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Sample records for drugs chinese herbal

  1. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  3. [Significance of re-evaluation and development of Chinese herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli

    2012-01-01

    The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.

  4. [European Union regulatory and quality requirements for botanical drugs and their implications for Chinese herbal medicinal products development].

    PubMed

    Zhu, You-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union(EU), and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Drug-use pattern of Chinese herbal medicines in insomnia: a 4-year survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, L-C; Chen, I-C; Wang, B-R; Shao, C-H

    2009-10-01

    Insomnia is a common complaint in the general population. Interest in the use of alternative treatments for insomnia is increasing exponentially and is fairly common in Taiwan. We undertook a survey to define the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines (CM) for insomnia in Taiwan. The survey was conducted over a period of 4 years, from January 2003 to December 2006. Outpatients with primary insomnia and being treated with CM were studied. Core drug-use indicators were the number of CM items per prescription, the dosing frequency and duration of CM prescriptions, the most common prescribed CM herbs and CM formulae used. Six thousand eight hundred and sixty patients, using 37,046 CM herb items, were screened during the study period. The average CM items per prescription was 5.40. Most of prescriptions (95.23%) were prescribed for administration three times a day. The most often prescribed Chinese herbal products were Hong-Hwa (Carthamus tinctorius) and Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San, which includes Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Paeonia lactiflora, Bupleurum chinense, and Poria coco. This is the first extensive survey examining the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of insomnia. Although the data were generated in Taiwan, the herbs and practices identified are likely to be widely generalizable wherever Chinese herbal remedies are used for insomnia. Multiple herbs and complex formulae were commonly used. The baseline data generated should be of use in informing subsequent studies, including those aimed at a thorough evaluation of the herbs' effectiveness.

  6. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  7. Chinese herbal drugs for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-03-01

    To explore the various pharmacological actions and the molecular mechanisms behind them by which Chinese herbs tend to lower the risk of developing microvascular diabetic complications in retina and prevent its further progression. Several Chinese herbs, indeed, elicit potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma receptor agonistic, platelet-activating factor antagonistic, aldose reductase inhibitory and various other beneficial pharmacological activities, required to counteract the pathological conditions prevalent in retina during diabetes. Chinese herbs can potentially be used for the treatment/prevention of diabetic retinopathy owing to the virtue of numerous properties by which they alleviate several hyperglycaemia-induced pathological occurrences in retina. This would provide a natural and safe therapy for diabetic retinopathy, which currently is clinically limited to destructive techniques like laser photocoagulation and vitrectomy. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Transporter modulation by Chinese herbal medicines and its mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Ma, Jiang; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2016-07-15

    The increasing use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) as complementary therapy and dietary supplement has been greatly raising the concerns about potential herb-drug interactions (HDIs). HDIs may cause the augmented or antagonized effects of prescription drugs, resulting in unexpected clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is of significance to identify or predict potential HDIs, and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Drug transporters play key roles in transmembrane passage of a large number of drugs, affecting their absorption, distribution and elimination. Modulation of drug transporters has been recognized as one of the main causes of HDIs. In the last decade, a growing number of Chinese medicinal herbs and their derived phytochemicals have been identified to have modulatory effect toward transporter proteins, leading to pharmacokinetic HDIs when concomitantly used with conventional drugs. Some of these transporter-mediated interactions have already shown clinical significance. This review article focuses on two major transporter superfamilies, the solute carrier (SLC) and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, to provide the recent advanced knowledge on CHMs and their inherent phytochemicals that interact with these transporters, and their induced pharmacokinetic HDIs from both preclinical and clinical aspects. In addition, the challenges and strategy for studying HDIs are also discussed.

  9. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research. PMID:28670279

  10. [Effects of kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal drugs on human osteoblast Ca2+ intake and mineralization in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wu, Wei-kang; Sun, Wei; Yu, Ke-qiang

    2004-12-01

    To study the effects of kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal drugs on Ca2+ intake and mineralization of human osteoblasts in vitro. Human osteoblasts were isolated from the iliac trabecular bone followed by purification and culture at 37 degrees Celsius with 5% CO2. The cells were identified by cell morphology, calcium nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. The third passage of the cultured osteoblasts were treated with 10% scrum from rat fed with the decoction of the kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal drugs of different concentrations for 30 min, 3 d and 28 d, respectively. The cells treated with 10% rat serum without the drugs served as the control. Flow cytometry was used to observe the changes in cell proliferation and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and von Kossa staining employed for quantification of the mineral nodules. The osteoblasts obtained were positive for ALP staining and could form calcium nodules in vitro. Flow cytometry showed that the drugs at different concentrations all increased Ca2+ influx, as compared with the control cells. The drugs also increased the relative proliferation index of the osteoblasts, and high concentration of the drugs resulted in greater number of the mineral nodules in the osteoblasts (P<0.05). The kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal drugs may increase Ca2+ influx and stimulate proliferation and differentiation of adult osteoblasts in vitro.

  11. [Inhibitory effects of fifteen kinds of Chinese herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on SOS response].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z C; Qian, J

    1994-05-01

    Effects of 15 kinds of herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on lex-dependent sfi-SOS response were determined by micropersistent and/or pulse models induced by 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and Mitomycin C (MMC) in Escherichia coli(E. coli) PQ37 and PQ35, respectively. Results showed the water extract of Rhizoma Polygonati (RP), Fructus Chebulae (FC), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM), Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (BFT), shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice, and solutions of 5-Fluorouracil, Tannic acid and garlicin could inhibit SOS responses with a dose-response relationship and suggested the inhibitory effects took place both inside and outside E. coli cells. Water extract of FC, FLL, BFT, shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice and solution of 5-Fluorouracil and Tannic acid could intracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by MMC in E. coli PQ35, and acetone extract of Grifola Frondosa (GF) could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses in E. coli PQ37 and intracellularly in PQ35 induced by 4NQO or MMC. Water extract of raw hawthorn. Radix Angelicae Duhuricae (RAD), Radix Ophiopogonis (RO), and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by 4NQO in E coli PQ37. The possible mechanisms of intracellular inhibition and antidamage repair were discussed in the paper.

  12. Fu-Ling, a Chinese herbal drug, modulates cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, S J; Tseng, J

    1996-01-01

    Fu-Ling, the sclederma of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, has long been used as a sedative and diuretic in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Our study demonstrated that the substances extracted from Fu-Ling by 50% hot ethanol significantly augmented the secretion of interleukins IL-1 beta and IL-6 6 h after in vitro cultivation of human peripheral blood monocytes. The augmented effect was dose dependent. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion was also increased as the cells were treated with 0.4 mg/ml or higher doses of Fu-Ling extract. By contrast, Fu-Ling extract significantly suppressed the secretion of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) 3 h after the in vitro drug treatment. The suppressive effect was shown at doses as low as 0.2 mg/ml of Fu-Ling extract. Since Fu-Ling extract enhanced the secretion of immune stimulators (IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) but suppressed the secretion of an immune suppressor (TGF-beta), the substance in 50% hot ethanol extract of Fu-Ling might have potentiated the immune response. Fu-Ling extract was further fractionated by reverse-phase column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The components showing activity in modulating the cytokine secretion were relatively high in hydrophobicity.

  13. Chinese herbal medicine for atopic dermatitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hsiewe Ying; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Chen, DaCan; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lenon, George Binh

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, itching skin disease, and conventional therapies offer inadequate symptom management. Patients with AD are increasingly turning to Chinese medicine. We systematically evaluated the clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of oral Chinese herbal medicine for AD. Searches were conducted on major electronic databases using the following key words: "randomized controlled trials," "atopic dermatitis," "traditional Chinese medicine," "traditional East Asian medicine," "herbal medicine," "Chinese herbal drugs," "medicinal plants," "phytotherapy," "Kampo medicine," and "Korean traditional medicine." The results were screened to include English/Chinese randomized controlled trials. A metaanalysis was conducted on suitable outcome measures. Seven randomized controlled trials were included (1 comparing Chinese herbal medicine and Western medicine with Western medicine alone; 6 comparing Chinese herbal medicine with placebo). Combined Chinese herbal medicine with Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone. Three placebo controlled trials showed significant treatment efficacy and 2 showed significantly reduced concurrent therapy with Chinese herbal medicine. No abnormalities in safety profile or severe adverse events were reported. A metaanalysis of all included studies could not be conducted because of study heterogeneity. Chinese herbal medicine significantly improved symptom severity of AD and was reported as well tolerated. However, the poor quality of studies did not allow for valid conclusions to support its tolerability and routine use. Additional studies addressing the methodologic issues are warranted to determine the therapeutic benefit of Chinese herbal medicine for AD. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chinese herbal medicines for hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Li, George Q; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen; Chan, Kelvin; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-06-06

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is associated with many diseases including atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and chylomicronaemia. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. To assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for hypertriglyceridaemia. We searched a number of databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and several Chinese databases (all until May 2012). Randomised controlled trials in participants with hypertriglyceridaemia comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion and a decision was achieved based on consensus. We assessed trials for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. We included three randomised trials with 170 participants. Ninety participants were randomised to the Chinese herbal medicines groups and 80 to the comparator groups with numbers ranging from 50 to 60 participants per trial. The duration of treatment varied from four to six weeks. All the included trials were conducted in China and published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was unclear. There were no outcome data in any of the trials on death from any cause, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, health-related quality of life, or costs.Three different herbal medicines, including Zhusuan Huoxue decoction, Huoxue Huayu Tongluo decoction, and Chushi Huayu decoction were evaluated. All three trials investigating Chinese herbal medicines treatment alone (two studies) or in combination with gemfibrozil (one study) reported results on serum triglyceride (TG) in favour of the herbal treatment. We did not perform a meta-analysis due to significant

  15. Chinese Proprietary Herbal Medicine Listed in ‘China National Essential Drug List’ for Common Cold: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Lewith, George; Wang, Li-qiong; Ren, Jun; Xiong, Wen-jing; Lu, Fang; Liu, Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chinese proprietary herbal medicines (CPHMs) have long history in China for the treatment of common cold, and lots of them have been listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ by the Chinese Ministry of Health. The aim of this review is to provide a well-round clinical evidence assessment on the potential benefits and harms of CPHMs for common cold based on a systematic literature search to justify their clinical use and recommendation. Methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites from their inception to 31 March 2013 for clinical studies of CPHMs listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ for common cold. There was no restriction on study design. Results A total of 33 CPHMs were listed in ‘China national essential drug list 2012’ for the treatment of common cold but only 7 had supportive clinical evidences. A total of 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 case series (CSs) were included; no other study design was identified. All studies were conducted in China and published in Chinese between 1995 and 2012. All included studies had poor study design and methodological quality, and were graded as very low quality. Conclusions The use of CPHMs for common cold is not supported by robust evidence. Further rigorous well designed placebo-controlled, randomized trials are needed to substantiate the clinical claims made for CPHMs. PMID:25329481

  16. Chinese proprietary herbal medicine listed in 'China national essential drug list' for common cold: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Lewith, George; Wang, Li-qiong; Ren, Jun; Xiong, Wen-jing; Lu, Fang; Liu, Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese proprietary herbal medicines (CPHMs) have long history in China for the treatment of common cold, and lots of them have been listed in the 'China national essential drug list' by the Chinese Ministry of Health. The aim of this review is to provide a well-round clinical evidence assessment on the potential benefits and harms of CPHMs for common cold based on a systematic literature search to justify their clinical use and recommendation. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites from their inception to 31 March 2013 for clinical studies of CPHMs listed in the 'China national essential drug list' for common cold. There was no restriction on study design. A total of 33 CPHMs were listed in 'China national essential drug list 2012' for the treatment of common cold but only 7 had supportive clinical evidences. A total of 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 case series (CSs) were included; no other study design was identified. All studies were conducted in China and published in Chinese between 1995 and 2012. All included studies had poor study design and methodological quality, and were graded as very low quality. The use of CPHMs for common cold is not supported by robust evidence. Further rigorous well designed placebo-controlled, randomized trials are needed to substantiate the clinical claims made for CPHMs.

  17. Immunomodulatory activity of a Chinese herbal drug Yi Shen Juan Bi in adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman; Peng, Cheng; Fang, Weirong; Han, Caifeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the immunomodulating mechanisms of a Chinese herbal medicine Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) in treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Expression of TNF-α mRNA and IL-1β mRNA in synovial cells was measured with the semi-quantitative technique of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while caspase-3 was examined by western blot analysis. Results: The administration of YJB significantly decreased the production of serum TNF-α and IL-1β. It also decreased significantly the TNF-α mRNA, IL-1β mRNA, and caspase-3 expression in synoviocytes. Conclusions: YJB produces the immunomodulatory effects by downregulating the over-activated cytokines, while it activates caspase-3, which is the key executioner of apoptosis in the immune system. This may be the one of the underlying mechanisms that explains how YJB treats the rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:20711367

  18. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional

  19. Exploring effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment with Chinese herbal medicine: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shiyan; Zhang, Runshun; Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Peng; He, Liyun; Liu, Baoyan

    2013-02-28

    Chinese herbal medicine is one of the most popular Chinese medicine (CM) therapies for primary insomnia. One of the important characteristics of CM is that different Chinese clinicians give different prescriptions even for the same patient. However, there must be some fixed drug patterns in every clinician's prescriptions. This study aims to screen the effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment of three prestigious Chinese clinicians. A triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial will be performed. Three clinicians will diagnose and treat every eligible patient individually and independently, producing three prescriptions from three clinicians for every patient. Patients will equally be randomized to one of four groups - medical group A, medical group B, medical group C, or placebo group - and observed for efficacy of treatment. The sample will include primary insomnia patients meeting DSM IV-TR criteria, Spiegel scale score >18, and age 18 to 65 years. A sequential design is employed. Interim analysis will be conducted when between 80 and 160 patients complete the study. The interim study could be stopped and treated as final if a statistically significant difference between treatment and placebo groups can be obtained and core effective drug patterns can be determined. Otherwise, the study continues until the maximum sample size reaches 300. Treatment of the CM group is one of three Chinese clinicians' prescriptions, who provide independently prescriptions based on their own CM theory and the patient's disease condition. Assessment will be by sleep diary and Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and CM symptoms and signs will be measured. Primary outcome is total sleep time. Assessment will be carried out at the washout period, weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 and 4th week after the end of treatment. Effectiveness analysis will be per intent to treat. A multi-dimension association rule and scale-free networks method will be used to

  20. Salvia miltiorrhiza: an ancient Chinese herbal medicine as a source for anti-osteoporotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yubo; Li, Yu; Xue, Liming; Severino, Richele P; Gao, Sihua; Niu, Jianzhao; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Dongwei; Brömme, Dieter

    2014-09-29

    Red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), also known as Danshen in Chinese, has been used historically and is currently exploited in combination with other herbs to treat skeletal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). With the advance of modern analytical technology, a multitude of bone-targeting, pharmaceutically active, compounds has been isolated and characterized from various sources of TCM including those produced in Salvia miltiorrhiza root. The aim of the review is to provide a comprehensive overview about the historical TCM interpretation of the action of Salvia miltiorrhiza in osteoporosis, its use clinical trials, its main phytochemical constituents, and its action on bone-resorptive and bone formation-stimulating mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo studies. Literature sources used were Pubmed, CNKI.net, Cqvip.com, PubChem, and the Web of Science. For the inquiry, keywords such as Salvia, danshen, osteoporosis, bone, osteoclast and osteoblast were used in various combinations. About 130 research papers and reviews were consulted. In TCM, the anti-osteopororotic effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza is ascribed to its action on liver and blood stasis as main therapeutic targets defining osteoporosis. 36 clinical trials were identified which used Salvia miltiorrhiza in combination with other herbs and components to treat post-menopausal, senile, and secondary osteoporosis. On average the trials were characterized by high efficacy (>80%) and low toxicity problems. However, various limitations such as small patient samples, short treatment duration, frequent lack of detailed numerical data, and no clear endpoints must be taken into consideration. To date, more than 100 individual compounds have been isolated from this plant and tested in various animal models and biochemical assays. Compounds display anti-resorptive and bone formation-stimulating features targeting different pathways in the bone remodeling cycle. Pathways affected include the activation of

  1. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents. PMID:20653978

  2. Drug interactions with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms.

  3. [Functional targets of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun

    2010-12-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.

  4. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  5. The rediscovery of ancient Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yan, Yong-Qing; Wang, Jie; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2004-08-01

    This review presents some recent discoveries of ancient Chinese herbal formulas evolved through thousands of years of clinical practice. It appears that many of the ancient combination formulas have sound scientific basis through modern pharmacological evaluation. Significant chemical changes occurred during the preparation (decoction) process of a prescribed herbal formula. For example, some toxic ingredients were significantly reduced and new active compounds generated due to the chemical interactions among the ingredients. Many combination formulas showed significantly better pharmacological results than individual herbal medicines participated in the formula. These findings suggest that the current drug screening and regulatory methodology will not be appropriate for the development of a botanical drug containing a group of phytochemicals, in which a synergistic interaction from chemical ingredients plays a fundamental role in the treatment of disease. If we view a diseased state in a holistic and dynamic way, i.e. it involves interactions among many biological systems in human body and these interactions change as the disease improves or worsens, the treatment of such disease with a single chemical entity may not be logical or technically feasible. Combination formulas may hold the potential to become the therapeutics of choice in the future due to the synergistic effect and dynamic adjustment achieved by the multiple ingredients that will restore the balance of an imbalanced or diseased human body.

  6. [Effect of entrainer on supercritical CO2 for extraction of tradition and herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Xi, Yanbin; Xia, Xiaohui; Jin, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Liqin; Tang, Shihuan

    2009-06-01

    Type, mode of affiliating, mechanism of action of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were briefly reviewed. Application of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of flavones, terpenes, sterols, and saponins in Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were recommended in particular. Some problems and directions in research of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were shown in this paper.

  7. Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2012-04-01

    Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using "microarray" and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.

  8. Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:24716122

  9. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  10. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2013-01-01

    Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47–0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers. PMID:24204397

  11. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2013-01-01

    Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47-0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers.

  12. [Inhibition of aldose reductase by Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Mao, X M; Zhang, J Q

    1993-10-01

    Seven Chinese herbal drugs were screened for experimental inhibition of lens aldose reductase activity, among which quercetin exhibited potent enzyme-inhibitory activities in vitro. Its IC50 value was 3.44 x 10(-7) mol/L. It may be helpful in the prophylaxis and treatment of diabetic complications.

  13. Chinese herbal medicines for treating osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Jian Ping; Xia, Yun

    2014-03-06

    Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time to treat osteoporosis. The evidence of their benefits and harms needs to be systematically reviewed. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of Chinese herbal medicines as a general experimental intervention for treating primary osteoporosis by comparing herbal treatments with placebo, no intervention and conventional medicine. We searched the following electronic databases to January 2013: the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, JICST-E, AMED, Chinese Biomedical Database and CINAHL. Randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicines compared with placebo, no intervention or conventional medicine were included. Two authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias independently. Disagreement was resolved by discussion. One hundred and eight randomised trials involving 10,655 participants were included. Ninety-nine different Chinese herbal medicines were tested and compared with placebo (three trials), no intervention (five trials) or conventional medicine (61 trials), or Chinese herbal medicines plus western medicine were compared with western medicine (47 trials). The risk of bias across all studies was unclear for most domains primarily due to inadequate reporting of study design. Although we rated the risk of selective reporting for all studies as unclear, only a few studies contributed numerical data to the key outcomes.Seven trials reported fracture incidence, but they were small in sample size, suffered from various biases and tested different Chinese herbal medicines. These trials compared Kanggusong capsules versus placebo, Kanggusong granule versus Caltrate or ipriflavone plus Caltrate, Yigu capsule plus calcium versus placebo plus calcium, Xianlinggubao capsule plus Caltrate versus placebo plus Caltrate, Bushen Zhuanggu granules plus Caltrate versus placebo granules plus Caltrate, Kanggusong soup plus Caltrate versus Caltrate

  14. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

  15. Review of selected Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Emily; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how Chinese herbal medicines are used in the treatment of diabetes, focusing on potential benefits and risks. Medline, expert interviews, and Internet searches were used to identify Chinese herbal medicines with antidiabetic properties and their diabetes-related health claim, proposed antidiabetic effect, adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions. Twenty-three herbs and 5 herbal formulas were selected for review. Antidiabetic health claims included increasing serum insulin, decreasing blood glucose, increasing glucose metabolism, and/or stimulating pancreatic function. Side effects were few or not reported. The use of Chinese herbal medicines in diabetes is promising but still far from proven. Diabetes educators need to be aware of the risks and benefits of herbal medicines. Patients should be asked about the use and source of herbal medicines and carefully monitored for drug interactions and adverse effects.

  16. [Research on application status of Chinese herbal decoction pieces based on clinical survey].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Hao; Wang, Peng-Li; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Li, Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-08-01

    Chinese herbal decoction pieces are the basic approaches for clinical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), reflecting the features and advantages of TCM. In order to investigate the clinical application status and features of Chinese herbal decoction pieces, the questionnaire on application of commonly used Chinese herbal decoction pieces was designed in this study for analysis of the application situations of Chinese herbal decoction pieces from 56 medical institutions in 10 provinces. The results showed 549 varieties of Chinese herbs and 801 varieties of decoction pieces were used on clinic. They can be classified into 19 categories according to their effects. The varieties of Gancao (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma), Huangqi (Astragali Radix), Dihuang (Rehmanniae Radix), Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong Rhizoma), Baizhu (Atractylodis Macrocephale Rhizima), Huangqin (Scutellariae Radix), Danggui (Angelicae Sinenses Radix), Baishao (Paeoniae Radix Alba) and Maidong (Ophiopogonis Radix) were most common ones; the application of Chinese herbal decoction pieces from different medical institutions was differentiated from areas to areas. The survey results reflected the general situation about application of decoction pieces, providing the basic data for recording and completing Chinese herbal decoction pieces in essential drug system, with certain reference significance for the production of Chinese medicinal materials and the allocation of the varieties of Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Antidiabetic herbal drugs officially approved in China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Lida

    2003-12-01

    Over the centuries, Chinese herbal drugs have served as a major source of medicines for the prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus (known as 'Xiao-ke'). It is estimated that more than 200 species of plants exhibit hypoglycaemic properties, including many common plants, such as pumpkin, wheat, celery, wax guard, lotus root and bitter melon. To date, hundreds of herbs and traditional Chinese medicine formulas have been reported to have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This paper provides a brief review of the antidiabetic drugs of plant origin that have been approved by the Chinese health regulatory agency for commercial use in China. It was believed, through pharmacological studies, that medicinal herbs were meticulously organized in these antidiabetic drug formulas such that polysaccharide containing herbs restore the functions of pancreatic tissues and cause an increase in insulin output by the functional beta cells, while other ingredients enhance the microcirculation, increase the availability of insulin and facilitate the metabolism in insulin-dependent processes. Pharmacological and clinical evaluations indicated that these drugs had a mild, but significant, blood glucose lowering effect and that the long-term use of these agents may be advantageous over chemical drugs in alleviating some of the chronic diseases and complications caused by diabetes. Additionally, the use of these natural agents in conjunction with conventional drug treatments, such as a chemical agent or insulin, permits the use of lower doses of the drug and/or decreased frequency of administration which decreases the side effects most commonly observed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple expressions of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-12-01

    Chinese herbal property is the highly summarized concept of herbal nature and pharmaceutical effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on human body. These herbal actions, also interpreted as presenting the information about pharmaceutical effect contained in herbal property on the biological carrier, are defined as herbal property expressions. However, the biological expression of herbal property is believed to possess complex features for the involved complexity of Chinese medicine and organism. Firstly, there are multiple factors which could influence the expression results of herbal property such as the growth environment, harvest season and preparing methods of medicinal herbs, and physique and syndrome of body. Secondly, there are multiple biological approaches and biochemical indicators for the expression of the same property. This paper elaborated these complexities for further understanding of herbal property. The individuality of herbs and expression factors should be well analyzed in the related studies.

  19. Treatment of asthma and food allergy with herbal interventions from traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2-3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with a high prevalence of anxiety, particularly in adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine, used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western healthcare. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine for asthma treatment. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of "antiasthma" herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, antiasthma herbal medicine intervention is the only antiasthma traditional Chinese medicine product that is a Food and Drug Administration investigational new drug that has entered clinical trials in the United States. Research into the effects and mechanisms of action of antiasthma herbal medicine intervention in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on traditional Chinese medicine herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 is the only Food and Drug Administration botanical investigational new drug under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. This review article discusses promising traditional Chinese medicine interventions for asthma, food allergy, and comorbid conditions, and explores their possible mechanisms of action. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  20. Characterization of phenolic compounds in the Chinese herbal drug Tu-Si-Zi by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Yan, Yuning; Guo, De-An

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are the major bioactive constituents of the Chinese herbal drug Tu-Si-Zi, which is prepared from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis. However, seeds of C. australis also are offered under the name of this drug in the herb market. In order to make a comparison of their chemical constituents, the phenolic compounds of these two Cuscuta species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). A total of 50 compounds were observed in the methanol extracts, including 23 flavonoids, 20 lignans and 7 quinic acid derivatives. These compounds were separated on a C18 column and identified or tentatively characterized based on UV spectra and MS fragmentation behavior. In contrast to previous reports, the phenolic patterns of these two Cuscuta species were found to be very different. Kaempferol and astragalin were the predominant constituents of C. australis, while hyperoside was the major compound in C. chinensis. Most of the identified compounds, especially the acylated flavonoid glycosides, have not previously been reported from Cuscuta species. In addition, a 30 Da neutral loss observed for flavonols was investigated and could be used to differentiate flavonoid isomers such as kaempferol and luteolin. The ESI-MS fragmentation behavior of furofuran lignans was also investigated, and a characteristic pathway is proposed. The large differences observed between the phenolic constituents of C. chinensis and C. australis strongly encouraged further comparison of the bioactivities of these two species.

  1. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation.

  2. Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

  3. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  4. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Placebos used in clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guan D; We, Ding A; Chung, Leung P; Fai, Cheng K

    2008-06-01

    One of the important components in randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is blinding. The gold standard of clinical trials is to achieve a double blind design. However, only a small number of randomized controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine have been reported, most of them are of poor quality in methodology including placebo preparation and verification. The purpose of the article is to review the validity of placebo used in blinded clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in recent years and related patents. We searched the Wanfang Database (total of 827 Chinese journals of medicine and/or pharmacy, from 1999 to 2005) and 598 full-length articles related to placebo clinical trials were found. 77 placebo blinded clinical trials for Chinese medicine were extracted by manual search from the 598 articles. After reviewing the 77 full-length articles, we found that nearly half of the clinical trials did not pay attention to the physical quality of the testing drug and placebo and whether they were of comparable physical quality. The rest provided very limited placebo information so that blinding assurance could not be assumed. Only 2 articles (2.6%) specifically validated the comparability between the testing drug and the placebo. Researchers in Chinese medicine commonly ignored the quality of the placebo in comparison to the test drug. This may be causing bias in the clinical trials. Quality specifications and evaluation of the placebo should deserve special attention to reduce bias in randomized controlled trials in TCM study.

  6. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  7. Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs.

