) chosen as representative of those drinks commonly used by women in 16–24 year old age group. Using a validated GC-MS method for the simultaneous detection of these drugs in the drinks we have studied the storage stability of the benzodiazepines under two different storage conditions, uncontrolled room temperature and refrigerator (4°C) over a 25 day period. All drugs could be detected in all beverages over this time period. Diazepam was found to be stable in all of the beverages, except the J2O, under both storage conditions. Flunitrazepam and temazepam were found not to be stable but were detectable (97% loss of temazepam and 39% loss of flunitrazepam from J2O). The recommendations from this study are that there should be a policy change and that drinks thought to be involved in DFSA cases should be collected and analysed wherever possible to support other evidence types. PMID:24586489

  11. Detection of thiopental and pentobarbital in head and pubic hair in a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Tedeschi, Luciano; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2003-04-23

    The quali-quantitative determination of two barbiturates, thiopental and its metabolite pentobarbital, in head and pubic hair samples of a woman who had been sexually assaulted during hospitalisation, is reported. Hair was analysed by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS), in chemical ionisation conditions. Thiopental and pentobarbital were found in three proximal head hair segments (sample 1A: 0.30 and 0.40 ng/mg; sample 1B: 0.20 and 0.20 ng/mg; sample 3: 0.15 and 0.20 ng/mg) and pubic hair sample. Two distal head hair segments were negative for both barbiturates. Despite the lack of collection and toxicological analysis of blood or urine samples within the hospital setting, analytical findings from hair revealed the use of the anaesthetic agent thiopental to sedate the victim quickly and deeply and commit sexual assault.

  12. LC-MS-(TOF) analysis method for benzodiazepines in urine samples from alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Kareem M; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2006-10-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the number of reports in the U.S. of the use of drugs to commit sexual assault. In 1994, a nationwide urine testing program was developed to assess the incidence of the use of drugs to facilitate sexual assault and provide information for use in the investigation of these crimes. Urine samples were collected from victims of suspected drug-induced sexual assault by law enforcement agencies, emergency rooms, and rape crisis centers. The most implicated drug class was benzodiazepines, either alone or in combination with alcohol. In this report, a procedure was developed for the screening of 22 benzodiazepines in human urine by liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry [LC-MS-(TOF)]. The limit of quantitation for all benzodiazepines ranged from 2 to 10 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.5 to 3.0 ng/mL. These results suggest that the method sensitivity is suitable to screen for all 22 benzodiazepines in human urine at low levels. The method was used to analyze samples previously reported to have screened positive for benzodiazepines by immunoassay at 50 ng/mL cut off but failed to confirm by a gas chromatography-MS method. The results of reanalysis of these samples using this LC-MS method are reported.

  13. Alleged drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) in Northern Ireland from 1999 to 2005. A study of blood alcohol levels.

    PubMed

    Hall, Janet; Goodall, Edward A; Moore, Tara

    2008-11-01

    Alleged sexual assault cases, identified from the forensic science Northern Ireland (FSNI) database, which had toxicology assays carried out on either blood or urine samples, were examined for the years 1999 up to and including 2005. In 1999 there were 30 toxicology requests while in 2005 there were 51, representing a 70% increase. The percentage of cases containing alcohol, drugs or both increased from 66% in 1999 to 78% in 2005. The estimated average blood alcohol concentration remained broadly similar throughout the spread of years. It was found to be 218mg% (milligrams per 100 millilitres) in 1999 and 217mg% in 2005. The actual number of cases studied within the 12h cut-off time rose from 9 in 1999 to 22 in 2005. The relationship between negative toxicology results and time delay between the alleged assault and forensic sampling was examined. This showed that between 44% and 74% of cases were found to have a time delay of >12h. Some of these cases may therefore represent false negative results. The presence of drugs, either alone or in combination with other drugs, doubled between 1999 and 2005. Increased identification was found with antidepressants, recreational drugs, benzodiazepines and analgesics, some of which were also associated with alcohol consumption. The findings are sufficient to cause alarm for the health and safety of certain individuals and their increased vulnerability to sexual assault in some social settings. Additionally, the legal implications of what constitutes valid consent needs to be considered further in the light of these findings, if attrition rates are to improve.

  14. College Women's Experiences with Physically Forced, Alcohol- or Other Drug-Enabled, and Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault before and since Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…

  15. College Women's Experiences with Physically Forced, Alcohol- or Other Drug-Enabled, and Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault before and since Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…

  16. Hair analysis to demonstrate administration of sildenafil to a woman in a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Evans, Julie; Villain, Marion; Chatterton, Craig; Cirimele, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    The drug sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer) and, more recently, tadalafil (Cialis, Lilly-Icos) and vardenafil (Levitra, Bayer), has drawn public attention to aphrodisiacs. The search for such substances dates back millennia. Adverse effects associated with these drugs include hypotension, tachycardia, headache, flushing, blurred vision, dyspepsia, and musculoskeletal pain. Although sildenafil has been marketed for erection of the penis, recent attention has been paid to its application for women, including enhancement of success of in vitro fertilization but also better sexual responses (increased desire, satisfaction, and orgasm) in cases of sexual disorders. Today, there is a debate on internet forums about the potential properties of sildenafil to enhance women's sexual pleasure. This laboratory was asked to analyze a 12-cm length of light brown hair submitted by a British police force following an allegation that a young female had been subjected to sexual assaults over a two-year period. The female was 15-17 years of age at the time. The alleged perpetrator was her stepfather, and there was some suspicion that drugs may have been administered to facilitate the attacks. After decontamination and segmentation (6 x 2-cm section), the specimen was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after alkaline (pH 9.5) extraction using dichloromethane/ isopropanol/n-heptane (25:10:65, v/v/v). The limit of quantitation was 5 pg/mg. The proximal segment tested positive for sildenafil at 38 pg/mg, and all others proved negative. This was in accord with the victim's claim. In the absence of any controlled studies, it was impossible to put any quantitative interpretation on the measured concentration.

  17. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  18. A case in south-eastern France: a review of drug facilitated sexual assault in European and English-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Dorandeu, Anne H; Pagès, Cheryl A; Sordino, Marie-Christine; Pépin, Gilbert; Baccino, Eric; Kintz, Pascal

    2006-07-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) have been increasingly reported in the medical literature since the 1980s but their legal recognition is more recent, at least in Europe. From a case treated in south-eastern France, whose judicial consequences were known, it seemed of interest to carry out an international study of jurisprudence concerning this type of rape. While from the medical viewpoint the drugs used are well-known and their presence can be clinically verified, the legal consequences of their use in subsequent criminal prosecution is less clear-cut. Some European countries have no jurisprudence in this area, while others consider the use of drugs as an aggravating circumstance. In France, it was only in 2003 that the first case of DFSA was truly punished by the judicial system, with considerable media attention. By contrast, in English-speaking countries, particularly the United States, the use of drugs to facilitate sexual assault has frequently been recognized in legislation and in criminal prosecutions. Prevention is fundamental and is recognised as demonstrated by campaigns in various countries.

  19. Detection of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in the blood, urine and hair samples of the victim of a drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2017-01-01

    A drug rape facilitated with the sedative antipsychotic drug quetiapine is presented here. A teenage girl and her girlfriend went to the home of an adult couple they had met at a bar. Here, the teenage girl (victim) felt tired after consuming some alcoholic drinks and fell asleep. While she was asleep, the others left her at the house alone and returned to the bar. Later, the girl woke up to witness the adult male having intercourse with her, but she was not able to resist the attack. She fell asleep again and slept through the next day and a half, after which she left the house. Forty-three hours after the suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), blood and urine samples were collected and the initial toxicological screening detected quetiapine. Confirmation and quantification by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) revealed a concentration of 0.007mg/kg quetiapine in blood and 0.19mg/l in urine. Six months after the DFSA, a hair sample was collected and segmental hair analysis was performed on four washed segments (0-3cm, 3-5cm, 5-7cm, and 7-9cm). The last segment contained 0.011ng/mg of quetiapine, whereas the other segments were negative. The low level of quetiapine in the hair segment and its absence in the other segments indicate that the victim had only consumed one or a few doses of quetiapine within that period and was not a regular user. This study describes the first drug-facilitated assault involving a single dose of quetiapine that was detected by hair, blood and urine analysis. This case illustrates the importance of having very sensitive analytical methods for measurement of a single dose in blood and urine and how the extended detection window for hair analysis can reveal more information in such cases.

  20. Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S F; Gilchrist, V J

    1993-06-01

    Estimates are that one in four women will be sexually assaulted at some time during her life. For the victim, it is a life-changing, traumatic event. This paper reviews both the immediate and long-term care of the sexual assault victim. For the victim seen immediately after the assault, physicians must provide empathic, nonjudgmental care that puts the victim back in control of her life. It is essential that the physician provide continued support for the victim and her family through the recovery process. The medical presentations that should prompt the physician to inquire about undisclosed sexual assault and the social and cultural myths that promote sexual assault are reviewed.

  1. A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C

    2006-04-01

    This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1,014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The samples were collected from a complainant within 12 h of an alleged incident in 391 of the 1014 cases analysed. Of these, the majority (81%) contained alcohol. The presence of alcohol itself was not surprising as most of the alleged incidents were associated with social situations such as at a public house, bar, night-club or party, where it is expected that alcohol would have been consumed. However, 233 (60%) of the 391 cases had a high back-calculated figure, where high is defined as greater than 150 milligrams per 100 millilitres (150 mg%). Some of these samples were also found to contain illicit drugs. This is the first paper to our knowledge which discusses in detail the significance of the alcohol concentrations found in cases of this type.

  2. [Drug-facilitated crime and sexual abuse: a pediatric observation].

    PubMed

    Rey-Salmon, C; Pépin, G

    2007-11-01

    Drug-facilitated crime in sexual assault situations remains insufficiently recognized by physicians. In the possible context of an assault and in front of recent neuropsychicological disturbances in a child, such an issue has to be considered. The quality of sampling, the use of ultra-sensitive and specific toxicologic methods and a clinical-biological collaboration allow to recognize this form of delinquency whose consequences are both medical and legal.

  3. Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    This document provides information on issues related to sexual assault in the US. The specific topics briefly discussed are incidence, psychological impact, assault assessment kits, medical evaluation, legal concerns, counseling, follow-up, and special circumstances. It is stated that a woman who is sexually assaulted would experience intense anxiety, anger or fear, and rape-trauma syndrome. The physician evaluating the victim should be aware of the state statutory requirements, which may involve the use of kits for gathering evidence. Informed consent from the victim and meticulous physical examination of the entire body should be performed with photographs and drawings made in the injured areas. In counseling, the physician should talk with the patient concerning the degree of the injury and the probability of infection or pregnancy. There is a need for patients to be reevaluated concerning her medical and psychological status.

  4. Sexual assault of women.

    PubMed

    Luce, Helen; Schrager, Sarina; Gilchrist, Valerie

    2010-02-15

    Sexual violence affects up to one third of women during their lifetime. Sexual assault is underreported, and more than one half of assaults are committed by someone known to the survivor. Although both men and women can be sexually assaulted, women are at greatest risk. Some groups are more vulnerable, including adolescents; survivors of childhood sexual or physical abuse; persons who are disabled; persons with substance abuse problems; sex workers; persons who are poor or homeless; and persons living in prisons, institutions, or areas of military conflict. Family physicians care for sexual assault survivors immediately and years after the assault. Immediate care includes the treatment of injuries, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, administration of emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy, and the sensitive management of psychological issues. Family physicians should collect evidence for a "rape kit" only if they are experienced in treating persons who have been sexually assaulted because of the legal ramifications of improper collection and storage of evidence. Sexual assault may result in long-term mental and physical health problems. Presentations to the family physician may include self-destructive behaviors, chronic pelvic pain, and difficulty with pelvic examinations. Prevention of sexual assault is societal and should focus on public health education. Safety and support programs have been shown to reduce sexual assaults.

  5. Sexual assault documentation program.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Vickie; Heger, Astrid; Rogers, Christopher; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan

    2012-03-01

    Since 2001, the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner has collaborated with Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center Violence Intervention Program and their Sexual Assault Center. The partnership was established at the suggestion of the district attorney's office to enhance the clinical recognition of sexual assault in the medical examiner's office using the extensive experience of experts in the field of sexual assault. As of December 2008, over 5 dozen victims of sexual assault have been evaluated with this collaboration. The partnership relied on the expertise of 2 pediatricians who are established clinical experts in the field of sexual abuse and assault, in collaboration with the staff of the medical examiner's office. In cases of suspected sexual assault, a joint evaluation by the clinical experts and the medical examiner was made. The goal of the project was for the medical examiners to become more confident in their observations and documentation of crimes of sexual abuse. Even though they are still available upon request, consultations with the sexual assault experts have decreased as the skills of the medical examiner to evaluate sexual assault cases have increased.

  6. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  7. The Use of Benzodiazepines to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are one of the classes of drugs most commonly associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault. As a widely prescribed class of medications and abused drugs, benzodiazepines are extensively available. Their sedating and amnesic effects make them effective candidates for use in drug-facilitated assaults. Detection methods for benzodiazepines and their metabolites in biological fluids are plentiful, but methods must be tailored to the low concentrations of drugs and metabolites expected to be encountered in these cases.

  8. Sexual assault patterns.

    PubMed

    Keating, S M; Higgs, D F; Willott, G M; Stedman, L R

    1990-01-01

    The numbers and types of all sexual offences examined at the Metropolitan Police Forensic Science Laboratory during the years 1978-1986 are presented. The largest number of sexual assaults took place during the month of August; they were mainly intra-racial and between adults of 18 to 30 years of age. A detailed breakdown is given of the offences against females recorded on the Sexual Assault Index. All these assaults were carried out by adult males, mainly strangers. Nearly half the assaults took place indoors, where victims were more likely to be bound and blindfolded, compared with one-third outdoors and one-sixth in vehicles. About one-fifth of the crimes were carried out by two men or more, and in one-third of cases, weapons were carried. Oral intercourse occurred in one-sixth and anal intercourse in one-twelfth of the offences, both performed more by white males and those of Mediterranean origin.

  9. Sexual assault in the military.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H

    2015-07-01

    Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military.

  10. Detection of synthetic cathinones in victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Kiara S; Reidy, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) can be defined as sexual activity occurring whereby the victim is incapacitated by drugs and/or alcohol and thereby unable to consent. A new wave of designer drugs is emerging in the community at large and one group, the synthetic cathinones, is described in this study. Analyzing urine samples from reported sexual assaults submitted to the University of Miami Toxicology Lab in 2013 determined that methylone has become a popular drug encountered in these cases. Derivatization of these synthetic cathinones enabled a validated a qualitative method to identify ten different designer drugs. Of the forty-five sexual assault samples submitted, 13% were positive for synthetic cathinones without any toxicological finding of ethanol, GHB or ketamine. This study illustrates the recent correlation of drug-facilitated sexual assaults and the use of synthetic cathinones.

  11. Fighting Campus Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…

  12. Fighting Campus Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…

  13. Sexual assault in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2011-01-01

    Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions.

  14. Combating Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) however made the editorial decision to use the term LGB since military service policy is not open for...Bisexual LGBT Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender MEO Military Equal Opportunity MIL Military MUPS Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms OR...information on sexual assault in military organizations was published. The Canadian Armed Forces have completed and made public their study on this

  15. Determination of endogenous levels of GHB in human hair. Are there possibilities for the identification of GHB administration through hair analysis in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault?

    PubMed

    Goullé, Jean Pierre; Chèze, Marjorie; Pépin, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    to determine a concentration of GHB of 14 ng/mg, in a 2-cm long segment (black hair). A case of rape under the influence of GHB was documented through hair analysis (black hair) and positive analysis of the glass she used. Sampled 7 days after the sexual assault, the three last 3-mm long proximal segments tested for GHB exhibited concentrations of 3.1-5.3 and 4.3 ng/mg, respectively, whereas the mean physiological level determined in this woman was 0.71 ng/mg, SD = 0.17 ng/mg. The authors advise a two-step hair sampling as evidence of GHB consumption: the first sample at the time of exposure to show the contamination by sweat of the proximal segment in case of recent administration with a significant rise of hair level at the root, and the second after at least 3 or 4 weeks to avoid this contamination and determine the levels incorporated in the hair matrix before, during, and after the exposure.

  16. Sexual assault services delivered by SANEs.

    PubMed

    Stermac, Lana; Dunlap, Hester; Bainbridge, Deidre

    2005-01-01

    Sexual Assult Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs have become the standard of care for sexual assault victims in many urgent care settings. This study examines SANE clinical nursing practices at one Canadian sexual assault urgent care centre.

  17. Toxicological findings in cases of sexual assault in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Ingrid J; Verschraagen, Miranda; Lusthof, Klaas J

    2011-11-01

    Reports on cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) have increased since the mid-1990s. The aim of this study was to identify the extent and types of drugs found in cases of alleged sexual assault (DFSA) in the Netherlands. In total, 135 cases of alleged DFSA were identified. Most of the victims were women (94%), and the mean age of the victims was 25 years. Blood and urine samples were tested for the presence of alcohol, drugs (drugs of abuse and prescription drugs), or both. In 27% of the cases, no alcohol and/or drugs were found. With increasing time delay, more cases were found to be negative. Alcohol is the most commonly found drug followed by nonopiate analgesics, illicit drugs, and benzodiazepines. In some cases, the absence of alcohol and drugs may represent false-negative results owing to the time delay between alleged sexual assault and sampling.

  18. Drug-facilitated sexual assault: educating women about the risks.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Suzanne M

    2008-02-01

    "Andrea," an 18-year-old college freshman, walked into her first fraternity party with a few of her sorority sisters. As she walked through the crowded house, one of the fraternity boys handed the girls large plastic cups. Another boy circulated through the crowd, filling up the cups of all guests from two pitchers of beer. When he filled Andrea's cup, he smiled and was polite and charming. She thought his act of filling her cup was kind and gentlemanly, and was flattered by his attention. She didn't notice he used a different pitcher for her than he had for her friends. She and her friends continued to mill through the crowd, sipping their beer. About 20 minutes later, Andrea suddenly had trouble focusing her vision. She felt disoriented and "drunk" even though she had only consumed a third of her beer. She started feeling nauseated, and tried to find her friends. The polite boy who had poured her beer asked her if she was all right, and offered to take her up to his room so she could rest. She followed him, grateful to be able to lie down. Forty-five minutes later, her concerned friends searched the house for Andrea. They found her upstairs passed out in a bedroom, lying on her side; she had vomited and her clothes were disheveled. Suspecting only alcohol intoxication; they picked her up, and walked her out of the party. After Andrea slept for about two hours, she woke up and told her friends something wasn't right. She had only drunk a small amount of her beer, and had no recollection after she walked up the stairs with the boy. She burst into tears, stating she feels some vaginal discomfort, and is afraid she may have been raped. Her friends looked at each other, thinking, "How did this happen and what are we supposed to do?"

  19. Sexual assault against female Nigerian students.

    PubMed

    Kullima, Abubakar Ali; Kawuwa, Mohammed Bello; Audu, Bala Mohammed; Mairiga, Abdulkarim G; Bukar, Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio demography, sexual history and consequences of their exposure were obtained for analysis and interpretation. Thirty seven (13.8%) of the respondents were sexually assaulted as a student and 19 (7.1%) were assaulted by their lecturers and fellow students, Younger age at coitarche, history of forced coitarche, marriage, coitarche with relations and unknown persons, significantly influenced subsequent risks of sexual assault. Improve security, moral behaviours enforcing dress code and stiffer penalties were suggested ways to prevent sexual assault among the students. Sexual assault is still a common finding in our institutions; effort should be made by all stake holders to prevent this social embarrassment.

  20. Sexual Assault Programming for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briskin, Karen Calabria; Gary, Juneau Mahan

    1986-01-01

    Describes awareness workshops designed to promote awareness of sexual assault and to provide education about such assaults on college campuses. Concludes that such workshops can increase individual and campus-wide awareness of appropriate resources in the event of a sexual assault and can provide knowledge as a form of improvement. (Author/NB)

  1. Sexual Assault Programming for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briskin, Karen Calabria; Gary, Juneau Mahan

    1986-01-01

    Describes awareness workshops designed to promote awareness of sexual assault and to provide education about such assaults on college campuses. Concludes that such workshops can increase individual and campus-wide awareness of appropriate resources in the event of a sexual assault and can provide knowledge as a form of improvement. (Author/NB)

  2. Sexual assault in dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Rhynard, J; Krebs, M; Glover, J

    1997-03-01

    This article focuses on acquaintance rape, which under Canadian law constitutes a form of sexual assault. Frequency of acquaintance rape often is underestimated due to under-reporting, resulting in a local perception that acquaintance rape rarely occurs in a small Canadian community. A survey was conducted to determine whether acquaintance rape does occur in this community. One hundred sixty-four male and female students from grades 8-12 completed a questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported being forced into some type of sexual activity. Based on the survey, this article explores the type of force used, the relationship between acquaintance rape and use of alcohol and drugs, and the relationship between acquaintance rape and the ability to indicate to a partner to stop a behavior. Results confirmed a need to develop programs to prevent rather than merely respond to issues of sexual assault on a date.

  3. 25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not his...

  4. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    P&R) SUBJECT: Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program Procedures References: (a) Task Force Report on Care for Victims of Sexual ...Assault, April 20041 (b) Sections 101(d)(3), 113, 504, 4331, and Chapter 47 of title 10, United States Code (c) DoD Directive 6495.01, “ Sexual ...Collateral Misconduct in Sexual Assault Cases (JTF-SAPR-001),” November 12, 2004 (hereby canceled)2 (e) through (ahm), see Enclosure 1 1

  5. Sexual assault reporting procedures at Ohio colleges.

    PubMed

    Krivoshey, Mira S; Adkins, Rachel; Hayes, Rebecca; Nemeth, Julianna M; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2013-01-01

    To assess how Ohio colleges conform to recommendations that address barriers to reporting sexual assault. A study sample of Ohio 4-year colleges (N = 105). College Web sites were examined between March and November 2011 for their availability of sexual assault policies using 8 measures. Of the colleges in the sample, 66% had an online sexual assault policy. Less than 1% of colleges included definitions for applicable sexual offenses in the Ohio Revised Code. All colleges with a policy included on-campus personnel to whom a victim could report. Approximately 25% and 31% of colleges included confidential or 24/7 reporting options, respectively. Many colleges are failing to offer basic reporting options to victims of sexual assault. Having a clearly labeled sexual assault policy on a campus Web site that includes 24/7 reporting options and defines acts of sexual assault can aid victims in the reporting process.

  6. Usefulness: forensic photo documentation after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2011-01-01

    The forensic medical legal evaluation following sexual assault establishes evidence for law enforcement's investigation and criminal prosecution by the legal system. The sexual assault nurse examiner performs the forensic evaluation and uses digital photography to document physical injuries after sexual assault. Photographs have varying degrees of usefulness, but for a photograph to be useful, it must exhibit technical elements for the viewer. There was no tool available to evaluate the usefulness of digital photographs taken during forensic evaluation of genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate photographic technical elements for usefulness. Using this tool, three experts on two separate occasions evaluated a series of digital photographs taken following sexual assault. The PDIQSS tool predicted usefulness in digital photography of female genital injuries following sexual assault when measured in all dimensions.

  7. A Prospective Analysis of Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine; Lobo, Tracy; Luthra, Rohini

    2005-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated perpetrator risk factors for sexual assault perpetration, including peer influences, beliefs and attitudes about sexuality, alcohol use, and token resistance. Perpetration of sexual assault was evaluated at three time periods: pretest, 3-month follow-up, and 7-month follow-up. Retrospective and prospective…

  8. Needs of Sexual Assault Advocates in Campus-Based Sexual Assault Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…

  9. Needs of Sexual Assault Advocates in Campus-Based Sexual Assault Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…

  10. Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    SEXISM , SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism , Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Sexual Harassment .........................................................................................2 Sexism

  11. PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Eze, U.O.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights especially where the means - expertise and facilities - for managing cases of sexual assault is grossly inadequate. These concepts, though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. Their applicability in sexual assault prevention is derived from previous studies in different parts of the world that highlight the viability of these interventions. Therefore if one posits that sexual assault can be prevented, certain responsibilities are imperative; some challenges must be anticipated; and special needs/circumstances should be catered for. PMID:25161422

  12. Sexual Assault Reporting Procedures at Ohio Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivoshey, Mira S.; Adkins, Rachel; Hayes, Rebecca; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess how Ohio colleges conform to recommendations that address barriers to reporting sexual assault. Participants: A study sample of Ohio 4-year colleges ("N" = 105). Methods: College Web sites were examined between March and November 2011 for their availability of sexual assault policies using 8 measures. Results: Of the…

  13. Sexual Assault Reporting Procedures at Ohio Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivoshey, Mira S.; Adkins, Rachel; Hayes, Rebecca; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess how Ohio colleges conform to recommendations that address barriers to reporting sexual assault. Participants: A study sample of Ohio 4-year colleges ("N" = 105). Methods: College Web sites were examined between March and November 2011 for their availability of sexual assault policies using 8 measures. Results: Of the…

  14. Changes in Women's Sexual Behavior Following Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…

  15. The Use of Z-Drugs to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Stockham, T L; Rohrig, T P

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon are commonly referred to as the "Z-drugs." The Z-drugs are nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Since becoming widely prescribed as sleep aids in the United States, they are increasingly being detected in a variety of forensic specimens. We present a comprehensive overview of the basic chemistry, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon, including their interaction with other prescription drugs and ethanol, findings in drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) casework, and methods of analysis.

  16. Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-30

    by Experience of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Women Men Effectiveness of Experience of Experience of Experience ofSeul saut peinc f Sexual...Experience of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Women Men Effectiveness of Experience of Experience ofSeul saut in f Sexual Experience of Exerieneao...Women Men Effectiveness of Experience of xperience of Experience ofSeul saut Epeinc f Sexual Experience of xerieneao Sexual Assault Sexual Assault

  17. Sexual assault of older women by strangers.

    PubMed

    Lea, Susan J; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve

    2011-07-01

    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted rape, and lesser sexual assault involving a single female victim aged 60 or older are selected (n = 53). These are matched with a sample of sexual assaults against women aged between 20 to 45 years ( n = 53). Research findings reveal significant differences in relation to a number of variables, including ethnicity of the offender, number of previous convictions of the offender, and characteristics associated with the assault itself. The results of this research reveal new information about violent sexual assaults on older women by strangers and have implications for practitioners dealing with such cases.

  18. Multiple Perpetrator Sexual Assault: How Does It Differ from Assault by a Single Perpetrator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Research that attempts to identify characteristic features of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) is limited. This study compared demographic and assault related characteristics of 135 cases of MPSA with 139 cases of single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) reported to the Haven sexual assault referral centre, Camberwell, London, over a…

  19. Changes in women's sexual behavior following sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Deliramich, Aimee N; Gray, Matt J

    2008-09-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity postassault. Such outcomes are not mutually exclusive possibilities but may instead reflect subtypes of sexual assault victims. A significant percentage of assault survivors did report increases in sexual activity following trauma. Assault survivors also reported increases in posttraumatic alcohol consumption relative to a comparison sample of motor vehicle accident survivors. In both groups, increases in posttraumatic alcohol usage predicted increases in posttraumatic sexual activity, suggesting that use of alcohol as a coping strategy may result in an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. If true, this maladaptive coping mechanism could help to account for some instances of revictimization.

  20. The Survivor Master Narrative in Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Shane D; Taylor, S Caroline; Norma, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    This article is based on data drawn from 90 Victoria Police operational files covering the period 2004-2008. Several thematic responses by sexual assault survivors are described as forming a master narrative of "identity shock." It is argued that the "minor/serious" sexual assault legal distinction is meaningless to survivors and conceals a shared felt experience. It is also argued that sexual assault is fundamentally a "public issue" of betrayal of citizen trust--not just a collection of "private troubles"--and that effective resolutions require more than individualized therapeutic and criminal justice measures.

  1. Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Myles, J E; Hirozawa, A; Katz, M H; Kimmerling, R; Bamberger, J D

    2000-09-27

    This paper presents the findings of a retrospective review of charts of sexual assault survivors who were offered postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) between April 1998 and November 1999 at San Francisco General Hospital. The total cost of PEP medications was also computed. Overall, it is noted that one-third of the 367 sexual assault survivors chose to initiate PEP. Men who were anally raped are at the highest risk for HIV transmission and were most likely to initiate PEP. Among women, on the other hand, those who were non-White and homeless were less likely to accept PEP. In the context of cost, the total per-person cost of medication dispensed during the study period (US$65 per person offered PEP) is comparable to other medications offered routinely following sexual assault, such as azithromycin for chlamydia prophylaxis (US$43 per treatment). However, there is no definitive evidence that PEP is effective in preventing HIV seroconversion after sexual assault. It is suggested that in developing rational policy recommendation offering HIV PEP after sexual assault, further studies are needed to better delineate the rates of HIV seroprevalence among sexual assailants, the efficacy of PEP after sexual exposure, and the psychological benefits or harm incurred by the sexually assaulted patients.

  2. Perpetrators of Alcohol-Involved Sexual Assaults: How Do They Differ From Other Sexual Assault Perpetrators and Nonperpetrators?

    PubMed Central

    Zawacki, Tina; Abbey, Antonia; Buck, Philip O.; McAuslan, Pamela; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 50% of sexual assaults involve alcohol. Researchers have documented situational characteristics that distinguish between sexual assaults that do and do not involve alcohol, but little attention has been paid to differences between the perpetrators of these two types of assault. In this study, discriminant function analysis was used to distinguish between college men (N = 356) who reported perpetrating sexual assault that involved alcohol, sexual assault that did not involve alcohol, or no sexual assault. Predictors of sexual assault perpetration that have been documented in past research differentiated nonperpetrators from both types of perpetrators. Perpetrators of sexual assaults that involved alcohol were in most ways similar to perpetrators of sexual assaults that did not, although they did differ on impulsivity, alcohol consumption in sexual situations, and beliefs about alcohol. These findings suggest mechanisms through which alcohol is involved in sexual assault that are relevant to theory and prevention. PMID:26430287

  3. The use of alcohol and condoms during sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette

    2008-09-01

    Sexual assault remains an important public health issue due to the violence involved as well as the potential for health risks such as sexually transmitted infections. Alcohol has been associated with both violent and risky sexual behavior. This study assessed the frequency of sexual assault perpetration, alcohol use, and condom use during sexual assault in a community sample of young, heterosexual male social drinkers. Participants completed measures of their sexual assault perpetration. More than 50% reported sexual assault perpetration; 60% of these reported repeat perpetration. Almost one half of perpetrators reported alcohol consumption prior to every sexual assault incident. Never having used a condom during penetrative sexually aggressive acts was reported by 41.2% of perpetrators. Alcohol use and condom nonuse were positively correlated for acts of forcible rape. Findings provide information about the infrequent use of condoms during sexual assault incidents and support prior evidence of the association between alcohol and sexual assault.

  4. Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Juanita M. Firestone Richard J. Harris DEFENSE EQUAL...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 09/30/2011 Technical Report Summer 2011 Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual ...Harassment and Sexual Assault Dr. Juanita M. Firestone and Dr. Richard J. Harris Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) 366 Tuskegee

  5. Adult Sexual Assault Survivors' Experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors often feel traumatized by the care received in traditional hospital emergency departments. To address these problems, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were created to provide comprehensive medical care, crisis intervention, and forensic services. However, there is limited research on the actual experiences and…

  6. Adult Sexual Assault Survivors' Experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors often feel traumatized by the care received in traditional hospital emergency departments. To address these problems, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were created to provide comprehensive medical care, crisis intervention, and forensic services. However, there is limited research on the actual experiences and…

  7. Audit of the management of victims of sexual assault in a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C

    2005-01-01

    A total of 113 individuals (101 women, 12 men) who had experienced sexual assault (SA) attended the genitourinary medicine clinic. Of the 60 patients who were seen at a dedicated clinic for victims of SA, the median age was lower, a greater number had reported to the police and the interval between assault and attendance was shorter, compared with the 53 who attended the routine walk-in service. However, the majority of the men attended routine clinics. Drug-facilitated rape was reported in 20%, excess alcohol in 10% and the use of violence in 20% cases. Overall, the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections was the same as the total clinic population.

  8. The Use of Miscellaneous Prescription Medications to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Couper, F J; Saady, J J

    2010-01-01

    Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults are typically those that rapidly render the potential victim unconscious or sedated, and produce memory loss or amnesia. Many of these drugs are difficult to detect due to a delay in biological specimen collection. Detection is further hampered as the drugs are often administered in single low doses and are rapidly and extensively metabolized, resulting in low concentrations in biological specimens. Miscellaneous prescription drugs such as the barbiturates, antipsychotics, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, and chloral hydrate have the potential to produce varying degrees of sedation; however, they are not frequently detected in drug-facilitated sexual assault cases. A review of the literature shows that these drugs are often knowingly taken by the victim before or subsequent to the assault, and therefore may contribute to the sedation or unconsciousness experienced by the victim when ethanol or other central nervous system drugs are co-administered. Most barbiturates, opioids, and tricyclic antidepressants are routinely screened for in hospitals and forensic toxicology laboratories, and may be detectable in a urine specimen for several days. Antipsychotics, particularly the atypical class, ketamine, and chloral hydrate, generally require more targeted analyses. This review provides an overview of the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and common analytical methods for the barbiturates, antipsychotics, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, and chloral hydrate.

  9. The Use of Alcohol and Condoms during Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assault remains an important public health issue, due to the violence involved as well as the potential for health risks such as STI transmission. Alcohol has been associated with both violent and risky sexual behavior. This study assessed the frequency of sexual assault perpetration, alcohol use, and condom use during sexual assault in a community sample of young heterosexual male social drinkers. Participants (N=115) completed measures of their sexual assault perpetration. Slightly over 50% reported sexual assault perpetration; 60% of these reported repeat perpetration. Almost one-half of perpetrators reported alcohol consumption prior to every sexual assault incident. Never having used a condom during penetrative sexually aggressive acts was reported by 41.2% of perpetrators. Alcohol use and condom non-use were positively correlated for acts of forcible rape. Findings provide novel information about the infrequent use of condoms during sexual assault incidents and support prior evidence of the association between alcohol and sexual assault. PMID:19477791

  10. Discussing and Defining Sexual Assault: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franiuk, Renae

    2007-01-01

    The author devised a classroom activity that facilitates discussion and increases awareness about sexual assault. Students read scenarios involving sexual situations that varied in ambiguity, then labeled whether the situations involved a sexual assault. Students also gave their definitions of sexual assault and completed an evaluation of the…

  11. Patterns among Sexual Assault Victims Seeking Treatment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas M.; Ramelli, Adriana; Mizumoto, Mavis

    2001-01-01

    This research is based on intake forms from Hawaii's only statewide provider of services to the victims of sexual assault. The analyses reveal that significant differences exist between male and female victims, by age and by assault characteristics, including the type of sexual assault, use of force and injury, length of assault, and the…

  12. Stranger and acquaintance sexual assault of adult males.

    PubMed

    Stermac, Lana; Del Bove, Giannetta; Addison, Mary

    2004-08-01

    This study examined victim and assault characteristics and the nature and extent of coercion, violence, and physical injuries among adult male victims of sexual assaults. Client records of three groups presenting to a sexual assault care center were included: males assaulted by a stranger (n = 64), males assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 81), and females assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 106). Study results revealed that male victims of sexual assault tended to be young, single men who reported high rates of vulnerabilities such as homelessness and physical, psychiatric, and cognitive disabilities. Male stranger assailant victims were more likely to experience assaults involving weapons and physical violence. Injuries sustained by victims and services delivered at the sexual assault care center were similar for both male and female clients. The results of this study reveal new information about violence in male sexual assaults and the vulnerability of the male victims.

  13. Social Reactions to Sexual Assault Disclosure, Coping, Perceived Control and PTSD Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Peter-Hagene, Liana

    2013-01-01

    The social reactions that sexual assault victims receive when they disclose their assault have been found to relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Using path analysis and a large sample of sexual assault survivors (N = 1863), we tested whether perceived control, maladaptive coping, and social and individual adaptive coping strategies mediated the relationships between social reactions to disclosure and PTSD symptoms. We found that positive social reactions to assault disclosure predicted greater perceived control over recovery, which in turn was related to less PTSD symptoms. Positive social reactions to assault disclosure were also associated with more adaptive social and individual coping; however, only adaptive social coping predicted PTSD symptoms. Negative social reactions to assault disclosure were related to greater PTSD symptoms both directly and indirectly through maladaptive coping and marginally through lower perceived control over recovery. PMID:24910478

  14. HIV postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L; Brown, M A

    2001-12-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease have prompted health care providers to reexamine recommendations for prophylaxis of HIV infection. Parallels with occupational exposure through mucous membrane tissues spur consideration of HIV prophylaxis after sexual assault for several reasons. In both instances, exposure occurs at a single point in time and is unlikely to recur. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not make definitive recommendations regarding postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault, the reality is that as clinicians, we face situations in which we must consider treatment for prevention of HIV disease after sexual assault. Guidelines for treatment and how to create and implement a policy to ensure the best outcomes, and provide a high quality of patient care with the New York State guidelines as a model, are discussed.

  15. Correlates of Disclosure Cessation After Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Allen, Nicole

    2016-11-10

    Contacts with responders after sexual assault may influence further disclosure, but this possibility has not been explored empirically. Thus, this study investigates associations between survivors' contacts with responders and their decisions to discontinue disclosure. Fifty-four college students with a history of unwanted sexual experiences described 94 ordered contacts with responders. Results indicate that survivors' perceptions of responsiveness were not associated with continued disclosure, but survivors were more likely to continue disclosing when they perceived more rape myth acceptance from responders and when the assault was more recent. These findings highlight survivors' tenacity in meeting their needs, even after problematic responses.

  16. The Sexual Assault Severity Scale: A Comprehensive Measure of Assault Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Karyn Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in the sexual assault literature have found a significant relationship between sexual assault severity and psychological distress, specifically PTSD and suicidality. However, in the current literature, there is an inconsistent and incomplete definition of the construct of assault severity. The present study aims to create a…

  17. The Sexual Assault Severity Scale: A Comprehensive Measure of Assault Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Karyn Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in the sexual assault literature have found a significant relationship between sexual assault severity and psychological distress, specifically PTSD and suicidality. However, in the current literature, there is an inconsistent and incomplete definition of the construct of assault severity. The present study aims to create a…

  18. Assault history and follow-up contact of women survivors of recent sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Boykins, Anita D; Mynatt, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this comparative descriptive study is to describe and examine differences in assault characteristics and the issues surrounding follow-up contact of women survivors of a recent sexual assault. This study identified assault characteristics: half of the assaults were by strangers; approximately one-third of the assaults occurred in the victim's home; 29% of the victims were abducted; weapons and physical force were used in over half of the cases; 63% were vaginal assaults; and 86% involved penile penetration. Three months after the assault and the initial examination, only 23% (n = 18) of the study participants could be contacted by telephone for follow-up. The study's findings provide not only data regarding the characteristics of sexual assault, but also the difficulties in contacting adult female survivors for follow-up services. Recommendations outline the importance of thorough, individualized examinations and the need for improved, timely, follow-up services for sexual assault victims.

  19. A&E management of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Holloway, M

    The care of women who have been raped or sexually assaulted tends to be poorly managed in accident and emergency departments. In 1991, a special suite was established at Hillingdon Hospital for the care of such women. This article discusses the process of setting up the unit and looks at what has been achieved so far.

  20. Sexual Assault of Older Women by Strangers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…

  1. "Fresh" Thoughts on Studying Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…

  2. Illegal Procedure? Title IX and Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education institutions are scrutinized by their campus community and the media for the way that they respond, or fail to respond, to allegations of sexual assault. Tack on the fact that nearly 100 colleges and universities are currently under investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) for possible…

  3. Going Too Far: Sexual Assault on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah; Betron, Rachel; Bubbers, Caroline; Keightley, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This case involves the alleged sexual assault of a college athlete by her professor. Rather than report the incident, the athlete turns to social media to cryptically share her story. Her messages are clear cries for help and give window to her accelerating depressed state. Given the nature of her postings and follow-up accusations, various…

  4. "Fresh" Thoughts on Studying Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…

  5. Parental Responses to Extrafamilial Child Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl

    1990-01-01

    Common emotional responses that parents of a child who has been sexually assaulted by someone external to the family exhibit include guilt regarding failure as a parent, ambivalent feelings toward the child, ambivalent feelings toward the offender, and concerns about the investigatory and judicial processes. (DB)

  6. Sexual Assault of Older Women by Strangers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…

  7. Illegal Procedure? Title IX and Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education institutions are scrutinized by their campus community and the media for the way that they respond, or fail to respond, to allegations of sexual assault. Tack on the fact that nearly 100 colleges and universities are currently under investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) for possible…

  8. Going Too Far: Sexual Assault on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah; Betron, Rachel; Bubbers, Caroline; Keightley, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This case involves the alleged sexual assault of a college athlete by her professor. Rather than report the incident, the athlete turns to social media to cryptically share her story. Her messages are clear cries for help and give window to her accelerating depressed state. Given the nature of her postings and follow-up accusations, various…

  9. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These two issues contain reviews of legal/legislative issues, research and treatment issues, book and video materials, and on-line resources and websites relating to family violence and sexual assault. The first issue, contains "Empowering African American Children To Become Resilient: Early Success in Overcoming Violent Families and Communities…

  10. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women.

  11. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    PubMed

    Eogan, Maeve; McHugh, Anne; Holohan, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  13. Review of 212 individuals attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic following acute sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C

    2006-05-01

    A retrospective case note review of 212 individuals (190 women) attending a city-centre Genitourinary Medicine clinic between 1/4/2002 and 31/3/2004 following an acute sexual assault. Direct referral by the Forensic Medical Examiner to the dedicated weekly clinic for victims of sexual assault facilitated the attendance of 55/113 attending the dedicated clinic. The 99 individuals who did not disclose a recent assault as the reason for attendance were seen at routine clinics. One third of individuals attending the dedicated clinic were less than 16 years old, reflecting the facilitated referral pathway. Those attending the dedicated clinic were more likely to be offered the extended service outlined in the departmental protocol. Twenty four sexually transmitted infections were detected in 23 (11%) individuals but 23/24 could have been acquired during other recent consensual sexual activity. Overall, the assailant was known to the victim in 53% cases, there was an allegation of violence associated with the assault in 20%, suspicion of a drug facilitated ('spiked drink') assault in 24% and admission of alcohol intoxication in 11% cases. The 22/212 (10%) who were male were more likely to present to a routine clinic.

  14. The factors affecting sexual assaults committed by strangers and acquaintances.

    PubMed

    Pazzani, Lynn M

    2007-07-01

    Research on the causes of sexual assault typically analyzes rape committed by acquaintances and strangers together, despite the fact that the characteristics of the assault in these two circumstances are very different. Thus, this work examines whether the causes of each type of sexual assault--stranger and acquaintance rape--differ. The results of the analyses reveal that variables that describe a culture of gender equality, prior child abuse, and prior sexual assaults are associated with acquaintance assaults. In contrast, a culture of "hypermasculinity" is associated with stranger rape. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Evaluation and Management of Female Victims of Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Vrees, Roxanne A

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assault is characterized by any sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent. Classifications vary based on the status of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim (eg, stranger, acquaintance) and characteristics of the victim herself (eg, child, elder adult, mentally disabled adult). Regardless of the classification, sexual assault is a significant individual as well as public health issue affecting women of all ages. While the majority of sexual assault cases are not initially reported to law enforcement, the best available data suggest the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault in the United States is approximately 20% among adult women. With such a significant proportion of women affected by sexual assault, women's health care providers in both ambulatory and emergency care settings play key roles in the evaluation, management, and advocacy of these victims. Establishing standard protocols based on state laws and on victim-centered practices to avoid revictimization of the patient is critical. The primary goals of care include the assessment and treatment of physical injuries, psychological assessment and support, pregnancy assessment and prevention, and therapy for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. In addition, evidentiary collection is a critical component of the sexual assault evaluation and subsequent legal proceedings. This report focuses specifically on the immediate evaluation and management of adult female victims of sexual assault. Best practices include the utility of the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner and Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner programs, as well as standardized treatment protocols.

  16. Civil Military Relations And Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    numbers suggest, the civilian justice system may not be doing such a good job either. Civil-military relations revolve around who controls what...counterpart. Yet, as the numbers suggest, the civilian justice system may not be doing such a good job either. Civil-military relations revolve...3 serious charges and good evidence of sexual assault, if the accused is particularly decorated or well liked. Air Force Col. Don Christensen, the

  17. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  18. Commentary: Causes and consequences of male adult sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barry W

    2011-01-01

    Bullock and Beckson add to a growing body of literature on the negative consequences of adult sexual assault on male victims. There are similarities as well as important differences between male sexual assault victims and their female counterparts. Their analyses of societal contributions and myths about adult male sexual assault and of the difficulties that male victims experience in accessing and interacting with the medical and legal systems improve professional understanding of this complex subject.

  19. Criminal justice processing of sexual assault cases. Highlights.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J V

    1994-03-01

    This article discusses the processing of criminal justice on sexual assault cases in Canada. To begin with, in 1983, Bill C-127 abolished the offense of rape and indecent assault and created three new crimes of sexual assault and three parallel offenses of assault. This legislation also introduced a number of important changes to the way crimes of sexual aggression are processed by the criminal justice system. In 1991, the Supreme Court struck down provisions of the sexual assault legislation preventing a defendant from introducing evidence regarding complainant's previous sexual conduct. As a result, Bill C-49 was introduced to provide a test to determine whether a complainant's sexual history could be admitted at trial. This bill also addresses the issue of consent and the defense of mistaken beliefs in consent. The focus of the Juristat is the criminal justice processing of the three levels of sexual assault, which are elaborated in this article. In order to distinguish between the different levels, body harm relates only to physical injury and does not include psychological harm. Drawing on the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the Sentence Study, the Adult Criminal Court Survey and the Youth Court Survey, the Juristat summarizes recent trends relating to the processing of sexual assault and assault by the police and the courts. Canada's Violence Against Women Survey provides a profile of sexual assault incidents among adult women in Canada.

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Sexual Assault in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klump, Meredith C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research literature on the factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women victims of rape and sexual assault. Various studies have linked preassault variables (such as childhood abuse), and assault variables (including injury and perceived life threat during the assault)…

  1. What Factors Predict Women's Disclosure of Sexual Assault to Mental Health Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzynski, Laura L.; Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Long, LaDonna M.; Long, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Although many sexual assault survivors seek support from mental health sources for adverse psychological symptoms due to sexual assault, many do not. A diverse sample of adult sexual assault survivors was surveyed about their sexual assault experiences, social reactions received when disclosing assault, attributions of blame, coping strategies,…

  2. Characteristics associated with sexual assaults at mass gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Sampsel, Kari; Godbout, Justin; Leach, Tara; Taljaard, Monica; Calder, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is disturbingly common, yet little is known about those occurring at mass gatherings, defined as a group of people congregated for a common purpose. Our objectives were to examine patterns of variation in sexual assault associated with mass gatherings and to determine factors associated with assaults occurring at mass gatherings. Methods We performed a case series analysis from January to December, 2013. We included all patients >16 years presenting within 30 days of their sexual assault to the Ottawa Hospital Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP). Cases were stratified by whether or not they occurred at mass gatherings. We abstracted from the SAPACP records: patient and sexual assault characteristics, alcohol or drug consumption and medical and forensic care accepted. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple logistical regression to identify factors associated with mass gathering assaults. Results We found 204 cases of sexual assault, of which 53 (26%) occurred at mass gatherings. Relative frequencies of mass gathering sexual assaults peaked during New Year's Eve, Canada Day, university frosh week and Halloween. We found the following factors were statistically significantly associated with sexual assault at mass gatherings: younger age (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99); voluntary consumption of drugs and alcohol (3.88, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.23); assault occurring on a holiday (2.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.64) and the assailant unknown to the victim (2.43, 95% CI 1.15 to 5). Interpretation This study is the first to describe patterns of variation in sexual assault incidents associated with occurrence of mass gatherings as well as factors associated with such assaults. We will disseminate these results to key stakeholders in order to develop prevention-minded policies for future mass gatherings. PMID:26315648

  3. Resistance to sexual assault: who resists and what happens?

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, J M; Sorenson, S B; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Stein, J A

    1989-01-01

    To determine who resists sexual assault and what happens, data were examined from a probability sample of 3,132 adult community residents of Los Angeles, California. Seventy-five per cent of the respondents reporting an assault (n = 365) indicated that they had attempted to resist their most recent assault; talking was the most frequently used resistance strategy. The strongest predictor to emerge in the multivariate analyses of resistance was timing of assault: respondents assaulted only in childhood were less likely to resist than either respondents assaulted only in adulthood, or respondents assaulted in both phases. Univariate analyses indicated that resistance reduced the probability of sexual contact, however multivariate analyses suggested that assailant use of force was the most important determinant of assault outcome. PMID:2909177

  4. The Impact of Sexual Assault History and Relationship Context on Appraisal of and Responses to Acquaintance Sexual Assault Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Although a major predictor of sexual victimization is previous victimization, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. Sexual assault historys impact on appraisal of and responses to sexual assault risk was examined in an experimental analog study. Intimacy with perpetrator was also examined as a potential contributor to…

  5. The Use of Alcohol to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, S

    2010-01-01

    The presence of alcohol (ethanol) is a common toxicological finding in alleged cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Alcohol was identified as the most frequently encountered drug in DFSAs more than a decade ago, and epidemiological studies to date confirm this initial finding. There is no single substance that is uniquely associated with DFSA. Alcohol has been used by humans for thousands of years and its effect on sexual behavior is well established. Despite the fact that alcohol has been the subject of scientific investigation for several hundred years, DFSA casework involving alcohol remains complex and poses numerous challenges. The prevalence of alcohol in DFSAs is reviewed within the context of toxicological findings and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Pharmacological aspects are briefly presented, including pharmacokinetics and retrograde extrapolation. The effects of alcohol are discussed within the context of the pharmacodynamics of alcohol and the mechanistic issues associated with alcohol's disruption of memory. The amnesic effects of alcohol are reviewed, with particular focus on the two distinct types of alcohol-induced blackout: fragmentary and en bloc. The prevalence of and the BACs associated with this type of alcohol-mediated memory loss are described. Finally, biological specimens (blood, serum, and urine) are reviewed from a toxicological standpoint, and the associated methodology for quantitative alcohol determination is presented.

  6. Sexual Revictimization, PTSD, and Problem Drinking in Sexual Assault Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and problem drinking are common and often co-occurring sequelae experienced by women survivors of adult sexual assault, yet revictimization may mediate risk of symptoms over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data from a 3-wave panel design with a large (N = 1,012), ethnically diverse sample of women assault survivors to examine whether repeated sexual victimization related to greater PTSD and problem drinking. Structural equation modeling revealed that child sexual abuse was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking and intervening sexual victimization was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking at both 1 and 2 year follow-ups. We found no evidence, however, that PTSD directly influenced problem drinking over the long term or vice versa, although they were correlated at each timepoint. Revictimization during the study predicted survivors’ prospective PTSD and problem drinking symptoms. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26414205

  7. Sexual preference, gender, and blame attributions in adolescent sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia.

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of male sexual assault in a criminological database.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ekta; Gunzler, Douglas; Tu, Xin; Bossarte, Robert M

    2012-02-01

    Sexual assault among males, compared with females, is understudied, and may also be significantly underreported. Past studies have relied primarily on population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of sexual assault and associated health outcomes. However, survey-based studies rely primarily on self-reports of victimization and may not accurately estimate the true prevalence of male sexual assault victimization. In order to obtain a detailed assessment of sexual assault among males, criminological databases like the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) may provide an important and unique source of information. The objective of the current study was to use data from the 2001-2005 NIBRS to construct an epidemiological profile of sexual assault among males. Our results suggest that the incidence of sexual assault was higher among young males (less than 19 years of age), with approximately 90% of all cases being reported among members of this age group. Among males of all ages, forcible fondling and sodomy were the most prevalent forms of sexual assault. Results from additional analyses include age- and race-specific rates of male sexual assault, the prevalence and severity of injury, and time trends detailing incidence by time of the day and location of the incident. Our analyses show that sexual assault is experienced by males of all age groups. However, the rate of sexual assault is higher among younger males. Despite some limitations, results from this study suggest that NIBRS data may provide a important complement to survey data for understanding breadth and consequences of male sexual assault.

  9. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

    2011-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions.

  10. The new sexual assault law: the victim's experience in court.

    PubMed

    Sahjpaul, S; Renner, K E

    1988-08-01

    The questions asked of victims of sexual and physical assault by the prosecutor and defense were recorded and coded by courtroom observers. The defense in comparison to the prosecution treated both types of victims in a negative way. Sexual assault victims were subjected to more negative questions and required to give a more personal form of testimony than physical assault victims due to the strategies used by both the prosecution and the defense. Sexual assault cases were convicted less often than physical assault cases. It was concluded that the new law in Canada which replaced the offense of rape with one of "sexual assault" has not had its intended effect of reducing the burden on a victim when she testifies in court.

  11. Inmates' Cultural Beliefs about Sexual Violence and Their Relationship to Definitions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…

  12. Inmates' Cultural Beliefs about Sexual Violence and Their Relationship to Definitions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…

  13. Sexual Assault and Harassment: A Campus Community Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey conducted among students, faculty, and staff at the University of Rhode Island to explore experiences of and attitudes toward sexual assault and sexual harassment. (Author/MJL)

  14. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  15. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  16. A Research Report for Teenagers. Facts about Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageton, Suzanne S.

    This report on sexual assault was written for adolescents. It contains data on teenage sexual assault from the National Youth Survey (NYS), a survey of a nationally representative sample of approximately 1,700 youths who were between 11 and 17 years old at the time of the project's initial interview and who were interviewed annually for 5 years…

  17. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  18. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Goal Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…

  19. Latinas and Sexual Assault: Towards Culturally Sensitive Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Georgiana; Organista, Kurt C.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the sparse empirical data on sexual assault among Latinas. Presents a working bicultural model of sexual assault that frames the problem within both traditional Latino and American gender role systems. Discusses implications for providing culturally competent services for Latina victims that draw on supportive aspects of familism and…

  20. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Goal Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…

  1. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  2. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  3. Treatment for Sexual Assault Survivors at University Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artime, Tiffany M.; Buchholz, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    University Counseling Centers (UCCs) provide important services for sexual assault survivors, yet little research has been conducted on interventions used by clinicians in this unique setting. As a preliminary investigation, UCC professionals were asked about services provided to survivors of sexual assault and staff perceptions of the…

  4. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Buck, Katherine S; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C

    2013-03-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds.

  5. Epidemiological Characteristics of Male Sexual Assault in a Criminological Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhary, Ekta; Gunzler, Douglas; Tu, Xin; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault among males, compared with females, is understudied, and may also be significantly underreported. Past studies have relied primarily on population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of sexual assault and associated health outcomes. However, survey-based studies rely primarily on self-reports of victimization and may not…

  6. Acute Severe Pain is a Common Consequence of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Samuel A.; Soward, April C.; Ballina, Lauren E.; Rossi, Catherine; Rotolo, Suzanne; Wheeler, Rebecca; Foley, Kelly A; Batts, Jayne; Casto, Terry; Collette, Renee; Holbrook, Debra; Goodman, Elizabeth; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is common, but the epidemiology of acute pain after SA has not previously been reported. We evaluated the severity and distribution of pain symptoms in the early aftermath of SA among women receiving sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) care, and the treatment of pain by SANE nurses. Severe pain (≥7 on a 0–10 numeric rating scale) was reported by 53/83 women sexual assault survivors (64% [95% CI, 53%–74%]) at the time of SANE evaluation and 43/83 women (52% [95% CI, 41%–63%]) one week later. Pain in four or more body regions was reported by 44/83 women (53% [95% CI, 42%–64%]) at the time of initial evaluation and 49/83 women (59% [95% CI, 48%–70%]) at one week follow-up. Among survivors with severe pain at the time of initial post-assault evaluation, only 7/53 (13% [95% CI, 6%–26%]) received any pain medication at the time of initial SANE treatment. These findings suggest that pain is common in SA survivors in the early post-assault period, but rarely treated. Perspective Acute pain is common after sexual assault. Practice guidelines for SANE nurses and others who provide care to sexual assault survivors in the early aftermath of assault should include specific recommendations for pain evaluation and treatment. Prospective longitudinal studies of pain outcomes among sexual assault survivors are needed. PMID:22698980

  7. Approach to evaluation of sexual assault in children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, W. Gary; Metcalfe, Mary; Cormode, E.J.; Holder, Norah

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether a 3-year-old girl, brought to an after-hours clinic because her mother was concerned, had been assaulted by her father during a weekend visit. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using the key words child, sexual assault/abuse, and expectations. Recent textbooks on childhood sexual assault and abuse were consulted. The secondary-level regional pediatric sexual assault clinic’s experience over 1 year was reviewed. Articles in the literature generally provide level II evidence. MAIN MESSAGE The literature review and the clinic’s experience both indicated that specialty centres for child sexual assault and abuse rarely produce positive physical findings that conclusively confirm or rule out sexual assault, especially when children are asymptomatic and not in an acute state. Primary care practitioners can use a brief history and physical examination to decide on the next level of care and determine the urgency of referral. Urgent assessment of children thought to have been abused or assaulted is required when children disclose assault (especially with genital-genital contact or ejaculation); when children have acute pain, bleeding, or discharge; when results of a physician’s examination are abnormal; or when parents are extremely distressed. CONCLUSION Family physicians have a pivotal role in evaluation of childhood sexual assault or abuse. Knowledge of the outcomes of evaluation is crucial to understanding when and how to refer. PMID:16250421

  8. Feelings of mental pollution subsequent to sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Rachman, S

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the phenomenon of mental pollution in a sample of 50 female victims of sexual assault. Feelings of mental pollution were assessed using an interview and a questionnaire. An experimental procedure was employed to determine if feelings of dirtiness and the urge to wash could be provoked by deliberate attention to the assault memory. Thirty (60%) of the 50 participants reported some feelings of mental pollution subsequent to the assault, and feelings of mental pollution were related to post-assault washing behaviour. Deliberate recall of the assault resulted in stronger feelings of dirtiness and the urge to wash than did deliberate attention to a pleasant memory or scene. Nine women reported washing their hands in response to deliberate recall of the assault. These findings suggest that feelings of mental pollution may be prominent in victims of sexual assault.

  9. Is the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Associated With College Sexual Assault Victimization? A Prospective Examination

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Maples-Keller, Jessica L.; Pinsky, Hanna T.; Shepard, Molly E.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual assault protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be negatively associated with sexual assault victimization. However, no studies to date have prospectively examined whether the use of sexual assault PBS is negatively associated with subsequent sexual assault experiences. The current study examined the association between the use of sexual assault PBS and subsequent sexual assault victimization severity. College women who reported engaging in heavy episodic drinking (n = 77) were assessed online for their use of sexual assault PBS and history of sexual assault victimization. In addition, a 3-month follow-up survey was given assessing sexual assault victimization severity in the past 3 months. The use of sexual assault PBS was negatively associated with sexual assault severity in the 3-month follow-up period. Future research should further examine these PBS to create more college-specific PBS and to determine whether they are useful as risk-reduction strategies. PMID:26856359

  10. Expressed sexual assault legal context and victim culpability attributions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Audrey K; Markman, Keith D; Amacker, Amanda M; Menaker, Tasha A

    2012-04-01

    Legal scholars have argued that laws have an expressive function, specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages-specifically their clarity and effectiveness in conveying that sexual assault is a crime-affect victim culpability attributions. Results demonstrated that greater culpability was attributed to a victim of sexual assault within a context expressing unclear and ineffective sexual assault law than within a context clearly and effectively expressing that sexual assault is a crime. We also garnered empirical support for a mediation model, that is, negative affective reactions to a victim statistically accounted for the relationship between expressed legal context and victim culpability attributions. Implications for future psycholegal research and potential legal reforms are discussed.