  8. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  9. Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoshu; Liew, Yuklan; Liu, Zhao Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) usage is expected to increase as women suffering from menopausal symptoms are seeking alternative therapy due to concerns from the adverse effects (AEs) associated with hormone therapy (HT). Scientific evidence for their effectiveness and safety is needed. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Search methods We searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group’s Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO (from inception to March 2015). Others included Current Control Trials, Citation Indexes, conference abstracts in the ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS database, PubMed, OpenSIGLE database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI, 1999 to 2015). Other resources included reference lists of articles as well as direct contact with authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of CHM with placebo, HT, pharmaceutical drugs, acupuncture, or another CHM formula in women over 18 years of age, and suffering from menopausal symptoms. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed 864 studies for eligibility. Data extractions were performed by them with disagreements resolved through group discussion and clarification of data or direct contact with the study authors. Data analyses were performed in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Main results We included 22 RCTs (2902 women). Participants were from different ethnic backgrounds with the majority of Chinese origin. When CHM was compared with placebo (eight RCTs), there was little or no evidence of a difference between the groups for the following pooled outcomes: hot flushes per day (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.88 to 0.89; 2 trials, 199 women; moderate quality evidence); hot flushes per day assessed by an overall hot

  10. Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoshu; Liew, Yuklan; Liu, Zhao Lan

    2016-03-15

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) usage is expected to increase as women suffering from menopausal symptoms are seeking alternative therapy due to concerns from the adverse effects (AEs) associated with hormone therapy (HT). Scientific evidence for their effectiveness and safety is needed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. We searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group's Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO (from inception to March 2015). Others included Current Control Trials, Citation Indexes, conference abstracts in the ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS database, PubMed, OpenSIGLE database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI, 1999 to 2015). Other resources included reference lists of articles as well as direct contact with authors. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of CHM with placebo, HT, pharmaceutical drugs, acupuncture, or another CHM formula in women over 18 years of age, and suffering from menopausal symptoms. Two review authors independently assessed 864 studies for eligibility. Data extractions were performed by them with disagreements resolved through group discussion and clarification of data or direct contact with the study authors. Data analyses were performed in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. We included 22 RCTs (2902 women). Participants were from different ethnic backgrounds with the majority of Chinese origin.When CHM was compared with placebo (eight RCTs), there was little or no evidence of a difference between the groups for the following pooled outcomes: hot flushes per day (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.88 to 0.89; 2 trials, 199 women; moderate quality evidence); hot flushes per day assessed by an overall hot flush score in which a difference of one point equates to one mild hot flush per day (MD -0.81 points, 95

  11. [Exploration on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoqing

    2010-03-01

    For exploration on the academic thought on processing of Chinese herbal medicine the basic theory and methods, textual research of the scientific of Zhang Zhongiing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was summarized, and the historical significance on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was analyzed. Regarded Zhang Zhongjing is the ancestor of processing of Chinese herbal medicine to lay the theoretical foundation on processing of Chinese herbal medicine for later.

  12. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  13. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  14. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  15. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  16. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  17. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range.

  18. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for Asthma and Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

  19. [Sulfur-fumigation, maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine-discard or inheritance].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu; Qin, Kun-Ming; Zou, Nuo-Shu; Lou, Ya-Jing; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur-fumigation processing technology is an ancient maintenance method, which plays a certain role in storage and preservation for Chinese herbal medicine. But in recent years, with the further explanation of sulfur-fumigation processing mechanism and more attention to the safety of drugs, such traditional maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine is now being questioned by more and more people. The authors think we should have selective inheritance rather than abslute discard to this ancient processing technology after reviewing the literatures published in recent 20 years, and some suggestions are also put forward, which can supply some references for related drug supervision departments.

  20. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview

    PubMed Central

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  1. [Current status of Chinese herbal preparations included in LiverTox database].

    PubMed

    Jin, R; Gu, H Y; Li, L L; Sun, L L

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the contents and features of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) database called LiverTox, as well as 37 herbal preparations included in this database. Methods: Firstly, the source and contents of LiverTox were briefly introduced, including the clinical features, types, severity, and causality assessment scale of DILI. Secondly, detailed information of 37 herbal preparations included in the class of "Herbals and Dietary Supplements" were extracted, including drug name, origin, efficacy, constituents, type of liver injury, and manifestations, to perform a preliminary statistical analysis. Finally, a comparative analysis was performed between such information and current knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine-induced liver injury in China. Results: LiverTox was a DILI database with open access and rich information and provided practical information on treatment, typing, causality assessment, and treatment. Among the 37 herbal preparations, 28 had the risk of liver injury. The most common indication was weight loss, followed by arthritis and constipation. The latency of hepatotoxicity ranged from 4 weeks to 6 months. Compared with the current knowledge in China, there were differences in the varieties and indications for herbal preparations with hepatotoxicity included in LiverTox, and many herbals with acknowledged hepatotoxicity in China were not included. Conclusion: LiverTox database is concise and practical, but there are certain differences between the herbal preparations included in this database and current knowledge in China.

  2. [Drug design ideas and methods of Chinese herb prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun-guo; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-09-01

    The new drug of Chinese herbal prescription, which is the best carrier for the syndrome differentiation and treatment of Chinese medicine and is the main form of the new drug research and development, plays a very important role in the new drug research and development. Although there are many sources of the prescriptions, whether it can become a new drug, the necessity, rationality and science of the prescriptions are the key to develop the new drug. In this article, aiming at the key issues in prescriptions design, the source, classification, composition design of new drug of Chinese herbal prescriptions are discussed, and provide a useful reference for research and development of new drugs.

  3. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Cardiovascular Diseases and the Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27990122

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Cardiovascular Diseases and the Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  6. Moxibustion with Chinese herbal has good effect on allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Cunyun; Peng, Congjian; Wei, Guojian; Huang, Xuhui; Fu, Tingting; Du, Yu; Wang, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of rhino-ocular mucosa, affecting up to 40% of population worldwide. Chinese herbal medicines and Acupuncture, adopted thousands of years in China, has good effect on allergic rhinitis. This study evaluates the effects of Moxibustion with Chinese herbal in treating patients with allergic rhinitis over a 1-year follow-up. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 355 participants recruited from Guangdong general hospital of China. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to treatment-group or control group. Treatment group received Moxibustion with Chinese herbal. Control group received Loratadine. The main outcomes, including symptom severity and quality of life were measured using the Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Both moxibustion with Chinese herbal and Loratadine improve nose symptoms such as stuffy/blocked, sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, sore nose and post-nasal drip in patients with AR. Symptoms fatigue, loss of taste, afraid of cold/wind and cold limb were improved significantly in moxibustion with Chinese herbal group. The mean quality of life scores decreased in both groups after treatment. Compare to control group, moxibustion with Chinese herbal is more effective than Loratadine in improving the quality of life in patients with AR. The results show moxibustion with Chinese herbal was effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis. It is a simple, convenient and economic therapy for patients with AR. Further controlled trials of its effects in patients with allergic rhinitis are recommended. PMID:26629174

  7. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-01

    Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT.

  8. Quality Standards for Herbal Drugs and Herbal Drug Preparations - Appropriate or Improvements Necessary?

    PubMed

    Länger, Reinhard; Stöger, Erich; Kubelka, Wolfgang; Helliwell, Keith

    2017-08-29

    Standards for quality control as defined in the European Pharmacopoeia contribute significantly to a consistent and high quality of herbal drugs, herbal drug preparations, and herbal medicinal products. The minimum content of single plant constituents is considered of high relevance. Therefore, nearly all monographs on herbal drugs or herbal drug preparations contain an obligatory assay.However, a critical evaluation of the data published for such assayed constituents reveals that in most cases these constituents have to be considered as purely analytical markers without correlation to quality or efficacy. Examples where the assay does not meet its objective support the need to adapt current quality standards. Moreover, the trend to increase the content of certain constituents may lead to significant modifications to traditional manufacturing processes.In order to initiate a scientific discussion, the role of the assay in the context of quality requirements, quality documentation in the manufacturing process, safety, and efficacy is discussed and possible alternatives to the single marker assay are examined. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Chinese herbal medicine, sibship, and blood lead in children

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, T. J.; Wong, R. H.; Lin, Y. P.; Hwang, Y. H.; Horng, J. J.; Wang, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for increased blood lead concentration (BPb) has been investigated. However, the effect of sibship and Chinese herbal medicine on BPb has not been systematically studied. In this study BPb data from voluntary testing was used to determine if Chinese herbal medicine and sibship were associated with BPb. METHODS: 319 children aged 1-7 were tested for BPb. Meanwhile, parents were interviewed to obtain information including consumption of Chinese herbal medicine, living environment, lifestyle, and sibship of the children tested. RESULTS: The mean (SD) BPb of 319 preschool children was 4.4 (2.4) micrograms/dl. The consumption of Ba-baw-san (a Chinese herbal medicine) was significantly associated with increased BPb in children (p = 0.038). Further multivariate regression analysis of BPb in 50 pairs of siblings showed the factors of being brothers explained 75% of variation for BPb, and being sisters and brother-sister explained 51% and 41% of variation respectively. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine and children's play patterns within the family expressed in different types of sibship are the main determinants of low concentrations of BPb in preschool children of Taiwan.   PMID:9849547

  10. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  11. Anticancer effects of Chinese herbal medicine, science or myth?*

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wen-jing; Lai, Mao-de; Zhou, Jian-guang

    2006-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). In the past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results, from a western perspective, in the cancer research field regarding the anticancer effects of CHM. Experiments showed that CHM played its anticancer role by inducing apoptosis and differentiation, enhancing the immune system, inhibiting angiogenesis, reversing multidrug resistance (MDR), etc. Clinical trials demonstrated that CHM could improve survival, increase tumor response, improve quality of life, or reduce chemotherapy toxicity, although much remained to be determined regarding the objective effects of CHM in human in the context of clinical trials. Interestingly, both laboratory experiments and clinical trials have demonstrated that when combined with chemotherapy, CHM could raise the efficacy level and lower toxic reactions. These facts raised the feasibility of the combination of herbal medicines and chemotherapy, although much remained to be investigated in this area. PMID:17111471

  12. TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. Description The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski’s rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. Conclusions The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php. PMID:24735618

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Osteoporosis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yong-Xiang; Wu, Peng; Mao, Yi-Fan; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Jia-Feng; Chen, Wen-Liang; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Xiao-Lin

    2017-09-08

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in the elderly population. Several studies have suggested that Chinese herbal medicine has antiosteoporotic activities that might be beneficial for osteoporosis. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in osteoporosis patients. We comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (until December 2016) that compared Chinese herbal medicine with Western medicine in adults with osteoporosis and reported bone mineral densities (BMDs). A total of 10 randomized controlled trials were included. The pooled results suggested that the increased spine BMD was lower but not significant in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the Western drug group (standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.62 to 0.39, p > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, in postmenopausal women, Chinese herbal medicine also showed a insignificantly higher increment in BMD than the control group (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI: -0.00 to 0.43, p = 0.05). For different treatment durations, subgroups over 6 mo (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI: -0.24 to 0.41, p > 0.05) and less than 6 mo (SMD = -0.25, 95% CI: -1.14 to 0.64, p > 0.05) showed comparable BMDs between the 2 therapies. Our study demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine alone did not significantly increase lumbar spine BMD. Further studies with better adherence to the intervention are needed to confirm the results of this meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (中藥 zhōng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (丹參 dān shēn), Notoginseng Radix (三七 sān qī), Lycii Fructus (枸杞子 gǒu qǐ zǐ), Cnidii Fructus (蛇床子 shé chuáng zǐ), Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn), Puerariae Radix (葛根 gé gēn), Puerariae Flos (葛花 gé huā), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (厚朴 hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (桔梗 jié gěng), and Trigonellae Semen (胡蘆巴 hú lú bā). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

  16. CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration (Traditional Chinese Version).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chung-Wah; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Li, You-Ping; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2017-07-18

    Editors' Note: This article is the traditional Chinese version of the CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. (Cheng C, Wu T, Shang H, Li, Y, Altman D, Moher D; CONSORT-CHM Formulas 2017 Group. CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:112-21. [Epub 27 June 2017]. doi:10.7326/M16-2977).

  17. CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration (Simplified Chinese Version).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chung-Wah; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Li, You-Ping; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2017-07-18

    Editors' Note: This article is the simplified Chinese version of the CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. (Cheng C, Wu T, Shang H, Li, Y, Altman D, Moher D; CONSORT-CHM Formulas 2017 Group. CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:112-21. [Epub 27 June 2017]. doi:10.7326/M16-2977).

  18. Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

    The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

  19. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.

  20. [Discussing of influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui-Fu; Nie, He-Yun; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Li, Rong-Miao

    2014-10-01

    This study left flavonoids and alkaloids Chinese herbal monomer with common parent nucleus as cream base carriages drug respectively, cream base were prepared with stable span 60-tween 80 emulsification system. The near-infrared stability analysis technology was performed to quantitatively characterize the physical stability of cream. Base on the theory of gel network structure, theory of emulsification, theory of solubility parameter and theory of double layer, the influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream was discussed. The results showed that tetrahydropalmatine, matrine and naringenin had similar solubility parameter value with cream base material, creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomer have higher Zeta potential value and stronger physical stability, and that those creams had similar microstructure information with cream base. However, a larger solubility parameter difference exists between baicalin, baicalein, berberine, palmatine and cream base material. Creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomers had lower Zeta potential value and poorer physical stability, and that those creams had great different microstructure information with cream base.

  1. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

  2. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Devi, V Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.

  3. Herbal drug regulation and commercialization: an Indian industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-12-01

    To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries.

  4. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  5. Insights from molecular investigations of traditional Chinese herbal stroke medicines: implications for neuroprotective epilepsy therapy.

    PubMed

    Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2006-03-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine is the most widely practiced form of herbalism worldwide. It is based on a sophisticated system of medical theory and practice that is distinctly different from orthodox Western scientific medicine. Most traditional therapeutic formulations consist of a combination of several drugs. The combination of multiple drugs is thought to maximize therapeutic efficacy by facilitating synergistic actions and ameliorating or preventing potential adverse effects while at the same time aiming at multiple targets. Orthodox drug therapy has been subject to critical analysis by the "evidence-based medicine" movement, and demands have been made that herbal medicine should be subject to the same kind of scrutiny. However, evaluation of the effectiveness of herbal medicines can be challenging, as their active components are often not known. Accordingly, it may be difficult to ensure that an herbal preparation used in clinical trials contains the components underlying its purported therapeutic effect. We reasoned that the identification of actions of herbal medicines at well-defined molecular targets and subsequent identification of chemical compounds underlying these molecular effects might serve as surrogate markers in the hypothesis-guided evaluation of their therapeutic efficacy. A research program was initiated to characterize in vitro molecular actions of a collection of 58 traditional Chinese drugs that are often used for the treatment of stroke. The results indicate that these drugs possess activity at disparate molecular targets in the signaling pathways involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated neuronal injury and death. Each herbal drug contains diverse families of chemical compounds, where each family comprises structurally related members that act with low affinity at multiple molecular targets. The data appear to support the multicomponent, multitarget approach of traditional Chinese medicine. Glutamate release and

  6. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression: applications, efficacies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Menglin; Liang, Yan; Yang, Yiting; Liu, Zhe; Yao, Keyu; Chen, Zijie; Zhai, Shuangqing

    2017-09-18

    Depression is a common psychiatric disorder and a leading cause of disability world-wide. Traditional Chinese medicine is one of the commonly used complementary and alternative medicine therapies for depression. Clinical trials have been carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine currently. The exploration of herbal mechanisms of action used for the treatment of depression has also received great attention. This study is performed to summarize the frequently used formulae, patent drugs and single herbs in treating depression, review the literatures of clinical trials in treating depressive disorders, and to list the possible mechanisms involved during the treatment. Besides, we will analyze the limitations of present studies and the obstacles in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Now playing: E-mail to a friend ... care provider says it’s OK. Not all drugs, herbal products or supplements are safe to take during pregnancy. If you’ ...

  8. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products.

  9. [Multimorbidity and multi-target-therapy with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Saller, R; Rostock, M

    2012-12-12

    The active components of herbal drugs and substances are pleiotropic multi-ingredient compounds with multitarget properties including antiinflammatory effects. A pleiotropic inhibition of inflammation could play an important role in mutlimorbide patients as an attempt of prevention or retardation of metastasis. A large number of experimental data for European and non-European herbal drugs as well as various herbal drug combinations suggest such a possibility. Despite the so far small number of clinical studies, such an experimental herbal treatment could appear to be reasonable and acceptable, provided that there are data available on quality and safety of these herbal drugs by treatments of patients with various diseases. Besides, herbal drugs and substances play a growing role the treatment of patients with multimorbidity. Many of these herbal drugs have antiinflammatory effects beside their proved symptomatic efficacy in a lot of other diseases. The specific selection of herbal drugs that are efficacious in specific indications and additionally showed antiinflammatory effects offers the possibility of simultaneous antiinflammatory and specific efficacy. St. John's Wort and milk thistle belong to the oldest and to the best experimentally and clinically examined herbal remedies. The spectrum of internal and external uses of Hypercum perforatum as a multicompound herbal drug includes functional gastro-intestinal complaint and illness, skin disease, mucosal lesion, superficial injury, depressive upset and depression, somatoform disorders, restlessness, nervosity, convalescence, exhaustion and sleep disturbances respectively. The plurivalent character of the multicompound even enables a broad spectrum of activity. This might justify to prefer St. John's Wort to other drugs in a wide range of treatments: In multimorbide patients with depression or in depressive patients with coronary heart disease the anti-inflammatory effects could mean an additional advantage

  10. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations. PMID:27462269

  11. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  12. An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed. PMID:15480438

  13. An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yeong-Deug; Chang, Il-Moo

    2004-09-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as 'Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.' By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.

  14. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  15. Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

  16. New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

  17. Common Herbal Dietary Supplement-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Corbett, Amanda H; Hawke, Roy L

    2017-07-15

    Nearly 25% of U.S. adults report concurrently taking a prescription medication with a dietary supplement. Some supplements, such as St. John's wort and goldenseal, are known to cause clinically important drug interactions and should be avoided by most patients receiving any pharmacologic therapy. However, many other supplements are predicted to cause interactions based only on in vitro studies that have not been confirmed or have been refuted in human clinical trials. Some supplements may cause interactions with a few medications but are likely to be safe with other medications (e.g., curcumin, echinacea, garlic, Asian ginseng, green tea extract, kava kava). Some supplements have a low likelihood of drug interactions and, with certain caveats, can safely be taken with most medications (e.g., black cohosh, cranberry, ginkgo, milk thistle, American ginseng, saw palmetto, valerian). Clinicians should consult reliable dietary supplement resources, or clinical pharmacists or pharmacologists, to help assess the safety of specific herbal supplement-drug combinations. Because most patients do not disclose supplement use to clinicians, the most important strategy for detecting herb-drug interactions is to develop a trusting relationship that encourages patients to discuss their dietary supplement use.

  18. Systems approaches and polypharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines: an example using licorice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Jinan; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2013-04-19

    Licorice, one of the oldest and most popular herbal medicines in the world, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as a cough reliever, anti-inflammatory, anti-anabrosis, immunomodulatory, anti-platelet, antiviral (hepatitis) and detoxifying agent. Licorice was used as an example to show drug discovery from herbal drugs using systems approaches and polypharmacology. Herbal medicines are becoming more mainstream in clinical practice and show value in treating and preventing diseases. However, due to its extreme complexity both in chemical components and mechanisms of action, deep understanding of botanical drugs is still difficult. Thus, a comprehensive systems approach which could identify active ingredients and their targets in the crude drugs and more importantly, understand the biological basis for the pharmacological properties of herbal medicines is necessary. In this study, a novel systems pharmacology model that integrates oral bioavailability screening, drug-likeness evaluation, blood-brain barrier permeation, target identification and network analysis has been established to investigate the herbal medicines. The comprehensive systems approach effectively identified 73 bioactive components from licorice and 91 potential targets for this medicinal herb. These 91 targets are closely associated with a series of diseases of respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and gastrointestinal system, etc. These targets are further mapped to drug-target and drug-target-disease networks to elucidate the mechanism of this herbal medicine. This work provides a novel in silico strategy for investigation of the botanical drugs containing a huge number of components, which has been demonstrated by the well-studied licorice case. This attempt should be helpful for understanding definite mechanisms of action for herbal medicines and discovery of new drugs from plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic review on safety and drug interaction of herbal therapy in hyperlipidemia: a guide for internist.

    PubMed

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Gharipour, Mojgan; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Saeed; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-09-14

    Because of reporting high side effects related to biosynthetic drugs, recent attention has been paid to the use of herbs instead of chemical drugs to balance serum lipids. The present systematic review aimed to evaluate the safety of herbal medicines and also to assess drug interaction in herbal therapy in treating hyperlipidemia. The international research databases including MEDLINE; Google scholar, Web of Science SciVerse Scopus (SCOPUS); EBSCO Academic Search; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched from their respective inceptions up to September 2014 with the search terms of "hyperlipidemia", "herbal medicine", "medicine traditional", "extract plant", "Traditional Medicine" and "Chinese Herbal Medicine" without narrowing or limiting search elements. A total of 85 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) studies were finally assessed on human subjects. A notable number of herbal drugs that are commonly used as an anti-hyperlipidemia agent may be interacted with a variety of biosynthetic drugs. In this regard, the most common reported herb-drug reactions were related to anticoagulants, antidepressants, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, and/or even antihypertension and anti-lipidemic drugs. Also, a considerable number of anti-lipidemic drugs of plants origin may be accompanied with metabolic disturbances and serious complications within pregnancy and breast feeding. The main fundamental principles for administration of these drugs include physicians' complete awareness of the effects and interactions of these drugs, educating people not taking these drugs arbitrarily, and closely monitoring the verification and distribution of the drugs in the society.

  20. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  1. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicines Attenuate Acute Pancreatitis: Pharmacological Activities and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hong; Zhang, Qingkai; Qi, Bing; Tao, Xufeng; Xia, Shilin; Song, Huiyi; Qu, Jialin; Shang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a commonly occurring gastrointestinal disorder. An increase in the annual incidence of AP has been observed, and it causes acute hospitalization and high mortality. The diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AP recommend conservative medical treatments focused on reducing pancreatic secretion and secondary injury, as a primary therapeutic approach. Unfortunately, the existing treatment options have limited impact on the incidence and severity of AP due to the complex and multifaceted pathological process of this disease. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have been used as efficient therapeutic agents to attenuate AP in Asian countries. Despite early cell culture, animal models, and clinical trials, CHMs are capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets participating in the pathogenesis of AP; however, comprehensive, up-to-date communication in this field is not yet available. This review focuses on the pharmacological activities of CHMs against AP in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanisms. A computational prediction of few selected and promising plant-derived molecules (emodin, baicalin, resveratrol, curcumin, ligustrazine, and honokiol) to target numerous proteins or networks involved in AP was initially established based on a network pharmacology simulation. Moreover, we also summarized some potential toxic natural products for pancreas in order to more safe and reasonable medication. These breakthrough findings may have important implications for innovative drug research and the future development of treatments for AP. PMID:28487653

  3. Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Female Infertility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Female infertility is when a woman of reproductive age and sexual active, without contraception, cannot get pregnant after a year and more or keeps having miscarriages. Although conventional treatments for infertility such as hormone therapy, in vitro fertilization and many more, helped many female patients with infertility get pregnant during past a few decades, it is far from satisfactory with prolonging treatment time frames and emotional and financial burden. In recent years, more patients with infertile problems are seeking to alternative and complementary medicines to achieve a better outcome. In particular, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly popular for treating infertility due to its effectiveness and complimentary with conventional treatments. However, the mechanisms of action of CHM in treating female infertility are not well understood. In this chapter authors reviewed research development of CHM applied in many infertile models and CHM clinical studies in many conditions associated with female infertility, published in past 15 years. The data of review showed that CHM has either specific target mechanisms of action or multitarget mechanisms of action, via regulating relevant hormone levels in female reproductive system, improving ovary function, enhancing uterine receptivity. More studies are warranted to explore the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Chinese herbal recipes on immunity in immunosuppressive mice.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yongzhan; Jing, Cui; Shi, Wanyu

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese herbal formula consisting of Astragalus membranaceus, Epimedium brevicornum, Paeoniae Alba Radix and Radix Ophiopogonis in proper proportions were adopted in order to investigate the immunoenhancing properties of the herbal formula. Fifty ICR mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (NS- NS+Hy-L+Hy-M+Hy-H+Hy ). The mice in hydrocortisone (Hy) groups were injected with hydrocortisone i.p. to induce the immunosuppressive condition. The mice in group NS were administered with normal saline as controls. The mice in groups NS+Hy-L+Hy-M+Hy-H+Hy were administered with normal saline, low, moderate and high dose of the herbal prescription respectively by gavage for 6 days. The level of serum hemolysin, the function of antibody function cell-AFC-and CD4⁺/CD8⁺ T cell ratio were measured at the end of experiments. The results showed that the level of serum hemolysin, the function of AFC and CD4⁺/CD8⁺ T cell ratio in L+Hy-M+Hy-H+Hy groups increased significantly compared with those in NS or NS+Hy groups. These results indicate that Chinese herbal medicine prescription can enhance humoral immunity and cellular immune function of the immunosuppressive mouse.

  5. Herbal drugs for diabetic treatment: an updated review of patents.

    PubMed

    Wais, Mohd; Nazish, Iram; Samad, Abdus; Beg, Sarwer; Abusufyan, S; Ajaj, S Ajaz; Aqil, Mohd

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, affecting 16 million individuals in the United States and 200 million worldwide. Despite the use of advanced synthetic drugs for the treatment, use of herbal remedies is gaining higher importance because of synthetic drugs have drawbacks and limitations. The herbal drugs with antidiabetic activity are extensively formulated commercially because of easy availability, affordability and less side effects as compared to the synthetic antidiabetic drugs. Antidiabetic herbal formulations (AHF) are considered to be more effective for the management of diabetes. There are around 600 herbal drug manufacturers in India of which almost all manufacturers are developing AHF in addition to others. Till date, no article is published to give detailed information of the patents on AHF. Thus, this review article undertake the attempt for providing updated information on the type of diabetes and patented AHF which will enhance the existing knowledge of the researchers.

  6. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bell's Palsy Prostate Cancer: Herbal Supplements What are herbal supplements? Products made from botanicals, or plants, that are ... the use of herbal supplements. The FDA and herbal supplements The FDA considers herbal supplements foods, not drugs. ...

  7. [Study on solubility of Chinese herbal compound by solubility parameter].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Chen, Lihua; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Weifeng; Guan, Yongmei

    2010-02-01

    To demonstrate the solubility of Chinese herbal compound with solubility parameters. The solubility parameters of Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound were determined by inverse gas chromatograph (IGC) and group contribution. Hansen ball was plotting by HSPiP, which could be used to investigate the solubility of Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound in different solvents. And the results were verified by approximate solubility. Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound could be dissolved in chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, octanol and ether, and were slightly soluble in glycerol, methanol, ethanol and propanediol, but could not be dissolved in water. They were all liposoluble, and the results were the same as the test results of the approximate solubility. The solubility of Chinese herbal compound can be expressed by solubility parameters, and it is accurate, convenient and visual.

  8. Ayurvedic herbal drugs with possible cytostatic activity.

    PubMed

    Smit, H F; Woerdenbag, H J; Singh, R H; Meulenbeld, G J; Labadie, R P; Zwaving, J H

    1995-07-07

    Ayurveda is considered to be the traditional science of health in India and is based on the principle of subjectivity. All matter is composed of five basic elements, which can be perceived by the five sense organs. All food and drugs are classified according to their pharmacological properties, which are derived from these five elements. To investigate which Ayurvedic plants might have cytostatic activity, an Ayurvedic model for the pathogenesis of cancer was made. Based on this, selection criteria were formed, that were used to select plants from a list of Ayurvedic herbal drugs. Some of the selected species could be collected in India and Nepal. The dried material of 14 species was submitted to ethanol (70% v/v) extraction and the extracts were tested for cytotoxicity on COLO 320 tumour cells, using the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The IC50-value, the concentration causing 50% growth inhibition of the tumour cells, was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. Extracts of the flowers of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) and of the nuts of Semecarpus anacardium L.f. (Anacardiaceae) displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect with IC50-values of 1.4 micrograms/ml and 1.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. The extracts of several other plants did not show a cytotoxic effect up to 100 micrograms/ml, the highest concentration tested.