  11. A Theoretical Model of Sexual Assault: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn W.; Humphrey, John A.

    Koss and Dinero's (1987) comprehensive developmental model of sexual aggression asserts that sexual assault is in part a result of early sexual experiences and family violence; that sexually aggressive behaviors may be predicted by such "releaser" variables as current sexual behavior, alcohol use, and peer group support; and that use of aggression…

  12. Sexual Assault Characteristics Effects on PTSD and Psychosocial Mediators: A Cluster Analysis Approach to Sexual Assault Types

    PubMed Central

    Peter-Hagene, Liana C.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, we investigated the effects of assault characteristics (i.e., levels of violence, subjective distress, alcohol consumption, perpetrator identity) on PTSD symptoms, and whether these effects are mediated by post-assault social and psychological reactions. A large community sample of women sexual assault survivors completed two mail surveys at a one-year interval. In line with prior research, cluster analyses revealed the existence of three general categories of sexual assaults, which we described as “high violence”, “alcohol-related”, and “moderate sexual severity.” Alcohol-related assaults resulted in fewer PTSD symptoms than high violence assaults at Time 1, but not at Time 2. Alcohol-related and violent assaults resulted in more PTSD symptoms than moderate-severity assaults at both times. The effect of assault characteristics clusters on Time 2 PTSD was mediated by Time 1 self-blame and maladaptive coping. The importance of considering effects of violence and alcohol consumption during the assault to better understand post-assault PTSD, including implications for theory and practice, are discussed. PMID:25793692

  13. The Use of GHB to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, L; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its metabolic precursors, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), may be among the most favored drugs used to commit drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). In fact, federal legislation was enacted in the form of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000 to control and penalize use and distribution of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD. Unfortunately, solid proof of their use in many cases is difficult to obtain because GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD have strong sedative and memory-impairing effects and are rapidly eliminated after ingestion. To further complicate the matter, GHB is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in humans. This review focuses on the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs and their use in DFSA. An overview of analytical techniques used to identify their presence is provided, as well as guidance on the toxicological interpretation of findings of GHB in biological specimens.

  14. Sexual Assault Characteristics and Perceptions of Event-Related Distress.

    PubMed

    Blayney, Jessica A; Read, Jennifer P

    2015-11-20

    Sexual assault (SA) is a potent psychological stressor, linked to harmful mental health outcomes in both the short- and long-term. Specific assault characteristics can add to the toxicity of SA events. Although research has assessed characteristics of the assault itself (e.g., force, penetration), few studies have examined the larger socioenvironmental context in which SA takes place. This was the purpose of the present study. Young adults (N = 220; 80% female; 54% current students) reported on their most recent SA during college. Cross-sectional associations were tested via structural equation modeling to determine the contributions of socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics in predicting event-related distress. Socioenvironmental context from the most recent assault included assault setting, intoxication at the time of the assault, perpetrator relationship, and prior consensual sexual experiences with the perpetrator. We also examined assault characteristics, including physical force and penetration. Participants reported how upsetting the most recent assault was (a) at the time it occurred and (b) currently. Results revealed differential patterns for socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics based on the timing of distress (past or present). Notably, many of the socioenvironmental factors showed associations with distress above and beyond the powerful effects of physical force and penetration. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the unique factors that contribute to and maintain psychological distress in sexually victimized young adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Sexual Assault Victim Participation in Police Investigations and Prosecution.

    PubMed

    Alderden, Megan; Long, LaDonna

    This research seeks to examine why victim participation rates in police investigations and prosecution decline following reporting of sexual assault to police. It was hypothesized that several factors would impact victim participation, including whether the incident reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios, if the victim used alcohol or illicit drugs prior to the incident, and if the hospital staff initially reported the incident. The study coded victim participation following initial police reporting from police case investigation narratives. Based on the 544 cases of sexual assault reported to a Midwestern police department, it was found that victims were indeed more likely to continue participating after initial reports to police if their assaults reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios. Future research should include discussions with victims about their participation in the criminal justice system following initial reporting to further clarify the findings noted here.

  16. Sexual Assault in Bisexual and Heterosexual Women Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Social support is related to sexual minority status and negative psychological impact among sexual assault survivors. We compared bisexual and heterosexual survivors on how different types of social support are connected to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A community sample of bisexual and heterosexual (N = 905) women sexual assault survivors completed three annual surveys. Heterosexual women reported greater perceived social support and fewer negative reactions to disclosure of sexual assault than bisexual women, but there were no differences in frequency of social contact. Perceived social support and frequency of social contact were related to fewer psychological symptoms of PTSD and depression for all women. Heterosexual women had fewer psychological symptoms than bisexual women. Finally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of sexual orientation with depressive symptoms but not with PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that social support and sexual orientation may explain women’s post-assault adjustment. PMID:27453694

  17. Sexual Assault in Bisexual and Heterosexual Women Survivors.

    PubMed

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E

    Social support is related to sexual minority status and negative psychological impact among sexual assault survivors. We compared bisexual and heterosexual survivors on how different types of social support are connected to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A community sample of bisexual and heterosexual (N = 905) women sexual assault survivors completed three annual surveys. Heterosexual women reported greater perceived social support and fewer negative reactions to disclosure of sexual assault than bisexual women, but there were no differences in frequency of social contact. Perceived social support and frequency of social contact were related to fewer psychological symptoms of PTSD and depression for all women. Heterosexual women had fewer psychological symptoms than bisexual women. Finally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of sexual orientation with depressive symptoms but not with PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that social support and sexual orientation may explain women's post-assault adjustment.

  18. Task Force Report on Care for Victims of Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    is defined, as any sort of sexual activity in which one person is involved against his or her will, with or without physical force. Of the almost 3...deployed environment, is not currently a consideration in force planning. For example, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE) exist in the active and...risks and actively engage in preventive measures xii DoD Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force Report all responders treat victims with

  19. Stigma-Threat Motivated Nondisclosure of Sexual Assault and Sexual Revictimization: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Canales, Erika J.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Backstrom, Tamika L.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess sexual assault survivors' nondisclosure motivations, including stigma threat, and their impact on revictimization risk. The authors describe data from a prospective study of 144 female, undergraduate sexual assault survivors, most of whom had been assaulted by acquaintances and only one of whom had officially…

  20. Stigma-Threat Motivated Nondisclosure of Sexual Assault and Sexual Revictimization: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Canales, Erika J.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Backstrom, Tamika L.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess sexual assault survivors' nondisclosure motivations, including stigma threat, and their impact on revictimization risk. The authors describe data from a prospective study of 144 female, undergraduate sexual assault survivors, most of whom had been assaulted by acquaintances and only one of whom had officially…

  1. The Use of Drinking and Sexual Assault Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations With Sexual Victimization and Revictimization Among College Women

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Elizabeth C.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Pinsky, Hanna T.; Shepard, Molly E.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite consistent high rates of campus sexual assault, little research has examined effective strategies to decrease sexual assault victimization. Sexual assault and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be important means of reducing sexual assault victimization risk on college campuses but need further examination. The current study examined the relationship among sexual assault in childhood, before college, and since college to evaluate the mitigating roles of both sexual assault PBS and drinking PBS on sexual assault victimization. Participants (n = 620) were undergraduate women, 18 to 20 years old. The current study was a cross-sectional online survey assessing participants’ sexual assault PBS and sexual assault history. Sexual assault history was positively associated with future sexual assault experiences. Pre-college sexual assault was associated with increased since-college sexual assault and increased drinks per week. Since-college adolescent/adult sexual assault was associated with less use of sexual assault PBS. These findings suggest that PBS may have an important role in sexual assault victimization and future research should examine their usefulness in risk reduction programs for college women. PMID:26345223

  2. The Use of Drinking and Sexual Assault Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations With Sexual Victimization and Revictimization Among College Women.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Elizabeth C; Gilmore, Amanda K; Pinsky, Hanna T; Shepard, Molly E; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H

    2015-09-07

    Despite consistent high rates of campus sexual assault, little research has examined effective strategies to decrease sexual assault victimization. Sexual assault and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be important means of reducing sexual assault victimization risk on college campuses but need further examination. The current study examined the relationship among sexual assault in childhood, before college, and since college to evaluate the mitigating roles of both sexual assault PBS and drinking PBS on sexual assault victimization. Participants (n = 620) were undergraduate women, 18 to 20 years old. The current study was a cross-sectional online survey assessing participants' sexual assault PBS and sexual assault history. Sexual assault history was positively associated with future sexual assault experiences. Pre-college sexual assault was associated with increased since-college sexual assault and increased drinks per week. Since-college adolescent/adult sexual assault was associated with less use of sexual assault PBS. These findings suggest that PBS may have an important role in sexual assault victimization and future research should examine their usefulness in risk reduction programs for college women.

  3. The Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner's Interactions Within the Sexual Assault Response Team: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Phyllis; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Many emergency department nurses care for the sexually assaulted victim, when sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs are not available. Therefore, it is important for emergency department nurses to understand the roles of both the SANE and the sexual assault response team (SART). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the current research on the integration of the SANE among the SART and evaluate the gaps in research of the SANE's role, attitude, behavior, and satisfaction within the collaborative SART. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 using key words were evaluated. A 3-stage search strategy revealed 582 articles. The articles were assessed and categorized according to Level of Evidence definitions. Twelve qualitative and mixed-methods studies were identified. Studies ranged from SART protocols or responses to situational factors to SANE relationships with other SART members. The review reflected the need for more research within the collaborative atmosphere of this multidisciplinary and interagency team that defines the SART, and the individual member's perceptions. Further studies are needed on the SANE's impact on patient outcome and the emergency department nurses role when a SANE or SART program is not available.

  4. Emancipatory Sexuality Education and Sexual Assault Resistance: Does the Former Enhance the Latter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charlene Y.; Gee, Stephanie S.; Thake, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design…

  5. Emancipatory Sexuality Education and Sexual Assault Resistance: Does the Former Enhance the Latter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charlene Y.; Gee, Stephanie S.; Thake, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design…

  6. From Sexual Assault to Sexual Risk: A Relational Pathway?

    PubMed

    Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Robel, Erika; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2016-12-01

    Among women and gay and bisexual men, sexual assault is associated with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and negative sexual health outcomes. Although the mechanisms of these effects are potentially myriad, the current analyses examine the role of perceived partner pressure for condomless sex in mediating the association between adult sexual assault (ASA) and recent anal or vaginal sex without a condom. In a sample of 205 young adult women and gay and bisexual men, ASA was indirectly associated with condomless anal and/or vaginal sex via perceptions of partner pressure for condomless sex, χ(2)(1) = 5.66, p = .02, after controlling for race, age, gender and sexual identity, and relationship status. The elucidation of this relational mechanism points to several potential intervention and prevention strategies that may reduce actual and perceived pressure for sex without a condom, including strategies designed to facilitate the prioritization of health and safety over relational goals and the improvement of partner selection and perceptions of partner pressure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Providing quality care to the sexual assault survivor: education and training for medical professionals.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Health care providers who perform sexual assault examinations can assist patients who report experiencing a sexual assault by increasing their knowledge and skills in sexual assault care, and serving as Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) coordinators, or as SART team members, in their communities. With little additional material, this training could be provided as a component of basic midwifery and/or advanced practice nursing education programs. This article reviews the essential steps and required training for conducting sexual assault examinations.

  8. Vicarious Trauma Among Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners.

    PubMed

    Raunick, Cara Berg; Lindell, Deborah F; Morris, Diana Lynn; Backman, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Vicarious trauma (VT), the phenomenon of changes in cognition and worldview that result from empathic response and repeated exposure to narratives of trauma, is a risk for helping professionals. This descriptive, correlational study sought to examine levels of VT among sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) as compared with other women's health nurses. It also explored whether levels of VT are different for nurses who have experienced primary trauma alone, VT alone, or both personal trauma and VT. VT was assessed through an anonymous online survey using the nurses' total scores on the Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale. Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale scores were significantly higher for SANEs (M = 178.5, SD = 42.6) than for women's health nurses (M = 168.1, SD = 41.4; p = 0.025), indicating higher levels of trauma-related cognitive disruption in the SANE group. Scores were also significantly higher for both groups with personal trauma histories at the p < 0.05 level compared with the women's health nurses with no personal history. SANEs who had no personal history of trauma did not differ significantly from either group of nurses who did, suggesting that VT from working as an SANE is associated with levels of cognitive disruption similar to oneself having experienced trauma. Nurses should be aware of this phenomenon and its sequelae when choosing to pursue the specialty of sexual assault nursing. Hospitals and other organizations employing SANEs should also be aware of VT and provide a support system with resources in place to mitigate these effects. Future research should further explore effects of primary trauma versus VT, clinical manifestations and significance of varying levels of VT, and interventions and strategies for dealing with VT.

  9. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260

  10. Sexual assault as a crime against young people.

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Cundiff, Patrick R

    2014-02-01

    Evidence based on almost 300,000 sexual assaults from the National Incident-Based Reporting System showed that the modal age of victims was 15 years, regardless of the age of the offender, the gender of the offender, or the gender of the victim. We suggest that adolescents have the highest risk of victimization because of their sexual attractiveness, vulnerability, and exposure to motivated offenders. As a result of these factors, sexual assault is as much an offense against young people as it is against women. The sexual attractiveness of young people also has implications for the age of offenders. Older men have much higher rates of offending than one would expect, given the age-desistance relationship. Thus, we found that older men have much higher rates of sexual assault than physical assault. Finally, evidence suggested that homosexual men were at least as likely as heterosexual men to commit sexual assault. The pattern suggests that the tendency for sexual assaults to involve male offenders and female victims reflects male sexuality rather than attitudes toward women.

  11. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  12. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture free of sexual assault by providing an environment of... accountability that enhances the safety and well being of all persons covered by the regulation. DATES: Effective...; competition; jobs; the environment; public health or safety; or State, local, or tribal governments...

  13. Characteristics associated with sexual assaults at mass gatherings.

    PubMed

    Sampsel, Kari; Godbout, Justin; Leach, Tara; Taljaard, Monica; Calder, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Sexual assault is disturbingly common, yet little is known about those occurring at mass gatherings, defined as a group of people congregated for a common purpose. Our objectives were to examine patterns of variation in sexual assault associated with mass gatherings and to determine factors associated with assaults occurring at mass gatherings. We performed a case series analysis from January to December, 2013. We included all patients >16 years presenting within 30 days of their sexual assault to the Ottawa Hospital Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP). Cases were stratified by whether or not they occurred at mass gatherings. We abstracted from the SAPACP records: patient and sexual assault characteristics, alcohol or drug consumption and medical and forensic care accepted. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple logistical regression to identify factors associated with mass gathering assaults. We found 204 cases of sexual assault, of which 53 (26%) occurred at mass gatherings. Relative frequencies of mass gathering sexual assaults peaked during New Year's Eve, Canada Day, university frosh week and Halloween. We found the following factors were statistically significantly associated with sexual assault at mass gatherings: younger age (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99); voluntary consumption of drugs and alcohol (3.88, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.23); assault occurring on a holiday (2.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.64) and the assailant unknown to the victim (2.43, 95% CI 1.15 to 5). This study is the first to describe patterns of variation in sexual assault incidents associated with occurrence of mass gatherings as well as factors associated with such assaults. We will disseminate these results to key stakeholders in order to develop prevention-minded policies for future mass gatherings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Predicting Sexual Assault Perpetration Among Heterosexually Active Young Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Morrison, Diane M; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Data from an online community sample of young men were analyzed to test predictors of sexual assault perpetration. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative contributions of specific sub-types of childhood adversity to subsequent sexual aggression. Mediators included hostile masculinity, impersonal sexual behavior and attitudes, and substance use variables. Findings suggested that childhood sexual abuse had direct and mediated effects on sexual assault perpetration, but hostile masculinity was the only proximal factor significantly related to aggression. Childhood polytrauma was also associated with increased perpetration risk, suggesting that prevention efforts may be aided by increased attention to childhood maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Sexual revictimization, PTSD, and problem drinking in sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and problem drinking are common and often co-occurring sequelae experienced by women survivors of adult sexual assault, yet revictimization may mediate risk of symptoms over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data from a 3-wave panel design with a large (N=1012), ethnically diverse sample of women assault survivors to examine whether repeated sexual victimization related to greater PTSD and problem drinking. Structural equation modeling revealed that child sexual abuse was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking and intervening sexual victimization was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking at both 1 and 2year follow-ups. We found no evidence, however, that PTSD directly influenced problem drinking over the long term or vice versa, although they were correlated at each timepoint. Revictimization during the study predicted survivors' prospective PTSD and problem drinking symptoms inconsistently. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparing staff for testimony in sexual assault cases.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Deborah P; Benak, Lynda D

    2007-01-01

    The medico-legal interface is an important element to successful team relationships in the prosecution of sexual assault. Partnerships between clinical risk managers and attorneys can ease the process for health care professionals.

  17. Development of an analytical approach to the specimens collected from victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Juhascik, Matthew; Le, Ngog Lan; Tomlinson, Kimberly; Moore, Christine; Gaensslen, R E; Negrusz, Adam

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a screening process for the analysis of sexual assault samples. Recently, the Society of Forensic Toxicologists created a committee to address the issue of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) in the toxicology field. This committee prepared a list of drugs that could be, or have been, used in DFSAs. The list comprises about 50 compounds, including illicit, prescription, and over-the-counter drugs. Using this list, our laboratory wanted an easy, fast, and sensitive method to analyze a urine sample for all 50 of these drugs. We screened and confirmed for 20 compounds, including cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opiates, methadone, alcohol, and PCP. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric screening method that was able to detect the remaining 30 compounds following 1 extraction and using only 2 mL of urine was developed. The process is inexpensive and uses equipment available in most forensic toxicology laboratories. This method is recommended for any laboratory that commonly receives specimens collected from sexual assault victims and is interested in a more thorough analysis.

  18. Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.

    This book links research on two topics--sexual assault on North American college and university campuses and the role played by male peer support in such assaults. Disputing the notion that college campuses are safe havens from crime, the first chapter defines sexual assault, notes the incidence and prevalence of campus sexual assault, and…

  19. Sexual Assault Experienced by Deaf Female Undergraduates: Prevalence and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elliott Smith, Rebecca A; Pick, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of hearing women in the United States experience rape in their life-time, whereas deaf women have been found to experience increased rates of assault consistent with other marginalized populations. This study explored sexual assault prevalence and characteristics of assault in deaf female undergraduate students. Results revealed that more than two-thirds of the participants (69%) endorsed experiencing at least one assault and more than half (56%) experienced multiple types of assault. Most assaults were committed by a man known to the survivor. Characteristics (e.g., hearing status, primary language, and ethnicity) of the survivors and the assailants are explored. The implications of this data are discussed as well as the development of culturally and linguistically sensitive outreach and educational programs.

  20. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-27

    This part implements Department of Defense (DoD) policy and assigns responsibilities for the SAPR Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture free of sexual assault by providing an environment of prevention, education and training, response capability, victim support, reporting procedures, and accountability that enhances the safety and well being of all persons covered by the regulation.

  1. GHB Abuse Trends and Use in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…

  2. Drug-facilitated robbery or sexual assault: problems associated with amnesia.

    PubMed

    Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Anger, Jean-Pierre

    2004-04-01

    Amnesia following sedative-hypnotic drug exposure is discussed. Anterograde amnesia clearly occurs with many benzodiazepines. Several drugs are assessed: benzodiazepines and two hypnotics in particular that are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines but share some of their properties: zolpidem and zopiclone. The amnesic effects of these drugs are described, memory process, biology of memory, and memory process impairment documented. With these drugs anterograde amnesia has been demonstrated to be dose dependent. This effect is associated with hypnotic drugs, however, the receptors are different. As regards forensic medicine, a significant and specific type of amnesia should be considered: amnesia automatism or amnesic complex automatism. Also, several cases observed in our laboratory are presented to demonstrate the impact of amnesia.

  3. An Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Angela P.

    2009-01-01

    Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included…

  4. An Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Angela P.

    2009-01-01

    Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included…

  5. So What's It to Me? Sexual Assault Information for Guys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Gayle M.; Rants-Rodriguez, Deanna

    This document is a participant booklet used in a sexual assault prevention program focusing on information for male teenagers. These topics are covered in the activities: (1) sex role expectations; (2) assertiveness skills; (3) responding to disrespectful language; (4) sexual harassment; (5) differences between sexual behavior and sexual…

  6. Sexual assault consultations - from high risk to high reliability.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    The sexual assault consultation is a high-risk procedure with the potential for errors resulting in harm to both patients and staff. As such, it can be likened to practices in highrisk industries such as aviation and surgery. In contrast to these domains however, the focus on performance safety and Threat and Error Management has not been widely adopted. This is despite a growing recognition of the vulnerabilities of the investigative and prosecutorial stages of alleged sexual assaults. In the context of “high risk” sexual assault consultations, the notion of safety refers not only to the risk of patient morbidity and mortality, but also to physical, psychological and judicial outcomes that affect patients, staff, and the wider community. This article identifies the latent threats present in sexual assault consultations and suggests a conceptual framework for application of Threat and Error Management in this specialised area of medicine. This will enable practitioners to be better equipped to recognise the risks and improve the performance and safety of sexual assault consultation processes. In an era of growing medicolegal concerns regarding issues such as environmental safety and the potential for contamination of cases, focussing on education and safety culture components within the investigative systems will allow sexual assault consultation processes to progress towards a new level of organisational reliability.

  7. Combat Deployment is Associated With Sexual Harassment or Sexual Assault in a Large, Female Military Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence...experiences (Table 2). Women who were deployed who experi enced combat reported the highest cumulative incidence of sexual harassment (19.9%) and sexual ... sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61 3.78), but not the sexual assault only category. Women who deployed before baseline had

  8. Comparative effects of sexual assault on sexual functioning of child sexual abuse survivors and others.

    PubMed

    Mackey, T F; Hacker, S S; Weissfeld, L A; Ambrose, N C; Fisher, M G; Zobel, D L

    1991-01-01

    This study quantitatively and qualitatively examined the effects of sexual assault on the sexual functioning of 37 sexually active women an average of 8.21 years postevent (Mdn = 4.08 years). More than 80% of the sample reported some sexual dysfunction with a partner as a result of the assault. Greatest impairment was reported by subjects who either had a history of child sexual abuse or had no prior sexual victimization before the current assault as compared with subjects who had prior sexual assaults. When data were examined by type of perpetrator, adverse effects were greatest for subjects assaulted by a health care professional. Qualitative analysis revealed that, for the total sample, greatest effects were in the area of adverse feeling states (part of desire dysfunction) as early response inhibitors, with subjects who had a history of child sexual abuse being the only group to report orgasmic dysfunction and guilt. There was no statistically significant difference in sexual dysfunction between subjects who filed civil suits and those who did not. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  9. The Role of Alcohol and Victim Sexual Interest in Spanish Students' Perceptions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…

  10. The Role of Alcohol and Victim Sexual Interest in Spanish Students' Perceptions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…

  11. Latent Profiles among Sexual Assault Survivors: Understanding Survivors and Their Assault Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    Little guidance exists about how to tailor empowerment and resistance sexual assault programming to be responsive to varying groups of women. Using an investigation of 415 college women who completed a self-administered survey about a range of sexually aggressive experiences by a known male assailant, this investigation tested for distinct…

  12. The problem of untested sexual assault kits: why are some kits never submitted to a crime laboratory?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-07-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.

  13. Hidradenitis Suppurativa, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Sisic, Mia; Tan, Jerry; Lafreniere, Kathryn D

    Sexual assault and intimate partner violence have never been examined in individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa. The research is important, because prior studies show higher incidences of intimate partner violence and sexual assault in individuals with disabilities, and hidradenitis suppurativa meets criteria for a disability. The objective of the study is to examine whether individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa are at significantly higher risk of intimate partner violence and sexual assault compared with individuals who have acne, a recognised disability. Participants who met criteria for hidradenitis suppurativa and acne were recruited from a mid-sized university and a dermatology clinic. Participants spoke English and were over the age of sexual consent. Group (hidradenitis suppurativa and acne) differences on intimate partner violence and sexual assault were analysed. Victimisation within the past 12 months was measured using the Checklist for Controlling Behaviours, a measure of intimate partner violence, as well as the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Victim, a measure of sexual assault. In total, 243 participants (n = 128 for hidradenitis suppurativa; n = 115 for acne) were surveyed. Individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa were significantly more likely to report being victimised by intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was more frequently observed in individuals with hidradenitis suppurativa. Health care providers should be aware of this issue when interacting with patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.

  14. Sexual assault examinations and forensic medical samples.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies and a review in the United States have identified that tens of thousands of used but untested sexual assault examination kits containing medical examination specimens are to be found in police station evidence rooms, forensic science laboratories, hospitals and rape crisis centres. A 2007 survey undertaken by the National Institute of Justice in the United States explored some of the reasons why forensic specimens are not tested by forensic science laboratories. Many of these relate to lack of knowledge on the part of investigators as to how scientific information can assist the investigation process, even if not used subsequently at trial. Cost factors and laboratory casework overload were also identified as significant. For the medical practitioner, the lack of testing poses issues that include quality management of the forensic medical examination and informed consent in a setting requiring the balancing of public and private benefits for the examinee. Limiting scientific testing, even with intelligence-led triaging of sample testing, could have an adverse effect on both prosecution and defence decision-making and ultimately could adversely affect trial outcomes.

  15. Male sexual assault and rape: who seeks counseling?

    PubMed

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Light, David

    2010-09-01

    This work rests on responses from 219 male sexual assault and rape victims who self-reported their victimization in the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States survey. The authors expected that men who reported being severely assaulted would be more likely than others to seek counseling. They defined severely assaulted as having been penetrated, assaulted with a weapon, threatened, self-reported sustaining physical injuries, sought medical care, and/or reported the assault to the police. However, in their logistic model that explores who sought counseling, only one variable was significant. The odds of seeking counseling for men who reported being penetrated had significantly lower odds of seeking counseling all else equal.

  16. Victimization History and Victim-Assailant Relationship as Factors in Recovery from Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Susan; And Others

    There is evidence that many women experience sexual assault, and that sexual assault can cause psychological and interpersonal problems. This study examined the psychological aftermath of sexual assault in a probability sample of female university students and employees (N=542), focusing on how various aspects of a victim's lifetime sexual assault…

  17. 32 CFR 105.16 - Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting... PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PROGRAM PROCEDURES § 105.16 Sexual... USD(P&R) submits annual FY reports to Congress on the sexual assaults involving members of...

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder after sexual assault: its psychodynamics and treatment.

    PubMed

    Moscarello, R

    1991-01-01

    Sexual assault as a major psychological trauma and a crime of violence evokes immediate symptoms of posttraumatic stress and, for many victims, long-term posttraumatic psychological sequelae. The victim, as the recipient of the rapist's anger and need to control, experiences terror, fear of death, and helplessness. This results in classic posttraumatic symptoms of haunting, intrusive recollections, numbing or constriction of feelings and focus, and increased arousal. When this psychological trauma is not integrated, anxiety, depression, phobias, impaired sexual and social adjustment, negative self-image, and diminished capacity to enjoy life follow. Concepts of posttraumatic stress are reviewed and a definition of sexual assault is offered. The posttraumatic stress response to sexual assault is considered under the phases of response and symptoms, followed by the psychodynamics of this particular psychic trauma. A brief overview of treatment is outlined.

  19. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research.

  20. Immediate and delayed treatment seeking among adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Millar, Golden; Stermac, Lana; Addison, Mary

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature which seeks to better understand the needs of sexual assault victims presenting for specialized treatment. This study explored aspects of immediate and delayed treatment seeking among 1118 women who presented for treatment to a specialized sexual assault care centre within a large urban hospital. Variables related to demographic and assault-specific characteristics were examined for association with immediate (within 12 hours) or delayed (after 12 hours) treatment seeking. Results indicate the severity of the attack prompted women to seek treatment earlier and that women who were assaulted by a known perpetrator were more likely to delay seeking assistance. Findings are conceptualized under the rubric of sociological and feminist frameworks with suggestions for additional research.

  1. Child Sexual Assault in Rural Alaska--Issues and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Susan; Cox, James

    A variety of information and sources for information on child sexual assault are collected in this document geared for educators in small communities. Materials include a fact sheet on small community concerns about sexual abuse, a flow chart for training school personnel in intervention and prevention, suggestions for school protocol for…

  2. Child Sexual Assault in Rural Alaska--Issues and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Susan; Cox, James

    A variety of information and sources for information on child sexual assault are collected in this document geared for educators in small communities. Materials include a fact sheet on small community concerns about sexual abuse, a flow chart for training school personnel in intervention and prevention, suggestions for school protocol for…

  3. Labeling of sexual assault and its relationship with sexual functioning: the mediating role of coping.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Erika L; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    Little research has examined the relationship between women's labeling of their sexual assault experiences and sexual functioning, as well as identification of variables that may mediate the labeling-trauma outcome relationship. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap in the literature, by examining the potential mediating role of coping strategies in response to sexual assault in the relationship between labeling and sexual functioning. The sample included 135 college women with a history of adolescent/early adulthood sexual assault. Labeling was not bivariately related to sexual functioning outcomes; however, anxious coping mediated the relationships between labeling and both sexual lubrication and sexual satisfaction. This suggests that correlational analyses between labeling and trauma outcomes may not capture the complexity of this relationship, as it may be more indirect. Furthermore, results suggest that labeling is part of the coping process in response to sexual assault; some women who consider their experience to be sexual assault may engage in anxious coping efforts, contributing to difficulties with sexual lubrication and sexual dissatisfaction. Victims actively working to integrate their sexual assault experience with prior beliefs and self-concept may benefit from treatment focused on decreasing anxious coping, especially as it relates to sexual functioning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Combatting sexual assault: an evaluation of a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Baylis, M G; Myers, A M

    1990-01-01

    Few guidelines exist for the planning or evaluation of community-based sexual assault prevention initiatives. Records from the Safety Van Program, as well as survey data from 60 users and 60 non-users characteristic of the target group, were used to explore the complex relationship between awareness, fear of assault and service use. Findings from the evaluation address issues such as basing program expansion on utilization rates, and using incidence rates to justify service need.

  5. Patterns of Injury and Reported Violence Depending on Relationship to Assailant in Female Swedish Sexual Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Anna Sofia; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Sondergaard, Hans Peter; Helstrom, Lotti

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies have explored the differences between known-assailant sexual assaults and stranger assaults and reported the stranger assaults as being more violent. Only a few studies have discriminated between sexual assaults by intimate partners from assaults by other known assailants when comparing with assaults by strangers. In this study, we…

  6. Campus Sexual Violence Resources and Emotional Health of College Women Who Have Experienced Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine A; Hannan, Peter J; Porta, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Institutional characteristics may help mitigate trauma associated with sexual assault. This study examines associations between resources on college campuses for sexual violence prevention and the emotional well-being of female students who have experienced sexual assault. There were 495 female college students who have experienced sexual assault who provided survey data in 2010-2011. Sexual violence resource data from 28 college campuses were combined with student survey data in multilevel analysis. Dependent variables include diagnosis with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and PTSD, and models adjust for covariates and clustering of students within colleges. Participants attending colleges with more sexual violence resources had lower rates of mental health conditions than those attending colleges with fewer resources. Colleges are encouraged to expand their array of sexual violence resources to create a supportive environment for victims of sexual assault and to connect affected students with appropriate services.