  9. Delayed luminescence: an experimental protocol for Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Roeland; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In Chinese medicine, raw herbal materials are used in processed and unprocessed forms aiming to meet the different requirements of clinical practice. To assure the chemical quality and therapeutic properties of the herbs, fast and integrated systematic assays are required. So far, such assays have not been established. Delayed luminescence (DL) refers to a decaying long-term ultraweak photon emission after exposure to light. Its decay kinetics under certain conditions may be a sensitive indicator reflecting the internal structural and chemical/physiological state of a biological system. DL measurements have been used in many applications for quality control. However, relatively little research has been reported on dried plant material such as Chinese herbs. The objective of the present study is to establish a protocol for direct and rapid DL measurements of dried Chinese herbal materials, including the determination of the dependence on: (a) the optimal excitation time utilizing a white light source; (b) the optimal size of the grinded herbal particle; and (c) the humidity conditions before and during measurement. Results indicate that stable and reproducible curves of DL photon emission depend mainly on the water content of herbal materials. To investigate the application of the established DL measurement protocol, non-processed and processed Aconitum (Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.), wild and cultivated rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.) and ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Mey) of different ages were measured using DL. The results suggest that DL technology is a potential tool for assessment of dried Chinese herb qualities. The results warrant a further exploration of this technique in relation to therapeutic properties of the herbs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Chinese Herbal Therapy for Chronic Tension-Type Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tong, YanQing; Yu, LiXiang; Sun, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal therapy on chronic tension-type headache. Method. 132 patients with chronic tension-type headache were enrolled in the study. All patients filled in headache questionnaire at baseline phase and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after baseline. As an alternative therapeutic method, the patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Therapeutic effects were evaluated during 12 weeks of followup. Result. In the primary outcome analysis, mean headache scores were significantly lower in the group. Scores fell by 25%–40% during 12 weeks of followup. Patients fared significantly well for most secondary outcome measures. From baseline to 4–12 weeks of followup, the number of days with headache decreased by 6.8–9.5 days. Duration of each attack also significantly (P < 0.05) shortened from 5.3 hours at 4 weeks to 4.9 hours after 8 weeks of followup. Days with medication per four weeks at followup were lower than those at the baseline. The differences were significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) for all end points. Days with medication fell by 56.6% at 12 weeks. Conclusion. The study has provided evidence that Chinese herbal therapy can be clinically useful for the treatment of chronic tension-type headache. PMID:26175793

  11. Clinical Strategy for Optimal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Dose Selection in Disease Therapeutics: Expert Consensus on Classic TCM Herbal Formula Dose Conversion.

    PubMed

    Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.

  12. Roles of Autophagy in Ischemic Heart Diseases and the Modulatory Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Yu, Weiqing; Liu, Yuntao; Zhong, Guofu; Zhao, Zhen; Yan, Xia; Liu, Qing

    2017-09-25

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation process which eliminates dysfunctional proteins and cytoplasmic components to maintain homeostasis for cell survival. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the modulatory role of autophagy in ischemic heart diseases (IHDs). Traditionally, this process has been recognized as having protective functions, such as inhibiting atherosclerosis progression and reducing cell death during the ischemic phase. However, recent studies have suggested its dual roles in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury. Excessive autophagy may play a deleterious role in cardiac function, due to overwhelming clearance of cellular constituents and proteins. Hence modulation of autophagy to increase cardiomyocyte survival and improve cardiac function is meaningful for the treatment of IHD. Chinese herbal medicine, including extractive compounds and patented drugs, has shown its potential role in treating IHD by addressing autophagy-related mechanisms. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the molecular basis and modulatory role of autophagy in IHD and the recent progress of Chinese herbal medicine in its treatment.

  13. [Herbal remedies: nephrotoxicity and drug interactions].

    PubMed

    Dugo, Mauro; Gatto, Renzo; Zagatti, Riccardo; Gatti, Pierluigi; Cascone, Carmelo

    2010-01-01

    The first reports of interstitial fibrosis leading to rapidly progressing chronic renal failure (CRF) in young women undergoing slimming treatment appeared at the beginning of the 1990s in Belgium. These slimming pills erroneously contained powdered roots of plants - picked in China - belonging to the Aristolochia instead of Stephania tetranda family. In the following years, after new cases had occurred worldwide, the term aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) came into use. Despite numerous warnings from various post-marketing surveillance institutes, products containing aristolochic acid are still widely used by Asiatic herbal practitioners and easily available on the Internet, where they are marketed without being subject to any regulations. In 2002 the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) conclusively recognized the urothelial carcinogenicity of aristolochic acid. Because of the globalization and the growing use of phytotherapy worldwide, nephrologists should take into account AAN as a possible cause of CRF. In addition to assessing the direct kidney toxicity caused by some products used in phytotherapy, the authors conclude that it is necessary to research more closely possible drug interactions and side effects of commonly used herbs such as Echinacea, Gingko biloba, St. John's wort, ginseng, and garlic, which patients consider to be natural, non-toxic and self-prescribed remedies and whose use they therefore seldom disclose to their doctors.

  14. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  15. Interactions between modern and Chinese medicinal drugs: a general review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K F; Leung, K S; Leung, P C

    2003-01-01

    While the use of health food and over-the-counter drugs for health promotion and adjuvant therapy is becoming increasingly popular, the concern about adverse effects is mounting. The possible adverse effects that may arise from drug interactions between these herbal preparations and standard modem therapy are equally worrying. Herbal toxicity and adverse effects are well documented in classical Chinese medicinal volumes. Interactions between herbal preparations and standard modem therapy are known. Extensive work needs to be done before useful guidelines can be established. However, based on available reports and clinical observations, some commonly used herbs and Chinese medicines have already demonstrated the need for special attention when used together with modern therapy. This paper analyzes the important material already available, and would serve as a preliminary checklist for patients who are taking herbal preparations, while at the same time receiving treatment from modern medicine.

  16. Chinese herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Li-Qiong; Grant, Suzanne J; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. We systematically searched seven electronic databases and two trial registries for randomized clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 10 trials involving 751 participants with cancer-related fatigue were identified and the methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Chinese herbal medicine used alone or in combination with chemotherapy or supportive care showed significant relief in cancer-related fatigue compared to placebo, chemotherapy or supportive care based on single trials. Chinese herbal medicine plus chemotherapy or supportive care was superior to chemotherapy or supportive care in improving quality of life. Data from one trial demonstrated Chinese herbal medicine exerted a greater beneficial effect on relieving anxiety but no difference in alleviating depression. Seven trials reported adverse events and no severe adverse effects were found in Chinese herbal medicine groups. The findings from limited number of trials suggest that Chinese herbal medicine seems to be effective and safe in the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. However, the current evidence is insufficient to draw a confirmative conclusion due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. Thus, conducting rigorously designed trials on potential Chinese herbal medicine is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and

  18. Herbal product–drug interactions mediated by induction

    PubMed Central

    Tirona, Rommel G; Bailey, David G

    2006-01-01

    Despite their common use, it is not widely recognized that herbal medicines can alter the efficacy of coadministered prescription drugs. Constituents in herbs interact with nuclear receptors to enhance metabolizing enzyme and/or transporter activity leading to reduced drug concentrations. Although St John’s wort was the first and most frequently reported source of induction-style herb–drug interactions, this knowledge has not yet changed its current availability. This type of interaction is likely to be relevant to other herbal products. Caregivers need to be aware of the issues and options for therapeutic management. PMID:16722828

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Herbal Hepatotoxicity: RUCAM and the Role of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers Such as MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Larrey, Dominique; Melchart, Dieter; Danan, Gaby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods: To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results: HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion: Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients’ safety and benefit. PMID:28930128

  20. Identifying Core Herbal Treatments for Children with Asthma: Implication from a Chinese Herbal Medicine Database in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lo, Su-Shun; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF) (20.2% of all prescriptions), followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1%) and Xing-Su-San (12.8%). Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH) (14.6%), followed by Xing Ren (10.7%). MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5%) and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study. PMID:24066007

  1. The application of Chinese medicine to novel drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2013-01-01

    The apparent productivity crisis in the pharmaceutical industry and the economic and political rise of China have contributed to renewed interest in the application of Chinese medicine for drug discovery. The author presents an overview of the historical development and basic principles of theory and practice of Chinese herbal medicine, its materia medica and prescription formulas, and discusses the motivation for and rationale of its application to drug discovery. Furthermore, the author distinguishes the five main approaches to drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine, based on the decreasing amount and detail of historical and clinical Chinese medicine knowledge that informed the research effort. Many compounds that have been isolated from the Chinese materia medica exhibit pharmacological activities comparable to pharmaceutical drugs. With the exception of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, however, this knowledge has not led to the successful development of new drugs outside of China. The chance of success in a Chinese medicine-based drug discovery effort will be increased by consideration of the empirical knowledge that has been documented over many centuries in the historical materia medica and prescription literature. Most Chinese medicine-derived compounds affect more than one target and do not correspond to the one compound/one-target drug discovery paradigm. A new frontier is opening up with the development of drugs consisting of combinations of multiple compounds acting on multiple targets under the paradigm of network pharmacology. The ancient practice of combining multiple drugs in prescription formulas can serve as inspirational analogy and a practical guide.

  2. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Pathak, A. K.; Tailang, Mukul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs–Momordica charantia (seeds), Syzigium cumini (seeds), Trigonella foenum (seeds), Azadirachta indica (leaves), Emblica offi cinalis (fruits), Curcuma longa (rhizomes), Gymnema sylvestre (leaves), Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood) individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory. PMID:21731396

  3. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Optimal Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ong, Madeleine; Peng, Jie; Jin, Xingliang; Qu, Xianqin

    2017-03-30

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction; it is now known to be closely linked to metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS which may lead to the excessive production of androgens by ovarian theca cells. Currently there is no single drug that can treat both the reproductive and metabolic complications of the disorder. Existing pharmaceutical agents such as hormonal therapies have been associated with side effects and are not appropriate for PCOS women with infertility. Additionally, insulin sensitizing agents useful for treating the metabolic abnormalities in PCOS have limited efficacy for treating reproductive aspects of the disorder. Chinese herbal medicines have a long history of treating gynaecological problems and infertility and therefore may be a novel approach to the treatment of PCOS. Current research demonstrates that the compounds isolated from herbs have shown beneficial effects for PCOS and when combined in an herbal formula can target both reproductive and metabolic defects simultaneously. Therefore, further investigation into Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of PCOS is warranted.

  4. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abebe, W

    2002-12-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the US has increased dramatically in recent years. These products are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the same scrutiny as conventional drugs. Patients who use herbal supplements often do so in conjunction with conventional drugs. This article is a review of potential adverse interactions between some of the commonly used herbal supplements and analgesic drugs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, have the potential to interact with herbal supplements that are known to possess antiplatelet activity (ginkgo, garlic, ginger, bilberry, dong quai, feverfew, ginseng, turmeric, meadowsweet and willow), with those containing coumarin (chamomile, motherworth, horse chestnut, fenugreek and red clover) and with tamarind, enhancing the risk of bleeding. Acetaminophen may also interact with ginkgo and possibly with at least some of the above herbs to increase the risk of bleeding. Further, the incidences of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity may be augmented by acetaminophen when concomitantly used with the potentially hepatotoxic herbs Echinacea and kava, and with herbs containing salicylate (willow, meadowsweet), respectively. The concomitant use of opioid analgesics with the sedative herbal supplements, valerian, kava and chamomile, may lead to increased central nervous system (CNS) depression. The analgesic effect of opioids may also be inhibited by ginseng. It is suggested that health-care professionals should be more aware of the potential adverse interactions between herbal supplements and analgesic drugs, and take appropriate precautionary measures to avoid their possible occurrences. However, as most of the interaction information available is based on individual case reports, animal studies and in vitro data, further research is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions.

  5. Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development.

    PubMed

    Wu, K M; Farrelly, J G; Upton, R; Chen, J

    2007-04-01

    Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from the same species serve as different herbs): three herbs, madouling, qingmuxiang and tianxianteng, derived respectively from the fruit, root and stem of Aristolochia debilis; and (3) one-to-multiple (one herb refers to multiple species): the herb fangji refers to the root of either Aristolochia fangchi, Stephania tetrandra or Cocculus trilobus; in this case, the first belongs to a different family (Aristolochiaceae) than the latter two (Menispermaceae), and only the first contains aristolochic acid (AA), as demonstrated by independent analytical data provided in this article. Further, mutong (Akebia quinata) is allowed in TCM herbal medicine practice to be substituted with either guan mutong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) or chuan mutong (Clematis armandii); and mu fangji (Cocculus trilobus) by guang fanchi (Aristolochia fangchi) or hanzhong fangji (Aristolochia heterophylla), thereby increasing the risk of exposing renotoxic AA-containing Aristolochia species to patients. To avoid these and other confusions, we wish to emphasize the importance of a pharmaceutical name, which defines the species name, the plant part, and sometimes the special process performed on the herb, including cultivating conditions. The pharmaceutical name as referred to in this article is defined, and is limited to those botanicals that are intended to be used as drug. It is hoped that by following the pharmaceutical name, toxic herbs can be effectively identified and substitution or adulteration avoided.

  6. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jiqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jianping; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:24288571

  7. A meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of managed withdrawal from heroin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-ting; Shi, Jie; Epstein, David H; Bao, Yan-Ping; Lu, Lin

    2009-02-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has shown promise for heroin detoxification. This review extends a prior meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine for heroin detoxification, with particular attention to the time course of symptoms. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine to either alpha2-adrenergic agonists or opioid agonists for heroin detoxification. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad's scale (1-2 = low; 3-5 = high). Meta-analysis was performed with fixed- or random-effect models in RevMan software; outcome measures assessed were withdrawal-symptoms score, anxiety, and adverse effects of treatment. Twenty-one studies (2,949 participants) were included. For withdrawal-symptoms score relieving during the 10-day observation, Chinese herbal medicine was superior to alpha2-adrenergic agonists in relieving opioid-withdrawal symptoms during 4-10 days (except D8) and no difference was found within the first 3 days. Compared with opioid agonists, Chinese herbal medicine was inferior during the first 3 days, but the difference became non-significant during days 4-9. Chinese herbal medicine has better effect on anxiety relieving at late stage of intervention than alpha2-adrenergic agonists, and no difference with opioid agonists. The incidence of some adverse effects (fatigue, dizziness) was significantly lower for Chinese herbal medicine than for alpha2-adrenergic agonists (sufficient data for comparison with opioid agonists were not available). Findings were robust to file-drawer effects. Our meta-analysis suggests that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safety treatment for heroin detoxification. And more work is needed to determine the specific effects of specific forms of Chinese herbal medicine.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treatment of Managed Withdrawal from Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-ting; Epstein, David H.; Bao, Yan-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has shown promise for heroin detoxification. This review extends a prior meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine for heroin detoxification, with particular attention to the time course of symptoms. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine to either α2-adrenergic agonists or opioid agonists for heroin detoxification. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad’s scale (1–2 = low; 3–5 = high). Meta-analysis was performed with fixed- or random-effect models in RevMan software; outcome measures assessed were withdrawal-symptoms score, anxiety, and adverse effects of treatment. Twenty-one studies (2,949 participants) were included. For withdrawal-symptoms score relieving during the 10-day observation, Chinese herbal medicine was superior to α2-adrenergic agonists in relieving opioid-withdrawal symptoms during 4–10 days (except D8) and no difference was found within the first 3 days. Compared with opioid agonists, Chinese herbal medicine was inferior during the first 3 days, but the difference became non-significant during days 4–9. Chinese herbal medicine has better effect on anxiety relieving at late stage of intervention than α2-adrenergic agonists, and no difference with opioid agonists. The incidence of some adverse effects (fatigue, dizziness) was significantly lower for Chinese herbal medicine than for α2-adrenergic agonists (sufficient data for comparison with opioid agonists were not available). Findings were robust to file-drawer effects. Our meta-analysis suggests that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safety treatment for heroin detoxification. And more work is needed to determine the specific effects of specific forms of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:18584321

  9. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  10. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  11. [Thinking and practice of study on material basis of parched Chinese herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Jie; Zhong, Rui-Xue; Yang, Tian-Jun; Wang, Ru-Ru; Wu, Chun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Though parched Chinese herbal medicines contain less effective or index components, their pharmacological actions do not reduce or even become improved to some extent. However, the current studies related to material basis could not explain the changes in property, flavour and efficacy of parched Chinese herbal medicines. Meanwhile, due to the lack of objective and specific evaluation indexes, the quality evaluation could not reflect features of parched Chinese herbal pieces. Therefore, how to break the bottleneck for the studies on parched Chinese herbal pieces, make further innovation and conduct in-depth studies on the material basis of parched Chinese herbal medicines are common problems that medical scholars are facing. According to the findings in the previous studies, the author proposed to explain the material basis of parched Chinese herbal medicines by studying Maillard reaction and establish specific quality evaluation indexes according to the features of parched Chinese herbal pieces, and conducted relevant studies.

  12. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.

  13. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  14. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

  15. Antiplatelet effect of active components derived from Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Da-Zhuo

    2015-10-10

    Atherothrombosis is the major cause of acute coronary syndromes and cardiovascular deaths. Platelets participate in the processes of forming and extending atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, antiplatelet therapy is a milestone in the primary and second prevention of atherothrombotic diseases. Along with the longterm use of antiplatelet agents, the safety and drug resistance has become a big concern in clinic and new drugs possessing higher effectiveness and fewer adverse effects are needed. Abundant recent data support that traditional Chinese herbs may be a good alternative and complementary choice of new antiplatelet drugs. This review highlights the progress of antiplatelet effect of active components derived from traditional Chinese herbs based on their chemical structures.

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of Chinese herbal decoction for the treatment of gout.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Liu, Ling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Pinyi; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Wu, Yazhou; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Cheng, Dixiang; Yi, Dong

    2014-01-01

    In East Asia, numerous reports describe the utilization of traditional Chinese herbal decoctions to treat gout. However, the reported clinical effects vary. In this study, we reviewed and analyzed a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of Chinese herbal decoctions for treating gout. We performed a comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese biomedical literature database, et al. In addition, we manually searched the relevant meeting information in the library of the Third Military Medical University. Finally, 17 randomized controlled trials with a sample size of 1,402 cases met the criteria and were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that when gout had progressed to the stage of acute arthritis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine, as indicated based on the following parameters: serum uric acid (standardized mean difference (SMD):0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.67), C reactive protein (SMD: 0.25, 95% CI: -0.18 to 0.69), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.45) and overall clinical response (relative risk (RR): 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10). However, the Chinese herbal decoction was significantly better than traditional Western medicine in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13). Through a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine for the treatment of gout, we found that Chinese herbal decoction and traditional Western medicine led to similar clinical efficacy, but the Chinese herbal decoctions were superior to Western medicine in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions.

  17. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Chinese Herbal Decoction for the Treatment of Gout

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Pinyi; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Wu, Yazhou; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Cheng, Dixiang; Yi, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Asia, numerous reports describe the utilization of traditional Chinese herbal decoctions to treat gout. However, the reported clinical effects vary. Objectives In this study, we reviewed and analyzed a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of Chinese herbal decoctions for treating gout. Methods We performed a comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese biomedical literature database, et al. In addition, we manually searched the relevant meeting information in the library of the Third Military Medical University. Results Finally, 17 randomized controlled trials with a sample size of 1,402 cases met the criteria and were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that when gout had progressed to the stage of acute arthritis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine, as indicated based on the following parameters: serum uric acid (standardized mean difference (SMD):0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.67), C reactive protein (SMD: 0.25, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.69), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: −0.02 to 0.45) and overall clinical response (relative risk (RR): 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10). However, the Chinese herbal decoction was significantly better than traditional Western medicine in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13). Conclusions Through a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine for the treatment of gout, we found that Chinese herbal decoction and traditional Western medicine led to similar clinical efficacy, but the Chinese herbal decoctions were superior to Western medicine in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions. PMID:24465466

  18. Impact of chinese herbal medicine on american society and health care system: perspective and concern.

    PubMed

    Lu, Winston I; Lu, Dominic P

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.

  19. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

  20. [Clinical orientation of post-marketing Chinese patent drugs: an evidence-based practice].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-Cai; Zhang, Bo-Li; Li, You-Ping

    2008-09-01

    Unclear clinical orientation in practice has become one of the common problems with the effective application of famous and excellent Chinese herbal drugs, consequently restricting their development. The authors suggest that there are three aspects to be considered in dealing with this problem. Clinical evaluation and orientation of the famous and excellent Chinese herbal drugs is an important task, and it is also a requirement for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Literature evaluation-pharmacology research-clinical expertise analysis method will establish a theoretical basis and method for post-marketing development of famous and excellent Chinese patent drugs.

  1. Antacid effects of Chinese herbal prescriptions assessed by a modified artificial stomach model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Hsiu; Chen, I-Chin; Chen, Lih-Chi

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antacid effects of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions, Si-Jun-Zi-Tang (SJZT) and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (SLBZS). METHODS: Decoctions of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions, SJZT and SLBZS, were prepared according to Chinese original documents. The pH of the prescription decoctions and their neutralizing effects on artificial gastric acids were determined and compared with water and the active controls, sodium bicarbonate and colloidal aluminum phosphate. A modified model of Vatier’s artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization effect on artificial gastric acids. The neutralization capacity in vitro was determined with the titration method of Fordtran’s model. RESULTS: The results showed that both SJZT and SLBZS have antacid effects in vitro. Compared with the water group, SJZT and SLBZS were found to possess significant gastric acid neutralizing effects. The duration for consistent neutralization of SLBZS was significantly longer than that of water. Also, SLBZS and SJZT exhibited significant antacid capacities compared to water. CONCLUSION: SJZT and SLBZS were consistently active in the artificial stomach model and are suggested to have antacid effects similar to the active control drugs. PMID:20845514

  2. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Molecular Imaging of Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Ting; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeutic response repetitively. This chapter reviews the in vivo functional and metabolic changes after administration of Chinese herbal medicine in various neurological disorders and provides perspectives on the future evaluations of therapeutic response of Chinese herbal medicine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. (c) 2003 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on bone structure and function.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Lawson, David

    2004-09-01

    This study examined the effects of four-months of treatment using Chinese herbal Shu Di Shan Zha Formula on bone health. Fourteen Australian menopausal women participated in this paired study and completed all the tests at the commencement, 4th month (when the treatment group and control group cross over) and the 8th month (end) of the study. Data from bone structure and function tests (broadband ultrasonic attenuation--BUA and velocity of sound--VOS), biomarkers of bone turnover (osteocalcin--OSTN and urinary pyridum crosslinks--PYR and D-PYR) were collected from each subject. Results showed that Shu Di Shan Zha Formula was able to affect the level of BUA, and reduce the level of D-PYR in menopausal women.

  5. Chinese Herbal Therapy for the Treatment of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China to treat various diseases for thousands of years. Given its reputed effectiveness, low cost, and favorable safety profile, TCM is attracting great interest in Western societies as a source of therapy for an array of illnesses, including allergies and asthma. Although food allergy has not been described in the TCM literature, a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), was developed using TCM principles. Using a well-characterized murine model of peanut allergy, FAHF-2 has been shown to be highly effective in providing long-term protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis, with a high safety margin. Phase 1 human trials have demonstrated the safety of FAHF-2 in food allergic individuals. Currently, a phase 2 trial examining efficacy of FAHF-2 is on-going. Other TCMs also show a potential for treating food allergies in preclinical studies. PMID:22581122

  6. Safety, clinical, and immunologic efficacy of a Chinese herbal medicine (Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2) for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Jones, Stacie M; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Song, Ying; Yang, Nan; Sicherer, Scott H; Makhija, Melanie M; Robison, Rachel G; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min

    2015-10-01

    Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is a 9-herb formula based on traditional Chinese medicine that blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model. In phase I studies FAHF-2 was found to be safe and well tolerated. We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FAHF-2 as a treatment for food allergy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study 68 subjects aged 12 to 45 years with allergies to peanut, tree nut, sesame, fish, and/or shellfish, which were confirmed by baseline double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenges (DBPCFCs), received FAHF-2 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 22). After 6 months of therapy, subjects underwent DBPCFCs. For those who demonstrated increases in the eliciting dose, a repeat DBPCFC was performed 3 months after stopping therapy. Treatment was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. By using intent-to-treat analysis, the placebo group had a higher eliciting dose and cumulative dose (P = .05) at the end-of-treatment DBPCFC. There was no difference in the requirement for epinephrine to treat reactions (P = .55). There were no significant differences in allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels, cytokine production by PBMCs, or basophil activation between the active and placebo groups. In vitro immunologic studies performed on subjects' baseline PBMCs incubated with FAHF-2 and food allergen produced significantly less IL-5, greater IL-10 levels, and increased numbers of regulatory T cells than untreated cells. Notably, 44% of subjects had poor drug adherence for at least one third of the study period. FAHF-2 is a safe herbal medication for subjects with food allergy and shows favorable in vitro immunomodulatory effects; however, efficacy for improving tolerance to food allergens is not demonstrated at the dose and duration used. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Survey and assessment of heavy metals in soils and herbal medicines from Chinese herbal medicine cultivated regions].

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Wen-Ju; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Duan, Yu-Hang

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils and herbal medicine samples from cultivated regions of Anguo City in Hebei Province were analyzed and assessed, and the bioconcentration factors of different herbal medicines were studied and discussed as well. The results showed that the average contents of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils from herbal medicine cultivated regions were 12.9, 0.036, 15.6, 0.118 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils were lower than class II of the soil environmental quality standard. When local soil background values of heavy metals were used as assessment standard, among the 16 cultivated regions the percentage of As, Hg, Ph, Cd belonging to lightly pollution class were 18.75%, 43.75%, 0%, 100%, respectively based on the single pollution index. And the Nemerow index results were between 1 and 2, which suggested the soils were at slight pollution level. However, when quality standard class II was used, both the single pollution index and Nemerow index did not exceed 0.7, which means that soils investigated were generally safe for cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines. The assessment of heavy metals in herbal medicines showed that the pollution indices of most herbal samples (< 95%) were lower then 1. Cd bioconcentration factors of Aster tataricus L. and Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Hg bioconcentration factors of Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. and Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq. were above 1. Therefore, the accumulation characteristic of heavy metals in Chinese herbal medicines should be fully concerned when GAP base soil quality assessment was taken.

  8. [Study on combination components and effectiveness of Chinese traditional herbal formulas].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li; Wang, Yong-yan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese herbal prescriptions enhance the clinical curative effect through the use of multi-composition formulas, and the combined use of several components from herbal extracts is an enhanced mode of formulae organization and compatibility. The research with the combination components is under the guidance of the traditional Chinese medical theory which apply medical therapy following syndrome differentiation. The purpose is to enhance drug safety, clinical suitability, and to use drugs with clearer ingredients and mechanisms of action, with more stable and controllable product quality for commercial production. So the study of combination components must establish the methodology of combining standard components, confirming the main components through trial design, removing the poisonous components, and ascertaining dosage and ratios of all the components used. The mode of combination component has three forms: the one from the combined use of prepared medicinal herbs, the one from directly combined use of components, and the one from the standard ingredient composition of single herb. These three forms strictly follow the mechanisms of multi-component and multi-target medical intervention. The significance of using combined effective components is to ensure the accuracy and safety of clinical dosage, enhance the clinical effectiveness, reduce the use of medicinal herbs, decrease the side-effects, and to promote modern Chinese medicines that have clear ingredients and mechanisms. Our study on the chemistry and pharmacology of Chinese herbs provided scientific foundation to the combination effective components. Nowadays the modern medicine is faced with the complicated disease spectra, meanwhile, the single-ingredient chemical drug is not able to achieve satisfactory curative effect. So there is a need to develop new medicine with effective combination components to meet new opportunities and challenges. Therefore, it has becomes a new mode of developing combined

  9. Chinese herbal prescriptions for osteoarthritis in Taiwan: analysis of national health insurance dataset

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male = 1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study

  10. Angiogenesis in Ischemic Stroke and Angiogenic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Sai-Wang; Chang, Dennis; Jenkins, Anita; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and adult disability worldwide. The underlying pathophysiology of stroke is highly complicated, consisting of impairments of multiple signalling pathways, and numerous pathological processes such as acidosis, glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overload, cerebral inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The current treatment for ischemic stroke is limited to thromolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA has a very narrow therapeutic window, making it suitable to only a minority of stroke patients. Hence, there is great urgency to develop new therapies that can protect brain tissue from ischemic damage. Recent studies have shown that new vessel formation after stroke not only replenishes blood flow to the ischemic area of the brain, but also promotes neurogenesis and improves neurological functions in both animal models and patients. Therefore, drugs that can promote angiogenesis after ischemic stroke can provide therapeutic benefits in stroke management. In this regard, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a long history in treating stroke and the associated diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated the pro-angiogenic effects of various Chinese herbs and herbal formulations in both in vitro and in vivo settings. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on angiogenesis in the context of ischemic stroke and discuss the potential use of CHM in stroke management through modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:27275837

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C.H.; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P.; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L.; Lau, Alexander Y.L.; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T.C.; Ng, Bacon F.L.; Wong, Samuel Y.S.; Wu, Justin C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care. Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: −0.90, 95% CI: −1.69 to −0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research. PMID:26886628

  12. Chinese herbal medicine for gout: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xue; Han, Mei; Wang, Yu-Yi; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Patients with gout referring to Chinese herbal medicine are not rare in China, and a great number of clinical trials on herbal medicine have been published. However, there has not been a systematic review to summarize the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. We searched for randomized clinical trials on Chinese herbal medicine for gout till December 2012. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality. RevMan 5.2 was used to synthesize the results. We included 57 trials involving 4,527 gout patients. The quality of trials was generally poor. No trial reported health-related quality of life in patients. There is not enough evidence showing that herbal medicine was statistically more effective than conventional medications in pain relief [mean difference (MD), -0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.06, 0.00], but herbal medicine combined with conventional medicines may have better effectiveness (MD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.59, -0.07). Trials that reported function limitation relief found herbal medicine more effective than conventional medications (MD, -0.23; 95% CI, -0.32, -0.15). There was no evidence showing that herbal medicine prevents gout recurrence better. Twenty-five out of 41 trials, involving 23 different herbal prescriptions, found statistical significance in lowering serum uric acid level, and the overall effect from Chinese herbal medicine in inflammation relief is better than conventional therapies in 19 trials with 17 different prescriptions. The current data show that herbal medicine leads to fewer side reactions compared to conventional therapies [risk ratio (RR), 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.15]. Chinese herbal medicine may have clinical effectiveness for functional recovery in patients with gout, and lead to a safe control of serum uric acid level and inflammation severity. Due to low quality of trials

  13. Determination of element contents in herbal drugs: chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Radjassegarin; Ragupathi Raja Kannan, Rengasamy; Jayalakshmi, Jayabalan; Manivannan, Karunamoorthy; Karthikai Devi, Gopalraj; Anantharaman, Perumal

    2012-12-15

    The elemental content of 23 commercial herbal drugs was evaluated and multivariate analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were performed with aim to know the relationship among the elements in the herbal drugs. Among the 13 elements investigated K (8096.97), Na (581.53), Cu (2.06); Mg (678.4); Fe (476.93), Al (321.5), Co (0.22); Zn (4.46), Ni (0.56); Mn (25.77); Pb (13.33); and Cr (13.18)mg/kg dry weight, respectively, were found at high concentrations in Eclipta prostrata; Adhatoda vasica; Phyllanthus amarus; Hybanthus enneaspermus; Cardiospermum halicacabum; Acacia nilotica; and Denolix elata. Interestingly, the toxic element Cd was below detectable level in all the samples and Cr, Pb and Ni were lower than the permissible limit as prescribed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). This study clearly shows that PCA and HCA procedures appear useful tools for the differentiation and classification of herbal drugs using the profile of elements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adverse drug reactions to herbal and synthetic expectorants.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Sieder, C; März, R

    1995-01-01

    Our knowledge relating to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of phytomedicines is highly fragmentary. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of ADRs following medication with herbal or synthetic expectorants. In a multicentre, comparative post-marketing surveillance study of more than 3000 patients with acute bronchitis, about half were treated with a herbal remedy (SinupretR) and the other half with various other expectorants. In ascending order of incidence, ADRs were noted during mono-medication of SinupretR (0.8%), Ambroxol (1.0%) and acetylcysteine (4.3%). When concomitant drugs were used, this rank order was unchanged but incidence rates were markedly increased (3.4, 6.5 and 8.2%, respectively). The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal symptoms. It is concluded that expectorants are associated with ADRs in roughly 1-5% of cases undergoing single drug treatment and in 3-10% when more than one medication is being used. Amongst the expectorants used in this study, the herbal preparation SinupretR is associated with the lowest incidence of ADRs.

  15. Interactions between Transporters and Herbal Medicines/Drugs: A Focus on Hepatoprotective Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijie; Li, Quansheng; He, Xin; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines and drugs are available in the clinic as potent hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of commonly occurring liver diseases. Recently, herbal medicines such as silymarin and curcumin have gained more attention and popularity for the treatment of various liver diseases because of their safety and efficacy profiles. Some of them are related to transporters for drug disposition processes, therapeutic efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions. Currently, herbal medicines and diet supplements made from natural products are widely used in patients who are being treated with conventional prescription medicines, which are related to an increasing risk of herbal-drug interactions (HDIs) and/or drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The purpose of present review is to summarize the contemporary knowledge of transporter-mediated HDIs or DDIs for herbal medicines/drugs focusing on hepatoprotective compounds. Several herbal medicines/drugs are discussed in detail in this review.

  16. Chinese herbal medicine for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Su, C-X; Yan, L-J; Lewith, G; Liu, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss has great impact on quality of life. Many clinical trials using Chinese herbal medicine for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss have been conducted and reported beneficial results. However, there is no critical appraised evidence on efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss to inform clinical use. To assess the beneficial effect and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Seven electronic databases and two trial registries were searched for all eligible trials from inception to January 2013. Two authors independently selected trials and extracted data. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was utilised to assess the methodological quality of the included trials. revman 5.2 software was applied for data analysis with effect estimate presented as risk ratio and mean difference with its 95% confidence interval. Forty-one randomised clinical trials involving 3560 participants were identified. Five kinds of Chinese herbal medicine were trialed. All trials compared conventional therapies of steroids, vasodilators, anticoagulants, nutritional supplements or hyperbaric oxygen with or without herbal medicine. No trial was identified that compared herbal medicine alone with placebo. No trial was identified that blinded the participants or the observers to their herbal medication. Only one trial adequately reported its method of randomisation. No trial reported the sample size calculated to show an effect. All trials had material other defects giving a high likelihood of bias. Because of the overall poor quality of all 41 trials, it was concluded that there was no level-one evidence to support the use of Chinese herbal medicine, alone or in addition to conventional therapies, to improve the hearing in adults with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Two trials reported adverse

  17. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  18. An analysis of chemical ingredients network of Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development.

  19. An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

  20. [Research on distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular based on cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    YANG, Xu-Jie; XIAO, Shi-Ying

    2015-09-01

    To discuss the distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, the patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular were cluster analyzed by means of simple statistics and cluster analysis. Clustering variables were composed of patent applications, patent maintained number, related papers' quantity, etc. Chinese herbal compound patents' holders were divided into four categories according to their different scientific research and patent strength. It is the magic weapon for Chinese herbal compound patents' holders that have scientific research patents' transforming and make coordination of patent protection and scientific innovation.

  1. Chinese herbal medicine for infertility with anovulation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Xu, Mei; Shi, Yang; Song, Xin-yang; Zhang, Ting-ting

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treatment of anovulation and infertility in women. Eight (8) databases were extensively retrieved. The Chinese electronic databases included VIP Information, CMCC, and CNKI. The English electronic databases included AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, and MEDLINE(®). Randomized controlled trials using CHM as intervention were included in the study selection. The quality of studies was assessed by the Jadad scale and the criteria referred to Cochrane reviewers' handbook. The efficacy of CHM treatment for infertility with anovulation was evaluated by meta-analysis. There were 692 articles retrieved according to the search strategy, and 1659 participants were involved in the 15 studies that satisfied the selection criteria. All the included trials were done in China. Meta-analysis indicated that CHM significantly increased the pregnancy rate (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.50-3.88) and reduced the miscarriage rate (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.10-0.41) compared to clomiphene. In addition, CHM also increased the ovulation rate (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.06-2.25) and improved the cervical mucus score (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.78-8.21) compared to clomiphene, while there were no significant difference between CHM and clomiphene combined with other medicine. CHM is effective in treating infertility with anovulation. Also, no significant adverse effects were identified for the use of CHM from the studies included in this review. However, owing to the low quality of the studies investigated, more randomized controlled trials are needed before evidence-based recommendation regarding the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the management of infertility with anovulation can be provided.

  2. Clearance of free silica in rat lungs by spraying with chinese herbal kombucha.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nai-Fang; Luo, Chang-Hui; Wu, Jun-Cai; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Gan, Yong-Jin; Ling, Jian-An; Liang, Heng-Qiu; Liang, Dan-Yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xian-Jun; Pan, Rui-Hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases.

  3. Clearance of Free Silica in Rat Lungs by Spraying with Chinese Herbal Kombucha

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

  4. [Information quality and health risks in Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Tejedor-García, Noelia; García-Pastor, Coral; Benito-Martínez, Selma; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier

    2017-03-16

    The growing use of purchase online via Internet retailers favours the access to potentially toxic natural products. It also contributes to the quick dissemination of the claims made by the retailers on efficacy and safety, these claims being not always based upon reliable information. Here, we have conducted an online search to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and we have analysed them for the quality of product information and the potential health risks. i) Online search in Google España to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine in which we analysed both the claims regarding possible health benefits and adequate safe use indications ii) Identification of potentially toxic herbs in the websites iii) Quantification of Chinese herbal medicines withdrawn by the Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS). 1) Only one third of the 30 Spanish-language retail websites found which sell Chinese herbal medicine observe the law, given that the other websites include illegal Western disease claims as marketing tools, 2) Five websites provide some safety information, 3) Two websites offer potentially toxic herbs and 4) Chinese herbal medicine adulterated with sibutramine, silfenafil or their analogues make a considerable percentage of the total products withdrawn by the AEMPS. Online health seekers should be warned about misinformation on retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and directed to a Spanish government Web site for guidance in safely navigating the Internet for buying Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Interactions between herbal medicines and drugs].

    PubMed

    Tůmová, L

    2000-07-01

    At present the use of medicaments of plant origin is on the increase. It is therefore necessary to take into consideration that there exist known as well as potential interactions between the medicament of the medicinal plant. The problematic plants include Echinacea, Allium cepa, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng, as well as Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, or Glycyrrhiza glabra. Its use should be limited, or completely excluded in the cases of simultaneous therapy with, e.g., warfarin, hepatotoxically acting medicaments, MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or phenytoin, as they may decrease of completely eliminate the therapeutic effect of the administered drugs, or they may cause a toxic damage to the organism.

  6. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  7. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT. PMID:27647185

  8. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-10-05

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.

  9. A study of western pharmaceuticals contained within samples of Chinese herbal/patent medicines collected from New York City's Chinatown.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gretchen M; Stripp, Richard

    2007-09-01

    In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal/patent medicines (CHM/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine the presence of undeclared pharmaceuticals and therapeutic substances within CHM/CPM sold in New York City's Chinatown. Ninety representative samples randomly purchased in the form of pills, tablets, creams and teas were screened by appropriate analytical techniques including TLC, GC/MS and HPLC. Five samples contained nine different western pharmaceuticals. Two of these samples contained undeclared or mislabeled substances. One sample contained two pharmaceuticals contraindicated in people for whom the product was intended. Drugs identified include promethazine, chlormethiazole, chlorpheniramine, diclofenac, chlordiazepoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, diphenhydramine and sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

  10. Assessment of Pharmacists Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Herbal Drug Information Services

    PubMed Central

    Atavwoda, Abere Tavs; Gabriel, Aina Ayodele

    2012-01-01

    Rational: Research suggests that increased consumption of herbal drugs is raising important public health concerns such as safety issues that may involve adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of Pharmacists in herbal drug information dissemination. Method: We investigated the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding herbal drug information and regulatory laws among Pharmacists living in the six (6) States that constitute the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. A total of 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to Pharmacists aged 21 years and above. Findings: About half of the respondents (48.72 %) were Hospital based Pharmacists. Knowledge of herbal drugs was 46.33 % while 64 .0 % showed positive attitude towards its use. Most of the information on herbal drugs were sourced from the internet (23.08 %) while 53.48 % were aware of the laws and regulations controlling herbal drugs in Nigeria. 88.64 % were in favour of the establishment of a National Herbal Drug Research and Development Agency and 55.68 % strongly agreeing to the setting up of a Herbal Drug Information Centre. Conclusion: The availability of herbal drug information services will not only enhance the performance of the Pharmacists, but will also add value to the life of the patients. PMID:24826042

  11. Herb-Drug Interactions of Commonly Used Chinese Medicinal Herbs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrinder; Zhao, Kaicun

    2017-01-01

    With more and more popular use of traditional herbal medicines, in particular Chinese herbal medicines, herb-drug interactions have become a more and more important safety issue in the clinical applications of the conventional drugs. Researches in this area are increasing very rapidly. Herb-drug interactions are complicated due to the fact that multiple chemical components are involved, and these compounds may possess diverse pharmacological activities. Interactions can be in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Abundant studies focused on pharmacokinetic interactions of herbs and drugs. Herbs may affect the behavior of the concomitantly used drugs by changing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Studies on pharmacodynamics interactions of herbs and drugs are still very limited. Herb-drug interactions are potentially causing changes in drug levels and drug activities and leading to either therapeutic failure or toxicities. Sometime it can be fatal. The exposures to drugs, lacking of knowledge in the potential adverse herb-drug interactions, will put big risk to patients' safety in medical services. On the contrary, some interactions may be therapeutically beneficial. It may be used to help develop new therapeutic strategies in the future. This chapter is trying to review the development in the area of herb-drug interactions based on the recently published research findings. Information on the potential interactions among the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs and conventional drugs is summarized in this chapter. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical studies of Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of patients with tinea unguium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan

    1993-03-01

    Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.

  13. Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

    2014-10-01

    The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant

  14. [Effect of a Chinese herbal prescription on collagen I in rat's femur under simulated weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Hu, Su-min; Zhou, Peng; Fu, Qian; Yang, Jia-jia; Gao, Xue-min

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a Chinese herbal prescription on collagen I in rat's femur under simulated weightlessness. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group (10 rats), tail suspension group (TS, 10 rats), TS with Chinese medicine group (10 rats). Rats in TS with Chinese medicine group took a Chinese herbal prescription (contains Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae, Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Concha Ostreae prepared by acetic acid)by oral administration. After 1 week adaption and 3 weeks tail suspending, rat's left femur was colleced, and collagen I in femur neck was detected by immunohistochemical method. Counts and integral optical density (IOD) of collagen I coloration decreased significantly in TS group (P < 0.001), but no significant change in TS with Chinese medicine group (P > 0.05), as compared with control group. Generation of collagen I become weaken under simulated weightlessness, while the Chinese herbal prescription is effective to prevent the change, thus biochemistry environment of bone calcium deposition may be improved by this Chinese herbal prescription under simulated weightlessness.

  15. Natural formulas and the nature of formulas: Exploring potential therapeutic targets based on traditional Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianru; Yu, Hua; Qi, Jin; Tang, Daisheng; Chen, Xiaojia; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao; Hu, Yuanjia

    2017-01-01

    By comparing the target proteins (TPs) of classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulas and modern drugs used for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), this study aimed to identify potential therapeutic TPs for treating CAD. Based on the theory of TCM, the Xuefu-Zhuyu decoction (XZD) and Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction (GXBD), both of which are classic herbal formulas, were selected for treating CAD. Data on the chemical ingredients and corresponding TPs of the herbs in these two formulas and data on modern drugs approved for treating CAD and related TPs were retrieved from professional TCM and bioinformatics databases. Based on the associations between the drugs or ingredients and their TPs, the TP networks of XZD, GXBD, and modern drugs approved for treating CAD were constructed separately and then integrated to create a complex master network in which the vertices represent the TPs and the edges, the ingredients or drugs that are linked to the TPs. The reliability of this master network was validated through statistical tests. The common TPs of the two herbal formulas have a higher possibility of being targeted by modern drugs in comparison with the formula-specific TPs. A total of 114 common XZD and GXBD TPs that are not yet the target of modern drugs used for treating CAD should be experimentally investigated as potential therapeutic targets for treating CAD. Among these TPs, the top 10 are NOS3, PTPN1, GABRA1, PRKACA, CDK2, MAOB, ESR1, ADH1C, ADH1B, and AKR1B1. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for further experimental investigations of therapeutic targets for CAD. The established method shows promise for searching for potential therapeutic TPs based on herbal formulas. It is crucial for this work to select beneficial therapeutic targets of TCM, typical TCM syndromes, and corresponding classic formulas.

  16. Natural formulas and the nature of formulas: Exploring potential therapeutic targets based on traditional Chinese herbal formulas

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin; Tang, Daisheng; Chen, Xiaojia; Wan, Jian-bo; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-tao; Hu, Yuanjia

    2017-01-01

    By comparing the target proteins (TPs) of classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulas and modern drugs used for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), this study aimed to identify potential therapeutic TPs for treating CAD. Based on the theory of TCM, the Xuefu-Zhuyu decoction (XZD) and Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction (GXBD), both of which are classic herbal formulas, were selected for treating CAD. Data on the chemical ingredients and corresponding TPs of the herbs in these two formulas and data on modern drugs approved for treating CAD and related TPs were retrieved from professional TCM and bioinformatics databases. Based on the associations between the drugs or ingredients and their TPs, the TP networks of XZD, GXBD, and modern drugs approved for treating CAD were constructed separately and then integrated to create a complex master network in which the vertices represent the TPs and the edges, the ingredients or drugs that are linked to the TPs. The reliability of this master network was validated through statistical tests. The common TPs of the two herbal formulas have a higher possibility of being targeted by modern drugs in comparison with the formula-specific TPs. A total of 114 common XZD and GXBD TPs that are not yet the target of modern drugs used for treating CAD should be experimentally investigated as potential therapeutic targets for treating CAD. Among these TPs, the top 10 are NOS3, PTPN1, GABRA1, PRKACA, CDK2, MAOB, ESR1, ADH1C, ADH1B, and AKR1B1. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for further experimental investigations of therapeutic targets for CAD. The established method shows promise for searching for potential therapeutic TPs based on herbal formulas. It is crucial for this work to select beneficial therapeutic targets of TCM, typical TCM syndromes, and corresponding classic formulas. PMID:28182702

  17. Pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: focus on drug metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Liu, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used for thousands of years, and now are gaining continued popularity worldwide as a complementary or alternative treatment for a variety of diseases, rehabilitation and health care. Since herbal medicines contain more than one pharmacologically active ingredient and are commonly used with many prescribed drugs, there are potential herb-drug interactions. A variety of reported herb-drug interactions are of pharmacokinetic origin, arising from the effects of herbal medicines on metabolic enzymes and/or transporters. Such an alteration in metabolism or transport can result in changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (e.g., induction or inhibition of metabolic enzymes, and modulation of uptake and efflux transporters), leading to changed pharmacokinetics of the concomitantly prescribed drugs. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions have more clinical significance as pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) or the elimination half-life (t1/2) of the concomitant drug alter. This review summarizes the mechanism underlying herb-drug interactions and the approaches to identify the interactions, and discusses pharmacokinetic interactions of eight widely used herbal medicines (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, garlic, black cohosh, Echinacea, milk thistle, kava, and St. John's wort) with conventional drugs, using various in vitro, animal in vivo, and clinical studies. The increasing understanding of pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions will make health care professionals and patients pay more attention to the potential interactions.

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Dyslipidemia: Progress and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Shi, Da-zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The statins are a milestone in the primary and second prevention of cardiovascular diseases and significantly improved its prognosis. Along with the long-term treatment with statins in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs or alone, its safety has attracted a particular attention in clinic, such as the elevation of transaminase and rhabdomyolysis, which have raised an idea of developing the other types of lipid-lowering agents from botanic materials. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 2000 years in China and showed some beneficial effects for human health and many diseases. Recently, many studies demonstrated a favorable effect of TCM for treating dyslipidemia; however, its mechanism remains unclear or totally unknown. The progress and perspective of studies on dyslipidemia with single Chinese herb and its monomers or effective extracts during the past 10 years are discussed in the present review. PMID:24688589

  19. The role of traditional Chinese herbal medicines in cancer therapy--from TCM theory to mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, W L Wendy; Liu, Liang

    2010-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal medicines have gained increasing acceptance worldwide in recent years and are being pursued by pharmaceutical companies as rich resources for drug discovery. For many years, traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been applied for the treatment of cancers in China and beyond. Herbal medicines are generally low in cost, plentiful, and show very little toxicity or side effects in clinical practice. However, despite the vast interest and ever-increasing demand, the absence of strong evidence-based research and the lack of standardization of the herbal products are the main obstacles toward the globalization of TCM. In recent years, TCM research has greatly accelerated with the advancement of analytical technologies and methodologies. This review of TCM specifically used in the treatment of cancer is divided into two parts. Part one provides an overview of the philosophy, approaches and progress in TCM-based cancer therapy. Part two summarizes the current understanding of how TCM-derived compounds function as anticancer drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  20. Combining ZHENG Theory and High-Throughput Expression Data to Predict New Effects of Chinese Herbal Formulae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuhao; Guo, Zhizhong; Guan, Yan; Lu, Yi-Yu; Hao, Pei; Li, Yixue; Su, Shi-Bing

    2012-01-01

    ZHENG is the key theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and it is very important to find the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese herbal formulae. One ZHENG is related to many diseases and the herbal formulae are aiming to ZHENG. Therefore, many herbal formulae whose effects on a certain disease have been confirmed might also treat other diseases with the same ZHENG. In this study, the microarrays collected from patients with QiXuXueYu ZHENG (Qi-deficiency and Blood-stasis syndrome) before treatment and after being treated with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule were analyzed by a high-throughput gene microarrays-based drug similarity comparison method, which could find the small molecules which had similar effects with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule. Besides getting the results of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis drugs which embody the known effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule, many other small molecules were screened out and could reflect other types of effects of this formula in treating QiXuXueYu ZHENG, including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, hyposenstive effect. Then we integrated this information to display the effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule and its potential multiple-target molecular pharmacology. Moreover, through using clinical blood-tested data to verify our prediction, Fuzheng Huayu Capsule was proved to have effects on diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:22666299

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM.

  2. A Review of Potential Harmful Interactions between Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents and Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Lu, Ying-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Mahady, Gail B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks attributed to drug-herb interactions, even when known, are often ignored or underestimated, especially for those involving anti-clotting drugs and Chinese medicines. The aim of this study was to structurally search and evaluate the existing evidence-based data associated with potential drug interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and evaluate the documented mechanisms, consequences, and/or severity of interactions. Methodology and Findings Information related to anticoagulant/antiplatelet drug-CHM interactions was retrieved from eight interaction-based textbooks, four web resources and available primary biomedical literature. The primary literature searches were conducted in English and/or Chinese from January 2000 through December 2011 using the secondary databases (e.g., PubMed, Airiti Library, China Journal full-text database). The search terms included the corresponding medical subject headings and key words. Herbs or natural products not used as a single entity CHM or in Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions were excluded from further review. The corresponding mechanisms and severity ratings of interactions were retrieved using MicroMedex®, Lexicomp® and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database®. Finally, we found 90 single entity CHMs contributed to 306 documented drug-CHM interactions. A total of 194 (63.4%) interactions were verified for its evidence describing possible mechanisms and severity. Of them, 155 interactions (79.9%) were attributable to pharmacodynamic interactions, and almost all were rated as moderate to severe interactions. The major consequences of these interactions were increased bleeding risks due to the additive anticoagulant or antiplatelet effects of the CHMs, specifically danshen, dong quai, ginger, ginkgo, licorice, and turmeric. Conclusions/Significance Conventional anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were documented to have harmful interactions with some commonly

  3. Antiangiogenic triterpenes isolated from Chinese herbal medicine Actinidia chinensis Planch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Jun; Yu, De-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Lin, Meng-Gan; Lu, Qin; Wang, Qi-Wei; Guan, Ying-Yun; Li, Gui-Xiu; Luan, Xin; Yang, Yi-Fang; Qin, Xue-Mei; Fang, Chao; Yang, Guo-Hong; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2013-02-01

    Actinidia chinensis Planch. is a famous Chinese herbal medicine to treat many diseases such as cancers. Triterpenes, polyphenols and anthraquinones are normally considered as the main constituents for its effects. In this study, eleven known triterpenes were isolated from the root of Actinidia chinensis., and were examined for its antiangiogenic activities. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The eleven compounds are following: 2α,3α,19-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 2α,3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 2α,3α,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (3), asiatic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 2α,3β,19,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2α,3β,19-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (8), oleanolic acid (9), 3β-O-acetyloleanolic acid (10), 2α,23-dihydroxylmicromeric acid (11). All these compounds were evaluated with respect to their antiangiogenic activities utilizing the assays of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation and tube formation and Ursolic acid (used as control) and compounds 2, 3, 4, and 8 exhibited significant, dose-dependently, antiangiogenic activity in the tested concentration range. Our findings suggest that antitumor action of Actinidia chinensis Planch. is partly via inhibiting tumor angiogenesis by triterpenes, and compounds 2, 3, 4, and 8 as the novel potential antiangiogenic agents are worthy of further translational research.

  4. Theranostics meets traditional Chinese medicine: rational prediction of drug-herb interactions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Fan, Lan; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Herbal medicines including traditional Chinese medicine are becoming increasingly more popular worldwide. However, there is considerable potential for interaction between herbal components and drugs, as all herbal medicines contain a combination of potentially biologically active compounds possessing various inherent pharmacological activities, and the components of herbal products consumed are eliminated from the body by the same mechanisms that remove drugs. Indeed, many so-called conventional drugs are derived from plant sources. This article provides an update on the mechanisms and evidence of drug-herb interactions (DHIs) and genetic influences on DHIs. The rational prediction of clinically important DHIs is also discussed. Individualized and targeted drug therapy could be achieved by identifying the population most likely to be helped or harmed by drug-herb coadministration.