  7. Social disorganization and unfounded sexual assault case clearances.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Despite much research and policy development, it remains true that less than one half of all reported sexual assaults are cleared by arrest (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2011). Compounding this issue, many sexual assaults are not cleared by an arrest, but rather by being classified as "unfounded" by law enforcement (Soulliere, 1994, 2005; Tellis & Spohn, 2008). Grounded in the social disorganization perspective, this article examines the relationships between case-related and extralegal community-level characteristics and use of the designation of unfounded by the police. Contrary to initial expectations, findings show that communities with higher levels of concentrated disadvantage, immigrant concentration, and residential instability are less likely to have sexual assaults deemed unfounded by law enforcement.

  8. Gender differences in symptoms of adolescents reporting sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Darves-Bornoz, J M; Choquet, M; Ledoux, S; Gasquet, I; Manfredi, R

    1998-03-01

    Sexual assault on children and adolescents has become a common topic of study, but there has been little research into the specific characteristics of the population of male victims. A national survey representative of school-age adolescents in France enabled us to study 465 adolescents reporting sexual assault (121 boys, 344 girls; mean age 15.4, SD 2.5 years). Girls were shown to be more frequently affected by certain medicopsychological symptoms: nightmares, multiple somatic complaints and some items concerning mood disorders. On the other hand, behavioural symptoms were much more frequently expressed in boys, in particular: repeated suicide attempts, running away, fits of violence and substance use. Boys presenting these symptoms should be questioned as a matter of routine concerning a history of sexual assault.

  9. It Is All About Respect: The Army’s Problem with Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-23

    Courts-Martial (MCM) more closely with other Federal laws and regulations.42 Article 120: Rape , Sexual Assault, and other Sexual Misconduct The new...victim does not or cannot consent. Sexual assault includes rape , nonconsensual sodomy (oral or anal sex), indecent assault (unwanted, inappropriate...Manslaughter 24 3 1% Negligent Homicide 11 2 0% Attempted Murder 36 5 1% Sex Assault 1,313 186 47% Rape 515 73 18% Aggravated Sexual

  10. The Decline in Sexual Assaults in Men's Prisons in New South Wales: A "Systems" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its…

  11. 76 FR 18633 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ..., and too many offenders elude justice. As we mark National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention... will be sexually assaulted. Young women ages 16 to 24 are at greatest risk, and an alarming number of young women are sexually assaulted while in college. Too many men and boys are also affected. With...

  12. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore…

  13. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  14. The Decline in Sexual Assaults in Men's Prisons in New South Wales: A "Systems" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its…

  15. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases... sexual assault. (a) Unrestricted reporting. Unrestricted reporting requires normal law enforcement...

  16. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore…

  17. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  18. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  19. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  20. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  1. The Effect of a College Sexual Assault Prevention Program on First-Year Students' Victimization Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily; Silverman, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although a variety of sexual assault prevention programs are currently available to college health professionals, there is a dearth of information about the effect of these programs on sexual assault victimization rates. Participants: The authors evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault prevention program for first-year students at a…

  2. A Longitudinal Examination of Male College Students’ Perpetration of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Self-administered surveys were completed by 197 men in college at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Men who committed sexual assault at multiple time points (repeat assaulters) had the most extreme scores on measures of hostility toward women, past sexual experiences, drinking in sexual situations, and adolescent delinquency. Nonassaulters had the least extreme scores and men who committed sexual assault at only 1 time point had scores that tended to fall in between. Repeat assaulters also expressed significantly less remorse when they described their sexual assault at Time 1 than did past assaulters who committed sexual assault only at the initial time point. These findings demonstrate the importance of initiating prevention and treatment programs in early adolescence, before longstanding attitudes and behaviors tolerant of sexual assault are established. PMID:15482033

  3. Sexual assault evidence collection more accurate when completed by sexual assault nurse examiners: Colorado's experience.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Valerie; Murphy, Sherri; Miller, Joseph J

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) provide more effective evidence collection compared with non-SANE-trained nurse and physician colleagues. Five hundred fifteen audits were completed by crime laboratory analysts on sexual assault evidence kits submitted to the Colorado Bureau of Investigation from October 1999 to April 2002. Of 515 evidence kits audited, 279 were completed by SANEs. Non-SANE physicians and nurses completed 236 kits. Evidence kits collected by SANEs were more likely to have a completed chain of custody (92%) compared with 81% of non-SANE-collected kits. SANEs also were more likely to have properly sealed individual specimen envelopes (91% vs 75%), to have labeled the individual specimen envelopes (95% vs 88%), and to have collected the appropriate amount of pubic hair (88% vs 74%) and head hair (95% vs 80%). SANEs more frequently included the appropriate number of blood tubes (95% vs 80%), collected the appropriate amount of swabs (88% vs 71%), and included a vaginal fluid slide for sperm motility (87% vs 72%). Both groups prepared slides at a high rate for each penetrated orifice (87% vs 90%) and both had a high rate of including the crime laboratory report in the completed kit (97% vs 93%). Studies such as this provide documentation that evidence collection kits prepared by SANEs are more accurate and complete when compared with evidence collection kits prepared by non-SANE nurses and physicians. Additional studies are needed to further validate the efficacy of SANE-completed evidentiary examinations.

  4. A Prospective Analysis of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Victimization and Perpetration of Dating Violence and Sexual Assault in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of studies evaluating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and subsequent sexual assault perpetration by men have been conducted retrospectively and with incarcerated populations. The present study seeks to improve on previous research by prospectively investigating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and…

  5. A Prospective Analysis of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Victimization and Perpetration of Dating Violence and Sexual Assault in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of studies evaluating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and subsequent sexual assault perpetration by men have been conducted retrospectively and with incarcerated populations. The present study seeks to improve on previous research by prospectively investigating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and…

  6. Sexual assault services coverage on Native American land.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Ashley; Wood, Lindsey; Giroux, Jennifer; Wood, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Native American women experience higher rates of sexual assault than other women in the United States, yet there is limited information on the accessibility of forensic services for Native American victims of sexual violence. This study used geographic information systems technology to map known sexual assault examiner (SAE) and sexual assault response team (SART) programs in the United States (n = 873) in proximity to 650 census-designated Native American lands. Analysis was repeated for 29 Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities that self-identified that they provide sexual assault examinations. Network analysis showed that 30.7% of Native American land is within a 60-minute driving distance of a facility offering SAE or SART services. Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities increased accessibility to SAE services on 35 Native American lands. This study shows gaps in coverage for more than two thirds of Native American lands, including 381 lands with no coverage, highlighting the need for expanded SAE and SART services near or on Native American land.

  7. Predictors of Using Mental Health Services After Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357

  8. Nonoccupational Postexposure Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prophylaxis: Acceptance Following Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Draughon, Jessica E.; Hauda, William E.; Price, Bonnie; Sheridan, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for HIV following sexual assault may decrease the likelihood of HIV transmission. Objective The purpose of this exploratory chart review study was to examine factors associated with patients accepting postsexual assault nPEP at three forensic nurse examiner programs in urban settings. Methods Forensic nursing charts of patients presenting for acute, sexual assault care were reviewed as part of a mixed-methods study. Results Patients assaulted by more than one or an unknown number of assailants were over 12 times more likely to accept the offer of nPEP (aOR 12.66; 95%CI [2.77, 57.82]). In cases where no condom was used (aOR = 8.57; 95%CI [1.59, 46.10]), or when any injury to the anus or genitalia was noted (aOR = 4.10; 95%CI [1.57, 10.75]), patients were more likely to accept nPEP. Patients with any injury to the face or head were less likely to initiate nPEP (aOR = 0.32; 95%CI [0.11, 0.97]). Discussion This study is an important first step in understanding factors associated with nPEP acceptance after sexual assault. PMID:26657480

  9. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Evaluating Estimates from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination. Service members with characteristics associated with a higher risk of sexual ...anatomically specific language in the RAND form’s sexual assault module offended some service members, this did not lead to a higher level of breakoffs in that... Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military EVALUATING ESTIMATES FROM THE 2014 RAND MILITARY WORKPLACE STUDY I n early 2014, the U.S

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with physical and sexual assault of female university students in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Newton-Taylor, B; DeWit, D; Gliksman, L

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of physical and sexual assault of female university students and associated factors. In a survey of a random sample of 3,642 female students from 6 universities across Ontario, 24% of female students reported being physically assaulted and 15% reported being sexually assaulted during the previous year. When the assault measures were combined, 32% of university women reported being either physically or sexually assaulted during the previous year. Of those experiencing assault, 40% had been the victim of 2 or more types of assaults. Logistic regression analysis revealed that assault was associated with year of study, marital status, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, prescription drug use, unhealthy eating and stress behaviors, less time spent on academics, and more time involved in social activities. University programs and activities directed toward the reduction of assault should incorporate the factors identified in this study to increase awareness of the situational factors surrounding likelihood of assault.

  11. Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…

  12. Factors Associated with the Sexual Assault of Students: An Exploratory Study of Victims Treated at Hospital-Based Sexual Assault Treatment Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mont, Janice; Chertkow, Laura; Macdonald, Sheila; Asllani, Eriola; Bainbridge, Deidre; Rotbard, Nomi; Cohen, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that students experience high levels of sexual assault, but studies addressing how they differ in their experiences from other sexual assault victims are virtually nonexistent. To address this gap, information was collected from consecutive individuals, aged 16 years or older, presenting to one of 7 hospital-based sexual assault…

  13. Factors Associated with the Sexual Assault of Students: An Exploratory Study of Victims Treated at Hospital-Based Sexual Assault Treatment Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mont, Janice; Chertkow, Laura; Macdonald, Sheila; Asllani, Eriola; Bainbridge, Deidre; Rotbard, Nomi; Cohen, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that students experience high levels of sexual assault, but studies addressing how they differ in their experiences from other sexual assault victims are virtually nonexistent. To address this gap, information was collected from consecutive individuals, aged 16 years or older, presenting to one of 7 hospital-based sexual assault…

  14. Psychosocial Vulnerability Among Patients Contacting a Norwegian Sexual Assault Center.

    PubMed

    Vik, Bjarte Frode; Nöttestad, Jim Aage; Schei, Berit; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Hagemann, Cecilie Therese

    2016-07-22

    In this study, the objective was to assess the occurrence of specific vulnerability factors among adult and adolescent females attending a Norwegian sexual assault center (SAC). We also explored assault characteristics and investigated whether these characteristics differed between the group of patients with vulnerability factors compared with the group without such factors. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 573 women ≥ 12 years of age attending the SAC at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010. A patient was considered vulnerable if at least one of the following features was present: intellectual or physical disability; history of present/former mental health problems; history of present/former alcohol/substance abuse; or former sexual assault. At least one vulnerability factor was present in 59% of the cases. More than one vulnerability factor was present in 29%. Reporting at least one vulnerability factor was associated with a higher patient age, unemployment, a higher frequency of reported light/moderate physical violence, and the documentation of minor body injury. In contrast, those without vulnerability more often were students assaulted during night time, by a casual or stranger assailant and reporting a higher intake of alcohol prior to the assault. There are obvious patterns of differences in the nature of sexual assaults reported among victims with specific vulnerability factors compared with victims without these factors. Future research should address these differences and possible solutions for better protection of especially vulnerable individuals against sexual offenses, such as those with mental health and substance abuse difficulties. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Sexual Assault of the Elderly Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muram, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated elderly victims of rape and determined the variables affected solely by the patient's age. It was found that 71.7 percent of these assaults took place at the victim's home, and most were by an unknown assailant. Genital injury was more prevalent among elderly victims. Physical intimidation was all that was necessary to subdue the victims…

  16. Acute forensic medical procedures used following a sexual assault among treatment-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Hester; Brazeau, Paulette; Stermac, Lana; Addison, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Despite the negative physical and mental health outcomes of sexual assault, a minority of sexually assaulted women seek immediate post-assault medical and legal services. This study identified the number and types of acute forensic medical procedures used by women presenting at a hospital-based urgent care centre between 1997 and 2001 within 72 hours following a reported sexual assault. The study also examined assault and non-assault factors associated with the use of procedures. It was hypothesized that assault characteristics resembling the stereotype of rape would be associated with the use of more procedures. The multiple regression indicated that injury severity, coercion severity, homelessness, and delay in presentation were significantly associated with the number of procedures received. Findings provide partial support for the hypothesis that post-assault procedures would be associated with the stereotype of rape, and highlight homeless women as a group particularly at risk for not receiving adequate medical treatment following a sexual assault.

  17. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  19. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  20. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  1. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  2. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  3. Forensic science aspects of fatal sexual assaults on women.

    PubMed

    Deming, J E; Mittleman, R E; Wetli, C V

    1983-07-01

    The case files of 41 female victims of proven fatal sexual assault were reviewed. They averaged 42 years of age, but a bimodal age distribution was evident. Younger victims (averaging 31 years of age) were most often found in canals, fields, or vacant lots, whereas older women (averaging 51 years of age) were found most often in their residences. Death usually resulted from mechanical asphyxiation, and the use of firearms was infrequent. Various instruments used to harm, restrain, or kill the victim were most often obtained at the scene of death and reflected the emotionality and impulsivity of the incident. Alcohol was found in the blood of 40% of the victims and averaged 0.14%. Ligature bindings, torn clothing, varying degrees of disrobing, and bite marks were not infrequent. The average yearly incidence of fatal sexual assaults on females is calculated to be 0.14/100 000 population in Dade County, FL and has not changed appreciably since 1959. Thus, death resulting from sexual assault was found to be distinctly unusual. Black victims were represented more frequently than their racial distribution in this community. The scene and autopsy findings of the average female sexual assault victim form a characteristic profile that should direct further investigation on a particular case.

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Assault among a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, A. H.; Overstreet, C. M.; Hawn, S. E.; Kendler, K. S.; Dick, D. M.; Amstadter, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of precollege, college-onset, and repeat sexual assault (SA) within a representative student sample. Participants: A representative sample of 7,603 students. Methods: Incoming first-year students completed a survey about their exposure to broad SA prior to college, prior trauma,…

  5. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  6. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  7. 75 FR 17845 - National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... among young women attending college, and frequently, alcohol or drugs are used to incapacitate the... suicidal feelings, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, only exacerbate victims' sense of... awareness campaigns as well as grants for campus services to address sexual assault on college campuses....

  8. Survivors on Campus: A Dialogue about Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Rosendale, Laura; Dierking, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    At a conference last fall, Kirsten Dierking came across "College Girl: A Memoir," a book by Laura Gray-Rosendale that tells the story of a brutal sexual assault she experienced as a college student. While she purchased a copy of the book, it sat unopened on her desk for a while; also a victim of brutal rape in college, she was not sure…

  9. Implications for Sexual Assault Prevention: College Students as Prosocial Bystanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Deinera; Cummings, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Prosocial bystander interventions are promising approaches to sexual assault prevention on college campuses. Objective: To assess bystander attitudes among undergraduate students at a northeastern university. Participants: A convenience sample of 188 students from 4 undergraduate classes was surveyed during regularly scheduled class sessions.…

  10. The Sexually Assaulted Female: Innocent Victim or Temptress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Sheldon H.

    The Toronto Transit Commission employees were on strike for 23 days, producing a total shut-down of all public transportation and a resulting increase in the number of hitch-hiking females. The strike provided a novel and unique opportunity to empirically examine two theories of sexual assault and to evaluate the effects of hitch-hiking upon…

  11. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  12. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Assault among a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, A. H.; Overstreet, C. M.; Hawn, S. E.; Kendler, K. S.; Dick, D. M.; Amstadter, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of precollege, college-onset, and repeat sexual assault (SA) within a representative student sample. Participants: A representative sample of 7,603 students. Methods: Incoming first-year students completed a survey about their exposure to broad SA prior to college, prior trauma,…

  14. Expressed Sexual Assault Legal Context and Victim Culpability Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Markman, Keith D.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Menaker, Tasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Legal scholars have argued that laws have an "expressive function", specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages--specifically their…

  15. Social Support and Risk of Sexual Assault Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Gillian E.; Ullman, Sarah; Long, Susan E.; Long, LaDonna; Starzynski, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Limited research on revictimization has examined the role of social support, which is known to affect sexual assault survivors' psychological recovery. Measuring social support also provides a more ecological approach to understanding revictimization, as it assesses the possible role of those in the survivors' environment. The current study…

  16. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  17. Survivors on Campus: A Dialogue about Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Rosendale, Laura; Dierking, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    At a conference last fall, Kirsten Dierking came across "College Girl: A Memoir," a book by Laura Gray-Rosendale that tells the story of a brutal sexual assault she experienced as a college student. While she purchased a copy of the book, it sat unopened on her desk for a while; also a victim of brutal rape in college, she was not sure…

  18. Five Year Report: Office on Family Violence and Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose Enterprises, Wright, WY.

    This report describes family violence and sexual assault and the specific nature and extent of the problem in Wyoming as illustrated by data obtained from statewide surveys and studies. Past efforts to address the problem are presented in an historical overview. Program operations are described, including the areas of safe houses, support groups,…

  19. Implications for Sexual Assault Prevention: College Students as Prosocial Bystanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Deinera; Cummings, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Prosocial bystander interventions are promising approaches to sexual assault prevention on college campuses. Objective: To assess bystander attitudes among undergraduate students at a northeastern university. Participants: A convenience sample of 188 students from 4 undergraduate classes was surveyed during regularly scheduled class sessions.…

  20. Military Personnel. Preliminary Observations on DOD’s and the Coast Guard’s Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-31

    sexual assault; and (3) exercise oversight over reports of sexual assault. This statement draws on GAO’s preliminary observations from an ongoing...would enable servicemembers to confidentially disclose an incident of sexual assault. Since 2005, active duty servicemembers have had two options...incidents involving servicemembers; • have visibility over reports of sexual assault involving servicemembers; and • exercise oversight over

  1. 78 FR 34995 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... crimes involving adult sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United...

  2. Sexual Assault: The Dark Side of Military Hypermasculinity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    military hypermasculinity behavior and its link to physical, sexual aggression and assaults, resulting from contradictory feelings of fear and...recommendations to make SAPRO fully operational. In its years of operation, SAPRO has had limited success addressing the problem of military sexual...personality traits due to conflicting feelings of desire or fear of woman, the existential threats or challenges to their manhood, and the capitulation of

  3. [Sexual assaults in Geneva between 2006 and 2010].

    PubMed

    La Harpe, Romano; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse

    2012-01-01

    In Geneva, all sexual assault victims are examined both by a gynaecologist and a forensic pathologist with special training in clinical forensic medicine. Between 2006 and 2010, 473 victims were examined following such an assault. Over the years, the number of sexual assaults rose steadily. Most victims were aged between 15 and 30 years. The majority of the assaults occurred at night and on the weekend and often happened at the place where the perpetrator or the victim lived. Usually, the offender acted alone and was known to the victim. Many victims hesitate to present for an examination, which makes it difficult to collect evidence. Penetration was usually vaginal and without the use of a condom. Injuries on the body or genitals were seen in only half of the cases for the first ones and in less than one third for the second ones. Quite often (at least in 42 % of the cases), the victim consumed alcohol before the assault and the use of drugs--especially cannabis--was not uncommon either.

  4. Sexual Assault Risks among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Hughes, Tonda L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine lifetime patterns of sexual assault and associated risks among a purposive sample of gay and bisexual men (N = 183; 18–35 years old, M = 24.3). Cross-sectional data were collected via written, self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face, event-based qualitative interviews. Alcohol severity scores indicated high rates of hazardous drinking (53.0%) and possible dependence (14.2%) among participants. One half of men (50.8%) reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and 67.2% reported adult sexual assault (ASA). Average age at most recent ASA was 21 years. Most perpetrators of recent ASA incidents (83.9%) were male; 67.0% of participants reported consuming alcohol and/or drugs prior to the most recent incident. Regression findings indicated more severe CSA experiences and past alcohol-related problems predicted recent severe ASA. Although we found similarities between gay and bisexual men in lifetime sexual assault history, we found some distinct differences in ASA risk factors. Bisexual men reported higher alcohol severity scores, more female ASA perpetrators, higher internalized homophobia scores, and fewer male sexual partners than gay men. Findings suggest the need for interventions that reduce ASA risk among sexual minority men—and the potential benefits of focusing on alcohol consumption in risk reduction efforts. PMID:24483778

  5. Sexual assault risks among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Parks, Kathleen A; Collins, R Lorraine; Hughes, Tonda L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine lifetime patterns of sexual assault and associated risks among a purposive sample of gay and bisexual men (N = 183; 18 to 35 years old, M = 24.3). Cross-sectional data were collected via written, self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face, event-based qualitative interviews. Alcohol severity scores indicated high rates of hazardous drinking (53.0%) and possible dependence (14.2%) among participants. One-half of men (50.8%) reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and 67.2% reported adult sexual assault (ASA). Average age at most recent ASA was 21 years. Most perpetrators (83.9%) of recent ASA incidents were male; 67.0% of participants reported consuming alcohol and/or drugs prior to the most recent incident. Regression findings indicated more severe CSA experiences and past alcohol-related problems predicted recent severe ASA. Although we found similarities between gay and bisexual men in lifetime sexual assault history, we found some distinct differences in ASA risk factors. Bisexual men reported higher alcohol severity scores, more female ASA perpetrators, higher internalized homophobia scores, and fewer male sexual partners than gay men. Findings suggest the need for interventions that reduce ASA risk among sexual minority men-and the potential benefits of focusing on alcohol consumption in risk reduction efforts.

  6. [The prevalence of sexual abuse and sexual assault against icelandic adolescents].

    PubMed

    Arnarsson, Arsaell Mar; Gisladottir, Kristin Heba; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn

    2016-06-01

    Sexual abuse and sexual assaults against children and adolescents is one of the most significant threats to their health. The aim of the current study was to investigate its prevalence and effects on Icelandic teenagers in the 10th grade. The study is based on data collected for the Icelandic part of the HBSC-project (Health and behaviour of school- aged children). Standardized questionnaires were sent to all students in 10th grade in Iceland of which 3,618 participated. The students experience of sexual abuse or assaults was assessed by asking them how often they had been against their will a) touched in a sexual way, b) made to touch someone else in a sexual way, c) the subject of an attempted rape or d) subjected to rape. The results showed that 14.6% (527) participants had experienced sexual abuse or assault. Of these, 4.5% (162) had one such experience but 10.1% had either suffered certain type of abuse or assault more than once, or had experienced more than one kind. About 1% of participants (35) said that they had suffered many times from many forms of abuse and assaults. The prevalence of poor mental well-being and risk behaviour was much higher amongst those that had experienced sexual abuse or assault. Although the results show that the prevalence of sexual abuse and assault against Icelandic adolescents is similar to other Western countries, we find it to be higher than a previous study a decade ago. Sexual abuse, sexual assault, adolescents. Correspondence: Arsaell Mar Arnarsson, aarnarsson@unak.is.

  7. Symptoms and beyond: Self-concept among sexually assaulted women.

    PubMed

    Keshet, Hadar; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2017-09-01

    The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects. Our main hypotheses were (a) sexually assaulted women without PTSD exhibit impaired self-concept as compared with NT women and (b) SA is related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when posttraumatic distress is statistically controlled. Women (N = 235: NT = 69, MVA = 87, SA = 79) completed a web-based survey including measures designed to assess the global and domain-specific contents and structure of the self-concept as well as background and clinical questionnaires. Sexually assaulted women without PTSD reported impaired self-concept as compared with NT women. Furthermore, SA was related to greater self-concept impairments as compared with MVA, even when considering participants' levels of posttraumatic distress. SA is related to unique self-concept impairments that extend beyond symptoms, emphasizing the need to assess and address self-concept impairments in sexually assaulted women. The importance of adopting a multifaceted conceptualization of the self to gain a deeper understanding of the aftermath of trauma is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Is there a role for paediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners in the management of child sexual assault in Australia?

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Dania; Woolfenden, Susan; Zwi, Karen

    2016-09-01

    In Australia, paediatricians and Child Protection Specialists provide the medical and forensic examinations of child victims of sexual assault. There are workforce challenges in the recruitment and retention of doctors to undertake child sexual assault (CSA) work particularly in remote and rural areas. Pediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (PSANE) programs have existed in the USA and the UK for many years. Using Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) methodology, a systematic search of the literature was performed to ascertain what is known about SANE programs, to evaluate the evidence for their effectiveness across a number of domains (accessibility, health and legal outcomes and cost effectiveness) and to inform policy on models of care and elements of best practice which may be appropriate for local implementation in Australia. This review showed that despite the limited evidence available and significant gaps in the evidence, SANEs provide a high standard of medical care and are not detrimental to the legal process. By providing recommendations regarding the potential value, effectiveness and feasibility of establishing a PSANE program in Australia, this article may be of interest to other high income countries facing similar workforce challenges in meeting the needs of children with alleged sexual assault.

  9. Exploring the Relationships of Women's Sexual Assault Disclosure, Social Reactions, and Problem Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault,…

  10. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

  11. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

  12. 3 CFR 8359 - Proclamation 8359 of April 8, 2009. National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... addition, rates of sexual assault remain startlingly high for students from high school to college. A 2005 survey of high school students found that 10.8 percent of girls and 4.2 percent of boys from grades nine... assault since entering college. Unlike victims of sexual assault in the larger community,...

  13. The role of alcohol and victim sexual interest in Spanish students' perceptions of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Megías, Jesús L; Krahé, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force or offered alcohol to the woman to overcome her resistance. Rape myth acceptance (RMA) was measured as an individual difference variable. Participants were more convinced that the incident was a sexual assault and blamed the woman less when the man had used force rather than offering her alcohol. In Study 2, 164 college students read a scenario in which the woman rejected a man's sexual advances after having either accepted or turned down his offer of alcohol. In addition, the woman was either portrayed as being sexually attracted to him or there was no mention of her sexual interest. Participants' RMA was again included. High RMA participants blamed the victim more than low RMA participants and were less certain that the incident was a sexual assault, especially when the victim had accepted alcohol and was described as being sexually attracted to the man. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and legal prosecution of sexual assault.

  14. Disgust, Mental Contamination, and Posttraumatic Stress: Unique Relations following Sexual versus Non-Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Dutton, Courtney E.

    2012-01-01

    Disgust and mental contamination (or feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in the absence of a physical contaminant) are increasingly being linked to traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomatology. Evidence suggests disgust and mental contamination are particularly relevant to sexual assault experiences; however, there has been relatively little direct examination of these relations. The primary aim of the current study was to assess disgust and mental contamination-based reactivity to an individualized interpersonal assault-related script-driven imagery procedure. Participants included 22 women with a history of traumatic sexual assault and 19 women with a history of traumatic non-sexual assault. Sexual assault and PTS symptom severity predicted greater increases in disgust, feelings of dirtiness, and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script. Finally, assault type affected the association between PTS symptom severity and increases in feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script such that these associations were only significant among sexually assaulted individuals. These findings highlight the need for future research focused on elucidating the nature of the relation between disgust and mental contamination and PTS reactions following various traumatic events. PMID:23376603

  15. Disgust, mental contamination, and posttraumatic stress: unique relations following sexual versus non-sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Badour, Christal L; Feldner, Matthew T; Babson, Kimberly A; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Dutton, Courtney E

    2013-01-01

    Disgust and mental contamination (or feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in the absence of a physical contaminant) are increasingly being linked to traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomatology. Evidence suggests disgust and mental contamination are particularly relevant to sexual assault experiences; however, there has been relatively little direct examination of these relations. The primary aim of the current study was to assess disgust and mental contamination-based reactivity to an individualized interpersonal assault-related script-driven imagery procedure. Participants included 22 women with a history of traumatic sexual assault and 19 women with a history of traumatic non-sexual assault. Sexual assault and PTS symptom severity predicted greater increases in disgust, feelings of dirtiness, and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script. Finally, assault type affected the association between PTS symptom severity and increases in feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script such that these associations were only significant among sexually assaulted individuals. These findings highlight the need for future research focused on elucidating the nature of the relation between disgust and mental contamination and PTS reactions following various traumatic events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Website Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Sexual Violence NPS Naval Postgraduate School NSIPS Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System NSVRC National Sexual Violence Resource Center PDF... sexual violence victimization other than rape at some point in their lives. (Black, Basile, Breiding, Smith, Walters, Merrick, Chen, & Stevens, 2011...forefront, President Barack Obama stated in April 2012, It is up to all of us to ensure victims of sexual violence are not left to face these trials alone

  17. Interpretation of non-genital injuries in sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jack

    2013-02-01

    The accurate description and interpretation of non-genital injuries may be crucial in cases of alleged sexual assault, and may be important in corroborating a victim's statement of events. In many cases of sexual assault, non-genital injuries may be either absent or trivial; nevertheless, even minor injuries may be of significance and need to be recorded. Injuries may be result from attempts to restrain the victim, whereas others (e.g. bite marks) may have a sexual motive or be part of a sado-masochistic ritual. A standard nomenclature for injuries (i.e. using the terms 'bruises', 'abrasions', 'lacerations', 'incisions and 'stab wounds') should avoid ambiguity between medical examiners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Christian, C W; Lavelle, J M; De Jong, A R; Loiselle, J; Brenner, L; Joffe, M

    2000-07-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual assault. This study describes the epidemiology of forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. The medical records of 273 children <10 years old who were evaluated in hospital emergency departments in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and had forensic evidence processed by the Philadelphia Police Criminalistics Laboratory were retrospectively reviewed for history, physical examination findings, forensic evidence collection, and forensic results. Some form of forensic evidence was identified in 24.9% of children, all of whom were examined within 44 hours of their assault. Over 90% of children with positive forensic evidence findings were seen within 24 hours of their assault. The majority of forensic evidence (64%) was found on clothing and linens, yet only 35% of children had clothing collected for analysis. After 24 hours, all evidence, with the exception of 1 pubic hair, was recovered from clothing or linens. No swabs taken from the child's body were positive for blood after 13 hours or sperm/semen after 9 hours. A minority of children (23%) had genital injuries. Genital injury and a history of ejaculation provided by the child were associated with an increased likelihood of identifying forensic evidence, but several children had forensic evidence found that was unanticipated by the child's history. The general guidelines for forensic evidence collection in cases of acute sexual assault are not well-suited for prepubertal victims. The decision to collect evidence is best made by the timing of the examination. Swabbing the child's body for evidence is unnecessary after 24 hours. Clothing and

  19. Coordinated Community Efforts to Respond to Sexual Assault: A National Study of Sexual Assault Response Team Implementation.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Megan R; Campbell, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) bring together sexual assault responders (e.g., police, prosecutors, medical/forensic examiners, rape victim advocates) to coordinate and improve the response to sexual assault. Ultimately, SARTs seek to improve sexual assault victims' experiences of seeking help and sexual assault case outcomes in the criminal justice system. To date, there are hundreds of SARTs across the United States and yet, there has been no nationally representative study of how SARTs are implemented. Therefore, the current study used a multistep process to create the first sampling frame of SARTs and then studied how SARTs are structured and function within a random sample of SARTs. Findings reveal commonalities as well as variation across SARTs. Most SARTs rated improving legal outcomes, improving victims' help-seeking experiences, and prevention/education as important goals, yet most prioritized their time and energy toward victims' experiences. SARTs' membership varied, with an average of 12 organizations involved in the SART, and 75% of SARTs having active membership from police, prosecutors, rape victim advocates, and medical/forensic examiners. SARTs were moderately formalized and most SARTs engaged in most collaborative processes (e.g., multidisciplinary cross-training, case review, policy/protocol development, and review) on an as needed basis. Finally, results revealed that some types of cross-system coordination in responding to victims/cases were quite frequent, whereas other types of coordination were quite infrequent. Implications for future research and supporting the development and sustainability of SARTs are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Unit Support Protects Against Sexual Harassment and Assault among National Guard Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault following 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members’ relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Methods Participants were 1674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008-2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Results Approximately 13.2% (n=198) of men and 43.5% (n=74) of women reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% (n=17) of men and 18.8% (n=32) of women reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Higher unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. Conclusions A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Higher unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. PMID:25442705

  1. "Campus Craft": A Game for Sexual Assault Prevention in Universities.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Ekbia, Hamid R

    2015-04-01

    Sexual assault is prevalent among college students. In response, universities have implemented prevention education initiatives. These interventions, however, often ignore the broader sociocultural context in which sexual violence occurs. This calls for innovative approaches in prevention education, which address the broader context. Computer games provide such an opportunity by providing simulated real-life scenarios, nonlinear narratives, and an interactive medium. We report the development and pilot testing of "Campus Craft," a game prototype that focuses, among other things, on sexual assault prevention. The prototype was developed through a participatory design process; students, educators, and subject matter experts helped design and develop scenarios, game mechanics, and learning objectives. The prototype was evaluated by college students (n=141) in a multi-method approach. The evaluation encompassed issues of usability, game mechanics, attitudes, and learning outcomes. Findings indicated that participants rated various aspects of the game positively. Additionally, use of "Campus Craft" contributed to differences in student learning of prevention concepts between the pre- and post-test such that students scored higher on the post-test. Findings demonstrate that, on average, students learned several core concepts related to sexual consent and rape culture through gameplay. Results suggest that computer-based gaming may be a viable avenue for sexual assault prevention education. Findings demonstrate that this approach could be effective in increasing student knowledge and understanding of factors that contribute to sexual assault in college. Future research is needed to corroborate findings and better understand the feasibility of using this approach among larger samples of college students.