  5. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Acute hepatitis induced by a Chinese herbal product Qibao Meiran Wan: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Qu, Caihong; He, Qiong; Chen, Wenying; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Yuxing; Tang, Yongbo

    2015-01-01

    Qibao Meiran Wan is a Chinese herbal product sold as a therapy for tonifying the liver and kidney, dizziness, premature graying of hair, backache, constipation, and night sweats. It is widely available in Chinese pharmacies and drugstores and is sold without prescription. We describe a case of acute liver injury in a 26-year-old Chinese man who developed symptomatic hepatitis 1 month after starting Qibao Meiran Wan. There was no evidence of viral hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, autoimmune hepatitis, or Budd-Chiari syndrome. The liver injury slowly resolved over 20 days after discontinuing the herbal product. Herbal toxicity was later confirmed by a liver biopsy. Qibao Meiran Wan contains a mixture of several plants including Polygonum multiflorum, which was previously associated with hepatotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hepatotoxicity by Qibao Meiran Wan. Clinicians treating patients with acute hepatitis of unclear etiology should pay attention to the consumption of Qibao Meiran Wan. PMID:26379995

  7. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

  8. Chinese Herbal Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: Experimental Evidence and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiqiang; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and the resulting complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Herbal medicine has been widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis have not been well studied. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of atherogenesis and then summarize the research that has been performed in recent years regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of antiatherogenic Chinese herbal compounds in an attempt to build a bridge between traditional Chinese medicine and cellular and molecular cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26089946

  9. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of primary hypertension: a methodology overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Xinke, Zhao; Yingdong, Li; Mingxia, Feng; Kai, Liu; Kaibing, Chen; Yuqing, Lu; Shaobo, Sun; Peng, Song; Bin, Liu

    2016-10-20

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015. We used AMSTAR to evaluate the methodological quality of included reviews, and we classified the quality of evidence for each outcome in included reviews using the GRADE approach. A total of 12 systematic reviews with 31 outcomes were included, among which 11 systematic reviews focus on the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional medicine or simple Chinese herbal medicine versus simple conventional medicine. Among the 11 items of AMSTAR, the lowest quality was "providing a priori design" item, none review conformed to this item, the next was "stating the conflict of interest" item, only three reviews conformed to this item. Five reviews scored less than seven in AMSTAR, which means that the overall methodological quality was fairly poor. For GRADE, of the 31 outcomes, the quality of evidence was high in none (0 %), moderate in three (10 %), low in 19 (61 %), and very low in nine (29 %). Of the five downgrading factors, risk of bias (100 %) was the most common downgrading factor in the included reviews, followed by imprecision (42 %), inconsistency (39 %), publication bias (39 %), and indirectness (0 %). The methodological quality of systematic reviews about Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension is fairly poor, and the quality of evidence level is low. Physicians should be cautious when applying the interventions in these reviews for primary hypertension patients in

  10. Chinese herbal medicine-derived compounds for cancer therapy: a focus on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Wu, Xu; Zhang, Jinming; Chen, Ruie; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2013-10-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as the major histological subtype of primary liver cancer remains one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Due to the complicated molecular pathogenesis of HCC, the option for effective systemic treatment is quite limited. There exists a critical need to explore and evaluate possible alternative strategies for effective control of HCC. With a long history of clinical use, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is emerging as a noticeable choice for its multi-level, multi-target and coordinated intervention effects against HCC. With the aids of phytochemistry and molecular biological approaches, in the past decades many CHM-derived compounds have been carefully studied through both preclinical and clinical researches and have shown great potential in novel anti-HCC natural product development. The present review aimed at providing the most recent developments on anti-HCC compounds derived from CHM, especially their underlying pharmacological mechanisms. A systematic search of anti-HCC compounds from CHM was carried out focusing on literatures published both in English (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Medline) and in Chinese academic databases (Wanfang and CNKI database). In this review, we tried to give a timely and comprehensive update about the anti-HCC effects and targets of several representative CHM-derived compounds, namely curcumin, resveratrol, silibinin, berberine, quercetin, tanshinone II-A and celastrol. Their mechanisms of anti-HCC behaviors, potential side effects or toxicity and future research directions were discussed. Herbal compounds derived from CHM are of much significance in devising new drugs and providing unique ideas for the war against HCC. We propose that these breakthrough findings may have important implications for targeted-HCC therapy and modernization of CHM. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Patterns Exploration on Patterns of Empirical Herbal Formula of Chinese Medicine by Association Rules

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Yuan, Jiamin; Yang, Zhimin; Xu, Fuping; Huang, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Background. In this study, we use association rules to explore the latent rules and patterns of prescribing and adjusting the ingredients of herbal decoctions based on empirical herbal formula of Chinese Medicine (CM). Materials and Methods. The consideration and development of CM prescriptions based on the knowledge of CM doctors are analyzed. The study contained three stages. The first stage is to identify the chief symptoms to a specific empirical herbal formula, which can serve as the key indication for herb addition and cancellation. The second stage is to conduct a case study on the empirical CM herbal formula for insomnia. Doctors will add extra ingredients or cancel some of them by CM syndrome diagnosis. The last stage of the study is to divide the observed cases into the effective group and ineffective group based on the assessed clinical effect by doctors. The patterns during the diagnosis and treatment are selected by the applied algorithm and the relations between clinical symptoms or indications and herb choosing principles will be selected by the association rules algorithm. Results. Totally 40 patients were observed in this study: 28 patients were considered effective after treatment and the remaining 12 were ineffective. 206 patterns related to clinical indications of Chinese Medicine were checked and screened with each observed case. In the analysis of the effective group, we used the algorithm of association rules to select combinations between 28 herbal adjustment strategies of the empirical herbal formula and the 190 patterns of individual clinical manifestations. During this stage, 11 common patterns were eliminated and 5 major symptoms for insomnia remained. 12 association rules were identified which included 5 herbal adjustment strategies. Conclusion. The association rules method is an effective algorithm to explore the latent relations between clinical indications and herbal adjustment strategies for the study on empirical herbal formulas

  12. Patterns Exploration on Patterns of Empirical Herbal Formula of Chinese Medicine by Association Rules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Yuan, Jiamin; Yang, Zhimin; Xu, Fuping; Huang, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use association rules to explore the latent rules and patterns of prescribing and adjusting the ingredients of herbal decoctions based on empirical herbal formula of Chinese Medicine (CM). The consideration and development of CM prescriptions based on the knowledge of CM doctors are analyzed. The study contained three stages. The first stage is to identify the chief symptoms to a specific empirical herbal formula, which can serve as the key indication for herb addition and cancellation. The second stage is to conduct a case study on the empirical CM herbal formula for insomnia. Doctors will add extra ingredients or cancel some of them by CM syndrome diagnosis. The last stage of the study is to divide the observed cases into the effective group and ineffective group based on the assessed clinical effect by doctors. The patterns during the diagnosis and treatment are selected by the applied algorithm and the relations between clinical symptoms or indications and herb choosing principles will be selected by the association rules algorithm. Totally 40 patients were observed in this study: 28 patients were considered effective after treatment and the remaining 12 were ineffective. 206 patterns related to clinical indications of Chinese Medicine were checked and screened with each observed case. In the analysis of the effective group, we used the algorithm of association rules to select combinations between 28 herbal adjustment strategies of the empirical herbal formula and the 190 patterns of individual clinical manifestations. During this stage, 11 common patterns were eliminated and 5 major symptoms for insomnia remained. 12 association rules were identified which included 5 herbal adjustment strategies. The association rules method is an effective algorithm to explore the latent relations between clinical indications and herbal adjustment strategies for the study on empirical herbal formulas.

  13. Herbal supplements and therapeutic drug monitoring: focus on digoxin immunoassays and interactions with St. John's wort.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2008-04-01

    Herbal supplements can affect concentrations of therapeutic drugs measured in biological fluids by different mechanisms. Herbal products can either directly interfere with the methodology used in the measurement of drugs or indirectly interfere by altering the pharmacokinetics of coadministered drugs. The active components of Chan Su, Lu-Shen-Wan, Dan Shen, Asian and Siberian ginseng, oleander containing supplements, and Ashwagandha interfere with digoxin measurements by immunoassays, especially the polyclonal antibody-based immunoassays. Herbal supplements are sometimes contaminated with Western drugs causing drug toxicity. A therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service is very helpful for diagnosis of drug toxicity in such patients. Herbal products such as St. John's wort, a popular herbal antidepressant, increase the clearance of certain drugs either by increasing the activity of liver or intestinal cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase or through modulation of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Significantly reduced concentrations of various therapeutic drugs such as digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, tricyclic antidepressants, warfarin, and protease inhibitors can be observed due to interaction of these drugs with St. John's wort, causing treatment failure. On the other hand, a few drugs such as carbamazepine, mycophenolic acid, and procainamide do not show any interaction with St. John's wort. Understanding the effect of herbal products on TDM methodologies and identification of interactions between herbal products and drugs by TDM are very important clinically.

  14. [Development of Chinese herbal pieces and analysis of problems of total quality management].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-yao; Lin, Fei; Chen, Yin-feng

    2014-11-01

    Chinese herbal pieces are a key factor to protecting the quality of the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and it is one of the basic elements of ensuring the quality of TCM and people's usage safety. However, Chinese herbal pieces has massive problem such as adulteration and counterfeit, dyeing and weighting, pesticide residues, heavy metals in excess of the standards, and all the issues are repeated excessive in the clinic treatment. These issues impacted sound development of production, management and use of TCM, but also brings common people hidden trouble for the clinical safety of medication. Protect and improve the quality of the Chinese herbal pieces demand that continue improve quality system, in-depth scientific research, and strengthen self-discipline and other factors. So it is fundamentally to ensure good quality of Chinese herbal pieces with the color, taste and shape by systematic supervision to it from the source, production, management and research, with strengthened implementation and en- forcement of the "3G".

  15. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  16. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ma, Dik-Lung; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is "experience driven," the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like "looking for a needle in a haystack," is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  17. Comments on serious anaphylaxis caused by nine Chinese herbal injections used to treat common colds and upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kunmei; Chen, Jiajie; Li, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Xia, Lixin; Wang, Chunbo; Zhan, Zhengke; Wu, Xuli

    2009-11-01

    Reports describing severe allergic shock and fatality following treatment of a common cold or upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) with a Chinese herbal injection were collected. Our analysis of the risks associated with this treatment suggested that the potential risk of serious, or even lethal, anaphylaxis should preclude its use in treating common colds and URTIs. In light of our findings herein, we propose the following five suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections as medical treatments. First, Chinese herbal injections should not be delivered in the clinic to treat patients in accordance with Bian zheng lun zhi (broad-spectrum application based on holistic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and methodology), but rather they should be administered to target specific indicated disease processes. Second, Chinese herbal injection indications should be based on the results of double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials. Third, Chinese herbal injections should be used only in cases involving severe disease or to rescue patients in critical condition; they should not be used to treat mild, relatively innocuous diseases, such as common colds and upper respiratory tract infections, given the risk of doing harm. Fourth, Chinese herbal injection formulas should include materials from only a single or a small number of plant sources in known quantities. Fifth, more studies examining the toxicology and allergenic potential of Chinese herbal injections are needed.

  18. Lessons Learnt from Evidence-Based Approach of Using Chinese Herbal Medicines in Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhan; Cho, William Chi-Shing; Xu, Ling; Wang, Juyong; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of evidence-based studies of the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of liver cancer. After a detailed analysis of the literature, five animal studies and four human clinical trials met the criteria for inclusion. Analysis revealed that results of the clinical trials, whilst encouraging, need to be interpreted with caution as problems with study designs may lead to apparent benefits being attributable to various forms of bias. However, as each of the CHM agents used in these studies appeared to be potentially beneficial, further well-designed and controlled randomized clinical trials are warranted. The second part of this review focused on the lessons learned from the relationships between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, TCM Syndrome Differentiation, and modern scientific understanding of mechanisms of action of CHM agents. The understanding of TCM Syndrome Differentiation may allow identification of different patterns of disharmony and may provide important guidance to the prescription of CHM. Furthermore, quality control using both biological and chemical fingerprinting of CHM is important to ensure batch-to-batch consistency to deliver sustained therapeutic benefit. Also, careful assessment of herb-drug interactions is paramount for safety and integrative use of western chemotherapeutic and CHM agents. PMID:23818930

  19. Microbial and heavy metal contamination in commonly consumed traditional Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Ting, Adelinesuyien; Chow, Yiingyng; Tan, Weishang

    2013-02-01

    The increasing popularity and widespread use of traditional Chinese herbs as alternative medicine have sparked an interest in understanding their biosafety, especially in decoctions that are consumed. This study aimed to assess the level of microbial and heavy metal contamination in commonly consumed herbal medicine in Malaysia and the effects of boiling on these contamination levels. Four commonly consumed Chinese herbal medicine in Malaysia-"Eight Treasure Herbal Tea", "Herbal Tea", Xiyangshen (Radix Panacis Quinquefolii) and Dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) were evaluated in this study. Herbal medicines were prepared as boiled and non-boiled decoctions, and their microbial enumeration and heavy metal detection were conducted with plate assay and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Findings revealed that herbal medicines generally had 6 log10cfu/mL microbial cells and that boiling had significantly reduced microbial contaminants, where no Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Clostridium spp. were recovered. Heavy metals such as Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe and Zn were also detected from all the samples, generally in low concentrations (< 1 mg/L) except for Mn (18.545 mg/L). All decoctions (after boiling) have reduced concentrations of Cu, while others were not significantly different. Comparisons between samples with single and multi-herbs suggest level of microbial and metal contamination is not influenced by number of herbs in sample. Herbal medicines generally have microbial and heavy metal contaminants. However, the boiling process to generate decoctions was able to successfully reduce the number of microbes and Cu, ensuring safety of herbal medicines for consumption.

  20. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Decoction in Type 2 Diabetes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fengmei; Yu, Xiaotong; Cui, Yashan; Zhao, Tianyu; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoction in treating outpatients with T2DM. Methods. All patients enrolled received decoction for at least 6 months. The primary outcome was the control rate of HbA1c and the change in HbA1c. FPG, 2hPG, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were also collected and evaluated. Results. The control rates after treatment at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 were 45.07%, 52.78%, 47.22%, 45.83%, 50.00%, 57.14%, and 40.00%. Multiple linear regression showed the change of HbA1c has a significant relationship with the baseline HbA1c and duration of DM and BMI (p < 0.05). Both FPG and 2hPG levels significantly decreased compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). Chinese herbal decoction also improved islet cell function with decreased HOMA-IR and increased HOMA-β (p < 0.05). 19 and 4 subjects deactivated the antidiabetes drugs or insulin, respectively, after taking decoction. One subject developed DKD and one developed DPN, and another subject showed abnormal liver function which was irrelevant to decoction treatment. Conclusions. Chinese herbal decoction significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action and had certain effect on protecting islet cell function. As a candidate diabetes therapy, it may reduce the use of antidiabetes drugs and slow the progression to diabetes complications. PMID:27656237

  1. A method for the production and characterization of fractionated libraries from Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Li, Yun-Fei; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2008-02-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) for pharmaceutical leads requires sufficient number of samples with vast chemical diversity. In this paper, we proposed Chinese herbal formulas as an attractive source for HTS and introduced a strategy for the production of high-quality fractionated libraries. An offline two-dimension liquid chromatography protocol was developed to separate medium- and low-polar extract (MLPE) of Chinese herbal formulas, which implemented the production of semi-purified mixture libraries. HPLC coupled with diode-array detector (DAD) and mass spectrum (MS) analysis was performed to obtain MS and UV spectrum of library components. The detected components were characterized by retention, molecular weight and UV absorbance assisted by WiseProcessor, a customer-developed software to automatically process analytical data. Based on the current understanding in pathophysiology and pharmacology, multiple cell-based bioassays were performed to screening the library samples. Through validation and dereplication process, bioactive compounds could be identified rapidly. The combination of off-line two-dimension liquid chromatography separation, HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and computer-aided data processing is reliable and efficient for the utilization of Chinese herbal formulas as valuable sources for HTS. As a demonstration, a library sample set was generated from Qi-Xue-Bing-Zhi Formula, an efficient Chinese herbal formula to treat atherosclerosis. Several bioactive compounds were quickly identified from this library through the screening and dereplication process.

  2. [Quantitative study on ecological suitability of Chinese herbal medicine based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Xie, Caixiang; Suo, Fengmei; Zhou, Yingqun; Wang, Lizhi; Xiang, Li; Dong, Liang; Jia, Guanglin; Sun, Chengzhong; Chen, Shilin

    2011-02-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine is closely related to its producing region. In order to apply mathematical models to do a quantitative study on the suitability of Chinese herbal medicine, it is necessary to study on the ecological factors and the interpolation of climatic data, which influence the Chinese herbal medicine growth. The paper firstly studied the judgment standard of ecological index from the points of ecology and statistics, and how to calculate the optimum range values and the weight of each ecological factor. Secondly, meteorological element data is essential data in analyzing the suitable region of Chinese herbal medicine, and the spatial distribution of meteorological elements is closely related to terrain environment, so, in order to make the results close to true value by the greatest degree. The paper adopted multiple linear regression interpolation method which based on DEM. The paper distinguished the factor system of suitable region and interpolation on the point of datumization, and made a study on it about some key issues.

  3. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-04-21

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap

  4. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the

  5. [Case of atopic dermatitis in infant treated with Chinese herbal medicines and nsaids ointment, which induced weight loss, electrolyte disturbance and hypoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Murai, Hiroki; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Wada, Taizo; Ohshima, Yusei

    2013-07-01

    We report here a 4-month-old girl with atopic dermatitis accompanied by weight loss, electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. She has suffered from eczema since one-month of age. Although she was treated with Chinese herbal medicines, including Syosaikotokakikyosekko, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto and Jumihaidokuto and ibuprofen ointment since three-month of age, she was referred to our hospital due to deteriorated eczema, severe diarrhea and failure to thrive. Laboratory examination revealed hyponatremia, hyperpotassemia, hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated levels of serum IL-18, TARC and fecal EDN. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests were positive for the prescribed Chinese herbal medicines. Discontinuation of these medicines and application of steroid ointments improved loose bowels and skin lesions as well as laboratory data. It is suggested that the application of inadequate ointment and Chinese herbal medicines exaggerated inflammation in the skin and the intestinal mucosa leading to electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Chinese herbal medicines are depicted as an additional therapy in Japanese guideline for atopic dermatitis, whereas their indication to infants with atopic dermatitis should be carefully assessed.

  6. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 1998–2002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1–100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  7. Does the Couse of Astragalus-Containing Chinese Herbal Prescriptions and Radiotherapy Benefit to Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianmei; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy has been widely used for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), while its low efficacy and high toxicity raise big concerns. Astragalus (as a monarch drug)-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions and radiotherapy were frequently coused for NSCLC in China; however, the effects were not systematically analyzed. Objective. To evaluate the benefits of Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions combined with radiotherapy for NSCLC. Methods. The randomized controlled trials involving NSCLC treatment with Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions combined with radiotherapy were searched. The Review Manager 5.1 software was employed for data analysis. Funnel plot and Egger's test were applied to evaluate publication bias. Results. 29 eligible studies met our criteria. Of the studies, 8, 6, and 4 reported reduced risk of death at one year, two years, and three years, respectively. 26 studies revealed amended tumor response. Six studies showed improved Karnofsky performance status. Among the studies, 14 and 18 displayed a lowered white blood cells (WBC) toxicity and an ameliorated radiation pneumonia, respectively. Conclusion. Couse of Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions and radiotherapy may benefit the patients with NSCLC via increasing the therapeutic effectiveness and reducing the toxicity of radiotherapy. To confirm the exact merits, further rigorously designed trials are warranted. PMID:24454494

  8. Advanced research technology for discovery of new effective compounds from Chinese herbal medicine and their molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi; Xu, Su Wei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2016-09-01

    Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ≥ 3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine.

  10. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ≥3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

  11. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2009-10-07

    Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the trial (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.58). However, all trials had a considerable risk of bias and none

  12. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the

  13. Systematic Review on Chinese Herbal Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xianzhao

    2016-01-01

    Background. In recent years, with the popularity of CHM, its hepatotoxicity has also been increasingly noticed. However, there are still veils on causative herbs and clinical characteristics. Aim. To systematically review data on CHM induced liver injury with particular focus on causative herbs and clinical characteristics. Methods. Using terms related to CHM and liver injury, PubMed and three Chinese electronic databases were searched, which was limited to the past 5 years. Publications meeting our eligibility criteria were included and further analyzed. Results. In total, 4 single herbs, 21 patent drugs, and 4 decoctions were reported to be of hepatotoxicity, with He-Shou-Wu being the most common one (65/114). Dang-Gui and other 5 herbs were the most common ingredients of patent drugs and decoctions. All patients were assessed using the RUCAM scale, with 26 being highly probable and 28 being probable. For these 54 cases, the latent period was 30 (47) days, and 81.48% were labeled as hepatocellular injuries. Most patients (96.3%) recovered, apart from the fact that one died and one is receiving liver transplantation. Conclusions. CHM should be used carefully for hepatotoxicity. Liver injury from CHM is similar to that from conventional medicines in clinical characteristics. Details about causative herbs should be illustrated, and more RUCAM should be used in future. PMID:27651817

  14. The Traditional Chinese Herbal Remedy Tian Xian Activates Pregnane X Receptor and Induces CYP3A Gene Expression in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Staudinger, Jeff L.

    2008-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is activated by a myriad of clinically used compounds and natural products. Activation of PXR in liver regulates the expression genes encoding proteins that are intimately involved in the hepatic uptake, metabolism, and elimination of toxic compounds from our bodies. PXR-mediated herb-drug interactions can have undesirable effects in patients on combination therapy. This can be especially important in cancer patients that self-administer over-the-counter herbal remedies together with conventional anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. Tian xian is a traditional Chinese herbal anti-cancer remedy that activates human PXR in cell-based reporter gene assays. Moreover, tian xian alters the strength of interaction between the human PXR protein and transcriptional cofactor proteins. A novel line of humanized PXR mice are described and used here to show that tian xian increases expression of Cyp3a11 in primary cultures of rodent hepatocytes. Tian xian also induces expression of CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that co-administration of tian xian is likely contraindicated in patients undergoing anti-cancer therapy with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These data are of particular importance due to the fact that this herbal remedy is currently marketed as an adjunct therapy that reduces the side-effects of conventional chemotherapy and is available without a prescription. Future studies should be conducted to determine the extent to which co-administration of this Chinese herbal remedy alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmocodynamic properties of conventional anti-cancer therapy. PMID:18474680

  15. Anti-HBV effect of individual traditional Chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Zhu, J

    2013-07-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory.

  17. Pharmacosomes: An Emerging Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Poorly Soluble Synthetic and Herbal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability. They help in controlled release of drug at the site of action as well as in reduction in cost of therapy, drug leakage and toxicity, increased bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and restorative effects. There has been advancement in the scope of this delivery system for a number of drugs used for inflammation, heart diseases, cancer, and protein delivery along with a large number of herbal drugs. Hence, pharmacosomes open new challenges and opportunities for improved novel vesicular drug delivery system. PMID:24106615

  18. Improving the quality of randomized controlled trials in Chinese herbal medicine, part II: control group design.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Moher, David; Dagenais, Simon; Li, You-Ping; Liu, Liang; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Miao, Jiang-Xia

    2006-03-01

    To discuss the types of control groups in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), and to provide suggestions for improving the design of control group in future clinical studies in this therapeutic area. A search of the Cochrane Library was conducted in July 2005 to identify RCTs of CHM, and 66 RCTs with CHM for type 2 diabetes mellitus were obtained as the basis for further analysis. Of 66 RCTs with CHM for type 2 diabetes mellitus, 61 (92.4%) trials had both a treatment group and a control group. Twenty-seven (40.9%) RCTs compared CHM plus conventional drug vs conventional drug, 24 (36.4%) compared CHM vs conventional drug, 5 (7.6%) compared CHM vs placebo, 3 (4.5%) compared CHM plus conventional drug vs conventional drug plus placebo, 3 (4.5%) compared CHM plus conventional drug vs other CHM, 1 (1.5%) compared CHM vs no treatment, 1 (1.5%) compared CHM plus placebo vs conventional drug plus placebo, 1 (1.5%) compared CHM vs CHM plus conventional drug vs conventional drug vs placebo, and 1 (1.5%) compared CHM vs conventional drug vs CHM plus conventional drug. A variety of control groups were used in RCTs of CHM for type 2 diabetes mellitus, including placebo, active, and no treatment control groups. Justification for selecting particular types of control groups were not provided in the trials reviewed in this study. Different control groups may be appropriate according to the study objectives, and several factors should be considered prior to selecting control groups in future RCTs of CHM. (1) Investigators of CHM who design clinical trials should understand the rationale for selecting different types of control groups; (2) Control groups for RCTs should be selected according to study objectives; (3) Active control groups should select interventions for comparisons that have the strongest evidence of efficacy and prescribe them as recommended; (4) Placebo control groups should select a placebo that mimics the physical

  19. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2005-04-26

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized.

  20. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine based on hachimi-jio-gan on osteopenia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Masayuki; Ogirima, Takeshi; Tano, Kaori; Maenaka, Toshihiro; Ishida, Torao; Zhang, Bingli; Li, Guilan; Wang, Xiuyun; Guo, Yi

    2006-03-01

    The effects of Chinese herbal medicines including Hachimi-jio-gan (HJG) and/or Hochu-ekki-to (HEW) on osteopenia in rats were investigated. The Chinese herbal medicines were administrated for 8 weeks (7 times/week) starting from 1 week after ovariectomy. HJG and Prescription-2 (Prsc-2, the prescription based on HJG) showed protective effect on bone loss of the vertebrae after ovariectomy. However, Prescription-1 (the prescription based on HJG and HET) had no effect. Then, we made osteopenia model in rats by prednisolone and low calcium diet. Prsc-2 and HJG were administrated for 20 weeks with prednisolone. These Chinese remedies showed protective effects for osteopenia, with better indices on bone loss of the limbs than HJG alone in the osteopenia rats. It can be concluded that Prsc-2 is more effective than HJG for bone loss induced by various factors, and the additives in Prsc-2 may enhance the therapeutic effect.

  1. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

  2. Analysis of molecular networks and targets mining of Chinese herbal medicines on anti-aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi-Yu; Zheng, Mei-Si; Yang, Xiao-Jing; Sun, Xiao-Sheng

    2016-12-28

    Many kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal medicines exert effects on anti-aging by comprehensive interactions of multiple targets. However, the interactions of multi-targets targeted by effective ingredients of kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal medicines are unknown. In this study, to explore the systems pharmacology mechanisms of kidney-tonifying Chinese medicines on anti-aging, we establish the molecular networks with the interactions of multi-targets, analyze bio-functions and pathways with IPA, and calculated the mutual interaction pairs of targets (target pairs) with data mining, respectively. Kidney-tonifying Chinese medicines with anti-aging effects were screened from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the literatures. Target proteins of these herbal medicines were obtained from bioinformatics databases. Comparisons of molecular networks, bio-functions and pathways given by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis system showed the similarities and the differences between kidney Yin-tonifying herbal medicines and kidney Yang-tonifying herbal medicines. Target pairs with high correlation related to anti-aging were also discovered by data mining algorithm. And regulatory networks of targets were built based on the target pairs. Twenty-eight kidney-tonifying herbal medicines with anti-aging effects and 717 related target proteins were collected. The main bio-functions that all targets enriched in were "Cell Death and Survival", "Free Radical Scavenging" and "Cellular Movement", etc. The results of comparison analysis showed that kidney Yin-tonifying herbal medicines focused more on "Cancer related signaling", "Apoptosis related signaling" and "Cardiovascular related signaling". And kidney Yang-tonifying herbal medicines focused more on "Cellular stress and injury related signaling" and "Cellular growth, proliferation and development related signaling". Moreover, the results of regulatory network showed that the anti-aging related target pairs with high correlated degrees of Kidney Yin

  3. High-performance thin layer chromatography for quality control of multicomponent herbal drugs: example of cangzhu xianglian san.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Merfort, Irmgard; Reich, Eike

    2010-01-01

    Due to their complexity, multicomponent herbal drugs pose enormous analytical challenges for quality control (QC). Although they may have traditionally been used for hundreds of years, the information about their chemical composition is often still limited. Selecting suitable markers to monitor the identity and potency of the mixture is, therefore, difficult. There is also the possibility of natural variability for each plant. This paper illustrates a pragmatic and practical approach to QC of a multicomponent herbal drug by HPTLC. Cangzhu xianglian xan (CXS), composed of the herbal drugs Coptis rhizome, Aucklandia root, and Atractylodes rhizome (30 + 20 + 60, w/w/w), is used as an example. A characteristic fingerprint can be generated for CXS with toluene-ethyl acetate-methanol-isopropanol-water (60 + 30 + 20 + 15 + 3, v/v/v/v/v) mobile phase on HPTLC silica gel 60 conditioned with ammonia. While the corresponding monograph of the Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia focuses only on the detection of berberine, one of the principal components of Coptis rhizome, the proposed method of identification determines the presence of all three components in the drug after derivatization with anisaldehyde reagent. The same method can also be used to quantitatively determine the content of berberine by scanning densitometry. This paper provides details about the validation of the qualitative and quantitative determinations.