  2. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

  3. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Highlights from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the military. The resulting study, the RAND Military Workplace Study (RMWS), invited close to...takes a new approach to counting individuals in the military who experienced sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the...prevalence and nature of sexual harassment and gender discrimination in the military. Detailed results, including recommendations, are documented in four

  4. Genital injuries following sexual assault of women with and without prior sexual intercourse experience

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M; Stermac, L E; Divinsky, M

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The literature on sexual assault has not directly addressed the question of genital injuries in women without prior sexual intercourse experience. Given the paucity of research and the current importance of physical evidence in the criminal justice system, this study was designed to document the type and site of genital injuries from sexual assault in women without and with prior sexual intercourse experience. METHODS: The charts were reviewed of 132 women who had been sexually assaulted and had sought medical treatment at the Sexual Assault Care Centre (SACC), Women's College Hospital, Toronto, within 10 days after the assault. Half (66) of the women reported that, at the time of the assault, they had no prior sexual intercourse experience. The Sexual Assault Evidence Kit in each patient's file was reviewed to ascertain the type and location of genital injuries. Types of injuries were classified into 3 categories (nonperforating soft-tissue injuries, lacerations or current bleeding) and locations into 6 categories (labia majora and minora, posterior fourchette and introitus, hymen, vagina, cervix, and anus). RESULTS: Significantly more women without than with prior sexual intercourse experience had visible genital injuries (65.2% v. 25.8%, p < 0.01). However, of the women without prior experience, only 9.1% had hymenal perforation. Analyses of the data for only women with genital injuries indicated no difference between those without and those with prior sexual intercourse experience in the overall mean number of injured sites (1.65 and 1.47 respectively) or in the mean number of sites with nonperforating soft-tissue injuries (0.349 and 0.706), lacerations (0.953 and 0.471) and bleeding (0.279 and 0.294). INTERPRETATION: The results suggest that genital injuries are more common in women without prior sexual intercourse experience but that substantial proportions of all women, regardless of their prior sexual experience at the time of assault, will not

  5. Efficacy of a sexual assault resistance program for university women.

    PubMed

    Senn, Charlene Y; Eliasziw, Misha; Barata, Paula C; Thurston, Wilfreda E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Radtke, H Lorraine; Hobden, Karen L

    2015-06-11

    Young women attending university are at substantial risk for being sexually assaulted, primarily by male acquaintances, but effective strategies to reduce this risk remain elusive. We randomly assigned first-year female students at three universities in Canada to the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act Sexual Assault Resistance program (resistance group) or to a session providing access to brochures on sexual assault, as was common university practice (control group). The resistance program consists of four 3-hour units in which information is provided and skills are taught and practiced, with the goal of being able to assess risk from acquaintances, overcome emotional barriers in acknowledging danger, and engage in effective verbal and physical self-defense. The primary outcome was completed rape, as measured by the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Victimization, during 1 year of follow-up. A total of 451 women were assigned to the resistance group and 442 women to the control group. Of the women assigned to the resistance group, 91% attended at least three of the four units. The 1-year risk of completed rape was significantly lower in the resistance group than in the control group (5.2% vs. 9.8%; relative risk reduction, 46.3% [95% confidence interval, 6.8 to 69.1]; P=0.02). The 1-year risk of attempted rape was also significantly lower in the resistance group (3.4% vs. 9.3%, P<0.001). A rigorously designed and executed sexual assault resistance program was successful in decreasing the occurrence of rape, attempted rape, and other forms of victimization among first-year university women. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the University of Windsor; SARE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01338428.).

  6. The association between sexual assault and suicidal activity in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, Jessica L; Anderson, Laura M; Littleton, Heather L; Riley-Tillman, T Chris

    2012-06-01

    Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal behavior overall and among sexual assault victims were examined. The results supported that students with sexual assault histories were significantly more likely (odds ratio [OR]=6.4) to have reported at least one suicide attempt in the past year than students who did not report sexual assault histories. Male students with a sexual assault history reported suicide attempts requiring medical attention more frequently than male attempters without sexual assault histories, as well as both groups of female suicide attempters. Implications of the findings for suicide prevention and intervention programs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest.

    PubMed

    Boutcher, F; Gallop, R

    1996-06-01

    This descriptive, exploratory study examined psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest, and explored the relationships between these attitudes and the personal characteristics of the nurse. Contrary to previous research on nurses in nonpsychiatric settings, the nurses in this Canadian study had favorable attitudes towards sexuality and did not subscribe to attitudes of victim blaming in sexual assault/rape and incest. The strongest predictor of attitudes was age of the nurse (p < .02); cultural/ethnic background may also be associated with attitudes (p < .02). The results indicate a need to develop more precise measures of attitude for psychiatric nurses.

  8. Sexual Assault Disclosure and Sexual Functioning: The Role of Trauma Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer M; Eakins, Danielle; Neilson, Elizabeth C; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a history of adult sexual assault (ASA) is associated with negative outcomes, including trauma symptomatology and fear of sexual intimacy. Disclosing sexual assault might be protective against such negative outcomes. To examine the indirect effect of trauma symptomatology on the association between disclosing ASA and current sexual functioning. Participants included 652 women 21 to 30 years old with a history of ASA recruited from the community. Participants completed self-report measurements on a computer. Separate models were performed, with sexual functioning divided into sexual desire, orgasm, and pain during sex. ASA disclosure was indirectly associated with sexual orgasm and pain during sex by trauma symptomatology. However, there was no indirect effect of trauma symptomatology on the relation between ASA disclosure and sexual desire. Disclosing experiences of ASA could serve a protective function by lessening trauma symptomatology, thereby mitigating impacts on aspects of sexual functioning, such as orgasm and pain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Sexual Assault: Guidelines for Intervention by Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Carolyn

    This guide explains the role of educators in dealing with cases of child sexual abuse. It provides general information on the causes and consequences of the problem, suggests ways of assisting children more effectively, and explains educator's legal requirements under Washington State law for reporting child abuse. Child sexual abuse is a general…

  10. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure Among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore community interventions that promote positive recovery from substance use and sexual assault. One model that promotes successful substance use recovery is the Oxford House—a democratic, self-supported substance use recovery home. Research demonstrated that living in an Oxford House provides sober social support and that this increased social support may promote the use of positive coping strategies to strengthen recovery from substance use, however; the relationship between social support and sexual assault for women is unclear. Thus, the current study examines the Oxford House model for women in recovery from substance use who have experienced sexual assault. A cross-sectional sample of women living in Oxford Houses in the United States was obtained to examine the relationship among disclosure of sexual assault, social support, and self-esteem. Results suggested that many women used Oxford House as a setting in which to disclosure prior sexual assault. Results also indicated that women who disclosed their assault experience reported higher self-esteem and social support than women who had not disclosed. Possible implications include the value of substance abuse recovery homes as a safe, supportive environment for women to address issues related to sexual assault. PMID:22328648

  11. Psychological Consequences Associated With Positive and Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Assault Among College Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  12. DNA testing of sexual assault evidence: the laboratory perspective.

    PubMed

    Burg, Abby; Kahn, Roger; Welch, Katherine

    2011-09-01

    The availability of DNA testing has dramatically changed the way that crimes are investigated. DNA results can link offenders to their crimes, exonerate wrongfully accused individuals, identify mass fatality victims and more. In the case of sexual assault, DNA evidence alone cannot prove that a sexual assault has occurred. DNA analysis can only reveal whether a person's DNA is, or is not, present. In this paper, the authors provide readers with an overview of the advantages and limitations of DNA analysis, the importance of proper evidence collection, the technologies available, and the amount of sample needed for testing. Through proper evidence collection and quality laboratory services, the full value of DNA will be realized.

  13. Nightmare frequency in sexual assault survivors with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Barry; Schrader, Ron; Tandberg, Dan; Hollifield, Michael; Koss, Mary P; Yau, C Lillian; Cheng, Diana T

    2002-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed for frequency of nightmares, measured retrospectively on the Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire (NFQ) and prospectively on nightmare dream logs (NLOG). Retrospective frequency was extremely high, averaging occurrences every other night and an estimated number of nightmares greater than five per week. Test-retest reliability data on the NFQ yielded weighted kappa coefficients of .85 (95% CI, .74-.95) for nights and .90 (95% CI, .83-.97) for nightmares. Correlations between retrospective and prospective nightmare frequencies ranged between .53 (P = .001) for nights and .63 (P = .001) for nightmares. Correlations between frequency and distress measures (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress) yielded coefficients ranging from (r = .28-.53). Compared with intrusive, cumbersome and time-consuming prospective measurements, the NFQ appears reliable, convenient, and equally useful in assessing nightmare frequency in a group of sexual assault survivors. Nightmare frequency, prevalence, distress and impairment are discussed.

  14. Sexual Assault: A Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, William F.; Ackerman, Gary E.; Zoellner, Cindy L.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62%) were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier PMID:20706678

  15. (Missing) Knowledge About Sexual Assault Resources: Undermining Military Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2017-02-01

    In 2005, the Department of Defense reformed military sexual assault (MSA) prevention and response efforts. However, research suggests that some Service members may not be informed of MSA resources. We examined how lacking such knowledge may undermine psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress) among MSA survivors as well as Service members who feel unsafe from MSA. The data were collected by the DoD in 2010 and sampled active duty Service women and men. Experiencing MSA, feeling unsafe from MSA, and lacking knowledge of MSA resources predicted greater psychiatric symptoms. Service members who felt unsafe from MSA reported greater psychiatric symptoms as a function of lacking knowledge of MSA resources. Findings suggest that education about sexual assault resources may be critical for the protection of mental health-among survivors and nonvictims alike.

  16. Giving advice. Decision theory perspectives on sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Fischhoff, B

    1992-04-01

    What entitles us to give general advice? This general question is explored here in the specific context of providing responsible advice to women on how to make decisions about possible ways of reducing their risk of sexual assault. An approach is advanced that is a combination of decision analysis, used to provide a formal characterization of decision situations, and behavioral decision theory, used to provide a descriptive characterization of how people perceive those situations. The approach is illustrated with a set of studies using three diverse groups of women; a group of men, paralleling one of the groups of women; and a national sample of sexual assault experts. The approach is evaluated in terms of its feasibility, its strengths and weaknesses relative to alternative approaches, and its implicit position on broader political and philosophical issues.

  17. Caring for sexual assault survivors. The value of choice.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Helen

    2003-10-01

    Over the past 10 years, Helen Griffiths has been interviewing registered nurses throughout British Columbia and writing articles for Nursing BC on how these registered nurses meet RNABC's Standards for Registered Nursing Practice in their practice. For this issue, we asked Helen to write about her own practice as a registered nurse with the B.C. Women's Hospital and Health Centre Sexual Assault Service.

  18. Sexual Assaults in the Marine Corps: Really Increasing?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-11

    National Network 
 http://www.rainn.org/ Violence Against Women Online Resources 
 http://www.vaw.umn.edu Planned Parenthood 
 http...elements identified by the Sexual Assault Advisory Council for collection and for interoperability with the planned DoD Integrated SAPR Data...effect: (3) White Letters, (1) ALMAR, (12) MARADIMINS - Executive Off-Site Brief (Senior Leaders, LtGen-Gen) - DON Strategic Plan - Indoctrination

  19. Impulsivity and sexual assault in college men.

    PubMed

    Mouilso, Emily R; Calhoun, Karen S; Rosenbloom, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Although impulsivity has been consistently linked to perpetration of sexual aggression, results lack clarity because they do not account for the substantial heterogeneity associated with the construct. The UPPS-P model (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2006), which was proposed to clarify the multidimensional nature of impulsivity, has yet to be applied to sexual aggression. We measured UPPS-P Impulsivity in a sample of male college students who also self-reported on perpetration of sexual aggression. As predicted, impulsivity distinguished perpetrators from nonperpetrators. Perpetrators scored higher than non-perpetrators on Negative Urgency, Positive Urgency, and lack of Premeditation. Results suggest that the impulsivity traits most relevant to sexual aggression are the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing intense emotions (Positive and Negative Urgency) and lack of forethought and planning (lack of Premeditation).

  20. Fear of the perpetrator: a major reason why sexual assault victims delayed presenting at hospital.

    PubMed

    Adefolalu, Adegoke O

    2014-03-01

    To identify the reasons for presentation of sexual assault more than 72 h after the incidents at Newcastle Hospital, South Africa. A retrospective analysis of 534 medical records of victims seen between 2005 and 2009 at the hospital's sexual assault service centre. Overall, 219 (41%) of the victims presented at the hospital more than 72 h after the alleged sexual assault, mainly for fear of the perpetrator (37.4%). Females constituted 87%, and rape with vaginal penetration was the most common form of sexual assault reported (74%). Tests of significance showed a positive association between fear of the perpetrator and delayed presentation at hospital. Age under 9 years and being scared of what relatives would say about alleged sexual assault were also associated with delayed presentation. Attention needs to be focused on educating society on the importance of reporting sexual assault incidents promptly in order for victims to benefit from appropriate medical treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sexual assault training in the military: evaluating efforts to end the "invisible war".

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2014-12-01

    Sexual assault is an insidious problem in the United States military. In 2005 the Department of Defense (DoD) created the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office, which centralizes responsibility for sexual assault training. However, this training initiative has undergone little evaluation by outside researchers. Addressing this need, we analyzed responses from over 24,000 active duty personnel who completed the 2010 DoD Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. We assessed whether sexual assault training exposure (None, Minimal, Partial, or Comprehensive) predicted accurate knowledge of sexual assault resources and protocols. Using a social-ecological framework, we investigated whether institutional and individual factors influenced Service members' training exposure and judgment of training effectiveness. According to our results, exposure to comprehensive training predicted lower sexual assault incidence and superior knowledge. However, comprehensive training differed as a function of military branch, rank, gender, and sexual assault history. Judgments of training effectiveness also varied across these dimensions. Our results highlight the importance of considering context, gender, and victimization history when evaluating institutional efforts to end sexual violence. The DoD's 2010 annual report on military sexual assault concluded that "most Active Duty members receive effective training on sexual assault" (p. 104). Our results cast doubt on that assertion.

  2. Contextualization of Physical and Sexual Assault in Male Prisons: Incidents and Their Aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Physical and sexual assault are part of the prison experience. Approximately 21% of male inmates are physically assaulted during a 6-month period. Sexual assault is estimated at between 2% and 5%. Although prevalence evidence is growing, less is known about circumstances surrounding and resulting from these incidents. This article presents an analysis of approximately 2,200 physical and 200 sexual victimizations reported by a random sample of 6,964 male inmates. Physical injury occurred in 40% of physical assaults and 70% of sexual assaults between inmates and in 50% of assaults perpetrated by staff. Emotional reactions to assaults were experienced by virtually all victims. Context information is vital in the development and implementation of prevention and therapeutic interventions. PMID:19477812

  3. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming.

    PubMed

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month follow-up surveys assessing sexual attitudes and knowledge as well as experiences with assault. The results reinforce previous findings that Elemental is effective in reducing sexual assault risk. Program effects were both direct, in that participation was associated with lower risk of assault, and mediated, in that participation impacted attitudes and beliefs that are empirically linked to risk of later assault. By combining both primary prevention and risk reduction approaches, Elemental is not only effective at reducing incidences of assault, it is also consistent with a number of recent recommendations for directions in sexual assault prevention programming.

  4. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…

  5. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  6. Child Sexual Assault as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders among Women: A Community Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Benjamin E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Screened 391 women for a history of sexual assault during childhood and then assessed subjects for mental disorders. Results indicate that rape and molestation, but not noncontact sexual assault, increased incidents of mental disorders, suggesting that physical sexual contact leads to severe mental health effects. Other findings are discussed.…

  7. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  8. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…

  9. Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-06

    Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals R. Chuck Mason Legislative Attorney...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Sexual Assaults Under the

  10. Offering HIV prophylaxis to people who have been sexually assaulted: 16 months' experience in a sexual assault service.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, E R; Comay, S E; McGregor, M; Ducceschi, S

    2000-03-07

    The sexual assault service, operated by the Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia in partnership with the Vancouver General Hospital Emergency Department, started offering HIV prophylaxis in November 1996 to patients presenting to the emergency department after a sexual assault. In the first 16 months of the program a total of 258 people were seen by the service, of whom 71 accepted the offer of HIV prophylaxis. Only 29 continued with the drug treatment after receiving the initial 5-day starter pack, and only 8 completed the full 4-week treatment regmen and returned for their final follow-up visit. Patients at highest risk for HIV infection (those who had penetration by an assailant known to be HIV positive or at high risk for HIV infection [men who have sex with men, injection drug users]) were more likely to accept prophylaxis and more likely to complete the treatment than those at lower risk. Compliance and follow-up were the main problems with implementing this service. Service providers found it difficult to give the information about HIV prophylaxis to traumatized patients. After this program evaluation, the service changed its policy to offer HIV prophylaxis only to people at high risk of HIV infection. This targeting of services is expected to make the service providers' jobs easier and to make the program more cost-effective while still protecting sexual assault victims against HIV infection.

  11. Stifled voices: barriers to help-seeking behavior for South African childhood sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-05-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses barriers to help-seeking behaviors. Risk factors as well as relevant sociocultural, economic, structural, and psychological perceptions regarding childhood sexual assault among South African girls are also discussed. Finally, clinical implications, culturally relevant psychotherapeutic techniques, and suggestions for future research are provided in an effort to reduce the negative mental health consequences for the victims.

  12. The Role of Victim-Offender Relationship in Women's Sexual Assault Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Starzynski, Laura L.

    2006-01-01

    This study's goal is to identify differences in background, assault, and post assault factors according to the victim-offender relationship. A mail survey is conducted with more than 1,000 female sexual assault survivors (response rate 90%) recruited from college, community, and mental health agency sources. Stranger assailants are associated with…

  13. "Yes Means Yes:" A New Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention and Positive Sexuality Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    "Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…

  14. "Yes Means Yes:" A New Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention and Positive Sexuality Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    "Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…

  15. Optimistic bias, sexual assault, and fear.

    PubMed

    Chapin, John R; Pierce, Mari

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 431 adults documents optimistic bias regarding people's perceived risk of sexual victimization. The findings extend optimistic bias to crime victimization and contribute to the literature by considering a motivational factor, fear, as a predictor of optimistic bias. The study also yielded significant relationships between optimistic bias and demographic variables, including age, gender, and family structure.

  16. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert, Ed.

    These two Bulletins contain selected articles that highlight research and treatment issues in child abuse and child sexual abuse. The first issue includes the following featured articles: (1) "The Relationships between Animal Abuse and Other Forms of Family Violence" (Phil Arkow), which addresses animal cruelty as a harbinger of…

  17. The Role of Sexual Orientation in the Victimization and Recovery of Sexual Assault Survivors.

    PubMed

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ulman, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine the sexual violence victimization and recovery of nonheterosexuals. Limited available research suggests that lesbian and bisexual women are at increased risk for sexual violence and experience more recovery problems following assault than heterosexuals. We examine differences by sexual orientation in victimization, recovery, and social reactions as well as whether racial differences relate to recovery in female sexual assault survivors (N = 1,863) from the community. Bisexual women emerged as a distinct group from heterosexual women with greater recovery problems and experienced greater impact of social reactions. Black sexual minority women also had more negative outcomes than White sexual minority women. Results suggest that differences in sexual orientation and race relate to poorer recovery, especially for survivors with multiple marginalized identities.

  18. Assault Related Substance Use as a Predictor of Substance Use Over Time Within a Sample of Recent Victims of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron E.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use at time of assault is reported by a significant subgroup of rape victims. This study examined: (1) prevalence of assault related marijuana or alcohol use among women seeking post-rape medical care; (2) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power associated with reported use at time of assault in association with use in 6 weeks pre-assault, post assault use, and post-assault abuse; and (3) trajectories of use and abuse over time as a function of use in 6 weeks pre-assault/assault time frame use, exposure to brief intervention, and interaction of pre-assault/assault time frame use with intervention. Participants were 268 women seeking post sexual assault medical services completing one or more follow-up assessment at: (1) < 3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; and (3) 6 months or longer post-assault. Use of alcohol or marijuana at time of assault were fairly sensitive or specific indicators respectively, of reported use of specific substance in the 6 weeks preceding assault and use or abuse at follow-up. Growth modeling revealed that use of alcohol or marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior to assault predicted higher Time 1 follow-up alcohol and marijuana use and abuse. Although there was relatively little change in use or abuse over time, alcohol use at time of the assault or in the six weeks prior also predicted a steeper decline in alcohol use over the course of follow-up. Interestingly, women who reported using marijuana at the time of the assault or in the six weeks prior who also received a video intervention actually had lower initial marijuana use, a pattern that remained stable over time. Implications for evaluating screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services among sexual assault victims seeking post-assault medical care are discussed. PMID:22521363

  19. Assault related substance use as a predictor of substance use over time within a sample of recent victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Schumacher, Julie A; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Acierno, Ron E

    2012-08-01

    Substance use at time of assault is reported by a significant subgroup of rape victims. This study examined: (1) prevalence of assault related marijuana or alcohol use among women seeking post-rape medical care; (2) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power associated with reported use at time of assault in association with use in 6 weeks pre-assault, post-assault use, and post-assault abuse; and (3) trajectories of use and abuse over time as a function of use in 6 weeks pre-assault/assault time frame use, exposure to brief intervention, and interaction of pre-assault/assault time frame use with intervention. Participants were 268 women seeking post-sexual assault medical services completing one or more follow-up assessment at: (1) <3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; and (3) 6 months or longer post-assault. Use of alcohol or marijuana at time of assault was a fairly sensitive and specific indicator respectively, of reported use of specific substance in the 6 weeks preceding assault and use or abuse at follow-up. Growth modeling revealed that use of alcohol or marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior to assault predicted higher Time 1 follow-up alcohol and marijuana use and abuse. Although there was relatively little change in use or abuse over time, alcohol use at time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior also predicted a steeper decline in alcohol use over the course of follow-up. Interestingly, women who reported using marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior who also received a video intervention actually had lower initial marijuana use, a pattern that remained stable over time. Implications for evaluating screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services among sexual assault victims seeking post-assault medical care are discussed.

  20. Military-related sexual assault in Canada: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Kimberley; Bennett, Rachel; Zamorski, Mark A.; Richer, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most research on military-related sexual assault is based on the United States military and has important limitations, such as low response rates. We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault, assess its relation to military service and identify the circumstances, correlates and associations with mental disorders of military-related sexual assault among Canadian military personnel. Methods: We used the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional representative survey of Canadian Regular Force personnel (n = 6696). The sample was weighted to be representative of the entire Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force population in 2012 (n = 67 776), as per Statistics Canada requirements. We assessed lifetime trauma exposure and past-year mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We defined lifetime military-related sexual assault as forced sexual activity or unwanted sexual touching that occurred on deployment or in another military workplace, or was perpetrated by Department of National Defence or Canadian Armed Forces personnel. We defined all other sexual assault as non-military-related sexual assault. Results: Self-reported sexual assault was more prevalent among women (non-military-related sexual assault 24.2%, military-related sexual assault 15.5%) than men (5.9% and 0.8%, respectively). About a quarter of women with military-related sexual assault reported experiencing at least 1 event on deployment. After covariates were controlled for, military-related sexual assault was independently associated with any lifetime and any past-year mental disorder (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 and 3.0, respectively) and lifetime and past-year posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio 4.3 and 4.1, respectively). Interpretation: Canadian military women are at increased risk for sexual assault and military-related sexual assault relative to their male counterparts. Deployment may be a period of elevated

  1. Sexual assault in school, mental health and suicidal behaviors in adolescent women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Bolitho, F; Bertrand, L

    1997-01-01

    Adolescent women (N = 1,025) in grades 7 through 12 in a stratified random sample of Alberta high schools completed measures of emotional problems and suicidal behavior in the past six months, and of frequency and type of sexual assault (including sexual harassment) experienced in school. It was found that 23% has experienced at least one event of assault (sexual touching, sexual threats or remarks, or an incident of indecent exposure); 4% had "often" experienced one or more of these assaults or harassments. Those experiencing a high number of sexual assaults or harassments were significantly more likely to have clinical profiles on the measures of emotional disorder; 15% of 38 women experiencing frequent, unwanted sexual touching had "often" made suicidal gestures or attempts in the previous six months, compared with 2% of 824 women with no experience of sexual assault.

  2. Predictors of victim-perpetrator relationship stability following a sexual assault: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Kearns, Megan C; Gidycz, Christine A; Calhoun, Karen S

    2012-01-01

    The researchers assessed the predictors of victim-perpetrator relationship stability following a sexual assault. Participants included 254 women sexually assaulted by a friend, casual dating partner, or steady dating partner. Results suggested that most victim-perpetrator relationships (75%) continued following the sexual assault. Greater trauma symptomatology, less perpetrator blame, and nondisclosure of the assault by victims predicted relationship continuation with the perpetrator. Additionally, the odds of continuing the relationship were greater following acts of sexual coercion than following acts of completed rape. Close relationships (steady dating partner) were more likely to continue following the sexual assault than less close relationships (friends and casual dating partners). Unexpectedly, the odds of relationship stability were greater for women without histories of childhood sexual abuse than women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  3. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity as a Moderator of Relationship Functioning After Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Gemberling, Tess M; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Rowland S; Stroud, Caroline H; Noland, Ramona M; Graham, James

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is unfortunately common, especially among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Yet, the associations of such victimization have not yet been extensively established in the areas of sexual identity and romantic relationship functioning. Accordingly, the present study examined the associations between lifetime sexual assault, LGB identity, and romantic relationship functioning in a sample of 336 LGB individuals. A history of sexual assault was associated with attachment anxiety and several sexual identity components (i.e., higher levels of acceptance concerns, identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and identity superiority). Furthermore, an association of sexual assault and attachment avoidance was moderated by internalized homonegativity. Finally, a more secure LGB identity was associated with healthier romantic relationship functioning. Collectively, these findings are applicable to services for LGB sexual assault victims, suggesting the incorporation of treatment that bolsters LGB identity and couple functioning. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  4. Non-fatal strangulation in sexual assault: A study of clinical and assault characteristics highlighting the role of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Zilkens, Renate R; Phillips, Maureen A; Kelly, Maire C; Mukhtar, S Aqif; Semmens, James B; Smith, Debbie A

    2016-10-01

    To describe the prevalence, risk factors, signs and symptoms of non-fatal strangulation (NFS) in women referred to a Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC) following recent sexual assault. A cross-sectional study using data routinely collected at time of forensic examination of women (age ≥ 13 years) referred to the Western Australian SARC between Jan-2009 and Mar-2015 alleging a recent sexual assault. Data on demographics, assault characteristics and forensic findings were available. A total of 1064 women were included in the study; 79 (7.4%) alleged NFS during the sexual assault. The prevalence of NFS varied significantly by age-group and assailant type. Of women aged 30-39 years 15.1% gave a history of NFS compared to less than 8.2% in all other age groups. Of women assaulted by an intimate partner, 22.5% gave a history of NFS compared to less than 6% of women assaulted by other assailant types. Of all sexual assaults with NFS, intimate partners were the assailant in 58.2% of cases, whereas in sexual assault cases without NFS, intimate partners were the assailant in 15.9% of cases. Odds of NFS were 8.4 times higher in women sexually assaulted by an intimate partner compared to women assaulted by an acquaintance/friend and 4.9 times higher compared to women assaulted by a stranger. When considering both age and assailant type the highest proportion of NFS (33.9%) was in women aged 30-39 years sexually assaulted by an intimate partner. Other factors associated with NFS during sexual assault included deprivation of liberty, verbal threats, being assaulted in the woman's home and use of additional blunt force. External physical signs of NFS were absent in 49.4% of all NFS sexual assault cases. This study identifies and quantifies NFS risk factors in female sexual assault and highlights the strong association with intimate partner sexual assault. Greater awareness of NFS in sexual assault should lead to improvement in medical screening, forensic management and

  5. Dealing with Sexual Assault, Challenges, and Insights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-11

    legal, and protection services for survivors.1 – President Barack Obama , April 2012 We still have people out there who tolerate sexual...the United States Government. Biography Colonel Daryl Hood is a native of Athens, Georgia. In 1985, he enlisted as an active duty soldier. In... Obama signed the Senate (S.47) Bill, “Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013,” to take action against all perpetrators.20 Congress

  6. Care-seeking behavior by survivors of sexual assault in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Casey, Sara E; Gallagher, Meghan C; Makanda, Babou Rukengeza; Meyers, Janet L; Vinas, Mereia Cano; Austin, Judy

    2011-06-01

    In February 2008, trained female interviewers collected data on sexual violence and use of medical services following sexual assault from 607 women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Exposure to sexual violence during the DRC's civil war was reported by 17.8% of the women; 4.8% of the women reported exposure to sexual violence after the war. Few sexual-assault survivors accessed timely medical care. Facility assessments showed that this care was rarely available. Clinical care for sexual-assault survivors must be integrated into primary health care for DRC women.