  4. [Dyspeptic pain and phytotherapy--a review of traditional and modern herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Saller, R; Iten, F; Reichling, J

    2001-10-01

    Gastrointestinal complaints rank among the most frequently reasons why people asking for medical advice. About 15-30% of the adult patients suffer from different various functional dyspeptic conditions. The therapy of functional gastrointestinal disorders is one of the domains of phytotherapeutic treatments. From ancient times on, bitter herbal drugs played a very important role in the therapy of patients with dyspeptic symptoms. The mechanisms of action of the bitters are not completely understood. But there are indications that they sensorially stimulate at even very small concentrations sensorially the secretion of the stomach as well as the digestive glands and strengthen the smooth musculature of the digestive tract (via the gustatory system, N. vagus and the enteric nervous system). Across the enteral nervous system the strengthened digestive tract seems to stimulate the CNS, leading to a general tonification. At higher dosages bitters probably directly affect the mucous membranes of the stomach and the bowel. Bitters often are combined with essential oils (some volatile oils as aromatic bitters, drug combinations of a volatile oil with a bitter). Essential oils act primarily as spasmolytics, carminatives and local anesthetics. In the last years several controlled studies were carried out with phytotherapeutic combinations (e.g. with Iberis amara, caraway oil, peppermint oil, curcuma extract, ginger extract) in which the herbal drugs proved to be superior compared to placebo and were as effective as prokinetics (studies according to evidence-based medicine). The traditional phytotherapeutic approach is based upon the illness- as well as the patient-related investigations referring to the effectiveness of bitter, acrid- and essential-oil drugs. Such a treatment is supported by a rich amount of various of kinds of individual empirical experience (experience-based phytotherapy). Important traditional medical systems like the Traditional Chinese Medicine, the

  5. The In Vitro and In Vivo Wound Healing Properties of the Chinese Herbal Medicine "Jinchuang Ointment".

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Jung; Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Lin, Guang-Huey; Li, Tzong Shiun; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yang, Jai-Sing; Hsieh, Ming-Chuan; Wu, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Hao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Jinchuang ointment" is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex for treatment of incised wounds. For more than ten years, it has been used at China Medical University Hospital (Taichung, Taiwan) for the treatment of diabetic foot infections and decubitus ulcers. Three different cases are presented in this study. "Jinchuang" ointment is a mixture of natural product complexes from nine different components, making it difficult to analyze its exact chemical compositions. To further characterize the herbal ingredients used in this study, the contents of reference standards present in a subset of the ointment ingredients (dragon's blood, catechu, frankincense, and myrrh) were determined by HPLC. Two in vitro cell based assay platforms, wound healing and tube formation, were used to examine the biological activity of this medicine. Our results show that this herbal medicine possesses strong activities including stimulation of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell migration, which provide the scientific basis for its clinically observed curative effects on nonhealing diabetic wounds.

  6. Potential drug interactions with dietary and herbal supplements during hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ilana; Attias, Samuel; Ben-Arye, Eran; Goldstein, Lee; Schiff, Elad

    2017-04-01

    Dietary and herbal supplements (DHS) are widely used in the general population, including during hospitalization. Yet, their potential interactions with prescription drugs have seldom been delineated among inpatients. We aimed to evaluate potentially dangerous interactions of DHS with prescribed medications among inpatients. This was a cross-sectional prospective study involving a cohort of patients hospitalized in 12 departments of a public academic medical center (Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel) from 2009 to 2014. DHS users were determined via a questionnaire. The Natural Medicine database was used to search for potential DHS-drug interactions for identified DHS, and the clinical significance was evaluated using Lexi-interact online interaction analysis. Medical files were assessed for documentation of DHS use. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to characterize potential risk factors for DHS-drug interactions. Of 927 patients consenting to answer the questionnaire, 458 (49 %) reported DHS use. Of these, 215 (47 %) had at least one potential interaction during hospitalization (759 interactions). Of these interactions, 116 (15 %) were potentially clinically significant. Older age [OR = 1.02 (1.01-1.04), p = 0.002], males [OR = 2.11 (1.35-3.29), p = 0.001] and increased number of used DHS [OR = 4.28 (2.28-8.03), p < 0.001] or drugs [OR = 1.95 (1.17-3.26), p = 0.011] were associated with potential interactions in DHS users. Physicians documented only 16.5 % of DHS involved in these interactions in patients' medical files. In conclusion, a substantial number of inpatients use DHS with potential interactions with concomitant medications. Medical staff should be aware of this, question patients on DHS usage and check for such interactions.

  7. Chinese herbal medicine and clomiphene citrate for anovulation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    See, Caylie J; McCulloch, Michael; Smikle, Collin; Gao, Jin

    2011-05-01

    The study objective was to investigate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for improving standard infertility treatments. A search of the literature between 2000 and 2006 was done in English and Chinese using the search terms anovulation, infertility, clomiphene citrate, Chinese herbal medicine, and randomized controlled trials. A review was done of 1009 studies with selection criteria including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbal medicine combined with clomiphene citrate (CC) versus a control arm using CC alone with primary endpoints of changes in basal body temperatures, ovulation rates, endometrial lining, and pregnancy outcomes. Fourteen (14) randomized studies representing 1316 patients met inclusion criteria. Four (4) studies (n = 315) reported 14% higher likelihood of biphasic basal body temperatures (risk ratios [RR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00, 1.29). Six (6) studies (n = 604) reported a nonsignificant 18% increase in ovulation rates (RR = 1.18; 95% CI, 0.91, 1.52). Two studies (n = 138) reported subjects 78% more likely to have endometrial lining greater than 6 mm (RR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.22, 2.60). Thirteen (13) studies (n = 1202) reported a 50% increase in pregnancy rates (RR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.23, 1.84). Chinese herbal medicine may increase the effectiveness of CC therapy. However, the RCTs are of poor methodological quality and small sample size, and the results require confirmation with rigorously controlled studies.

  8. A survey of Chinese herbal ingredients with liver protection activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rubin; Kong, John; Wang, Dali; Lien, Linda Lin-min; Lien, Eric Jung-chi

    2007-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted on herbs, their preparations and ingredients with reported liver protection activities, in which a total of 274 different species and hundreds of active ingredients have been examined. These ingredients can be roughly classified into two categories according to their activities: (1) the main ingredients, such as silybin, osthole, coumarin, glycyrrhizin, saikosaponin A, schisandrin A, flavonoids; and (2) supporting substances, such as sugars, amino acids, resins, tannins and volatile oil. Among them, some active ingredients have hepatoprotective activities (e.g. anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulating and liver cirrhosis-regulating effects). Calculation of physicochemical parameters indicates that the main ingredients with negative and positive Elumo values possibly display their hepatoprotective effects through different mechanisms, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. As the combination of herbs may achieve some treatment effects synergistically and/or additively, it is common in Chinese medicine to use mixtures of various medicinal herbs with pharmacologically active compounds to have synergistic and/or additive effects, or to reduce harmful effects of some pharmacologically active compounds. In particular, the active compounds with Clog P around 2 are suitable for passive transport across membranes and accessible to the target sites. Thus, Elumo and Clog P values are good indicators among the calculated parameters. Seven different physicochemical parameters (MW, Clog P, CMR, μ, Ehomo, Elumo and Hf) and four major biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral/antitumor and immunomodulating) are discussed in this review. It is hoped that the discussion may provide some leads in the development of new hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:17490493

  9. New Potential Pharmacological Functions of Chinese Herbal Medicines via Regulation of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Law, Betty Yuen Kwan; Mok, Simon Wing Fai; Wu, An Guo; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Yu, Margaret Xin Yi; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai

    2016-03-17

    Autophagy is a universal catabolic cellular process for quality control of cytoplasm and maintenance of cellular homeostasis upon nutrient deprivation and environmental stimulus. It involves the lysosomal degradation of cellular components such as misfolded proteins or damaged organelles. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases including cancers, myopathy, neurodegenerations, infections and cardiovascular diseases. In the recent decade, traditional drugs with new clinical applications are not only commonly found in Western medicines, but also highlighted in Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). For instance, pharmacological studies have revealed that active components or fractions from Chaihu (Radix bupleuri), Hu Zhang (Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati), Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubesens), Hou po (Cortex magnoliae officinalis) and Chuan xiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong) modulate cancers, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease via autophagy. These findings shed light on the potential new applications and formulation of CHM decoctions via regulation of autophagy. This article reviews the roles of autophagy in the pharmacological actions of CHM and discusses their new potential clinical applications in various human diseases.

  10. 6-month evaluation of JinHuang Chinese herbal medicine study in asymptomatic HIV infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Bussaratid, Valai; Chamnachanan, Supat; Naksrisook, Supa; Peonim, Wantanee; Thantamnu, Narumon; Muanaum, Rungrapat; Ngamdee, Vatcharachai

    2003-06-01

    Good results of in vitro study of anti-HIV effects of JinHuang, a Chinese herbal medicine led to in vivo study of safety and efficacy among asymptomatic HIV infected individuals. It was a prospective open study of 21 asymptomatic HIV infected Thai volunteers. Twelve and 9 were female and male, respectively, with mean age of 29.24 +/- 3.94 years. JinHuang preparation, 6 capsules and 2 bottles of liquid formula orally three times a day, was given on an outpatient basis initially for 6 months. Regular close monitoring and follow-up were done. The side effects reported included : increased bowel movements (81%), vague taste, and smell of drug after initiation (52%). No serious adverse event related to JinHuang was detected during study. No significant changes in terms of log viral load and CD4 count were observed after 6-months' duration. Most of the patients felt that the quality of life was better in terms of better appetite, good sleep and healthy during study participation, however, these were subjective.

  11. [Treatment of vascular dementia by Chinese herbal medicine: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Jian, Wen-Jia; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jin-Zhou; Ni, Jing-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used in the treatment of vascular dementia (VaD), but lacked systematic review on its efficacy and safety. So we conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine in treating VaD. CNKI, CBM, PubMed, and Wiley Online Library were retrieved for randomized trials (RCTs) on Chinese herbal medicine treating VaD patients. Randomized parallel control trials by taking Chinese herbal medicine as one treatment method and placebos/cholinesterase inhibitors/Memantine hydrochloride as the control were included. Quality rating and data extraction were performed. RevMan5.2.0 Software was used for meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to indicate effect indicators of results. Seven RCTs met the inclusive criteria. Totally 677 VaD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. Descriptive analyses were performed in inclusive trials. The cognitive function was assessed in all trials. Results showed Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) score was better in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the placebo group, but with no significant difference when compared with the donepezil group (P > 0.05). Adverse reactions were mainly manifested as gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain in the Chinese herbal medicine group. But they occurred more in the donepezil group than in the Chinese herbal medicine group. The methodological quality of included trials was poor with less samples. Results of different trials were lack of consistency. Present evidence is not sufficient to prove or disapprove the role of Chinese herbal medicine in improving clinical symptoms and outcome indicators of VaD patients. Their clinical efficacy and safety need to be supported by more higher quality RCTs.

  12. The application status of Chinese herbal medicine in military health service in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ge-Liang; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Hui-Qing; Zhai, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Military medicine has had a long history in China since the emergence of the war. Chinese medicine, especially Chinese herbs, was widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the prevention and treatment of diseases in the military for hundreds of years. However, the use of Chinese medicine in military health service has never been well studied. In this article, we briefly summarize the application status of Chinese herbal medicine in military health service in China, putting particular emphasis on special military environment, in an attempt to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and military health service and promote the quality of health service for the military and maintain world peace.

  13. [Clinical observation on treatment of postcardiotomic complications with Chinese herbal medicine based on syndrome differentiation with angiocardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Jiao, Z; Zhang, R

    1999-04-01

    To study the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) based on Syndrome Differentiation on postcardiotomic complications in patients with angiocardiopathy. Aimed at the frequently encountered postcardiotomic complications including fever, cough and expectoration, belching, abdominal distension, palpitation, short breath, etc. CHM treatment was applied in combination with routine western drugs treatment (cardiac tonic, diuretics, vascular dilatator and anticoagulant). Twenty out of 22 patients with protracted fever and irresponsive to multi-antibiotics therapy were cured, the other one with hydrothorax received other therapy and the another one with drug fever was natural cured after stopping medication. Among 23 patients complicated mainly with respiratory symptoms, 17 were cured and 6 improved, among 15 with digestive symptoms, 12 cured and 3 improved, and among 7 with cardiovascular symptoms, 3 cured, 2 improved and 2 ineffective. CHM has good effect on postcardiotomic complications, it could improve the functional recovery of heart and lung.

  14. Analysis of ultraviolet absorption spectrum of Chinese herbal medicine-Cortex Fraxini by double ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lifei; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Hongxia; Li, Junfeng; Lu, Lei; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Hongyan

    2006-11-01

    A fast, accurate and convenient method for the simultaneous determination of multi-component in the Chinese herbal medicine was proposed by using ultraviolet absorption spectrum. In this method, dummy components were added to training sample, and a double artificial neural network (DANN) that has the function of high self-revision and self-simulation was used. Effect of other interference components could be eliminated by adjusting concentration of dummy components. Therefore, the accuracy of concentration prediction for multi-component in the complicated Chinese herbal medicine was improved. It has been realized that two effective components of Cortex Fraxini, aesculin and aesculetin, were simultaneously determined, without any separation. The predicted accuracy was 92% within the permitted relative errors. The measurement precisions of the aesculin and aesculetin were 0.37% and 1.5%, respectively.

  15. [Advances in researches on mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae.

  16. [Applications of fast and ultra performance liquid chromatography in the analysis of Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jianliang; Li, Ping

    2009-09-01

    The analysis of chemical components of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is one of the most critical issues not only for screening and analyzing the bioactive components but also for controlling their quality. However, due to the complexity of the chemical constituents of CHMs, it is difficult to separate them on column within a short time. In the recent, the fast and ultra performance liquid chromatography, including ultra high pressure liquid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography based on the monolithic columns and high temperature liquid chromatography, are of particular interest because of the high resolution and fast analytical speed provided by these techniques. This overview covers the principle and separation characteristics of these techniques, as well as their applications in Chinese herbal medicines.

  17. A meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicines for vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiude; Liu, Yu; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Dandan; Zhu, Jinqiang; Ye, Qiaofeng; Mou, Wei; Kang, Liyuan

    2013-06-25

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of patients with vascular dementia. We retrieved publications from Cochrane Library (2004 to July 2011), PubMed (1966 to July 2011), the Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1977 to July 2011), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 to July 2011), Google Scholar (July 2011), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1977 to July 2011) using the key words "Chinese medicine OR Chinese herbal medicine" and "vascular dementia OR mild cognition impair OR multi-infarct dementia OR small-vessel dementia OR strategic infarct dementia OR hypoperfusion dementia OR hemorrhagic dementia OR hereditary vascular dementia". Randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo/western medicine in the treatment of patients with vascular dementia were included. Diagnostic standards included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherché et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences. Two participants independently conducted literature screening, quality evaluation and data extraction. The quality of each trial was assessed according to the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 5.0. Effective rate, Mini-Mental State Examination scores, Hasegawa Dementia Scale scores, and incidence of adverse reactions. We identified 1 143 articles discussing the effects of Chinese medicine on vascular dementia. Thirty-one of these were included in the analysis. These studies involved a total of 2 868 participants (1 605 patients took Chinese medicine decoctions (treatment group); 1 263 patients took western medicine or placebo). The results of our meta-analysis revealed that Chinese herbal remedies in the treatment group were more efficacious than the control intervention (relative risk (RR) = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-1.38, P < 0.01). Mini-Mental State Examination

  18. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  19. Study on the mechanism of regulation on peritoneal lymphatic stomata with Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shi-Ping; Li, Ji-Cheng; Xu, Jian; Mao, Lian-Gen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the prescription consists of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Codonopsitis Pilosulae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Alba and Rhizoma Alismatis, Leonurus Heterophyllus Sweet, etc) on the regulation of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata and the ascites drainage. METHODS: The mouse model of live fibrosis was established with the application of intragastric installations of carbon tetrachloride once every three days; scanning electron microscope and computer image processing were used to detect the area and the distributive density of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata; and the concentrations of urinary ion and NO in the serum were analyzed in the experiment. RESULTS: Two different doses of CHM could significantly increase the area of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata, promote its distributive density and enhance the drainage of urinary ion such as sodium, potassium and chlorine. Meanwhile, the NO concentration of two different doses of CHM groups was 133.52 ± 23.57 μmol/L, and 137.2 ± 26.79 μmol/L respectively. In comparison with the control group and model groups (48.36 ± 6.83 μmol/L, and 35.22 ± 8.94 μmol/L, P < 0.01), there existed significantly marked difference, this made it clear that Chinese herbal medicine could induce high endogenous NO concentration. The effect of Chinese herbal medicine on the peritoneal lymphatic stomata and the drainage of urinary ion was altered by adding NO donor(sodium nitropurruside, SNP) or NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA) to the peritoneal cavity. CONCLUSION: There existed correlations between high NO concentration and enlargement of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata, which result in enhanced drainage of ascites. These data supported the hypothesis that Chinese herbal medicine could regulate the peritoneal lymphatic stomata by accelerating the synthesis and release of endogenous NO. PMID:11833101

  20. Pharmacological Effects of Active Components of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Jian-Gang; Li, Hao; Yang, Hui-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia, not only severely decreases the quality of life for its victims, but also brings a heavy economic burden to the family and society. Unfortunately, few chemical drugs designed for clinical applications have reached the expected preventive or therapeutic effect so far, and combined with their significant side-effects, there is therefore an urgent need for new strategies to be developed for AD treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine has accumulated many experiences in the treatment of dementia during thousands of years of practice; modern pharmacological studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of many active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines (CHM). Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted from Radix Ginseng, exerts a [Formula: see text]-secretase inhibitor effect so as to decrease A[Formula: see text] aggregation. It can also inhibit the apoptosis of neuron cells. Tanshinone IIA, extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, and baicalin, extracted from Radix Scutellariae[Formula: see text] can inhibit the oxidative stress injury in neuronal cells. Icariin, extracted from Epimedium brevicornum, can decrease A[Formula: see text] levels and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and can also inhibit oxidative stress and apoptosis. Huperzine A, extracted from Huperzia serrata, exerts a cholinesterase inhibitor effect. Evodiamine, extracted from Fructus Evodiae, and curcumin, extracted from Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, exert anti-inflammatory actions. Curcumin can act on A[Formula: see text] and tau too. Due to the advantages of multi-target effects and fewer side effects, Chinese medicine is more appropriate for long-term use. In this present review, the pharmacological effects of commonly used active components derived from Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of AD are discussed.

  1. [Analysis on composition principles of Chinese patent drugs containing ginseng].

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Tang, Shi-Huan; Lu, Peng; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2013-06-01

    Use traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS) to analyze the composition principles of Chinese patent drugs containing Renshen (Panax ginseng) in national standard for Chinese patent drugs (NSCPD) enacted by Ministry of Public Health of China. Via analyzing the regularity of prescriptions containing Ginseng which are recorded in NSCPD, to identify composition pattern and rule. Tweenty four drugs are used more than 50 times, in which, drugs that tonify qi and nourish flood have the highest frequency, and then medicines of liver and kidney tonifying, yin enriching and yang warming follow. Then 45 commonly used core combinations are analyzed via data mining methods such as association rules, improved mutual information method, etc. Meantime, three diseases, namely, palpitation, amnesia and chest discomfort are chosen from the 24 diseases that Ginseng most frequently used to make deeper analysis, which reflect the composition principle of Chinese patent drugs containing Ginseng. Therefore, TCMISS is an important tool in composition principle exploring of herbal formulae and meanwhile, the comparative analysis method contributes a lot to the exploration as well.

  2. [Herbal textual research on origin and development of traditional Chinese medicine "duhuo" and "qianghuo"].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the origin and development of the traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo" with medicinal literatures. Medical literatures of past dynasties were analysed and combined with the modern material. The "Duhuo" in Herbal writing Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing include traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo", "Qianghuo" was separated from "Duhuo" due to the distinguish of clinical application. The origin of "Qianghuo" is Notopterygium incisum and N. forbesii, However, The origin of "Duhuo" is very complex, Angelica pubescens f. biserrata as authentic "Duhuo" was used from Song Dynasty. "Qianghuo" was originated from "Duhuo".

  3. [Research progress of anti-drug resistance in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Xing, Ren-Hui; Chen, Lin-Qi; Chen, Lai; Xiong, Wei; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Zhi-Dong

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial drug resistance has been always the focus of the world. With the abuse of antibiotics and the emerging of "Superbug" in the world, the harm of drug resistance to human beings is more and more serious, with an uncontrollable trend. Today, with the relative lack of antibiotics, people pay more attention to Chinese herbal medicines with a wide range of sources, high security, less toxic side effects and mysterious anti-drug resistance mechanism, hoping to find new ways or new ideas to solve the problem of drug resistance. In recent years, the screening, extracting and isolating of effective drug resistance inhibitors from natural plants and traditional Chinese Medicine, as well as the investigation in mechanism of anti-drug resistance, have become a hot research in the field of medicine. In this paper, we would analyze and summarize the action mechanism of bacterial drug resistance, characteristics and advantages of anti-drug resistance of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as the herbal ingredients with anti-drug resistance effect, hoping to provide certain theoretical basis and research ideas for solving the problem of bacterial drug resistance and developing new green Chinese antibiotics. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Assessment of herbal drugs for promising anti-Candida activity.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh S M; Semreen, Mohammad H; El-Keblawy, Ali A; Abdullah, Arbab; Uppuluri, Priya; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2017-05-08

    Microbial infections are diverse and cause serious human diseases. Candida albicans infections are serious healthcare-related infections that are complicated by its morphological switching from yeast to hyphae, resistant biofilm formation and mixed infections with bacteria. Due to the increase in drug resistance to currently used antimicrobial agents and the presence of undesirable side effects, the need for safe and effective novel therapies is important. Compounds derived from plants are known for their medicinal properties including antimicrobial activities. The purpose of the study was to compare and evaluate the anti-Candida activities of several medicinal plants in order for the selection of a herbal drug for human use as effective antimicrobial. The selection was taking into considerations two important parameters; parameters related to the selected drug including activity, stability, solubility and toxicity and parameters related to the pathogen including its different dynamic growth and its accompanied secondary bacterial infections. Seven different plants including Avicennia marina (Qurm), Fagonia indica (Shoka'a), Lawsania inermis (Henna), Portulaca oleracea (Baq'lah), Salvadora persica (Souwak), Ziziphus spina- Christi (Sidr) and Asphodelus tenuifolius (Kufer) were ground and extracted with ethanol. The ethanol extracts were evaporated and the residual extract dissolved in water prior to testing against Candida albicans in its different morphologies. The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of the plants extracts were also tested. Out of the seven tested plants, L. inermis and P. oleracea showed significant anti-Candida activity with MIC ~10 μg/mL. Furthermore, both plant extracts were able to inhibit C. albicans growth at its dynamic growth phases including biofilm formation and age resistance. Accompanied secondary bacterial infections can complicate Candida pathogenesis. L. inermis and P. oleracea extracts showed effective antibacterial activities

  5. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  7. Pharmaco-toxicological aspects of herbal drugs used in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rosario; Autore, Giuseppina; Severino, Lorella

    2009-12-01

    Herbal drugs are more and more used both in human and veterinary medicine to mitigate and prevent minor diseases and to support conventional medicine using allopathic drugs. Nevertheless, 'natural product' does not mean lack of adverse effects, and many people and veterinarians do not know enough about the adverse reactions that can occur following the administration of such drugs in domestic animals. Moreover, herbal products can interact with each other when administered concomitantly or can agonize or antagonize the effects of synthetic drugs administered as primary therapy. The use of non-conventional medicines (NCM) should be considered as a veterinary practise. In this paper, the herbal drugs most utilized in domestic animals, both pets and large animals, are reviewed, as their use is increasing, despite the prejudices of the academic world and some of the adverse effects and interactions that can occur in domestic animals.

  8. Botanical drugs in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2016-12-24

    China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems. This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine (TSM). Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications. A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common. The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine. This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  9. Anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery from herbal medicines: what have we got from neurotoxic models?

    PubMed

    Song, Ju-Xian; Sze, Stephen Cho-Wing; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Lee, Caivin Kai-Fai; Leung, George P H; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Tong, Yao; Zhang, Yan-Bo

    2012-02-15

    Herbal medicines are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in ancient medical systems in Asian countries such as India, China, Japan and Korea based on their own anecdotal or experience-based theories. To systematically summarize and analyze the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal preparations (including active compounds, herbal extracts and formulations) investigated in the neurotoxic models of PD and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal materials tested on in vitro and in vivo neurotoxic models of PD were retrieved from PubMed database by using pre-set searching strings. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their chemical classifications or biological activities. A total of 51 herbal medicines were analyzed. A diversity of compounds isolated from herbal materials were reported to be effective on neurotoxic models of PD by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The main structure types of these compounds belong to catechols, stilbenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and lignans, phenylethanoid glycosides and terpenes. Although some herbal extracts and formulations have shown positive results on PD animal models, the relative compounds accounting for the effects and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. Herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. Compounds classified into stilbenoids, flavonoids, catechols and terpenes may be the most promising candidates for further investigation. Some well-studies compounds such as baicalein, puerarin, resveratrol, curcumin and ginsenosides deserve further consideration in clinical trials. In-depth experimental studies are still needed to evaluate the efficacy of herbal extracts and formulations in PD models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Herbal medicine use and linked suspected adverse drug reactions in a prospective cohort of Ugandan inpatients.

    PubMed

    Kiguba, Ronald; Ononge, Sam; Karamagi, Charles; Bird, Sheila M

    2016-05-26

    Clinical history-taking can be employed as a standardized approach to elucidate the use of herbal medicines and their linked suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among hospitalized patients. We sought to identify herbal medicines nominated by Ugandan inpatients; compare nomination rates by ward and gender; confirm the herbs' known pharmacological properties from published literature; and identify ADRs linked to pre-admission use of herbal medicines. Prospective cohort of consented adult inpatients designed to assess medication use and ADRs on one gynaecological and three medical wards of 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Baseline and follow-up data were obtained on patients' characteristics, including pre-admission use of herbal medicines. Fourteen percent (26/191) of females in Gynaecology nominated at least one specific herbal medicine compared with 20 % (114/571) of inpatients on medical wards [20 % (69/343) of females; 20 % (45/228) of males]. Frequent nominations were Persea americana (30), Mumbwa/multiple-herb clay rods (23), Aloe barbadensis (22), Beta vulgaris (12), Vernonia amygdalina (11), Commelina africana (7), Bidens pilosa (7), Hoslundia opposita (6), Mangifera indica (4), and Dicliptera laxata (4). Four inpatients experienced 10 suspected ADRs linked to pre-admission herbal medicine use including Commelina africana (4), multiple-herb-mumbwa (1), or unspecified local-herbs (5): three ADR-cases were abortion-related and one kidney-related. The named herbal medicines and their nomination rates generally differed by specialized ward, probably guided by local folklore knowledge of their use. Clinical elicitation from inpatients can generate valuable safety data on herbal medicine use. However, larger routine studies might increase the utility of our method to assess herbal medicine use and detect herb-linked ADRs. Future studies should take testable samples of ADR-implicated herbal medicines for further analysis.

  11. Use of Chinese herbal medicine therapies in comprehensive hospitals in central China: A parallel survey in cancer patients and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying

    2015-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.

  12. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

  13. Herbal compatibility of traditional Chinese medical formulas for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyan; Song, Chunxin

    2012-09-01

    Because herbal compatibility is one of the most important reasons why Traditional Chinese Medcine (TCM) formulas are effective for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), our study aimed to determine the compatibility of herbs based on published AIDS clinical research in Chinese periodicals. To achieve this aim, we designed a new data-mining algorithm according to TCM data characteristics. We found 25 clinical AIDS studies, all using Chinese herbs for treatment, in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database System, and information on diagnosis and treatment was extracted. To find out herbal compatibility, especially the formulae for herbal combinations, we proposed an improved association rule algorithm based on the frequency of combinations. In this algorithm, all the compatibility relationships were displayed in a tree structure, by which the relationship between formulas and their derivation could be clearly inferred. Data analysis showed that approximately 100 herbs have been used for treating AIDS. Based on the whole herb compatibility tree, we calculated a basic formula for AIDS: Huang Qi combined with Ren Shen, Fu Ling, Bai Zhu, Bai Zhu, Dang Gui, and Bai Shao. This formula, deriving from most of clinical prescriptions, and was chosed by most of clinicians for AIDS treatment. From data mining we found that Qi replenishment and detoxification were the main treatment principles, which coincided with the AIDS pathological mechanism in which immune function is destroyed by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our data-mining results suggest that the core TCM treatment of AIDS is replenishing Qi and detoxification, by which AIDS patients' immune system may be enhanced. Compatibility of Huang Qi with some frequently-used herbs have shown real efficacy in clinical practice, which warrants pharmacological research in the future.