  7. Processes and patterns in gay, lesbian, and bisexual sexual assault: a multimethodological assessment.

    PubMed

    Menning, Chadwick L; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2014-04-01

    Although prior research suggests that sexual minorities are at equivalent or greater risk of sexual assault compared with heterosexual women, few studies have examined simultaneously a broad array of assault types, the forms of force and pressure experienced, and the relative risks of experiencing different kinds of assault or force or pressure during an assault according to sex and sexual orientation. Moreover, very little is known about how subjective interpretations of assault may differ by sex and sexual orientation. We address these gaps using a multimethodological analysis of original survey data (N = 342) with a snowball oversample of sexual minority respondents. Quantitative results indicate that both sexual minority status and sex are predictive of increased assault risk of most assault types, but that most effects of sexual minority status are restricted to men. The probabilities of experiencing verbal pressure or physical force are largely uniform across categories. Qualitative analyses of open-ended questions suggest that men and women interpret the experience of assault differently, such that sexual minority men conceptualize their unwanted sexual experiences as "giving in" due to feelings of guilt or low self-worth, whereas women of all sexual orientations acquiesced because it was perceived to be easier or more practical than resisting. Theoretical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: Updated Findings

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Self-Brown, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape in efforts to ameliorate post assault distress. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address this problem, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1) < 3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault. PMID:17275198

  9. Sexism, Sexual Harassment, and Sexual Assault: Comparing Data from 2002 and 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    SEXISM , SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: COMPARING DATA FROM 2002 AND 2006 Dr. Richard J. Harris University of Texas at San... fighting force (Fiske & Glick, 1995; Schmidt, 1996). In turn, individuals who possess more negative attitudes toward women may be more tolerant of sexual...by others (Fitzgerald, Swan, & Fischer, 1995) Sexism Assumptions about how women and men differ with regard to work-related skills, attitudes and

  10. Internet-Initiated Sexual Assault Among U.S. Adolescents Reported in Newspapers, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    Canders, Caleb P.; Merchant, Roland C.; Pleet, Katherine; Fuerch, Janene H.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an assessment over time of the incidence of newspaper-reported Internet-initiated sexual assaults among U.S. adolescents undergoing adjudication from 1996 to 2007. Of 812 newspaper reports of adjudicated Internet-initiated sexual assault, most (79.2%) victims were female, and the median age was 14 years. The incidence rate of these reports increased over the 12-year period for females but remained steady for males. The frequency of these assaults was much less than reported for other types of sexual assaults in this age group. These estimates hopefully will assist in a greater understanding of these assaults, aid in interventions to decrease their occurrence, and guide effective policymaking that will reduce all types of sexual assault among adolescents. PMID:24283547

  11. Perceptions of similarity and responsibility attributions to an acquaintance sexual assault victim.

    PubMed

    Amacker, Amanda M; Littleton, Heather L

    2013-11-01

    Individuals view similar rape victims as less responsible for the rape than victims perceived as dissimilar. However, it is unclear if individuals hold victims they perceive as similar less responsible for the assault, or if individuals view themselves as more similar to victims they do not view as responsible for the assault. The current study, therefore, examined the temporal relationship between these constructs. A total of 167 college women listened to a date narrative that ended in sexual assault, consensual sex, or no sexual activity (these last two served as controls). Results supported that participants viewed themselves as less similar to the woman in the narrative when the date ended in sexual assault. Only similarity ratings made following learning that the woman was sexually assaulted predicted responsibility attributions suggesting that viewing a victim as responsible for the assault results in decreased perceptions of similarity toward her. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  12. An evaluation of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bradley, April R; Yeater, Elizabeth A; O'Donohue, William

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program developed for college students. Program participants (n = 177) were compared to non-program participants (n = 132) prior to the program and during a 2-week follow-up period on measures of rape myths, victim empathy, perceived negative consequences and estimated likelihood of committing rape, sexual communication, sexual assault awareness, and risky dating behavior. The prevention program was effective at increasing men's victim empathy and decreasing their adherence to rape myths but ineffective at changing women's assault-related knowledge, participation in risky dating behaviors, and sexual communication strategies. Limitations of the study and directions for future research in sexual assault prevention are addressed. Editors' Strategic Implications: This study provides an important example of the limitations of a single session prevention programming approach (even if it is well designed and executed) in addressing a systemic and pervasive problem like sexual assault on college campuses.

  13. Women's journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma: a grounded theory--part 1.

    PubMed

    Duma, S E; Mekwa, J N; Denny, L D

    2007-12-01

    Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990, 1998). A series of in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault. The substantive theory was discovered and constructed through the inductive and deductive analysis of data, grounded on the ten women's descriptions of their journey of recovery from sexual assault. The theory of women's journey of recovery that was discovered and developed consisted of eight theoretical concepts or categories. These included the following concepts: 1. Sexual assault trauma 2. Awakening 3. Pragmatic acceptance 4. Turning point 5. Reclaiming what was lost 6. Defining own landmarks of healing 7. Readiness for closure 8. Returning to self. The grounded theory of the journey of recovery from sexual assault is a contribution to the knowledge about women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. It provides a process and language for understanding women

  14. Sexual assault practice: myths and mistakes.

    PubMed

    Wells, David L

    2006-05-01

    Stories about sexual activity abound and are often the source of considerable interest and speculation. These anecdotal accounts are rarely subjected to any serious scrutiny and yet may develop folklore proportions. It is concerning that many forensic practitioners are prepared to perpetuate similar myths behind a veneer of scientific practice. Practices such as impotence or virginity testing and the interpretation of penile measurements are lucrative endeavors that remain alive and well. Similarly, court evidence on topics such as the circumstances by which genital injuries were sustained, the relationship between pubertal staging and age or the interpretation of anal findings are often less than objective. These practices are unprofessional. Further, they have the potential to cause significant harm to many individuals and to undermine the standing of the criminal justice system.

  15. Compliance in Rhode Island Emergency Departments With American Academy of Pediatrics Recommendations for Adolescent Sexual Assaults

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Roland C.; Kelly, Erin T.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Becker, Bruce M.; Duffy, Susan J.; Pugatch, David L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We assessed the offering of American Academy of Pediatrics–recommended tests and prophylaxes after sexual assault to adolescents who presented to Rhode Island emergency departments for 3 categories of sexual exposures: sexual assault, consensual sex, and suspected sexual abuse. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study entailed a retrospective review of visits for adolescent sexual exposures across 11 Rhode Island emergency departments between January 1995 and June 2001. Cases were identified through billing codes. Offering of each test and prophylaxis was compared by gender, category of sexual exposure, and type of sexual assault. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with the offering of a greater number of tests and prophylaxes after sexual assault. RESULTS The vast majority of emergency department visits for adolescent sexual exposures were by sexually assaulted girls (82.5%). Across the 3 sexual exposure categories, girls were offered tests and prophylaxes more often than boys (eg, chlamydia or gonorrhea testing and prophylaxis). Among sexually assaulted adolescents, 32.8% of girls and no boys were offered all recommended tests and prophylaxes. The multivariable linear regression found that vaginally and/or anally assaulted girls were offered, on average, 2.5 more tests and prophylaxes than patients with other types of sexual assaults. Girls presenting for care at the state’s women’s health care specialty hospital emergency departments were offered 1.7 more tests and prophylaxes than those evaluated in general hospital emergency departments. CONCLUSIONS Many adolescents did not receive American Academy of Pediatrics–recommended tests and prophylaxes after sexual assault. Boys received fewer tests than girls. Testing and prophylaxis varied by type of emergency department. Efforts are needed to improve and standardize emergency department medical management of adolescent sexual exposures. PMID:18519469

  16. 2014 Department of Defense Report of Focus Groups on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    report presents findings from the 2014 Focus Groups onSexual Assault Prevention and Response (2014 FGSAPR) study, which collected qualitative feedback ...Assault Prevention and Response (2014 FGSAPR) study, which collected qualitative feedback from military members through focus groups using trained...addressing issues of sexual assault as part of the effort to understand issues and provide constructive feedback to senior DoD leadership. The

  17. Resiliency factors in the relation between childhood sexual abuse and adulthood sexual assault in college-age women.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A

    2007-01-01

    Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy, locus of control (LOC), and coping styles. Sexual assault was categorized as forced or coerced assault based on the tactics used by the perpetrator. Results indicated that CSA alone was the strongest independent predictor of forced adult assault; however, LOC and positive coping were associated with resiliency to coercive sexual assault. The current findings have clinical implications in that LOC and coping styles are characteristics that can be enhanced through therapy.

  18. Legal changes towards justice for sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, N

    2010-01-01

    The crime of rape is a major problem in India, evident from the reports in the press as well as official statistics. The accused has often gone free, because the victim did not file a complaint, or because of poor evidence gathering and well as lacunae in the law. This paper presents an overview of the laws applicable to sexual assault cases and amendments in these laws, specifically in terms of the roles and responsibilities of healthcare providers to bridge the gap in providing medical evidence to the courts.

  19. Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, L; Brown, C R; Crowley, S; Peck, R

    1997-03-01

    New colposcopic protocols for US forensic examiners enable documentation of genital trauma in 87-92% of rape victims--a significant improvement over protocols based on gross visualization or toluidine blue dye enhancement. It remains unresearched, however, whether colposcopic genital findings in sexual assault victims differ substantially from those in women who have had consensual intercourse. Thus, the type, extent, and distribution of genital injuries observed through colposcopy in 311 rape victims seen by the San Luis Obispo (California) County's Suspected Abuse Response Team in 1985-93 were compared to genital changes in 75 healthy women who had engaged in consensual intercourse in the past 24 hours. 213 assault victims (68%) had evidence of anogenital trauma. Among the 178 women (57%) with nongenital trauma, 132 (74%) also had genital injury (tears, ecchymoses, abrasions, redness, and swelling). The most common trauma site was the posterior fourchette (70%). Examination findings were significantly greater at 24 hours after rape than at 72 hours or more, but almost half the women seen at 72 hours or more after assault had positive genital findings. The injury pattern was not affected by age. In the consensual sex group, trauma was noted in eight women (11%). The proportion with genital injury was significantly higher for women reporting nonconsensual sex than those reporting consensual sex.

  20. Listening to mental health workers' experiences: factors influencing their work with women who disclose sexual assault.

    PubMed

    McLindon, Elizabeth; Harms, Louise

    2011-02-01

    Women are overrepresented within mental health service-use statistics, and a disproportionate number of them have experienced sexual assault. While mental health workers are often the first point of contact between these women and the mental health system, within the research to date, women have often reported a negative experience of disclosing sexual assault to these workers. This article presents findings from an exploratory Australian study. The aim of the study was to explore factors that influenced how mental health Crisis Assessment and Treatment Service (CATS) workers respond to women who disclose sexual assault in crisis service settings. Fifteen CATS workers were surveyed and the predominantly qualitative data were then analysed using thematic analysis. This article presents two key findings: (i) the majority of participants had not experienced adequate sexual assault training, and seven of the 15 did not feel well equipped to respond to a disclosure of sexual assault; and (ii) they rarely consulted or referred women to specialist sexual assault services, despite recognizing the significant impact of sexual assault on mental health functioning. Recommendations are made for training and increased communication between mental health and sexual assault service systems to ensure better outcomes for women.

  1. The Influence of Stereotypical Beliefs, Participant Gender, and Survivor Weight on Sexual Assault Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Allyson K.; Stermac, Lana

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance, and antifat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, a community sample of 413 adult Canadian residents reviewed a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed a series of evaluations and attitudinal…

  2. Walking the Woods: The Lived Experience of Sexual Assault Survival for Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan-Kreishman, Mollie M.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sexual assault survival for women in college. Through a grounding in the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology (Gadamer, 1960/2000; Heidegger, 1927/1962, 1968, 1928/1998, 1971/2001, 1950/2002), this work uncovers the lives of six sexual assault survivors who lived through rape during…

  3. The Influence of Stereotypical Beliefs, Participant Gender, and Survivor Weight on Sexual Assault Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Allyson K.; Stermac, Lana

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance, and antifat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, a community sample of 413 adult Canadian residents reviewed a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed a series of evaluations and attitudinal…

  4. Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…

  5. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  6. Walking the Woods: The Lived Experience of Sexual Assault Survival for Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan-Kreishman, Mollie M.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sexual assault survival for women in college. Through a grounding in the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology (Gadamer, 1960/2000; Heidegger, 1927/1962, 1968, 1928/1998, 1971/2001, 1950/2002), this work uncovers the lives of six sexual assault survivors who lived through rape during…

  7. 78 FR 21715 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...This rule implements policy, assigns responsibilities, and provides guidance and procedures for the SAPR Program; establishes the processes and procedures for the Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) Kit; establishes the multidisciplinary Case Management Group (CMG) and provides guidance on how to handle sexual assault; establishes SAPR minimum program standards, SAPR training......

  8. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Tactics: Associations with Their Personal Characteristics and Aspects of the Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    Past theory and empirical research have consistently associated a number of risk factors with sexual assault perpetration. This study extends past research by considering if the tactics which perpetrators use to obtain sex are associated with these risk factors or with characteristics of the sexual assault. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews…

  9. Correlates of Postassault Self-Defense/Assertiveness Training Participation for Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecklin, Leanne R.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    Past research has shown that self-defense/assertiveness training may have positive implications for sexual assault survivors. However, little is known about the correlates of self-defense/assertiveness training participation for sexually victimized women. In this study we examined the assault characteristics and experiences that relate to women's…

  10. How Does It End? Women Project the Outcome of a Sexual Assault Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Content and thematic analyses were used to examine women's written responses to a hypothetical attempted sexual assault. A community sample (N=371) participated in an experiment examining the effects of alcohol on sexual assault resistance. Women received a high-dose alcohol, low-dose alcohol, placebo, or control beverage and then projected…

  11. 75 FR 30002 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military... terminating the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services, effective June 1, 2010. FOR...

  12. 32 CFR 105.17 - Sexual assault offense-investigation disposition descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... against the subject may include court-martial charge preferral, Article 15 UCMJ punishment, nonjudicial... seriousness. For each offender, any court-martial sentence and non-judicial punishment administered by... sexual assault offense. (i) Court-martial charges preferred (initiated) for sexual assault offense....

  13. 32 CFR 105.17 - Sexual assault offense-investigation disposition descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... against the subject may include court-martial charge preferral, Article 15 UCMJ punishment, nonjudicial... seriousness. For each offender, any court-martial sentence and non-judicial punishment administered by... sexual assault offense. (i) Court-martial charges preferred (initiated) for sexual assault offense....

  14. Barriers to care for sexual assault survivors of childbearing age: An integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that only a small fraction of sexual assault survivors seek comprehensive care afterward, including physical and mental health care, forensic evidence collection, victim services, and legal support. This integrative review was conducted to identify barriers that may be keeping sexual assault survivors of childbearing age from receiving such comprehensive care. PMID:25664329

  15. The Roles of Victim and Offender Substance Use in Sexual Assault Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecklin, Leanne R.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of victim and offender preassault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults…

  16. A Research Report for Adults Who Work with Teenagers. Facts about Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageton, Suzanne S.

    This report on sexual assault was written for adults who work with adolescents. It contains data on teenage sexual assault from the National Youth Survey (NYS), a survey of a nationally representative sample of approximately 1,700 youths who were between 11 and 17 years old at the time of the project's initial interview and who were interviewed…

  17. Latent Profiles among Sexual Assault Survivors: Implications for Defensive Coping and Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    Rape resistance trainings need to prepare women to recognize and resist sexual assault across a range of experiences and contexts. To help address this need, this research used an investigation of 415 college women who completed a survey about their situational responding to an experience of acquaintance sexual assault. A previously established…

  18. The Sexual Assault of Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…

  19. Spirituality and Well-Being: The Relationship between Religious Coping and Recovery from Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…

  20. How Does It End? Women Project the Outcome of a Sexual Assault Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Content and thematic analyses were used to examine women's written responses to a hypothetical attempted sexual assault. A community sample (N=371) participated in an experiment examining the effects of alcohol on sexual assault resistance. Women received a high-dose alcohol, low-dose alcohol, placebo, or control beverage and then projected…

  1. Latent Profiles among Sexual Assault Survivors: Implications for Defensive Coping and Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    Rape resistance trainings need to prepare women to recognize and resist sexual assault across a range of experiences and contexts. To help address this need, this research used an investigation of 415 college women who completed a survey about their situational responding to an experience of acquaintance sexual assault. A previously established…

  2. Spirituality and Well-Being: The Relationship between Religious Coping and Recovery from Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…

  3. 32 CFR 105.15 - Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID... Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID). (a) Purpose. (1) In accordance with section 563 of Public Law... activities. It shall serve as a centralized, case-level database for the collection and maintenance...

  4. 32 CFR 105.15 - Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID... Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID). (a) Purpose. (1) In accordance with section 563 of Public Law... activities. It shall serve as a centralized, case-level database for the collection and maintenance...

  5. 32 CFR 105.13 - Case management for Unrestricted Reports of sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sexual assaults are entered into DSAID or a DSAID Service interface system within 48 hours of the report... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Case management for Unrestricted Reports of....13 Case management for Unrestricted Reports of sexual assault. (a) General. (1) The...

  6. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Tactics: Associations with Their Personal Characteristics and Aspects of the Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    Past theory and empirical research have consistently associated a number of risk factors with sexual assault perpetration. This study extends past research by considering if the tactics which perpetrators use to obtain sex are associated with these risk factors or with characteristics of the sexual assault. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews…

  7. Trends and patterns of sexual assaults in Lagos south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Adesolamusa, Zaidat; David, Agatha Nkiru; Wapmuk, Agatha Eileen; Gbajabiamila, Titilola Abike; Eugeniaidigbe, Ifeoma; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Ohihoin, Aigbe Greg; Ujah, Innocent Achanya Otobo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is a severely traumatic experience that disproportionally affects women and girls. Yet there is limited information on the subject in our environment. This study was conducted to determine the trend and pattern of sexual assault among Nigerians. Methods A retrospective study of sexual assault victims managed at a large clinic in south west Nigeria. Victims were identified from the programme data base and case files retrieved from medical records department. Relevant information was extracted and managed with SPSS for windows version 19. Results Steady increase in the proportion of reported cases of sexual violence over the years (P < 0.0001) was observed. Sexual assaults were recorded among the males (6.1%), although female victims were in the majority (93.9%). Sexual assault was found to be higher in person’s <20 years and the unmarried. Most sexual assault occurred during the day time. Assailants were mostly persons known to the victim (52.0%) and the assault occurred mostly in the assailants’ house or office (48.5%). Sexual assault through vaginal route only (87.2%) was the most common route of sexual assault. Threat of violence (31.1%) and physical force (29.6%) was the common methods for overcoming the victims. Follow up was completed by 75.0% of the victims. Conclusion Sexual assault is common in our environment, with increasing prevalence and change in pattern. Young persons aged less than 20 years constitutes the majority of victims and assailants were mostly persons known to them. The current public education on the evils of sexual violence should be intensified. PMID:27800114

  8. Military Personnel: DOD Needs to Take Further Actions to Prevent Sexual Assault During Initial Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    sexual assaults within the military still go unreported. Based on the results of a DOD 2012 survey of active duty servicemembers, DOD estimated that...about 26,000 active duty 2Department of Defense, Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military: Fiscal Year 2013 (Apr. 22...to estimate the past year prevalence of unwanted sexual contact among active duty servicemembers. Although the survey term “unwanted sexual contact

  9. Plan to Prevent and Respond to Sexual Assault of Military Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    women, men are more likely to experience acts of sexual assault, which can include elements of hazing/ bullying meant to humiliate or degrade the...includes male-specific scenarios and information about sexual assault disguised as hazing, bullying , and other abusive and/or humiliating acts in their...involve sexually abusive and humiliating acts like hazing and bullying (sources: RMWS and RSP). As discussed above, some men who experience sexual

  10. Female Sexual Victimization Among College Students: Assault Severity, Health Risk Behaviors, and Sexual Functioning.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hassija, Christina M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between college women's sexual victimization experiences, health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. A sample of 309 college women at a mid-sized Midwestern university completed measures assessing sexual victimization, sexual risk taking, substance use behaviors, sexual desire, sexual functioning, prior sexual experiences, and social desirability. Severity of sexual victimization was measured using a multi-item, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure, which was divided into four categories based on severity (none, sexual contact, sexual coercion, rape). Within the sample, 72.8% (n = 225) of women reported at least one experience of sexual victimization since age 16. Results from MANCOVAs and a multinomial logistic regression, controlling for social desirability and prior sexual experience, revealed that sexual victimization among female students was related to increased drug use, problematic drinking behaviors, sexual risk taking, sexual dysfunction, and dyadic sexual desire. In addition, findings indicated that women exposed to more severe forms of sexual victimization (i.e., rape) were most likely to report these risk-taking behaviors and sexual functioning issues. Implications for sexual assault risk reduction programming and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Campus Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review of Prevalence Research From 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Fedina, Lisa; Holmes, Jennifer Lynne; Backes, Bethany L

    2016-02-22

    Sexual assault is a pervasive problem on university and college campuses in the United States that has garnered growing national attention, particularly in the past year. This is the first study to systematically review and synthesize prevalence findings from studies on campus sexual assault (CSA) published since 2000 (n = 34). The range of prevalence findings for specific forms of sexual victimization on college campuses (i.e., forcible rape, unwanted sexual contact, incapacitated rape, sexual coercion, and studies' broad definitions of CSA/rape) is provided, and methodological strengths and limitations in the empirical body of research on CSA are discussed. Prevalence findings, research design, methodology, sampling techniques, and measures, including the forms of sexual victimization measured, are presented and evaluated across studies. Findings suggest that unwanted sexual contact appears to be most prevalent on college campuses, including sexual coercion, followed by incapacitated rape, and completed or attempted forcible rape. Additionally, several studies measured broad constructs of sexual assault that typically include combined forms of college-based sexual victimization (i.e., forcible completed or attempted rape, unwanted sexual contact, and/or sexual coercion). Extensive variability exists within findings for each type of sexual victimization measured, including those that broadly measure sexual assault, which is largely explained by differences in sampling strategies and overall study designs as well as measures of sexual assault used in studies. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research on the prevalence of college-based sexual victimization are provided.

  12. The Sexual Assault and Secondary Victimization of Female Veterans: Help-Seeking Experiences with Military and Civilian Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Raja, Sheela

    2005-01-01

    A sample of predominantly low-income, African American female veterans and reservists seeking health care in a Veterans' Administration medical clinic was screened for a history of sexual assault since age 18. Overall, 39% had been sexually assaulted in adulthood. Those who had been sexually victimized were asked to describe one assault incident…

  13. 78 FR 53429 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Floor, Washington, DC 20001. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United States Code (article 120 of the...

  14. 78 FR 63454 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory... Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Panel'') will be held November 7-8, 2013. The Public Session will...

  15. The Sexual Assault and Secondary Victimization of Female Veterans: Help-Seeking Experiences with Military and Civilian Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Raja, Sheela

    2005-01-01

    A sample of predominantly low-income, African American female veterans and reservists seeking health care in a Veterans' Administration medical clinic was screened for a history of sexual assault since age 18. Overall, 39% had been sexually assaulted in adulthood. Those who had been sexually victimized were asked to describe one assault incident…

  16. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  17. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program procedures. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-04-11

    This rule implements policy, assigns responsibilities, and provides guidance and procedures for the SAPR Program; establishes the processes and procedures for the Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) Kit; establishes the multidisciplinary Case Management Group (CMG) and provides guidance on how to handle sexual assault; establishes SAPR minimum program standards, SAPR training requirements, and SAPR requirements for the DoD Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military. The Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) program continues to evolve, and the Department is committed to incorporating best practices and Congressional requirements to ensure that sexual assault victims receive the services they need. As part of this commitment and in addition to the Interim Final Rule, the Department is exploring the feasibility and advisability of extending the Restricted Reporting option to DoD civilians and contractors serving overseas.

  18. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.

  19. Prior Substance Abuse and Related Treatment History Reported by Recent Victims of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174

  20. Analysis of 756 cases of sexual assault in Tours (France): medico-legal findings and judicial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Saint-Martin, Pauline; Bouyssy, Marie; O'Byrne, Patrick

    2007-10-01

    We describe the medico-legal findings in a population of sexual assault cases assessed in an urban French referral centre, analyse the subsequent legal dispositions in each case and determine whether the characteristics of the assault and the medico-legal findings were associated with conviction of the assailant. We performed a retrospective study of medicolegal reports in all the sexual assault cases reported in Tours (France) during a seven-year period. We defined two groups of victims: children under 15 years old and victims aged 15 years or more. Legal outcomes were obtained from courtroom proceedings. The relationship between the outcomes and the circumstances of the case was analyzed by logistic regression. We enrolled a total of 756 cases during the study period. The mean age of the study population was 16.5 years and 68.3% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. In 57% of these cases, the assailant was a family member. 31.7% of all the victims were aged 15 years or more. The assailant was an acquaintance of the victim in 62.2% of the cases. Drug-facilitated assault was suspected in 2.9% of the cases. In 46.2% of the cases, formal criminal charges were not filed due to insufficient evidence; 36.3% of the assailants were convicted. Examination at the request of the police authorities and previous acquaintance of the assailant by the victim were significantly associated with conviction. Allegations of penetration, the presence of general body trauma and the presence of genital trauma were not necessarily associated with conviction. Medical examiners need to be circumspect when they record non-medical variables. Physical evidence of trauma was neither predictive nor essential for conviction. Successful prosecution depends on the quality of the testimony provided by the victim.

  1. Psychological Outcomes After a Sexual Assault Video Intervention: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process.

  2. Prediction of sexual assault experiences in college women based on rape scripts: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Probst, Danielle R; Irvin, Clinton R; Chau, Minna; Gidycz, Christine A

    2009-04-01

    Although script theory has been applied to sexual assault (e.g., H. Frith & C. Kitzinger, 2001; A. S. Kahn, V. A. Andreoli Mathie, & C. Torgler, 1994), women's scripts of rape have not been examined in relation to predicting sexual victimization experiences. The purpose of the current study was to examine how elements of women's sexual assault scripts predicted their sexual assault experiences over a follow-up period. The authors used data from a baseline and follow-up session for 339 undergraduate women. The results suggest that women who constructed narratives containing certain elements were more likely to report a sexual assault over the academic quarter. Specifically, narratives containing the woman utilizing nonforceful resistance, the woman having less control over the outcome of the situation, the assault happening outdoors, the assault being more severe, and the woman having known the perpetrator less time were predictive of reported sexual victimization over the 8-week follow-up period. Additionally, having a history of adolescent sexual victimization was also predictive of reported sexual victimization over the quarter. These findings have important implications in sexual assault risk-reduction programming, which are discussed.

  3. Longitudinal research with sexual assault survivors: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M

    2011-02-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the occurrence of sexual victimization throughout the lifespan and/or the process of change during rape recovery (N = 32 projects). Five questions were examined: (a) What were the substantive foci of these longitudinal studies? (b) How were survivors recruited? (c) What participation rates were typical? (d) How long were participants followed over time and with what success rates? and (e) What incentives were used to increase participation? Most studies focused on postassault sequelae and recruited survivors from hospital emergency departments and other first-response help-seeking sites with highly variable participation rates. Retention rates were comparable across studies (approximately 70%).

  4. Screening analysis for medicinal drugs and drugs of abuse in whole blood using ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS)--toxicological findings in cases of alleged sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Birkler, Rune Isak Dupont; Telving, Rasmus; Ingemann-Hansen, Ole; Charles, Annie Vesterby; Johannsen, Mogens; Andreasen, Mette Findal

    2012-10-10

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) method for simultaneous screening of 46 medicinal drugs and drugs of abuse in whole blood was developed and validated. The method includes most of the commonly used and abused drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and opioids. Chromatographic separation of the targeted drugs was achieved using a Waters ACQUITY UPLC coupled to a Waters Micromass LCT Premier XE time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The total chromatographic run time was 13.5 min injection to injection. The estimated method LOQ is in the range of 0.06-27 ng/g, which is below the therapeutic levels for each of the drugs analyzed but LSD. The extraction recovery ranged from 6% to 197% with median value 95% and mean value 82%. Matrix effect ranged from 81% suppression to 29% enhancement of the signals compared to signals obtained in the absence of biological matrix. The method was tested on 55 authentic forensic toxicology samples confirming the same positive results as found using the routine analytical procedures as well as some additional compounds. Recently there has been considerable attention paid to drug-facilitated sexual assault and the toxicological findings in these cases. As part of a pilot study to investigate the prevalence of medicinal drugs, drugs of abuse, and alcohol in victims of alleged sexual assault, biological specimens were obtained from 167 victims being examined at the Sexual Assault Center in Aarhus, Denmark. The obtained blood samples were analyzed using the novel screening method supported by additional analyses for e.g. THC and alcohol. 124 victims reported they have been drinking alcohol prior to the assault (74%). Alcohol analyses revealed 59 positive findings (48%). 35 of the cases were found positive for one or more drugs excluding alcohol (21%). 20 of the victims reported they have been subject to a drug-facilitated sexual assault (12%). For the victims suspecting drug-facilitated

  5. An audit on the management of female victims of sexual assault attending a genitourinary medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Das, Satyajit; Huengsberg, Mia

    2004-07-01

    The victims of sexual assault may attend GUM clinic without any referral from any other agency. The management of these cases need special care. We audited the management of females who were known to us as victims of sexual assault. In 15 months, 68 females attended our clinic. All were screened for sexually transmitted infections (STI). Emergency contraception was offered to only 38.4% at risk cases, and formal counselling support was offered to only 25% cases. Further care is necessary to improve counselling support and offering emergency contraception to the victims of sexual assault.