  14. Safety and efficacy of CKBM-A01, a Chinese herbal medicine, among asymptomatic HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Dhitavat, Jittima; Naksrisook, Supa; Muanaum, Rungrapat; Ngamdee, Vatcharachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee

    2009-05-01

    Complementary remedies represent a potential alternative treatment for chronic diseases, including HIV/AIDS cases not meeting criteria for using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of CKBM-A01, a Chinese herbal medicine, and patient quality of life (QoL). Asymptomatic HIV patients with CD4 counts of 250-350 cells/microl were recruited into this open-labeled trial. Liquid CKBM-A01 was prescribed for a 36-week period. Study participants recorded all symptoms themselves on diary cards. Study parameters, including CD4 cell counts, HIV viral loads, and blood chemistry, were periodically monitored and questionnaires were used to assess QoL and to help with risk reduction. Eighteen volunteers, mean age (+/- SD) 32.07 (+/- 6.88) years, had a median (interquartile range, IQR) baseline CD4 count of 292 (268.50-338.25) cells/microl. No serious drug-related adVerse events due to CKBM-A01 were detected during the study. Intermittent diarrhea was reported in 55.6%, weakness or skin rash/itching in 50%, and increased bowel movement in 33.7%. No significant changes in log viral load or CD4 cell counts were observed at the end of the study. Most of the volunteers (72.2%) expressed satisfaction with CKBM-A01 and had a positive perception. Common colds and nasal symptoms were significantly lower during treatment (p = 0.019). CKBM-A01 appeared to be safe but gave no significant improvement in QoL in asymptomatic HIV patients, and gave no significant improvement in the treatment of HIV based on CD4 cell counts and viral loads.

  15. Identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines with Electronic Nose Technology: Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaying; Luo, Dehan; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Li, Zhong; He, Jiafeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the most recent works in machine olfaction as applied to the identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs). Due to the wide variety of CHMs, the complexity of growing sources and the diverse specifications of herb components, the quality control of CHMs is a challenging issue. Much research has demonstrated that an electronic nose (E-nose) as an advanced machine olfaction system, can overcome this challenge through identification of the complex odors of CHMs. E-nose technology, with better usability, high sensitivity, real-time detection and non-destructive features has shown better performance in comparison with other analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although there has been immense development of E-nose techniques in other applications, there are limited reports on the application of E-noses for the quality control of CHMs. The aim of current study is to review practical implementation and advantages of E-noses for robust and effective odor identification of CHMs. It covers the use of E-nose technology to study the effects of growing regions, identification methods, production procedures and storage time on CHMs. Moreover, the challenges and applications of E-nose for CHM identification are investigated. Based on the advancement in E-nose technology, odor may become a new quantitative index for quality control of CHMs and drug discovery. It was also found that more research could be done in the area of odor standardization and odor reproduction for remote sensing. PMID:28486407

  16. Safety, clinical and immunologic efficacy of a Chinese herbal medicine (FAHF-2) for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie; Jones, Stacie M.; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Song, Ying; Yang, Nan; Sicherer, Scott H.; Makhija, Melanie M.; Robison, Rachel G.; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sampson, Hugh A.; Li, Xiu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background FAHF-2 is a 9-herb formula based on Traditional Chinese Medicine that blocks peanut anaphylaxis in a murine model. In Phase I studies, FAHF-2 was found to be safe, and well tolerated. Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FAHF-2 as a treatment for food allergy. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 68 subjects, 12-45 years of age, with allergies to peanut, tree nut, sesame, fish, and/or shellfish, confirmed by baseline double-blind, placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), received FAHF-2 (n=46) or placebo (n=22). After 6 months of therapy, subjects underwent DBPCFC. For those who demonstrated increases in eliciting dose, a repeat DBPCFC was performed 3 months after stopping therapy. Results Treatment was well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. By intent-to-treat analysis, the placebo group had a higher eliciting dose and cumulative dose (p=0.05) at the end of treatment DBPCFC. There was no difference in the requirement for epinephrine to treat reactions (p=0.55). There were no significant differences in allergen-specific IgE and IgG4, cytokine production by PBMCs or basophil activation between active and placebo groups. In vitro immunological studies performed on subject baseline PBMCs incubated with FAHF-2 and food allergen produced significantly less IL-5, greater IL-10 and increased numbers of Tregs than untreated cells. Notably, 44% of subjects had poor drug adherence for at least one-third of the study period. Conclusion FAHF-2 is a safe herbal medication for food allergic individuals and shows favorable in vitro immunomodulatory effects; however, efficacy for improving tolerance to food allergens is not demonstrated at the dose and duration used. PMID:26044855

  17. A survey of Chinese herbal medicine intake amongst preoperative patients in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Critchley, L A H; Chen, D Q; Lee, A; Thomas, G N; Tomlinson, B

    2005-08-01

    We have surveyed, by means of a questionnaire, the preoperative use of traditional Chinese medicines in 259 adult Chinese patients admitted to a Hong Kong teaching hospital. The spectrum and use of herbal remedies differed from that reported by Western sources. Of those patients surveyed 90% used Chinese herbs on a regular daily basis in traditional soups and teas while 44% had consulted a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner in the last twelve months prior to admission, but mainly for health promotion (59%) and minor ailments (30%). Only 25% sought advice for their current illness and 13% were taking regular traditional Chinese medicines prior to admission. The ingredients were difficult to identify. Patients with cancer were more likely to use ling zhi (odds ratio 5.4). Female patients with reproductive problems were more likely to visit a traditional Chinese medical practitioner (odds ratio 2.6) and use ginseng (odds ratio 5.1). The anaesthetic implications of preoperative traditional Chinese medicine in keeping with Hong Kong practices need to be investigated, and appropriate anaesthetic guidelines should be developed.

  18. Effects of Chinese herbal monomers on oxidative phosphorylation and membrane potential in cerebral mitochondria isolated from hypoxia-exposed rats in vitro★

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Weihua; Liu, Junze

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is the key pathogenic mechanism of cerebral injury induced by high-altitude hypoxia. Some Chinese herbal monomers may exert anti-hypoxic effects through enhancing the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, effects of 10 kinds of Chinese herbal monomers on mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential of cerebral mitochondria isolated from hypoxia-exposed rats in vitro were investigated to screen anti-hypoxic drugs. Rats were exposed to a low-pressure environment of 405.35 mm Hg (54.04 kPa) for 3 days to establish high-altitude hypoxic models. Cerebral mitochondria were isolated and treated with different concentrations of Chinese herbal monomers (sinomenine, silymarin, glycyrrhizic acid, baicalin, quercetin, ginkgolide B, saffron, piperine, ginsenoside Rg1 and oxymatrine) for 5 minutes in vitro. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential were measured using a Clark oxygen electrode and the rhodamine 123 fluorescence analysis method, respectively. Hypoxic exposure significantly decreased the state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control rate and mitochondrial membrane potential, and significantly increased the state 4 respiratory rate. Treatment with saffron, ginsenoside Rg1 and oxymatrine increased the respiratory control rate in cerebral mitochondria isolated from hypoxia-exposed rats in dose-dependent manners in vitro, while ginsenoside Rg1, piperine and oxymatrine significantly increased the mitochondrial membrane potential in cerebral mitochondria from hypoxia-exposed rats. The Chinese herbal monomers saffron, ginsenoside Rg1, piperine and oxymatrine could thus improve cerebral mitochondrial disorders in oxidative phosphorylation induced by hypobaric hypoxia exposure in vitro. PMID:25558222

  19. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Penthorum chinense Pursh: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Lin, Ligen; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Penthorum chinense Pursh (ganhuangcao), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and alcoholic liver damage. A wide range of investigations have been carried out on this herbal medicine from pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, as well as pharmacology. The extract of P. chinense was reported to have significant liver protective effects through anti-oxidation, reduction of key enzyme levels, inhibition of hepatitis B virus DNA replication, and promotion of bile secretion. Based on the current knowledge, flavonoids and phenols are considered to be responsible for P. chinense's bioactivities. The main purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies performed on P. chinense during the past few decades. Moreover, it intends to provide new insights into the research and development of this herbal medicine.

  20. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies: from mouse model to human clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie

    2013-08-01

    To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on traditional Chinese medicine. FAHF-2 has proven to be well tolerated and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after the discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in individuals with food allergies. An ongoing Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies.

  1. Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine Radix isatidis (banlangen).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Radix isatidis (R. isatidis) (Banlangen) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) famous for its broad antiviral activity. Its clinical medical history spans several thousands of years in China. Many scientists and scholars have conducted systematic research on this herb from its pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, especially in China. Through our research and literature reports, we inferred that the antiviral activity of R. isatidis mostly depended on the water-soluble part, including amino acids, IRPS, nucleosides, and sulfur-containing alkaloids. By playing a role in directly killing pathogenic viruses or regulating the immune system to enhance anti-virus ability, R. isatidis's biological activities mostly depend on the synergistic effect of its multiple components. This article aims to expand understanding of R. isatidis in the following aspects including medicinal resources, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications, and separation and analytical technologies.

  2. Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration.

    PubMed

    Tabuti, J R S; Lye, K A; Dhillion, S S

    2003-09-01

    We present here an inventory of the medicinal plants of Bulamogi county in Uganda, including their medicinal use, preparation and administration modes. Fieldwork for this study was conducted between June 2000 and June 2001 using semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and participant observation as well as transect walks in wild herbal plant collection areas. We recorded 229 plant species belonging to 168 genera in 68 families with medicinal properties. A large proportion of these plants are herbaceous. The medicinal plants are mainly collected from the wild. Some species, such as Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce, are believed by the community to be threatened by unsustainable intensities of use and patterns of harvesting. Particularly vulnerable are said to be the woody or the slow growing species. Herbal medicines are prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders, or as ash, and are administered in a variety of ways. Other concoctions consist of juices and saps. The purported therapeutic claims await validation. Validation in our opinion can help to promote confidence among users of traditional medicine, and also to create opportunities for the marketing of herbal medicines and generate incomes for the community. The processing, packaging and storage of herbal medicines is substandard and require improvement.

  3. A review of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Qiyan; Li, Chun; Lu, Linghui; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Ruixin; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-25

    Heart failure is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and it is the end stage of several cardiovascular diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used in the management of heart failure for a long time. Only until recently, well-designed clinical trials have been put into practice to study the efficacies of Chinese herbs. Extensive studies have also been carried out to explore the underlying mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of Chinese herbs. In this study, we will summarize the frequently used Chinese herbs, formulae and patent Chinese drugs in treating patients with heart failure and review published clinical evaluations of Chinese herbs in treating cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which Chinese herbs exert cardio-protective effects will also be reviewed. In the end, we will point out the limitations of current studies and challenges facing modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. [Interrelationship between folk plant medicine of Arhorchin Mongolian and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Khasbagan, Soyolt; Pei, Shengji

    2002-07-01

    Based on the results of investigation of Arhorchin Mongolian folk medicinal plants and related knowledge system, the present paper discussed the interrelationship between folk plant medicine and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine by the items of plant species, medicinal parts, treating disease and administering methods. The results show that there are some consistency between folk medicine and Mongolian medicine as well as Chinese herbal medicine, and there are also some other inconsistency. Consistency between folk medicine and Mongolian medicine may be illustrated the fact that the Arhorchin Mongolian folk medicinal knowledge and Mongolian medicine are belongs to same system. Consistency between folk medicine and Chinese herbal medicine are illustrated the fact that knowledge exchange and cultural infiltration between Arhorchin Mongolians and Han nationality. Inconsistency may be illustrated richness and exploration value of folk medicinal knowledge.

  5. Prescription patterns of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Ying-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Chang, Tung-Ti; Tsao, Jung-Ying; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Sun, Mao-Feng

    2015-08-02

    Uterine fibroid (myoma) is one of the most common diseases in women. Although there are several studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbs, there is a lack of large-scale survey on the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of uterine fibroid. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid, prescribed by licensed TCM doctors in Taiwan. A random sample comprised of one million individuals with newly diagnosed uterine fibroid between 2002 and 2010 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was analyzed. Demographic characteristics, TCM usage, the frequency as well as average daily dose of Chinese herbal formulas and the single herbs prescribed for patients with uterine fibroid, were analyzed. Overall, 35,786 newly diagnosed subjects with uterine fibroid were included. Majority of these patients (87.1%; n=31,161) had visited TCM clinics. Among them, 61.8% of their visits used Chinese herbal remedies. Patients less than 45 years of age tended to use TCM more frequently than elder patients. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) was the most frequently prescribed Chinese herbal formula, while San-Leng (Rhizoma Sparganii) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. Our study identified the characteristics and prescription patterns of TCM for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan. Further basic mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm the therapeutic effects and mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Association between Traditional Chinese Dietary and Herbal Therapies and Uterine Involution in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming; Li, Tsai-Chung; Su, Shan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese postpartum care is believed to help in the recovery of women after delivery. Objective. This study investigated the association of elements in dietary and herbal therapy with uterine involution. Methods. Indices of uterine involution were measured ultrasonographically in 127 postpartum women between 4-6 weeks after delivery. A self-reported retrospective questionnaire was used to query women about their frequencies of taking herbal medicines and consuming special diets during the first month after delivery. Correlation coefficients were calculated to identify the associations, then the regression models were used to identify the predictors. Result. Among the herbal medicines and diet, consumption of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) negatively correlated with the AP diameter of the uterus and the cavity. E. ulmoides was also the only predictor of maximum AP diameter of the uterus, AP diameter of the uterus 5 cm from the fundus, and the maximum AP diameter of the cavity. Moreover, consumption of Sheng-hau-tang was significantly correlated with anteverted uterus and was a predictor of anteverted uterus. Conclusion. E. ulmoides and Sheng-hau-tang positively correlated with the degree of uterine involution after delivery, implying that both therapies might possess the pharmacological efficacy of uterine contraction in postpartum women. PMID:21584195

  7. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  8. Effects of Chinese herbal formula Erxian decoction for treating osteoporosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Yu; Jia, Yu-Song; Chai, Li-Min; Mu, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Sheng; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim is to systematically assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal formula Erxian decoction (EXD) for treating osteoporosis. Materials and methods Six databases were searched from inception through September 17, 2016, without language restriction. All randomized controlled trials of EXD for osteoporosis were included. One or more outcome measures including fracture, change in bone mineral density (BMD), pain symptom improvement, bone biochemical markers, quality of life, adverse event or adverse drug reaction were evaluated. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results Eight trials including 644 patients investigated the effects of EXD in the treatment of osteoporosis. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally low. The meta-analysis from two trials showed favorable effects of EXD in improving BMD of lumbar spine (mean difference [MD]: 0.05 [0.03, 0.06]; I2=0%; P<0.00001) and BMD of femoral great trochanter (MD: 0.06 [0.02, 0.10]; I2=59%; P=0.005) compared with caltrate tablets. The other meta-analysis from two trials showed beneficial effects of EXD plus caltrate tablets and calcitriol in improving BMD of femoral neck (MD: 0.04 [0.00, 0.09]; I2=56%; P=0.04), the level of calcium (MD: 0.20 [0.15, 0.24]; I2=0%; P<0.00001), and phosphorus (MD: −0.28 [−0.39, −0.17]; I2=68%; P<0.00001) compared with caltrate tablets and calcitriol alone. The adverse drug reactions of EXD were mainly slight gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion The study provides suggestive evidence of the superiority of EXD monotherapy or combination therapy over basic supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorously designed and measured, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size are needed to verify the current conclusions. PMID:28115834

  9. Regulation of human pregnane X receptor and its target gene cytochrome P450 3A4 by Chinese herbal compounds and a molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-He; Mo, Sui-Lin; Bi, Hui-Chang; Hu, Bing-Fang; Li, Chun Guang; Wang, Yi-Tao; Huang, Ling; Huang, Min; Duan, Wei; Liu, Jun-Ping; Wei, Ming Qian; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a critical role in the regulation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) gene. In this study, we investigated the effect of an array of compounds isolated from Chinese herbal medicines on the activity of PXR using a luciferase reporter gene assay in transiently transfected HepG2 and Huh7 cells and on the expression of PXR and CYP3A4 in LS174T cells. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to investigate the binding modes of herbal compounds with PXR. Praeruptorin A and C, salvianolic acid B, sodium danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, cryptotanshinone, emodin, morin, and tanshinone IIA significantly transactivated the CYP3A4 reporter gene construct in either HepG2 or Huh7 cells. The PXR mRNA expression in LS174T cells was significantly induced by physcion, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, and sodium danshensu. However, epifriedelanol, morin, praeruptorin D, mulberroside A, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIA significantly down-regulated the expression of PXR mRNA in LS174T cells. All the herbal compounds tested can be readily docked into the ligand-binding cavity of PXR mainly through hydrogen bond and aromatic interactions with Ser247, Gln285, His407, and Arg401. These findings suggest that herbal medicines can significantly regulate PXR and CYP3A4 and this has important implication in herb-drug interactions.

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. PMID:27366194

  12. Chinese proprietary medicine in Singapore: regulatory control of toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs.

    PubMed

    Koh, H L; Woo, S O

    2000-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining popularity as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. Reports of efficacy of TCM are increasing in numbers. TCM includes both crude Chinese medicinal materials (plants, animal parts and minerals) and Chinese proprietary medicine (CPM) [final dosage forms]. Despite the belief that CPM and herbal remedies are of natural origin, unlike Western medicine, and are hence safe and without many adverse effects, there have been numerous reports of adverse effects associated with herbal remedies. Factors affecting the safety of herbal medicines include intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, lack of standardisation, incorrect preparation and/or dosage and inappropriate labelling and/or advertising. Hence, new regulations on the control of CPM were enforced in Singapore with effect from 1 September 1999. These include licensing and labelling requirements, as well as control of microbial contamination. This article also reviews reports of excessive toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in CPM in Singapore between 1990 and 1997. The names, uses, toxic heavy metal or drug detected and the year of detection are tabulated. Information on the brand or manufacturer's name are provided whenever available. The public and healthcare professionals should be better informed of the basic concept of TCM and its usefulness, as well as the potential adverse effects associated with its use. Greater control over the safety and quality of CPM could be achieved through good manufacturing practice, regulatory control, research, education, reporting usage of Chinese medicine (as in drug history) as well as reporting of adverse events.

  13. Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Determination of toxic metals in some herbal drugs through atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hina, Bushra; Rizwani, Ghazala Hafeez; Naseem, Shahid

    2011-07-01

    This study presents a picture of occurrence of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni, Zn) in some selected valuable herbal drugs (G. glabra, O. bracteatum, V. odorata , F. vulgare, C. cyminum, C. sativum, and Z. officinalis) purchased from three different zones (southern, eastern, and western) of Karachi city using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metal concentrations in these drugs were found in the range of: 3.26-30.46 for Pb, 1.6-4.91 for Cd, 0.65-120.21 for Cu, 83.74-433.76 for Zn, 1.61-186.75 for Cr, 0.48-76.97 for Ni, 5.54-77.97 for Co and 65.68-1652.89 µg/g for Fe. Percentage of heavy metals that were found beyond the permissible limits were: 71.4% for Pb, 28.51% for Cd, 14.2% for Cu, and 9.5 % for Cr. Significant difference was noticed for each heavy metal among herbal drugs as well as their zones of collection using two way ANOVA followed by least significant (LSD) test at p<0.05.Purpose of this research is to detect each type of heavy metal contaminant of herbal drugs by environmental pollution, as well as to highlight the health risks associated with the use of such herbal drugs that contain high levels of toxic heavy metals.

  15. Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2007-09-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential.

  16. Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP) production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints) of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies. PMID:20175906

  17. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  18. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  19. Effect of Chinese herbal medicine on vascular functions during 60-day head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Alameddine, Asmaa; Coupé, Mickael; Navasiolava, Nastassia M; Li, Yongzhi; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Bai, Yanqiang; Jiang, Shizhong; Wan, Yumin; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Yinghui; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2015-09-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is a promising countermeasure against cardiovascular dysfunction associated with a sedentary lifestyle. We examined the impact of the Chinese herb, Taikong Yangxin, on the micro- and macrovascular dysfunction associated with a 60-day bed rest. Fourteen healthy men were randomly divided into two groups: those given herbal supplement, and the control group; the two groups underwent a 60-day bed rest. The macrovasculature was assessed by sonography. Skin microvascular functions were assessed with laser Doppler. The plasma level of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), markers of endothelial injury, was determined. Bed rest induced a 33 % decrease in the femoral artery diameter and compliance whereas carotid wall thickness, diameter, and compliance remained unchanged. The early phase of endothelium-dependent vasodilation to ACh was unmodified by bed rest, while the late phase was reduced by 30 % along with a twofold increase in EMPs. In those given Taikong Yangxin, the early phase was amplified by 2.5-fold, and the effects of bed rest on the late phase were prevented. These findings indicate that Taikong Yangxin ameliorates endothelium-dependent vasodilation, likely by improving the NO pathway. The study suggests Taikong Yangxin as a new countermeasure to prevent the changes in microvascular function induced by physical inactivity.

  20. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Prieto, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.

  1. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

  2. Transcriptome inference and systems approaches to polypharmacology and drug discovery in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jianxin; Zhang, Wuxia; Fu, Bangze; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-04

    Herbal medicine is a concoction of numerous chemical ingredients, and it exhibits polypharmacological effects to act on multiple pharmacological targets, regulating different biological mechanisms and treating a variety of diseases. Thus, this complexity is impossible to deconvolute by the reductionist method of extracting one active ingredient acting on one biological target. To dissect the polypharmacological effects of herbal medicines and their underling pharmacological targets as well as their corresponding active ingredients. We propose a system-biology strategy that combines omics and bioinformatical methodologies for exploring the polypharmacology of herbal mixtures. The myocardial ischemia model was induced by Ameroid constriction of the left anterior descending coronary in Ba-Ma miniature pigs. RNA-seq analysis was utilized to find the differential genes induced by myocardial ischemia in pigs treated with formula QSKL. A transcriptome-based inference method was used to find the landmark drugs with similar mechanisms to QSKL. Gene-level analysis of RNA-seq data in QSKL-treated cases versus control animals yields 279 differential genes. Transcriptome-based inference methods identified 80 landmark drugs that covered nearly all drug classes. Then, based on the landmark drugs, 155 potential pharmacological targets and 57 indications were identified for QSKL. Our results demonstrate the power of a combined approach for exploring the pharmacological target and chemical space of herbal medicines. We hope that our method could enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of herbal systems and further accelerate the exploration of the value of traditional herbal medicine systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Chemogenomics Knowledgebase-guided Target Identification and Drug Synergy Mechanism Study of an Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai; Ma, Shifan; Feng, Zhiwei; Wang, Dongyao; Li, Chengjian; Cao, Yan; Chen, Xiaofei; Liu, Aijun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Junping; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy is a popular treatment for various diseases in the clinic. Among the successful cases, Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) formulae can achieve synergistic effects in therapeutics and antagonistic effects in toxicity. However, characterizing the underlying molecular synergisms for the combination of drugs remains a challenging task due to high experimental expenses and complication of multicomponent herbal medicines. To understand the rationale of combination therapy, we investigated Sini Decoction, a well-known TCM consisting of three herbs, as a model. We applied our established diseases-specific chemogenomics databases and our systems pharmacology approach TargetHunter to explore synergistic mechanisms of Sini Decoction in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (1) We constructed a cardiovascular diseases-specific chemogenomics database, including drugs, target proteins, chemicals, and associated pathways. (2) Using our implemented chemoinformatics tools, we mapped out the interaction networks between active ingredients of Sini Decoction and their targets. (3) We also in silico predicted and experimentally confirmed that the side effects can be alleviated by the combination of the components. Overall, our results demonstrated that our cardiovascular disease-specific database was successfully applied for systems pharmacology analysis of a complicated herbal formula in predicting molecular synergetic mechanisms, and led to better understanding of a combinational therapy. PMID:27678063

  4. Misuse of herbal remedies: the case of an outbreak of terminal renal failure in Belgium (Chinese herbs nephropathy)

    PubMed

    Vanherweghem, L J

    1998-01-01

    At least 100 cases of extensive interstitial fibrosis of the kidneys were observed in Belgium in women who had followed a weight-loss regimen that included the use of Chinese herbs. The possible relation between the renal disease and these Chinese herbs was investigated. It was shown that the prescribed Chinese herb called Stephania tetrandra was, in fact, inadvertently replaced by another Chinese herb, namely Aristolochia fangchi in the powdered extracts delivered in Belgium and in France. The development of renal disease in about 100 patients exposed to the so-called Stephania tetrandra stresses the need for more stringent control of herbal medicine.

  5. The Impact of Herbal Drug Use on Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles of Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C.; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076–0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292–0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  6. Pharmacokinetics of a multicomponent herbal preparation in healthy Chinese and African volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Alolga, Raphael N.; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Gang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Lelu Kakila, Jimmy; Chen, Yan; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    K-601 is an herbal formulation for influenza consisting of Lonicera japonica, Isatis indigotica, Rheum palmatum, Phellodendron chinense, and Scutellaria baicalensis. In this work, we characterized the chemical constituents in K-601, identified the absorbed compounds and determined their pharmacokinetics in 6 Chinese and African volunteers by liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Similarity evaluation for chromatographic fingerprint of nine different batches showed values above 0.983. Totally, 50 components were identified in K-601. Then, 15 major prototype compounds and 17 metabolites were identified in human plasma. Major metabolic pathways included glucuronidation, sulfation, methylation, demethylation, and reduction. The pharmacokinetics of the most abundant prototype compounds, berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and magnoflorine were determined. Significant pharmacokinetic differences were observed between the African and Chinese subjects. The AUCs of the African is about 4–10 fold higher than that of the Chinese for the three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Magnoflorine, an aporphine alkaloid, was absorbed better in the Chinese than in the African. The biotransformation of K-601 by human intestinal microflora was also investigated. The major reactions included hydroxylation, methylation, demethylation, acetylation and reduction. Glucuronidation and sulfation were not observed with fecal flora. These results may be important and useful in linking data from pharmacological assays and clinical effects. PMID:26268432

  7. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal formula Zhen Wu Decoction for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Zhen Wu Decoction (ZWD), a famous classic herbal formula documented in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely available in China for treating hypertensive patients with kidney yang deficiency and fluid retention syndrome. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ZWD for hypertension. Methods Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched from their inception to November 2014. Randomised controlled trials of ZWD used alone or in combination with antihypertensive drugs against placebo, no intervention or antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients were identified. Two assessors independently reviewed each trial. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results Seven trials involving 472 hypertensive patients were identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, ZWD showed no significant effects in lowering blood pressure (BP) (n=177; risk ratio (RR) 1.06; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; p=0.58); however, ZWD plus antihypertensive drugs (ZPAD) significantly lowered systolic BP (n=80; weighted mean difference (WMD) −14.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −18.84 to −9.16 mm Hg; p<0.00001), diastolic BP (n=80; WMD −8.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −11.35 to −4.65 mm Hg; p<0.00001), and BP (n=215; RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37; p=0.001). TCM symptoms and syndromes were significantly improved by either ZWD (n=177; RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.95; p<0.0001) or ZPAD (n=215; RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.49; p=0.0001). Adverse effects were not reported. Conclusions This systematic review revealed no definite conclusion about the application of ZWD for hypertension due to the poor methodological quality, high risk of bias, and inadequate reporting on clinical data. More rigorously designed trials, especially addressing continuous BP

  8. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal formula Zhen Wu Decoction for the treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie

    2015-12-11

    Zhen Wu Decoction (ZWD), a famous classic herbal formula documented in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely available in China for treating hypertensive patients with kidney yang deficiency and fluid retention syndrome. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ZWD for hypertension. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched from their inception to November 2014. Randomised controlled trials of ZWD used alone or in combination with antihypertensive drugs against placebo, no intervention or antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients were identified. Two assessors independently reviewed each trial. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Seven trials involving 472 hypertensive patients were identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, ZWD showed no significant effects in lowering blood pressure (BP) (n=177; risk ratio (RR) 1.06; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; p=0.58); however, ZWD plus antihypertensive drugs (ZPAD) significantly lowered systolic BP (n=80; weighted mean difference (WMD) -14.00 mm Hg, 95% CI -18.84 to -9.16 mm Hg; p<0.00001), diastolic BP (n=80; WMD -8.00 mm Hg, 95% CI -11.35 to -4.65 mm Hg; p<0.00001), and BP (n=215; RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37; p=0.001). TCM symptoms and syndromes were significantly improved by either ZWD (n=177; RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.95; p<0.0001) or ZPAD (n=215; RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.49; p=0.0001). Adverse effects were not reported. This systematic review revealed no definite conclusion about the application of ZWD for hypertension due to the poor methodological quality, high risk of bias, and inadequate reporting on clinical data. More rigorously designed trials, especially addressing continuous BP and adverse effects, are warranted. Published by the BMJ

  9. Using Chinese natural products for diabetes mellitus drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jia, Wei

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides a review of natural Chinese drug products, including phytochemic compounds, medicinal herbs and multi-component herbal formulae, that have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity with mechanisms for antidiabetic action. Along with a great number of combination formulae, ∼ 187 different Chinese medicinal herbs are clinically applied to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications in China, most of which have achieved reasonably good clinical outcomes. These valuable data and practical experience provide a promising opportunity for the discovery and development of drug candidates with good therapeutic efficacy and low toxicity. The concept of treating complex, multifactorial metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, using multi-component therapeutics, including single-herb formulae and combination herbal formulae, shall be regarded as a concerted pharmacologic intervention of multiple compounds interacting with multiple targets and possessing interdependent activities that are required for a synergistic or optimal effect. The conventional approach for the discovery and development of antidiabetic drug products from natural products involving a high-throughput, bioactivity guided drug screening of single compounds obtained from thousands of herbs has proven to be a costly and non-productive effort. Hence, an alternative way of developing new drug candidates, as suggested in this review, is to reduce and simplify a well-established combination herbal formula, along with the pharmacologic evaluation of a small group of phytochemic compounds, which are therapeutically effective as the original formula and have known chemical structures, compositions and mechanisms of action that are similar to chemical drugs.