  6. Relationship Type and Sexual Precedence: Their Associations With Characteristics of Sexual Assault Perpetrators and Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Although most sexual assaults are committed by men who know their victims, few researchers have considered how characteristics of perpetrators and incidents differ depending on the victim–perpetrator relationship. This study addresses this gap with a community sample of 204 men who reported committing a sexually aggressive act in an audio computer-assisted self-interview. 2 (Relationship Type: Committed vs. Casual) × 2 (Sexual Precedence: Yes vs. No) ANOVAs revealed significant main effects of relationship type and sexual precedence associated with individual difference and incident characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of developing theories and prevention programs tailored for different relationship contexts. PMID:25288595

  7. Relationship type and sexual precedence: their associations with characteristics of sexual assault perpetrators and incidents.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Abbey, Antonia

    2014-11-01

    Although most sexual assaults are committed by men who know their victims, few researchers have considered how characteristics of perpetrators and incidents differ depending on the victim-perpetrator relationship. This study addresses this gap with a community sample of 204 men who reported committing a sexually aggressive act in an audio computer-assisted self-interview. 2 (Relationship Type: Committed vs. Casual) × 2 (Sexual Precedence: Yes vs. No) ANOVAs revealed significant main effects of relationship type and sexual precedence associated with individual difference and incident characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of developing theories and prevention programs tailored for different relationship contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The roles of victim and offender substance use in sexual assault outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brecklin, Leanne R; Ullman, Sarah E

    2010-08-01

    The impact of victim and offender preassault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults involving offender substance use (regardless of whether or not the victim was also using substances). Offender use of physical force and verbal threats were also related to greater odds of completed rape and injury, and force was associated with medical attention seeking. Based on this study, rape prevention programs should target men and focus on the role of substance use in sexual assault. These prevention programs should incorporate information on the roles of offender and victim substance use, offender aggression, and other situational factors in sexual assault outcomes. Study limitations and suggestions for future research on the role of victim and offender substance use in rape incidents are presented.

  9. "There Were Rapes!": Sexual Assaults of African American Women and Children in Jim Crow.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Miller, Ruth; Picca, Leslie H

    2016-07-03

    Using data from 92 interviews, this article examines the narratives of African Americans' experiences as children and young adults during Jim Crow in the Southeast and Southwest. It gives voice to the realities of sexual assaults committed by ordinary White men who systematically terrorized African American families with impunity after the post-Reconstruction south until the 1960s. The interviewees discuss the short- and long-term impact of physical, mental, emotional, and sexual assaults in their communities. We discuss the top four prevalent themes that emerged related to sexual assault, specifically (a) the normalization of sexual assaults, (b) protective measures to avoid White violence, (c) the morality of African American women, and (d) the long-term consequences of assaults on children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Canadian Sports and Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard

    Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…

  11. Examining cultural, social, and self-related aspects of stigma in relation to sexual assault and trauma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy

    2015-05-01

    The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences.

  12. Sexual assault and rape perpetration by college men: the role of the big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Voller, Emily K; Long, Patricia J

    2010-03-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness when compared to both sexual assault perpetrators and nonperpetrators, and lower levels of Extraversion when compared to nonperpetrators. Rape perpetrators also endorsed lower levels of tendermindedness, excitement-seeking, warmth, positive emotions, feelings, altruism, competence, and dutifulness, and higher levels of vulnerability. Contrary to expectation, overall personality profiles followed remarkably comparable patterns for sexual assault and nonperpetrators, suggesting that sexual assault perpetrators were more similar to nonperpetrators than to rape perpetrators. Findings suggest that individuals who perpetrate sexual offenses, particularly rape, differ from nonperpetrators on dimensions of normal personality. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  13. Self-Reported Sexual Assault in Convicted Sex Offenders and Community Men

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A.; Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically-comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation towards sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23262829

  14. Self-reported sexual assault in convicted sex offenders and community men.

    PubMed

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M

    2013-05-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.

  15. The influence of running away on the risk of female sexual assault in the subsequent year.

    PubMed

    Thrane, Lisa E; Yoder, Kevin A; Chen, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the sexual risk trajectories of female youths and sheds light on the long-term effects of running away. It evaluates whether running away increases the risk of sexual assault in the following year, which is after runaways return home. The sample consists of 5,387 heterosexual females between the ages of 11 and 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Nearly one quarter (23%) of runaways report a previous sexual assault in contrast to 5% of nonrunaways. In a logistic regression model, childhood neglect increases the risk of sexual assault between Waves 1 and 2 by nearly two times. Poor mental health is statistically significant. Alcohol use doubles the odds of sexual assault. The risk of sexual assault is approximately three-fold for girls with a history of sexual onset and sexual touching in a romantic relationship. Running away increases the risk by nearly two and a half times. There is evidence that alcohol use and sexual onset partially mediates the relationship between running away and sexual assault.

  16. Sexual assault in childhood: risk HIV and AIDS behaviours in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gwandure, C

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that sexual assault in childhood is a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control in adulthood. It comprised 40 participants who were survivors of child sexual abuse and 40 participants who were not sexually abused. The sample had 20 sexually abused men, 20 non sexually abused men, 20 sexually abused women and 20 non sexually abused women. The group that had men and women who had a history of sexual assault reported higher HIV and AIDS risk behaviours than the non-abused comparison group. The survivors of sexual assault also had higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide ideation and external locus of control. They reported low self-esteem. This unhealthy psychological functioning was found to be a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control. Implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Bystander's willingness to report theft, physical assault, and sexual assault: the impact of gender, anonymity, and relationship with the offender.

    PubMed

    Nicksa, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    This research examines bystander willingness to report three different crimes to the police or campus authorities among a college student sample (n = 295). Twelve original vignettes varied anonymity when reporting, bystander's relationship with the offender (friend or stranger), and crime type. A factorial analysis of variance showed that main effects were found for crime type, bystander's gender, and bystander's relationship with the offender; anonymity was not significant. The physical assault was the most likely to be reported (4.47), followed by theft (3.26), and sexual assault (2.36). Women were more likely than men to report each crime type, and bystanders who were good friends of the offender were less likely to report than strangers. No two- or three-way interactions were significant, but a significant four-way interaction indicated that anonymity, relationship with the offender, and bystander's gender predicted willingness to report for the sexual assault scenario.

  18. Functional correlates of military sexual assault in male veterans.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; Hibberd, Rachel; Wagner, H Ryan; Turchik, Jessica A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Wong, Madrianne; Elbogen, Eric E; Strauss, Jennifer L; Brancu, Mira

    2015-11-01

    Despite research findings that similar numbers of male and female veterans are affected by military sexual trauma (MST), there has been considerably less research on the effects of MST specific to male veterans. The aim of the present study was to provide preliminary data describing functional correlates of military sexual assault (MSA) among male Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans to identify potential health care needs for this population. We evaluated the following functional correlates: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression symptoms, alcohol use, drug use, suicidality, social support, violent behavior in the past 30 days, incarceration, disability eligibility status, and use of outpatient mental health treatment. We compared 3 groups: (a) male veterans who endorsed a history of MSA (n = 39), (b) a general non-MSA sample (n = 2,003), and (c) a matched non-MSA sample (n = 39) identified by matching algorithms on the basis of factors (e.g., age, education, adult premilitary sexual trauma history, childhood sexual and physical trauma history, and race) that could increase veterans' vulnerability to the functional correlates examined. MSA in men was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity, greater depression symptom severity, higher suicidality, and higher outpatient mental health treatment, above and beyond the effects of vulnerability factors. These findings suggest that, for male veterans, MSA may result in a severe and enduring overall symptom profile requiring ongoing clinical management. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Risk among College Women at High Risk for Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290

  20. A randomized controlled trial targeting alcohol use and sexual assault risk among college women at high risk for victimization.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H

    2015-11-01

    Sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowing a sexual assault victim or perpetrator: a stratified random sample of undergraduates at one university.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Susan B; Joshi, Manisha; Sivitz, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Rape awareness and prevention programs are common on college campuses and a potentially useful way to reach large numbers of young adults. One largely unexamined potential mediator or moderator of program effectiveness is the personal knowledge of student audiences. In this study, we assess the prevalence of knowing a victim and, notably, a perpetrator of sexual assault. A stratified random sample of 2,400 undergraduates was recruited for an online survey about sexual assault. A total of 53.5% participated and yielded a sample representative of the student body. Sixteen questions were modified from the Sexual Experiences Survey to assess whether participants knew a victim of any one of eight types of sexual assault. Findings indicate that students begin college with considerable personal knowledge of sexual assault victimization and perpetration. Nearly two thirds (64.5%) reported that they know one or more women who were a victim of any one of eight types of sexual assault, and over half (52.4%) reported that they know one or more men who perpetrated any of the types of sexual assault. Most students reported knowing victims and perpetrators of multiple types of assault. Knowledge varied substantially by gender and ethnicity. Students' preexisting personal knowledge should be included in assessments of program effectiveness and, ideally, in program design.

  2. Sexual assaulters in the United States: prevalence and psychiatric correlates in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; Le Strat, Yann; Schuster, Jean-Pierre; Limosin, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    This study presents sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric correlates of a representative sample of sexual assaulters in the United States. Data were drawn from a nationally representative survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Face-to-face interviews of more than 43,000 adults were conducted between the 2001-2002 period, based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. The prevalence of committing sexual assault in the U.S. was 0.15 %. Sexual assaulters had significantly lower education than their counterparts. Sexual assaulters were significantly more likely to report a wide range of antisocial behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated strong associations between sexual assault and lifetime psychiatric disorders often associated with impaired impulse control, such as antisocial personality disorder, conduct disorder, and cocaine use disorder. In addition, psychotic disorders were consistently associated with sexual assault. Our findings indicate that sexual assault could represent a behavioral manifestation of a broader spectrum, including impairment of impulse control and psychotic disorders.

  3. Men’s Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21–35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of alcohol prior to these acts, and their use of condoms during acts involving penetration. Descriptive statistics and, Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine the simultaneous use of alcohol and condom non-use during penetrative sexual assault acts. Over one-third of the respondents reported at least one penetrative sexual assault perpetration 35.6% (n = 79). Condoms were not used in 70.0% of penetrative sexual assaults. When they had consumed alcohol, perpetrators were significantly less likely to use condoms. The sexual assaults reported by this sample typically consisted of perpetrator alcohol consumption and the non-use of condoms. Programs targeting sexual health and assault risk reduction would be enhanced by addressing this interplay of alcohol, violence, and risk. PMID:22491222

  4. Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The sexual assault of undergraduate women at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher P; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H; Crosby, Carmen M; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-12-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate women at HBCUs and make comparisons to data collected from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs. Data on sexual assault victimization were collected from 3,951 undergraduate women at HBCUs using a cross-sectional, web-based survey. These data are compared to data collected from 5,446 undergraduate women at non-HBCUs using the same research methods. Findings indicate that approximately 9.7% of undergraduate women at HBCUs report experiencing a completed sexual assault since entering college. This rate is considerably lower than the comparable rate obtained from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs (13.7%). This difference seems to be associated with differences in alcohol-use frequency. Perhaps undergraduate women at HBCUs drink alcohol much less frequently and are thus less likely to be sexually assaulted when they are incapacitated and unable to provide consent. Alcohol use frequency, while controlling for other factors, seems to have an independent association with the likelihood of an undergraduate woman being sexually assaulted. Implications for the creation and delivery of sexual assault risk reduction and prevention policies and programs are discussed.

  6. Characteristics and health consequences of adolescent sexual assault at Police General Hospital, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suthapom, Sutham; Teerapong, Seree; Aojanepong, Tepchongchit; Sangviroon, Alisara; Napakorn, Kitinapa; Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn

    2014-12-01

    To describe the characteristic and epidemiology ofadolescent sexual assaults and to compare health consequences between adolescent and adult victims. Retrospective review of sexual assault victims records of those who were examined in sexual assault program in Police General Hospital between January 1 and December 31, 2012. There were 335 cases ofadolescents sexual assault victims. Most of them were in junior high school (62.4%). Most adolescent sexual assaults were committed by boyfriends (50.3%) and acquaintance/friends (14.7%). The most common place for the assaults was the offender's residence (52.9%). Delayed medical evaluation was common. Only 49.4% attended medical evaluation within 72 hours. Adolescent victims had a higher pregnancy rate than adult victims (9.0% vs. 3.6%), but lower rate of non-genital injuries (14.6% vs. 36.3%). Only labia minora injury of adolescent was significantly lower than adult (9.3% vs. 17.5%) among genital injuries. Hepatitis B infection rate of adolescent was lower than adult (1.2% vs. 4.5%), whereas other types of infection were not different. Thai adolescents had set the unique assault characteristic different from adult victims. Adolescent victims were mainly assaulted by boyfriends at assailant's residence, with higher pregnancy rate than other international reports. Promote education to adolescences is highly recommended to decrease cases of rape and rape-related pregnancy in female adolescent.

  7. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M; Dvorak, Robert D; Elklit, Ask; Elhai, Jon D

    2015-12-30

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more strongly related to membership of polysubstance use classes. From the National Survey of Adolescents-1995 (N= 4023) 918 adolescents (age range=12-17 years, M=14.92, 49.6% female) with reports of physical assault and/or sexual assault were selected. Using information on alcohol-use, cigarette-smoking, chewing tobacco, non-prescribed use of medicines, and drug-use, latent class analysis indicated a three class solution for substance-use, namely, Experimental use, Light polysubstance-use, and Polysubstance-use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that as compared to adolescents exposed to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant moderator. It was concluded that assessing for single type or co-occurring assault can facilitate identification of adolescents at elevated risk for polysubstance-use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Counseling Sexual Assault Victims Who Become Pregnant after the Assault: Benefits and Limitations of First-Trimester Paternity Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Lee P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a patient with a history of infertility who, after becoming pregnant following a sexual assault, used chorionic villus sampling and DNA studies for paternity identification. Discusses risks and potential problems that accompany prenatal paternity testing. Ethical, moral, emotional, and religious factors should be considered in the…

  9. Counseling Sexual Assault Victims Who Become Pregnant after the Assault: Benefits and Limitations of First-Trimester Paternity Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Lee P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a patient with a history of infertility who, after becoming pregnant following a sexual assault, used chorionic villus sampling and DNA studies for paternity identification. Discusses risks and potential problems that accompany prenatal paternity testing. Ethical, moral, emotional, and religious factors should be considered in the…

  10. Adult sexual assault evaluations at Rhode Island emergency departments, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Roland C; Lau, Tse Chiang; Liu, Tao; Mayer, Kenneth H; Becker, Bruce M

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and identify the temporal patterns of visits to Rhode Island emergency departments (EDs) by adults who were sexually assaulted. Visits to all Rhode Island EDs from January 1995-June 2001 by adults who were sexually assaulted were identified using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) codes. Medical records of these visits were reviewed. Frequency distributions of the assault characteristics and patient demographics were generated. Incidence rates (IRs) of ED visits after sexual assault were estimated using 2000 US Census data. Analyses of the temporal patterns of the ED visits after sexual assault were conducted. Of the 823 ED visits, 796 (96.7%) were by females and 27 (3.3%) were by males. The median age for females was 25 years (range, 18-96 years) and was 28 years (range, 18-87 years) for males. Among the female patients, 76.6% sustained a vaginal/anal assault. Among the male patients, 59.3% sustained an anal assault. The average annual IR of ED visits after sexual assault was 30.3/100,000/year for females and 1.2/100,000/year for males, which is a 25-fold greater incidence of these visits for females than males. ED visits after adult sexual assault were more frequent during warmer months and around 5 P.M. There was a gradual 43% increase in the IRs of ED visits after sexual assault over the 6.5-year period. These findings should help direct EDs to maximize supportive services when they are needed most often.

  11. [The nursing experience of caring for a sexual assault victim].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Hui-Chu

    2008-02-01

    The more advancements in technology, the more temptations there are for teenagers on the Internet. Despite satisfying the fancies of juveniles, the Internet predisposes them to many kinds of danger. In this article, a seventeen-year-old girl met a net pal on the Internet, went out with him out of curiosity, and was sexual assaulted. The Roy's adaptation model was applied to the victim. Further, all data were collected by observation and conversation in the emergency room, during routine outpatient follow-up and through phone conversations from April, 27, 2006 to June, 1, 2006. Sleep pattern disturbance, situational low self-esteem, impaired social interaction, and Rape-trauma syndrome were diagnosed after nursing assessment. In accordance with these diagnoses, individualized nursing implementation was performed, including encouraging her to express herself, listening to her patiently, and providing her with support as well as social welfare resources. Finally, the victim was assisted not only to overcome the dark shadow of her assault but to develop a positive attitude and set a new goal through the cooperation of her family, our medical group, and herself. This nursing experience may provide some helpful information for us to share in caring for such cases.

  12. Combat deployment is associated with sexual harassment or sexual assault in a large, female military cohort.

    PubMed

    Leardmann, Cynthia A; Pietrucha, Amanda; Magruder, Kathryn M; Smith, Besa; Murdoch, Maureen; Jacobson, Isabel G; Ryan, Margaret A K; Gackstetter, Gary; Smith, Tyler C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the prevalence, risk factors, and health correlates of sexual stressors in the military, but have been limited to specific subpopulations. Furthermore, little is known about sexual stressors' occurrence and their correlates in relation to female troops deployed to the current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using longitudinal data from Millennium Cohort participants, the associations of recent deployment as well as other individual and environmental factors with sexual harassment and sexual assault were assessed among U.S. female military personnel. Multivariable analyses were used to investigate the associations. Of 13,262 eligible participants, 1,362 (10.3%) reported at least one sexual stressor at follow-up. Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84-2.64) or both sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61-3.78) compared with nondeployers. In addition, significant risk factors for sexual stressors included younger age, recent separation or divorce, service in the Marine Corps, positive screen for a baseline mental health condition, moderate/severe life stress, and prior sexual stressor experiences. Although deployment itself was not associated with sexual stressors, women who both deployed and reported combat were at a significantly increased odds for sexual stressors than other female service members who did not deploy. Understanding the factors associated with sexual stressors can inform future policy and prevention efforts to eliminate sexual stressors. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  13. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  15. Intimate Partner Sexual Assault: Traumatic Injuries, Psychological Symptoms, and Perceived Social Reactions.

    PubMed

    Seyller, Marie; Denis, Céline; Dang, Catherine; Boraud, Cyril; Lepresle, Aude; Lefèvre, Thomas; Chariot, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To compare the consequences of sexual assault based on the relationship of the woman to her named assailant. From January 2008 to March 2011, we conducted an observational and prospective study of females older than age 15 years who were examined at a sexual assault referral center. Data were collected and comparisons made between groups based on the victim's relationship to her named assailant: a current or former intimate partner (grouped as intimate partner), stranger, or acquaintance. Data were collected regarding the patients, assailants, and type of assault. At a 1-month follow-up examination, we evaluated clinical findings and reported reactions by the victim's friends, family, and acquaintances. We conducted descriptive analyses and searched for overall and pairwise differences among groups. There were 797 individuals seen during this time period. Thirty of the victims were male and were excluded from the study, leaving 767 females older than 15 years of age, 294 (38%) of whom attended the follow-up consultation. Simultaneous physical and sexual assaults were more frequent in intimate partner assaults than in assaults by unknown individuals or acquaintances: 55% (95% confidence interval [CI] 49-61) compared with 31% (95% CI 26-36) and 32% (95% CI 26-38; P<.001). One month after the initial examination, psychological trauma was noted in 92% of the patients and was evenly distributed among the three groups. Reactions from family members were similar for victims assaulted by intimate partners and other victims. Sexual assault by an intimate partner is associated with higher rates of extragenital trauma and similar rates of psychologic trauma and disrupted other relationships as that associated with assaults by strangers or acquaintances. Sexual assaults by intimate partners should be viewed as serious as assault by other assailants by law enforcement, the judiciary, and the public.

  16. The sexual assault of women at work in Washington State, 1980 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, B H; Franklin, G M; Wolf, M E

    1994-01-01

    Sexual assault in the workplace and the related factors have not been well studied. Workers' compensation claims data were used to describe work-related sexual assaults in Washington State between 1980 and 1989. Sixty-three cases of work-related rape were identified during this study period. The occupations of the rape victims were similar to occupations identified as high risk for other intentional injuries, and the rape incidents were characterized by isolation from the public and from coworkers. Estimates of industry-specific rates are presented. The identification, evaluation, and prevention of sexual assault and other workplace violence are discussed. PMID:8154570

  17. Impact of gender on reactions to military sexual assault and harassment.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice.

  18. Disclosing sexual assault to parents: the influence of parental messages about sex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sharon G; Cook, Sarah L

    2008-11-01

    Without frank discussion of what sex is, women may not learn what sex is not and what experiences constitute sexual assault. This qualitative study explores the relation between parental discussion and messages about sex and women's decisions of whether to disclose sexual assault to parents. Participants were 18 women from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Findings indicate that women more often disclosed sexual assault to parents who discussed sex with them in a frank and positive manner. In addition to the role of disclosure in recovery, implications for sex and parent education are discussed.

  19. Struggling to survive: sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women's increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed.

  20. Struggling to Survive: Sexual Assault, Poverty, and Mental Health Outcomes of African American women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women’s increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, PTSD, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989

  1. Shattering silence: exploring barriers to disclosure for African American sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Shaquita; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Smith, Kimberly; Marks, Alison

    2010-04-01

    National-, community-, and college-based studies have documented the high prevalence of sexual assault among African American women. Although African American women experience sexual assault at alarming rates, they are less likely to disclose or seek help in the aftermath of sexual assault. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a critique of the current literature examining the barriers to disclosure for African American women, such as intrapsychic factors, the damaging effect of an unsupportive response to initial disclosure, stigmatization of African American female sexuality, apprehension regarding racism, and racial loyalty. The authors provide a summary of the literature, gaps in current empirical studies, and needs for future study. Culturally relevant intervention recommendations are described. Finally, implications for sexual assault policy are provided.

  2. Predicting sexual assault kit submission among adolescent rape cases treated in forensic nurse examiner programs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jessica; Campbell, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Following a sexual assault, victims are usually advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault forensic exam kit (SAK). Once completed, the SAK is to be transported by law enforcement to the crime lab for analysis. However, many kits are never transported to the crime lab, thereby preventing forensic evidence obtained in the kit to be used during the prosecutorial process. The current study examined rates of SAK submission for 393 adolescent sexual assault cases in two Midwestern communities and explored what factors predicted law enforcement officers' submission of SAKs to the crime lab for analysis. Findings reveal that more than 40% of the adolescent cases did not have their SAK submitted, and several factors, including the age and race of the victim, the number of perpetrators in the assault, and the number of assaultive acts, predicted SAK submission. Implications for SAK community protocols are discussed.

  3. Primary care provider interventions for the delayed disclosure of adolescent sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Jessica E

    2005-01-01

    Acute sexual assault is a serious and underreported crime with the potential for causing grave physical and emotional harm to its victim. As a result of developmental and psychological factors, the adolescent victim may delay the disclosure of such an assault and therefore experience detrimental, acute, and long-term effects. By understanding the reasons for delayed disclosure and integrating this with currently established guidelines for acutely assaulted patients, primary care providers can better tailor the care they provide when faced with the delayed disclosure of adolescent sexual assault. Furthermore, based on this review, it becomes clear that standardized protocols are necessary to more efficiently care for these patients. Recommendations are provided to allow tailoring of primary care provider's interventions based on established protocols and new understandings when caring for adolescents who delay the disclosure of their sexual assault.

  4. Separation/divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio: survivors' perceptions.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Schwartz, Martin D

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many studies have enhanced a social scientific understanding of the lethal and non-lethal physical abuse of women during and after separation and divorce, but less than a handful have examined sexual assaults on rural women who want to leave, are trying to leave, or who have left spouses or live-in male partners. Further, none of the work done so far on this problem has examined the role of collective efficacy. The results presented here help fill these research gaps and call into question the common assumption that there is more collective control on criminal behavior in rural settings. Moreover, our exploratory qualitative data show that collective efficacy can take many shapes and forms, and often what is perceived as the "common good" may actually be behaviors and discourses that threaten the health and well-being of women seeking freedom from abusive male partners.

  5. Police interviews of sexual assault reporters: do attitudes matter?

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed.

  6. Shared roles ensure complete care for sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    McNair, S; Finigan, A B

    1996-10-01

    Collaboration between nurse and medical practitioners is required to achieve the quality of care needed by persons experiencing sexual assault. The environment necessary to support this endeavor emerges from the larger organizational values, the program values, and from mature, confident team members. Medical and nurse practitioners understand their unique knowledge and skills as complementary and enhancing, rather than divisive; they must identify the knowledge and skill sets common to both as well as those unique to each discipline. The complex needs of the client demand a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach. This approach benefits both the client and the care provider. The atmosphere provided by this style allows individual professionals to grow and cultivates interest to learn from each other. Modeling of this behavior to clients gives unwritten and unspoken permission to rely on others in a healthy and open fashion.

  7. Community cooperatives combat sexual assault and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Marc D

    2003-02-01

    The effectiveness of the SANE program is borne out by the following testimonies: "The emotional support required by these victims is best rendered by a SANE. This frees the ED nurse to care for other patients, while sexual assault victims receive a high level of care," says Nancy Donel, RN manager at St. Thomas Hospital ED. "The DOVE program benefits not only the emergency physician, but the EMS system as well. It gives us a resource and a specifically identified program with well-trained, qualified providers. Through their training and knowledge, SANEs not only help victims, but also increase the number of legal convictions that take assailants off the streets. This improves the health and safety of the communities in which we live and serve," says Michael Mackan, MD, of the Summa Health System.

  8. Emergency contraception for sexual assault victims: an advocacy coalition framework.

    PubMed

    Schorn, Mavis N

    2005-11-01

    A bill was introduced into the Tennessee legislature in the 2005 session that would require emergency departments to offer and dispense emergency contraception to sexual assault survivors who are at risk of pregnancy. Several advocacy groups collaborated to form the Women's Health Safety Network for the purpose of communicating as one voice. The advocacy coalition framework of policy development is applied to the political system and is used as a model to discuss issues impacting policy development for this particular bill. Key actors, proponents, and opponents to this bill are presented along with constraints to policy acceptance. The challenge for emergency contraception advocates on a state and national level is to keep the focus on public health science, the health and well-being of women, and out of the abortion debate.

  9. Child sexual abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use: predictors of revictimization in adult sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Filipas, Henrietta H

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N=555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse predicted more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adult sexual assault victims. Posttraumatic stress disorder numbing symptoms directly predicted revictimization, whereas other post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal) were related to problem drinking, which in turn predicted revictimization. Thus, numbing symptoms and problem drinking may be independent risk factors for sexual revictimization in adult sexual assault victims, particularly for women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

  10. Expert testimony in sexual assault cases: Alcohol intoxication and memory.

    PubMed

    Connell, Mary

    2015-01-01

    At court-martial tribunals in the United States military, cases involving alcohol facilitated sexual assault often pivot on the alleged victim's level of intoxication or impairment and ability to consent to the sexual act. These cases frequently arise following a night of partying and heavy drinking among a group of friends and acquaintances, military and civilian. The determination of whether a sexual act was consensual may rest on estimates of the alleged victim's blood alcohol concentration and related behavioral indicia of impairment. Expert testimony may be presented by the prosecution and/or the defense, from forensic toxicologists and psychiatrists or psychologists regarding the potential involvement of alcohol and its impact on the participants relevant to the charges at court-martial. A review of the state of the science is offered to bring such testimony into perspective. Appellate cases illustrate that the experts' testimony may sometimes elucidate, sometimes obfuscate, and sometimes exceed professional expertise and invade the province of the factfinder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The ISSAS Model: Understanding the Information Needs of Sexual Assault Survivors on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Julia; Gross, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assault is a prevalent, yet underreported and stigmatizing crime that disproportionately affects college-age students. The literature of Library & Information Studies does not currently address the ways in which survivors may seek information after an assault. Blending findings from Psychology and LIS, this study proposes the…

  12. Rape on the Campus: The Prevalence of Sexual Assault while Enrolled in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Colleen; Corty, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 531 college students to examine prevalence of campus sexual assault. Found that one in six women reported assault, with no difference in rate between first- and upper-year women. Alcohol was more commonly involved than was force. Nonconsensual intercourse increased over time in college. Concluded that universities need carefully timed and…

  13. The Reporting of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault by Nonstrangers to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Par, Paul-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    We examine the effects of the gender of the victim and offender and their relationship to each other on whether sexual and physical assaults are reported to the police. We also examine the reasons victims give for not reporting assaults and whether reporting patterns have changed over time. The analyses are based on a sample of 6,291 physical…

  14. The ISSAS Model: Understanding the Information Needs of Sexual Assault Survivors on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Julia; Gross, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assault is a prevalent, yet underreported and stigmatizing crime that disproportionately affects college-age students. The literature of Library & Information Studies does not currently address the ways in which survivors may seek information after an assault. Blending findings from Psychology and LIS, this study proposes the…

  15. Sexual Assault Prevention and Reporting on College Campuses in the US: A Review of Policies and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streng, Tara K.; Kamimura, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sexual violence within the collegiate environment is a pressing issue within American society. One way to address sexual violence is through the adaptation and implementation of a sexual assault policy by colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to review sexual misconduct and assault policies of ten public universities…

  16. The decline in sexual assaults in men's prisons in New South Wales: a "systems" approach.

    PubMed

    Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil

    2011-10-01

    Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its prevention. Few, however, have presented evidence for a decline in male prisoner sexual assaults and investigated the reasons for the decline. This article provides evidence from population-based surveys of a steady decrease in male prisoner sexual assaults in New South Wales (NSW) between 1996 and 2009. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with former and current inmates, and using a "systems" approach they discuss the complexity of sexual assaults in prison, incorporating a multiplicity of perspectives. In particular, they bring together different sources of data and discuss this in relation to changes in power structures and control in a modern prison, the attitudes of older and younger prisoners, the concept of "duty of care," introduction of prison drug programs, and prisoner attitudes toward gender and sexuality. In anthropology, the term "system" is used widely for describing sociocultural phenomena of a given society in a holistic manner without reducing the complexity of a given community.

  17. [Expert evaluation of unusual anatomical structure of the genital organs and hymen in sexually assaulted victims].

    PubMed

    Samoĭlichenko, A N

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports examples of expert examination of women with anomalous anatomical organization of external genitalia and hymen who have experienced sexual assault. Expert interpretation of these findings and their forensic medical implications is offered.

  18. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social–ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614

  19. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J

    2016-05-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social-ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses.

  20. Sexual assault within intimate partner violence: impact on helpseeking in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; DeLoveh, Heidi L M; Zweig, Janine M

    2008-01-01

    Within intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual assault is often subsumed under the heading of physical abuse, but evidence suggests qualitative differences in outcomes when both types of abuse occur. This study explores the cumulative effect of sexual assault and physical abuse by a current or former intimate partner on helpseeking. Using a dataset of 1,072 IPV victims from 8 states, we found that women who had experienced sexual assault in addition to physical abuse (44%) used more help, but were also more likely to say that they did not seek help when they needed it. Among those who were aware of services, fear was the greatest obstacle to reaching out for help. Implications include the need for information on best practices in addressing the sequelae of both physical and sexual assault in victim service agencies.

  1. Police decision making in sexual assault cases: predictors of suspect identification and arrest.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Melinda; Rodriguez, Nancy; Spohn, Cassia; Koss, Mary P

    2013-04-01

    As the initial gatekeepers of the criminal justice system, police officers hold considerable discretion in the investigation of offenses and in the decision to make an arrest. This is particularly true with sexual assault given the unique nature of these cases. Yet most research in this area has focused on prosecutors' charging decisions rather than police outcomes for reports of sexual assaults. In an effort to address this gap in the literature, we rely on official records collected from all sexual assaults reported to police in a large Arizona city in 2003 (N = 220) to examine the effects of crime seriousness, evidentiary strength, victim blame, and believablity factors on suspect identification and arrest. Results revealed that both legal and extralegal factors influenced whether police identify and arrest a suspect. These findings raise questions surrounding the role that police play in securing victim cooperation and the extent to which stereotypes of "legitimate" victims shape police officers' willingness to investigate sexual assault cases.

  2. The element of naturalness when evaluating image quality of digital photo documentation after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2012-01-01

    Digital photography is a valuable adjunct to document physical injuries after sexual assault. In order for a digital photograph to have high image quality, there must exist a high level of naturalness. Digital photo documentation has varying degrees of naturalness; however, for a photograph to be natural, specific technical elements for the viewer must be satisfied. No tool was available to rate the naturalness of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate technical elements for naturalness. Using this tool, experts evaluated randomly selected digital photographs of female genital injuries captured following sexual assault. Naturalness of female genital injuries following sexual assault was demonstrated when measured in all dimensions.

  3. Men victim of sexual assault of concern into the first Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults in France.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2013-10-01

    Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this

  4. Psychological consequences associated with positive and negative responses to disclosure of sexual assault among college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-07-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims' subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims' post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Root Cause Analysis of Sexual Assault: Shifting from Early Detection to a Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    skill development. Just as root sources for cancer are mitigated by not smoking, minimal sun exposure, adopting healthy eating habits and alcohol use...sexual assault is mitigated by developing skills in effective communication, relationships, love, and esteem. This paper argues the AF desperately...infusion of ???life skills ??? into its Airmen. If DoD and the Air Force continue to promote the goal of eliminating sexual assault from its ranks, it must

  6. Human Trafficking, Sexual Assault, or Something Else? A Complicated Case With an Unexpected Outcome.

    PubMed

    Scott-Tilley, Donna; Crites, Heather

    This case report presents a patient who presented multiple times with vaginal injuries and bleeding, reporting sexual assault with a foreign object. Findings from her history and physical examination were consistent with sexual assault and human trafficking. The outcome of this case was not what we initially expected when the patient first presented for care. However, the patient ultimately received the care she needed. This case illuminates the need for excellent continuing education, interdisciplinary communication, and continuity of care.

  7. National study of physical and sexual assault among women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Casteel, C; Martin, S L; Smith, J B; Gurka, K K; Kupper, L L

    2008-04-01

    To examine the association between the level of disability impairment and physical and sexual assault in a sample of US women at least 18 years of age. Retrospective longitudinal study of 6273 non-institutionalized US women from 8000 women participating in the 1995-1996 National Violence Against Women (NVAW) Survey. Women's experiences of physical and sexual assault in the 12 months before the NVAW interview. Most women reported having no disability (n = 5008, 79.8%) and/or not experiencing an assault in the year before their interview (n = 6018, 95.9%). Less than 5% (n = 280) reported having a disability that severely limited daily activities, and 15.7% (n = 985) reported having a disability that moderately limited activities. Less than 4% (n = 218) of the women reported a physical-only assault, and less than 1% (n = 37) reported being sexually assaulted. Women with severe disability impairments were four times more likely to be sexually assaulted than women with no reported disabilities (RR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 10.6). Little difference in the risk of sexual assault was found between women with moderate disability impairments and those reporting no disabilities (RR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.3 to 2.8). Women with severe (RR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.0) and moderate (RR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.9) disability impairments were at greater risk, although not quite significantly so, of physical-only assault than were women without a disability. The findings suggest that women with disabilities that severely limit activities of daily living are at increased risk of sexual assault.

  8. Prediction of Women's Utilization of Resistance Strategies in a Sexual Assault Situation: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidycz, Christine A.; Van Wynsberghe, Amy; Edwards, Katie M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study prospectively explored the predictors of resistance strategies to a sexual assault situation. Participants were assessed at the beginning of an academic quarter on a number of variables, including past history of sexual victimization, perceived risk of sexual victimization, and intentions to use specific types of resistance…

  9. 77 FR 20499 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... fight to reduce sexual violence, the prevalence of sexual assault remains an affront to our national... still more have endured other forms of sexual violence or abuse. Tragically, these crimes take their... violence leaves scars that may never fully heal. Many survivors experience depression, fear, and...

  10. A Multivariate Model for Predicting Rape and Physical Injury Outcomes during Sexual Assaults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Knight, Raymond A.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed relation of situational factors, offender aggression, and victim resistance to women's sexual abuse and physical injury during sexual assaults using police reports/court testimonies of 274 women who avoided rape or were raped. After situational variables were partialed out, women's screaming was related to less severe sexual abuse;…

  11. College Women's Reactions to Sexual Assault Research Participation: Is It Distressing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Katie M.; Kearns, Megan C.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed college women's reactions to participating in sexual assault research. Women with sexual victimization histories reported more negative emotional reactions than nonvictimized women, but also greater benefits. Benefits to research participation outweighed costs for both women with and without sexual victimization histories.…

  12. Prediction of Sexual Assault Experiences in College Women Based on Rape Scripts: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchik, Jessica A.; Probst, Danielle R.; Irvin, Clinton R.; Chau, Minna; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Although script theory has been applied to sexual assault (e.g., H. Frith & C. Kitzinger, 2001; A. S. Kahn, V. A. Andreoli Mathie, & C. Torgler, 1994), women's scripts of rape have not been examined in relation to predicting sexual victimization experiences. The purpose of the current study was to examine how elements of women's sexual assault…

  13. Exploring the Relationships of Women’s Sexual Assault Disclosure, Social Reactions, and Problem Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault, and women with a greater number of traumatic life events disclosed assault more often. Although there were no differences in disclosure likelihood by drinking status; of those disclosing, problem drinkers told more support sources and received more negative and positive social reactions than nonproblem drinkers. Correlates of receiving negative social reactions were similar for normal and problem drinkers; however, negative social reactions to assault disclosure were related to more problem drinking for women with less frequent social interaction. Implications for future research and possible support interventions with problem-drinking victims are provided. PMID:18309039

  14. Mental health risk factors in sexual assault: What should Sexual Assault Referral Centre staff be aware of?

    PubMed

    Brooker, Charlie; Tocque, Karen

    2016-05-01

    In England, people who have been raped can attend a national network of Sexual Assault Referral Centres (SARCs) for physical examination, the collection of evidence and sign-posting onto other appropriate services. The impact of rape on mental health is not always assessed comprehensively in SARCs despite national policy guidance. To highlight the relationship between mental health and rape; thereby increasing SARCs staff and NHS commissioners awareness of the issue and the potential for longer-term risks to mental health. A secondary analysis was carried out using the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) 2007 in England. Sexual abuse was categorised as 'rape', 'touched in a sexual way' or 'talked to in a sexual way' versus 'none'. Bivariate analysis describes the prevalence of various mental health indicators and service use measures by different 'levels' of sexual abuse. Multiple logistic regression was applied to determine independent risk factors for sexual abuse. There was a consistent increase in the prevalence of mental health problems and in the use of mental health services as the severity of sexual abuse increased. For individuals who had been raped, the prevalence of need was highest in those raped both before and after the age of 16 years. Multivariate logistic regression identified that sex and age were the only demographic risk factors remaining significant. After controlling for these, individuals who had been raped were over 2.5 times more likely to have a history of a neurotic disorder than individuals experiencing no sexual abuse. In addition, rape victims were also significantly more likely to be dependent on drugs and alcohol, admitted to a mental health ward and at risk of suicide. Rape is likely to have a considerable impact on the use of mental health services, self-harm and alcohol/drug dependency. Full mental health assessments should be undertaken in SARCs and commissioners should ensure accessible pathways into mental health services

  15. DOES ALCOHOL CONTRIBUTE TO THE CONFLUENCE MODEL OF SEXUAL ASSAULT PERPETRATION?

    PubMed Central

    PARKHILL, MICHELE R.; ABBEY, ANTONIA

    2015-01-01

    The confluence model of sexual assault provides a useful theoretical integration of factors that influence men’s likelihood of committing sexual assault (Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991). This study replicates and extends the confluence model by including alcohol at multiple levels. Participants’ usual alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption in sexual situations were included as predictor variables. The number of sexually aggressive acts that participants committed after consuming alcohol and the number of sexually aggressive acts participants committed when sober were separately calculated so that the predictors of each could be distinguished. Participants were 356 men who completed a survey that included measures that assessed the key components of the confluence model. Results of path analyses indicated that the expanded model fit the data well, with both general and situational measures of alcohol use predicting frequency of sexual assault when drinking alcohol. These findings highlight the importance of developing universal and targeted prevention programs for young men. PMID:26405374

  16. Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real Rape, Ambiguous Cases, and False Reports.

    PubMed

    Venema, Rachel M

    2016-03-01

    While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. On the Relationship Between Automatic Attitudes and Self-Reported Sexual Assault in Men

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119

  18. Social Reactions, Self-Blame and Problem Drinking in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test a model of the relations of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, self-blame and problem drinking. This is the first study to investigate whether type of self-blame has different relationships with social reactions and problem drinking in a large, diverse sample of sexually assaulted women. These relationships are important to investigate in order to identify specific targets for treatment and intervention with sexual assault victims and their social networks. Method Community-residing female sexual assault survivors (N = 1863) in a large metropolitan area completed a mail survey about sexual assault, social reactions to disclosure, self-blame attributions, and problem drinking symptoms. Results Structural equation modeling showed that characterological self-blame mediated the effect of negative social reactions on drinking, but behavioral self-blame did not function as a mediator. A second model showed unique relationships of specific positive and negative social reactions to drinking through characterological and behavioral self-blame. Conclusions Characterological self-blame needs to be targeted in treatment and intervention with survivors, as it appears to be a key mechanism through which social reactions may influence recovery. Secondary prevention with informal social networks should educate people about social reactions to avoid negative reactions and promote those that are helpful, so people can better respond to survivors’ sexual assault disclosures and improve recovery. PMID:26366320

  19. Evaluation of image quality of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries following sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, Patricia M; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2011-12-01

    With the patient's consent, physical injuries sustained in a sexual assault are evaluated and treated by the sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) and documented on preprinted traumagrams and with photographs. Digital imaging is now available to the SANE for documentation of sexual assault injuries, but studies of the image quality of forensic digital imaging of female genital injuries after sexual assault were not found in the literature. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) was developed to rate the image quality of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries after sexual assault. Three expert observers performed evaluations on 30 separate images at two points in time. An image quality score, the sum of eight integral technical and anatomical attributes on the PDIQSS, was obtained for each image. Individual image quality ratings, defined by rating image quality for each of the data, were also determined. The results demonstrated a high level of image quality and agreement when measured in all dimensions. For the SANE in clinical practice, the results of this study indicate that a high degree of agreement exists between expert observers when using the PDIQSS to rate image quality of individual digital photographs of female genital injuries after sexual assault.

  20. The Evolving Landscape of Title IX: Predicting Mandatory Reporters' Responses to Sexual Assault Disclosures.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Cortina, Lilia M

    2017-06-22

    Approximately 1 in 4 women is sexually assaulted in college, a problem that federal law has attempted to address with recent changes. Under the evolving landscape of Title IX, and related law, universities nationwide have overhauled their sexual assault policies, procedures, and resources. Many of the new policies designate undergraduate resident assistants (RAs) as Responsible Employees-requiring them to provide assistance and report to the university if a fellow student discloses sexual assault. We investigated factors that predict the likelihood of RAs enacting their policy mandate, that is, reporting sexual assault disclosures to university authorities and referring survivors to sexual assault resources. Based on data from 305 Responsible Employee RAs, we found that likelihood to report and refer varied, depending on RAs' knowledge of reporting procedures and resources, trust in these supports, and perceptions of mandatory reporting policy. Understanding mandatory reporter behavior is crucial, because help-providers' responses can have serious implications for the recovery of sexual assault survivors. Our findings elucidate some effects of changes in the interpretation and implementation of Title IX, with potential to inform the development of more theoretically and empirically informed policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis following sexual assault in industrialized low-HIV-prevalence countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Draughon, Jessica E; Sheridan, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Although available for over a decade, use of nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) remains controversial in the United States. There are concerns over sexual assault survivors' adherence, or lack thereof, leading to increased costs without an appreciable decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This review examines and synthesizes the available literature from the past 10 years to determine the true rates of provision and adherence to nPEP regimens in sexual assault survivors in low HIV prevalence, industrialized nations. Findings suggest that further prospective research is necessary to better understand the process of post-assault nPEP evaluation and subsequent follow-up and adherence.

  2. College Women's Assignment of Blame Versus Responsibility for Sexual Assault Experiences.

    PubMed

    Donde, Sapana D

    2016-08-30

    The present study investigated in a sample of college women (N = 154) (a) assignment of self-blame, perpetrator blame, personal responsibility, and perpetrator responsibility for sexual assault; (b) differences in how women assigned blame versus responsibility toward themselves and the perpetrator; (c) significant correlations between blame and responsibility of self and the perpetrator and positive and negative post-assault outcomes; and (d) the underlying factors that explained different forms of blame and responsibility. The present study suggests a need for future sexual assault research to delineate and further examine the constructs of blame and responsibility. Implications for practice are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. The role of social drinking factors in the relationship between incapacitated sexual assault and drinking before sexual activity

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Elizabeth R.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; George, William H.; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The White House Council (2014) has highlighted sexual assault prevention as a high priority issue in need of immediate attention. A risk factor associated with sexual assault victimization and revictimization is drinking before sexual activity. The current study examined the relationship between incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) and drinking before sexual activity. Additionally, social-related drinking factors including drinking to conform motives, social drinking motives, and perceived drinking norms were examined as being associated with ISA history and drinking before sexual activity given the typical social context of both drinking before sexual activity and sexual assault in college settings. Six hundred and three undergraduate college women completed a survey online assessing history of ISA, social factors associated with drinking, and frequency of drinking before sexual activity. Path analysis indicated that both ISA before college and since entering college were associated with higher perceived drinking norms, more social drinking motives endorsement, and more drinking to conform. However, only higher perceived drinking norms and more social drinking motives endorsement were associated with both more severe ISA histories and more frequent drinking before sexual activity. Thus, a more severe ISA history was indeed associated with more frequent drinking before sexual activity and social factors related to drinking played a significant role in this relationship. Social factors can be easily targeted through brief interventions and these findings can inform future programming to promote more careful use of alcohol in social and sexual situations. PMID:26348279

  4. Comparison of sexual assaults by strangers and known assailants in an urban population of women.

    PubMed Central

    Stermac, L E; Du Mont, J A; Kalemba, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of sexual assaults by strangers and those by people known to the victims in an urban community-based population of women. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Care Centre, Women's College Hospital, Toronto. PARTICIPANTS: All 677 women who presented to the centre between June 1, 1991, and Sept. 30, 1993, and for whom the victim-assailant relationship was known. OUTCOME MEASURES: Assailant's relationship to victim, sex of assailant, number of assailants, number, type and location of assaults, use of weapons, type of coercion and extent of physical trauma or injury. RESULTS: Sexual assault by a person known to the victim accounted for 456 (67.4%) of the assaults reported. In 344 cases the person was known more than 24 hours; 99 (28.8%) were current or previous boyfriends or spouses. Assailants who were strangers were more likely to assault the victim more than once (t = -2.42, 355 degrees of freedom [df], p < 0.05), force the victim to perform fellatio (chi 2 = 8.63, 1 df, p < 0.005), use weapons (chi 2 = 12.01, 1 df, p < 0.001) and use physical coercion (chi 2 = 4.42, 1 df, p < 0.05), whereas assailants who were known to the victims were more likely to assault a woman who was sleeping or drugged (chi 2 = 10.38, 1 df, p < 0.005). Sexual assault by a known assailant was more likely to occur in the home of the victim (chi 2 = 36.27, 1 df, p < 0.001) or the assailant (chi 2 = 8.46, 1 df, p < 0.005), whereas sexual assault by a stranger was more likely to occur outdoors (chi 2 = 89.80, 1 df, p < 0.001) or in a vehicle (chi 2 = 32.81, 1 df, p < 0.001). Overall, the mean number of trauma sites was greater among victims assaulted by strangers than among those assaulted by people they knew (t = -4.29, 180 df, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two thirds of the sexual assaults in this urban population were committed by people known to the victims, and over two thirds of these assaults were associated with physical trauma. Improved

  5. Buprenorphine in drug-facilitated sexual abuse: a fatal case involving a 14-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Tracqui, Antoine; Cirimele, Vincent; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-10-01

    The first case involving repetitive sexual abuse linked to the use of buprenorphine is reported. Under the tradename Subutex, buprenorphine is largely used for the substitution management of opiate-dependent individuals, but it can also be easily found on the black market. A 14-year-old boy was found dead at the home of a well-known sex offender of minors. At the autopsy, no particular morphological changes were noted, except for pulmonary and visceral congestion. There was no evidence of violence, and no needle marks were found by the pathologist. Toxicological analyses, as achieved by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, demonstrated both recent and repetitive buprenorphine exposure in combination with nordiazepam. Buprenorphine concentrations were 1.1 ng/mL and 23 pg/mg in blood and hair, respectively. The boy's death was attributed to accidental asphyxia in a facilitated repetitive sexual abuse situation due to the combination of buprenorphine and benzodiazepines, even at therapeutic concentrations. The use of buprenorphine as a sedative drug was not challenged by the perpetrator.

  6. A review of the health effects of sexual assault on African American women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie

    2013-01-01

    To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. Caring sexual assault patients in the military: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Cynthia T

    2008-01-01

    Recently instituted sexual assault prevention and response policies and programs within the Department of Defense (DoD) have paved the way for significant improvements in the medical care of sexual assault patients in the military services. Military personnel who suffer assault are now able to choose a method of reporting that either immediately triggers an investigation or allows the incident to remain confidential. This process allows for the development of an enhanced trust in the system and allows military personnel to receive medical and forensic care on the level of their choice. Military medical professionals are continually striving to provide the highest standard of care for military personnel, DoD employees, and beneficiaries. The new policies and programs are continually taking shape; however, there are barriers to education and understanding of the sexual assault prevention and response processes that require increased coordination between military and civilian personnel and their medical services in order to provide optimum care for all patients involved.

  8. The role of social drinking factors in the relationship between incapacitated sexual assault and drinking before sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth R; Gilmore, Amanda K; George, William H; Lewis, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    White House Council on Women and Girls (2014) highlighted sexual assault prevention as a high priority issue in need of immediate attention. A risk factor associated with sexual assault victimization and revictimization is drinking before sexual activity. The current study examined the relationship between incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) and drinking before sexual activity. Given the typical social context of both drinking before sexual activity and sexual assault in college settings, social-related drinking factors including drinking to conform motives, social drinking motives, and perceived drinking norms were examined. Six hundred and three undergraduate college women completed a survey online assessing history of ISA, social factors associated with drinking, and frequency of drinking before sexual activity. Path analysis indicated that both ISA before college and since entering college were associated with higher perceived drinking norms, more social drinking motive endorsement, and more drinking to conform. However, only higher perceived drinking norms and more social drinking motive endorsement were associated with both more severe ISA histories and more frequent drinking before sexual activity. Thus, a more severe ISA history was indeed associated with more frequent drinking before sexual activity and social factors related to drinking played a significant role in this relationship. Social factors can be easily targeted through brief interventions and these findings can inform future programming to promote more careful use of alcohol in social and sexual situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed and the Severity of Sexual Assaults Committed by College Men

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; CLINTON-SHERROD, A. MONIQUE; McAUSLAN, PAM; ZAWACKI, TINA; BUCK, PHILIP O.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that intoxicated perpetrators may act more violently than other perpetrators, although empirical findings have been mixed. Past research has focused on whether or not alcohol was consumed, rather than the quantity consumed, and this may explain these inconsistent findings. The authors hypothesized that the quantity of alcohol consumed would have a curvilinear relationship to the severity of the assault. Data were collected from 113 college men who reported that they had committed a sexual assault since the age of 14. The quantity of alcohol that perpetrators consumed during the assault was linearly related to how much aggression they used and was curvilinearly related to the type of sexual assault committed. The quantity of alcohol that victims consumed during the assault was linearly related to the type of sexual assault committed. Strategies for improving assessment of alcohol consumption in sexual assault research are discussed. PMID:14675511

  10. Effects of defendant sexual orientation on jurors' perceptions of child sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A; Bottoms, Bette L

    2009-02-01

    We examined mock jurors' reactions to a sexual abuse case involving a male teacher and a 10-year-old child. Because gay men are sometimes stereotyped as child molesters, we portrayed defendant sexual orientation as either gay or straight and the victim as either a boy or girl. Jurors made more pro-prosecution decisions in cases involving a gay versus straight defendant, particularly when the victim was a boy. In boy-victim cases, jurors' emotional feelings of moral outrage toward the defendant mediated these effects. On average, women jurors were more pro-prosecution than were men. Results have implications for understanding social perceptions of cross- and same-gender child sexual abuse and juror decision making in child sexual assault cases perpetrated by homosexual and heterosexual men.

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of the Effects of Victimization History and Sexual Attitudes on Women's Hypothetical Sexual Assault Scripts.

    PubMed

    Leiting, Kari A; Yeater, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined qualitatively the effects of a sexual victimization history and sexual attitudes on 247 undergraduate women's written accounts of a hypothetical sexual assault. More severe victimization history was associated with script characteristics of greater alcohol use, knowing the man longer, and the context of a party. Greater endorsement of positive attitudes toward casual sex was related to script characteristics of greater alcohol use, acquiescing to the man, and not knowing the man as long. Finally, a more recent sexual assault was associated with script characteristics of having just met the man, the context of a party or date, and acquiescing to the man.

  12. Sexual assault and general body injuries: A detailed cross-sectional Australian study of 1163 women.

    PubMed

    Zilkens, Renate R; Smith, Debbie A; Kelly, Maire C; Mukhtar, S Aqif; Semmens, James B; Phillips, Maureen A

    2017-10-01

    To describe the frequency and severity of general body injury in women alleging recent sexual assault and then identify demographic and assault characteristics associated with injury severity. Cross-sectional study. Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC), Western Australia. Total of 1163 women attending SARC from Jan-2009 to Mar-2015. Women underwent a standardised medical examination and data collection by forensically trained doctors. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed. An algorithm was used to classify general body injuries as mild, moderate or severe. General body injury was observed in 71% of women; 52%, 17% and 2% were classified as having respectively, mild, moderate and severe injuries. Moderate or severe injury was observed in 30.4% of women assaulted by intimate partners, 16.4% of women assaulted by strangers and 14.9% of women assaulted by friends/acquaintances. In regression analysis, an interaction between mental illness and assailant type existed after adjusting for age, intellectual disability, time-to-examination, number of assailants and location. Mental illness was an independent predictor for lower injury severity (adjusted odds ratio=0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.9) in women assaulted by strangers and higher injury severity in women assaulted by a friend/acquaintance (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.6, 3.6). While women assaulted by intimate partners had more frequent moderate-to-severe injuries than other women their current mental illness status was not associated with risk of injury severity. This study highlights the increased injury severity in women assaulted by intimate partners. The risk of moderate/severe injury for women with mental illness assaulted by their acquaintances was unexpected and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Capturing sexual assault data: An information system designed by forensic clinicians and healthcare researchers.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, S Aqif; Smith, Debbie A; Phillips, Maureen A; Kelly, Maire C; Zilkens, Renate R; Semmens, James B

    2017-01-01

    The Sexual Assault Resource Center (SARC) in Perth, Western Australia provides free 24-hour medical, forensic, and counseling services to persons aged over 13 years following sexual assault. The aim of this research was to design a data management system that maintains accurate quality information on all sexual assault cases referred to SARC, facilitating audit and peer-reviewed research. The work to develop SARC Medical Services Clinical Information System (SARC-MSCIS) took place during 2007-2009 as a collaboration between SARC and Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. Patient demographics, assault details, including injury documentation, and counseling sessions were identified as core data sections. A user authentication system was set up for data security. Data quality checks were incorporated to ensure high-quality data. An SARC-MSCIS was developed containing three core data sections having 427 data elements to capture patient's data. Development of the SARC-MSCIS has resulted in comprehensive capacity to support sexual assault research. Four additional projects are underway to explore both the public health and criminal justice considerations in responding to sexual violence. The data showed that 1,933 sexual assault episodes had occurred among 1881 patients between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015. Sexual assault patients knew the assailant as a friend, carer, acquaintance, relative, partner, or ex-partner in 70% of cases, with 16% assailants being a stranger to the patient. This project has resulted in the development of a high-quality data management system to maintain information for medical and forensic services offered by SARC. This system has also proven to be a reliable resource enabling research in the area of sexual violence.

  14. 78 FR 8987 - Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Department of..., DHS proposed to issue regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse... Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities.'' 77 FR 75300. The NPRM required commenters...

  15. Use of Mental Health Services among Sexually Assaulted Community Respondents: The Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    Several studies have shown that sexual assault may lead to psychiatric problems such as depression, fear or anxiety, substance abuse, or sexual distress. As part of an epidemiologic survey to determine base rates of mental disorder in a Los Angeles household population, 3,132 respondents were surveyed about their sexual assault experiences and use…

  16. Sexual Assault: Better Resource Management Needed to Improve Prevention and Response in the Army National Guard and Army Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    to which (1) the Guard and Reserve face any challenges implementing programs to prevent and respond to sexual assault; and (2) medical and mental ...Army Reserve Face Several Challenges with Implementation of Their Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Programs 12 Medical and Mental Health...challenges implementing their programs on the prevention of and response to sexual assault involving their members; and (2) medical and mental health

  17. Vicarious resilience in sexual assault and domestic violence advocates.

    PubMed

    Frey, Lisa L; Beesley, Denise; Abbott, Deah; Kendrick, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    There is little research related to sexual assault and domestic violence advocates' experiences, with the bulk of the literature focused on stressors and systemic barriers that negatively impact efforts to assist survivors. However, advocates participating in these studies have also emphasized the positive impact they experience consequent to their work. This study explores the positive impact. Vicarious resilience, personal trauma experiences, peer relational quality, and perceived organizational support in advocates (n = 222) are examined. Also, overlap among the conceptual components of vicarious resilience is explored. The first set of multiple regressions showed that personal trauma experiences and peer relational health predicted compassion satisfaction and vicarious posttraumatic growth, with organizational support predicting only compassion satisfaction. The second set of multiple regressions showed that (a) there was significant shared variance between vicarious posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction; (b) after accounting for vicarious posttraumatic growth, organizational support accounted for significant variance in compassion satisfaction; and (c) after accounting for compassion satisfaction, peer relational health accounted for significant variance in vicarious posttraumatic growth. Results suggest that it may be more meaningful to conceptualize advocates' personal growth related to their work through the lens of a multidimensional construct such as vicarious resilience. Organizational strategies promoting vicarious resilience (e.g., shared organizational power, training components) are offered, and the value to trauma-informed care of fostering advocates' vicarious resilience is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Examining the standardized application of rape kits: an exploratory study of post-sexual assault professional practices.

    PubMed

    Parnis, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice

    2002-12-01

    In this exploratory study we examine the practices surrounding with respect to standardization the administration and processing of the Sexual Assault Evidence Kit (SAEK). Despite the presumed scientific objectivity of this protocol, our survey of sexual assault nurses, physicians, police, and forensic scientists found that discretionary practices pervaded the evidentiary process. We argue that there must be greater awareness of the shaping of medicolegal evidence. Given the diverse characteristics of sexual assaults and of the health care needs of sexually assaulted women, we also suggest that it may be unreasonable to apply a single standard model of a rape kit.

  19. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19).

  20. Factors associated with the sexual assault of students: an exploratory study of victims treated at hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Chertkow, Laura; Macdonald, Sheila; Asllani, Eriola; Bainbridge, Deidre; Rotbard, Nomi; Cohen, Marsha M

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that students experience high levels of sexual assault, but studies addressing how they differ in their experiences from other sexual assault victims are virtually nonexistent. To address this gap, information was collected from consecutive individuals, aged 16 years or older, presenting to one of 7 hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers in Ontario from 2005 to 2007. Of the 882 victims seen during the study period, 32% were students. Relative to other sexual assault victims, students were more likely to be aged 16 to 18 years and 19 to 24 years versus 25 years and older. They were more likely to be living alone, with family of origin, a partner or spouse, or a nonrelative than on the street or in a shelter or institution. They were also more likely to report having consumed over-the-counter medication in the 72 hours prior to examination. Student victims were less likely than nonstudent victims to report having a disability and having used street drugs. Implications for research, education, and practice are discussed.