  10. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility.

  11. Spasmolytic activity of a herbal drug isolated from Tephrosia purpurea in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Soni, Kapil K; Khare, M L; Saxena, R C

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the spasmolytic activity of herbal drugs isolated from Tephrosia purpurea on guinea pigs for the treatment of asthma in India. For this investigation, the herbal drug was extracted with 70% ethanol in soxhlet apparatus. After purification and isolution, the drug was used in experimental animals to observe prophylactic activity. For anaphylactic activity, horse serum 0.5 ml along with triple antigen (0.5 ml) was induced in guinea pigs. To observe prophylactic activity, male guinea pigs weighing about 250-450 gms were killed by cervical dislocation and the trachea was isolated. Each trachea was cut in to six segments. Each segment consists of three cartilage rings. Each end of tracheal muscles was attached to the bronchospasm transducers for isometric recording of the tension charges on a polygraph. The results of experiments clearly showed the spasmolytic activity of the drug. The preliminary phytochemical investigation, however shows the presence of glycoside saponins.

  12. The occurrence of bromide in herbal drugs: is there a need for a Ph. Eur. limit?

    PubMed

    Albert, H; Busch, J; Klier, B; Klötzel, M; Kühn, M; Steinhoff, B

    2013-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview on the current legal requirements regarding limits for bromide and presents data on the actual bromide burden of commonly used herbal drugs. Evaluation of an extensive data base shows that results exceeding the limit of 50 mg/kg are found in specific plants which take up bromide to a high extent from the environment. Thus, positive findings of bromide in herbal drugs do not necessarily serve as a proof for methyl bromide treatment. Taking into account the ADI recommended by EMA and WHO, there are no toxicological concerns with regard to the intake of herbal teas, extracts or comminuted herbal drugs at therapeutic doses. Furthermore, the use of methyl bromide and other fumigants must be documented within the batch documentation. If stated in the batch documentation that no fumigation was carried out, it is not necessary to perform the test on bromide. In cases of a particular suspect and if toxicological concerns exist, additional testing can be performed in accordance with the limits set by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005. For the above reasons, information obtained by performing the test on bromide is not significant for the assessment of quality. Therefore, it seems no longer necessary to maintain bromide in Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.8.13. Pesticide residues and it is recommended to delete it from Table 2.8.13.-1.

  13. Toxic metals and organochlorine pesticides residue in single herbal drugs used in important ayurvedic formulation - 'Dashmoola'.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vartika; Kakkar, Poonam; Singh, Jyotsna; Misra, Chetna; Kumar, Santosh; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2008-08-01

    Herbal formulations are getting popularity throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. 'Dashmoola', a popular herbal formulation, with immunomodulator and febrifugal properties, consists of ten single root drugs. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in 'Dashmoola', were collected from different places of India for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Although use of roots in 'Dashmoola' is prescribed in original ayurvedic literature but now many pharmacies use stem in place of roots. Therefore, in the present study both roots and stems were selected for estimation of six heavy metals namely arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni). Apart from these, the organochlorine pesticides residue viz. different metabolites of DDT, DDE, isomers of HCH and alpha-endosulfan were checked in total 40 samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals except Hg, were present in most of the samples. In few samples Pb and Cd concentration were beyond the WHO permissible limits. Although alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH were present in almost all the samples, but other pesticides were not detected in these samples. DDT and DDE were found only in two samples.

  14. Effects of Chinese Herbal Compound “Xuemai Ning”on Rabbit Atherosclerosis Model and Expression of ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and

  15. MYCOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND AFLATOXIN B1 CONTAMINANT ESTIMATION OF HERBAL DRUG RAW MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Rajeshwari, Puttaswamy; Raveesha, KoteshwarAnandrao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the fungal contamination of important herbal drug raw materials (HDRM), which are widely used in the preparation of many herbal drugs. Understanding of the microbial contamination status of HDRM is one of the important steps to ensure the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. Materials and Methods: Eighteen samples of six herbal drug raw materials (HDRM) viz., Acorus calamus Linn., Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban, Myristica fragrans Houtt., Tinospora cardifolia (Wild) Miers and Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal, were screened for fungal contamination, by employing serial dilution method. All the isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin B1 (AB1) and highly contaminated samples were subjected to AB1 estimation by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometric method and occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis (LCMS). Results: A total of 302 isolates of 42 fungal species belonging to 17 genera were found in association with test the samples. More than 61% of A. flavus isolates tested positive for production of AB1 and highest yield recorded was 5008.20 ppb from the isolates of T. cordifolia. Amongthesix highly contaminated samples three samples tested positive for AB1. Highest AB1 was recorded from T. cordifolia (104.19 μg/kg), followed by A. calamus (13.73 μg/kg) and M. fragrans (12.02 μg/kg). Conclusion: Assessment of fungal and mycotoxin contamination should be a part of the quality check while selecting HDRM for manufacture of herbal products. Safe processing and storage practices are necessary. PMID:28487902

  16. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Yu; Lai, Jung-Nien; Hsu, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given as a therapy for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods. The use of TCM for type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 77.9% (n = 31,289) of type 2 diabetic patients utilized TCM and 13.9% (n = 4,351) of them used TCM for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Among the top ten most frequently prescribed herbal formulae, four remedies, Zhi-Bo-Di-Huang-Wan, Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan and Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan are derivative formulae of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan. In other words, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan and its derivatives were found to be the most common herbal formulae prescribed by TCM doctors for the treatment of diabetes in Taiwan. Conclusion. Although some evidence does support the use TCM to treat diabetes, the results from the current study may have been confounded by placebo effect, which emphasize the need for well conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in order to further evaluate the efficacy of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan on patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23843864

  17. Is the yin-yang nature of Chinese herbal medicine equivalent to antioxidation-oxidation?

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim-Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2006-12-06

    It has been suggested that yin-yang theory described in traditional Chinese medicine is somewhat equivalent to the modern theory of antioxidant-oxidant balance. Some yin-tonic Chinese herbal medicines possess antioxidant properties. In this context, the DNA protective effect of 12 yin-tonic and 13 yang-tonic herbs were tested using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Lymphocytes from three healthy subjects were pre-incubated with aqueous herb extract, and the comet assay was performed on treated, untreated, challenged and unchallenged cells in parallel, oxidant challenge being induced by 5 min exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Results using this ex vivo cellular assay showed protection by some herbs. Seven out of 12 yin-tonic Chinese herbs demonstrated decreased DNA damage after treatment while 10 out of 13 yang-tonic herbs showed protection. Among 25 herbs tested, rhizome of Ligusticum sinensis Oliv. and aerial part of Artemisia annua L. demonstrated greatest DNA protective effect. Results indicated that the yin nature of herbs may not be necessarily associated with superior antioxidative effect to yang-tonic herbs, at least in terms of DNA protection against oxidant challenge.

  18. MEDLINE-based assessment of animal studies on Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tejedor Garcia, Noelia; Garcia Bermejo, Laura; Fernandez Martinez, Ana Belen; Olmos Centenera, Gemma; Kumari, Rajendra; Xu, Qihe; Cheng, Xiaodong; Watson, Sue; de Lucio Cazaña, Francisco Javier

    2012-04-10

    ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The scientific proof and clinical validation of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) require a rigorous approach that includes chemical standardization, biological assays, animal studies and clinical trials. To assess the experimental design of animal studies on the activity of CHM by selection and scrutinizing of a series of papers in some major disease areas. We have analyzed the English publications reported in MEDLINE (ISI web of knowledge). Our data showed that (i) research of CHM during the last 10 years had been highly intensified and become more accessible worldwide through increased publications in English, although still most authors had Chinese names; (ii) English journals publishing animal research of CHM were comparable to those publishing animal studies of non-Chinese phytotherapy in terms of impact factor; and (iii) published data on authentication and quality control of CHM, as well as research design of animal studies were far from sufficient to meet the criteria needed to support their reproducibility and reliability. The recent decade witnessed an increase in CHM research activities and CHM English publications. Based on common problems identified in publications on CHM animal studies, we have proposed a checklist that could help in preliminary selection of publications lacking the most common problems and thus would be useful for a quick search of reproducible CHM regimens that are likely to be effective in a given context. The second application of this checklist is to help avoid the most common problems when designing experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dan-dan; Tang, Tao; Lin, Xiang-ping; Yang, Zhao-yu; Yang, Shu; Xia, Zi-an; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Piao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chun-hu

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: “banxia houpo” decoction, “chaihu shugansan”, “ganmaidazao” decoction, “kaixinsan”, “shuganjieyu” capsules, “sinisan”, “wuling” capsules, “xiaoyaosan”, and “yueju”. Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed. PMID:27703356

  20. Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

  1. Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan-Dan; Tang, Tao; Lin, Xiang-Ping; Yang, Zhao-Yu; Yang, Shu; Xia, Zi-An; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Piao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chun-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: "banxia houpo" decoction, "chaihu shugansan", "ganmaidazao" decoction, "kaixinsan", "shuganjieyu" capsules, "sinisan", "wuling" capsules, "xiaoyaosan", and "yueju". Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed.

  2. Design of new traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on network pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, 28 Chinese medicinal herbs belonging to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes were selected to explore the application of network pharmacology in developing new Chinese herbal medicine formulae for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These herbs have the highest appearance rate in the literature, and their compounds are listed. The human protein-protein interaction network and the T2DM disease protein interaction network were constructed. Then, the related algorithm for network topology was used to perform interventions on the interaction network of disease proteins and normal human proteins to test different Chinese herbal medicine compound combinations, according to the information on the interaction of compounds-targets in two databases, namely TarNet and the Medicinal Plants Database. Results of the intervention scores indicate that the method proposed in this study can provide new effective combinations of Chinese herbal medicines for T2DM. Network pharmacology can effectively promote the modernization and development of TCM. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG Suppresses Pulmonary Fibrosis of Mice Induced by Bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Yao, Li-Fu; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Li-Man; Guo, Peng; Yu, Meng; Cao, Bo; Li, Tan; Chen, Hong; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2016-02-15

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a serious progressive lung disease and it originates from inflammation-induced parenchymal injury with excessive extracellular matrix deposition to result in the destruction of the normal lung architecture. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG), derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a prominent anti-inflammatory effect. The present study is to explore the inhibitory effects of mKG on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. mKG significantly decreased pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis scores, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-17 (IL-17), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels in lung tissue of mice compared with BLM treatment. It markedly alleviated the increase of HYP content in the lung tissues and pathologic changes of pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM instillation. In conclusion, mKG has an anti-fibrotic effect and might be employed as a therapeutic candidate agent for attenuating pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Chinese herbal medicine Yougui Pill reduces exogenous glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong-zhi; Geng, Long; Zhou, Hong-bo; Wei, Hua-chen; Chen, Hong-duo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid use may result in sustained suppression of one or more secreted components from the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and often results in apoptosis. Yougui Pill (YGP), a 10-component traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been shown to be clinically effective for glucocorticoid-induced suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that YGP would exert an anti-apoptosis effect on dexamethasone-treated anterior pituitary cells. In vivo experiments showed that YGP significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and up-regulated mRNA expression of Bcl-2. These findings suggest that YGP reduced glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in rat anterior pituitary cells by regulating the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. PMID:28197193

  5. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non-embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. Application of Spontaneous Photon Emission in the Growth Ages and Varieties Screening of Fresh Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaolei; Fu, Jialei; Van Wijk, Eduard; Liu, Yanli; Fan, Hua; Zhang, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Ultraweak photon emission emitted by all living organisms has been confirmed to be a noninvasive indicator for their physiological and pathological characteristics. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of spontaneous photon emission (SPE) and the contents of specific active compounds of roots and flowers buds of several fresh Chinese herbal medicines (natural medicines) with different growth ages and varieties. The results revealed that the contents of specific active compounds from same species herbs with different growth ages and varieties were significantly different, and this difference could be reflected by their SPE. Because the contents of specific bioactive constituents in Chinese herbs are closely related to their quality and curative effect, the SPE measurement technique may contribute to the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine in the future. PMID:28250790

  7. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 μg/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective

  8. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bojiang; Truong, John; Helliwell, Ray; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2013-12-27

    Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 μg/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 - 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective activity of some Chinese herbal medicines

  9. Investigation on Chinese herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhea: implication from a nationwide prescription database in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Su, Irene H; Chen, Yu-Chun; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2014-02-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition, for which Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in addition to western medicine. The aim of this study is to explore CHM commonly used to treat dysmenorrhea in young Chinese women. Observational retrospective study. The National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Women aged from 13 to 25 years with single diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea. CHM prescriptions made for primary dysmenorrhea women during 1998-2008 were extracted to build up CHM prescription database. Association rule mining was used to explore the prevalent CHM combination patterns in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Prevalence and mechanisms of CHM combinations. Totally 57,315 prescriptions were analyzed and, on average, 5.3 CHM was used in one prescription. Dang-Gui-Shao-Yao-San (DGSYS) was the most commonly used herbal formula (27.2%), followed by Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) (20.7%) and Wen-Jing-Tang (WJT) (20.5%). Corydalis yanhusuo and Cyperus rotundus were the most commonly used single herb, found in 33.1% and 29.2% of all prescriptions. Additionally, C. yanhusuo with C. rotundus is the most commonly used two CHM in combination, accounting for 14.24% of all prescriptions, followed by DGSYS with C. yanhusuo (10.47%). Multi-target effects on primary dysmenorrhea, such as analgesia, mood modifying and hormone adjustment, were found among commonly prescribed CHM in this study. This study discovered the potential importance of C. yanhusuo, C. rotundus and DGSYS in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Further clinical trials or bench studies are warranted based on the results. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prescription patterns of Chinese herbal products for menopausal syndrome: analysis of a nationwide prescription database.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji

    2011-10-11

    ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chinese herbal products (CHP) are commonly used for menopausal syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Because menopausal syndrome is a common issue among women worldwide, this study analyzed the prescription patterns and frequencies of CHP in relieving menopausal syndrome in Taiwan. Prescriptions of CHP for menopausal syndrome were obtained from the nationwide prescription database (National Health Insurance Research Database) of Taiwan. Every prescription with a leading diagnosis of menopausal syndrome made in the year 2002 for women out-patients aged 45-55 years was analyzed. Descriptive statistics and data mining method (association rule mining) were applied to the pattern of co-prescription. A total of 54456 prescriptions were made for 15486 subjects in clinical visits. Salvia miltiorrhiza and Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san were the most commonly prescribed single herb (SH) and herbal formula (HF), respectively. For combinations of two CHP, Salvia miltiorrhiza with Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san, Zhi-bai-di-huang-wan with Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san, and Ligustrum lucidum with Eclipta prostrata were the most frequently co-prescribed CHP couplets as SH-HF, HF-HF, and SH-SH, respectively. The most commonly used combination of three CHP was Eclipta prostrata with Ligustrum lucidum and Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san. The core formula for menopausal syndrome was Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san. Combinations of CHP are widely used for menopausal syndrome. Data mining analysis demonstrates the core formula and the commonly combined CHP in prescriptions. Further studies are needed to evaluate their efficacy for menopausal syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-03-01

    The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD.

  12. Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD. PMID:25279787

  13. Severe metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and respiratory acidosis induced by the Chinese herbal medicine yokukansan in an elderly patient with muscle weakness and drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Kansui, Yasuo; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Uchizono, Yuji; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Ooboshi, Hiroaki

    2013-05-01

    Yokukansan is a Chinese herbal medicine containing licorice that has been shown to alleviate the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, with few adverse effects. Increasing numbers of patients with Alzheimer's disease in Japan are now being treated with this drug. However, yokukansan should be used with caution because of its potential to induce pseudoaldosteronism through the inhibition of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, which metabolizes cortisol into cortisone. We present the case of an 88-year-old woman with a history of Alzheimer's disease who was transferred to our emergency department because of drowsiness, anorexia, and muscle weakness. Her blood pressure was 168/90 mmHg. Laboratory data showed serum potassium of 1.9 mmol/l, metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.54; HCO 3(-) , 50.5 mmol/l; chloride, 81 mmol/l; sodium, 140 mmol/l), and respiratory disorders (pCO2, 60.5 mmHg; pO2, 63.8 mmHg). Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were suppressed, and urinary potassium excretion was 22 mmol/l (calculated transtubular potassium gradient 12.9). An electrocardiogram showed flat T-waves and U-waves with ventricular premature contractions. Echocardiography denied volume depletion. Medical interview disclosed that she had been treated with a Chinese herbal medicine (yokukansan) containing licorice. The final diagnosis was pseudoaldosteronism and respiratory acidosis induced by licorice. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory acidosis all subsided shortly after the discontinuation of yokukansan and initiation of intravenous potassium replacement. This case highlights the need for nephrologists to consider the possible involvement of Chinese herbal medicines, including yokukansan, when they encounter hypokalemia in elderly patients.

  14. Herbal drugs in liver disease: how safe are they?

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Venkatraman, Jayanthi

    2008-03-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with jaundice to our center and further evaluation revealed the presence of acute hepatitis E infection, an infection common in India. The patient's parents consulted a traditional medicine practitioner for giving him native medications for jaundice, a practice very common in India. After taking native medications for 5 days, he developed fulminant liver failure and was readmitted to our center and, in spite of resuscitative and supportive measures, he succumbed to his illness. This clinical situation epitomizes the challenge that we physicians in India face when we confront a patient with liver disease, wherein we have to balance the application of scientific knowledge and the use of native medications by patients. Herbal medicines have been in vogue right from the Vedic period in India at around 600 BC and continue to be used even now for various forms of diseases, particularly affecting the liver. This study aims to highlight this issue and its implications for the treating physicians and the public.

  15. Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy Improves Survival of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Utilization of Chinese Medicine (CM) is not uncommon in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the current knowledge of the usage and efficacy of CM among CLL patients is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of integrative Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) on the disease course of CLL and ascertain the herbal products most commonly prescribed to patients with CLL. A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study involving the use of Western medicine and CM services provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) was conducted. An NHI Research Database-based cohort study was performed; the timeframe of the study was January 2000 to December 2010. The end of the follow-up period was defined as December 31, 2011. A total of 808 patients were diagnosed with CLL in Taiwan within the defined study period. After randomly matching for age and sex and excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, data from 616 patients were analyzed. The 2 study groups both received standard of care treatment. In addition, 1 group also received CHM. Patients who were registered as receiving other forms of CM, such as acupuncture, were excluded. Hazard ratios of mortality were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products. In total, 616 CLL patients were included in the analyses. We found that the HR associated with the adjunctive use of CHM was less than half when compared to the non-CHM group (0.43, 95% CI 0.33–0.55, P < 0.0001) and that treatment-naive patients who used CHM had the lowest HR. We also established that this association between reduction in HR and CHM was dose-dependent, and the longer CHM users received prescriptions, the lower the HR (P < 0.001). We supplied data from a relatively large population that spanned a significant amount of time. Our data suggests that the treatment of CLL with adjunctive CHM may have a substantial positive impact on mortality, especially for

  16. Effect of acute pancreatitis on the pharmacokinetics of Chinese herbal micron Liuhe Pill ointment in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-ling; Zhao, Xian-lin; Li, Juan; Wan, Mei-hua; Chen, Guang-yuan; Chen, Wei-wei; Tang, Wen-fu

    2015-12-01

    To explore the effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) on the pharmacokinetics of herbal ointment micron Liuhe Pill, MLHP) components in anesthetized rats. Rats were randomly divided into a AP model group (n=6) and a normal group as a control (n=6). The rat model of AP was induced by intraperitoneal injection of L-arginine in rats (15 mg/kg, twice, interval 1 h). Chinese herbal ointment MLHP was used externally on the belly after the 2nd injection for 48 h in both groups. Emodin, rhein, aloe emodin, physcion, chrysophanol from MLHP were detected and quantified in rat serum and pancreas (at 48 h) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the five components, only emodin, aloe emodin and physcion from MLHP were detected in all rat serum and most of the rats' pancreas. Rhein and chrysophanol were not detected in both serum and pancreas. T1/2α of emodin and physcion in MLHP were obviously shorter in the AP model group than those in the normal group (P<0.05), while there was no difference for T1/2α of aloe emodin. The peak concentration and area under curve of all three components were much higher in the AP group than those in the normal group with MLHP in external application for 48 h (P<0.05). Furthermore, the mean residence time (MRT) and maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) of emodin and aloe emodin were obviously longer in the AP model group than those in the normal control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference for Ka of all components between the two groups. Emodin could be detected in all rats' pancreas at 48 h in both groups, while its mean pancreatic concentration was higher in the AP model group than in the normal group (0.61±0.54 ng/mL, 0.42±0.37 ng/mL, respectively,P<0.05). Aloe emodin could be detected in all rats' pancreas at 48 h in both groups and their mean pancreatic concentration were similar (0.31±0.24 ng/mL, 0.33±0.17 ng/mL, respectively,P>0.05). Physcion could be detected in pancreas of most rats in the

  17. [Effect of Chinese herbal medicine with Supplement Qi and Activating Blood Circulation on tubular reabsorption function of diabetic nephropathy rats].

    PubMed

    Yin, Juan-Juan; Yang, Ye; Wang, Qing-Bao; Li, Yun; Yin, Deng-Ke

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine with Supplement Qi and Activating Blood Circulation (huangqi and danshen) on urinary protein, kidney function and tubular reabsorption of diabetic nephropathy rats. SD rats were randomly divided into a nondiabetic control group (normal group) and three groups in which diabetes were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin( STZ,55 mg/kg body weight). Then the diabetes rats were randomly assigned to three groups: diabetic model group, Supplement Qi and Activating Blood Circulation traditional Chinese medicine group (huangqi and danshen group) and Gliquidone group (as a reference hypoglycemic drug). Each group was treated with corresponding drugs for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, the rats from each group were injected with FITC-labeled BSA through tail vein. The 24 h urinary protein excretion were measured and blood was collected for measuring plasma glucose levels, serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (T-CHO). Renal tissue was used to measure the level of LPO,SOD,GSH-Px and AGEs and Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with HE, PAS and immunohistochemistry. The plasma glucose, the 24 h urinary protein excretion, the levels of serum Cr, BUN, TG and T-CHO in STZ-induced diabetic rats were higher than those of nondiabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed significantly increase in LPO and AGEs (P < 0.01) and decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity (both GSH-Px and SOD) (P < 0.05) as compared with non-diabetic control rats. Treatment with the Supplement Qi and Activating Blood Circulation traditional Chinese medicine for 6 weeks in diabetic rats significantly reduced the 24 h urinary protein excretion compared with model control (P < 0.01), and markedly decreased the levels of serum Cr,BUN,TG and T-CHO as compared with those of diabetic rat (P < 0.05). The levels of LPO and AGEs were decreased and the activity of GSH-Px was

  18. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; März, R; Sieder, C

    1997-12-01

    Herbal expectorants and secretolytic drugs hold a sizeable share of the European market. Therefore it is essential to test their clinical effectiveness and safety. The aim of the present study was to compare the herbal medication Bronchipret(®) with various other pharmacotherapeutical options for acute bronchitis. The study was designed as a matched-pair comparison of 7783 patients. Clinical outcomes of bronchitis and adverse reactions were documented. The data were evaluated by comparing the treatment success of the test medication and 3 control groups using ordinal regression. The results suggest that clinical effectiveness of Bronchipret(®) was not less than with synthetic drugs. There was a tendency for better results with Bronchipret(®), particularly in the treatment of adults. Similar results were obtained with respect to adverse reactions. Particularly in the adult sub-group, these were markedly less with herbals as compared to synthetic drugs. These findings imply that a risk/benefit evaluation would favour Bronchipret(®) over synthetic drugs for acute bronchitis. Their interpretation is limited through the fact that this study could not be randomised nor blinded. The results therefore require confirmation through randomised, double-blind trials.

  19. New Analytical Monographs on TCM Herbal Drugs for Quality Proof.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Melchart, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of specific national drug regulations there is an international consensus that all TCM drugs must meet stipulated high quality standards focusing on authentication, identification and chemical composition. In addition, safety of all TCM drugs prescribed by physicians has to be guaranteed. During the 25 years history of the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting, 171 TCM drugs underwent an analytical quality proof including thin layer as well as high pressure liquid chromatography. As from now mass spectroscopy will also be available as analytical tool. The findings are compiled and already published in three volumes of analytical monographs. One more volume will be published shortly, and a fifth volume is in preparation. The main issues of the analytical procedure in TCM drugs like authenticity, botanical nomenclature, variability of plant species and parts as well as processing are pointed out and possible ways to overcome them are sketched. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  20. Natural potential therapeutic agents of neurodegenerative diseases from the traditional herbal medicine Chinese dragon's blood.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Ma, Zhongjun; Li, Mujie; Xing, Yachao; Hou, Yue

    2014-03-28

    Dragon's blood has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. It is a deep red resin, obtained from more than 20 different species of four distinct genera. Red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis S.C. Chen, known as Chinese dragon's blood or Yunnan dragon's blood, has been shown to promote blood circulation, alleviate inflammation, and to treat stomach ulcers, diarrhea, diabetes, and bleeding. This study investigated an effective approach to identify natural therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration from herbal medicine. The dichloride extract and isolated effective constituents of Chinese dragon's blood showed quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) inducing activity and anti-inflammatory effect significantly, which are therapy targets of various neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple chromatography and spectra analysis were utilized to afford effective constituents. Then Hepa 1c1c7 and BV-2 cells were employed to assay their NQO1 inducing and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. Bioactivities guided isolation afforded 21 effective constituents, including two new polymers cochinchinenene E (1), cochinchinenene F (2) and a new steroid dracaenol C (16). The main constituent 3 (weight percent 0.2%), 5 (weight percent 0.017%), 4 (weight percent 0.009%), 9 (weight percent 0.094%), 10 (weight percent 0.017%) and 8 (weight percent 0.006%) are responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities of Chinese dragon's blood. While, new compounds 1, 2 and known compounds 5, 11 showed good NQO1 inducing activities. The brief feature of the activities and structures was discussed accordingly. Overviewing the bioactivities and phytochemical study result, 4'-hydroxy-2,4-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (3) and pterostilbene (5) as effective constituents of Chinese dragon's blood, were found to be potential candidate therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and

  2. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

  3. Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment for athletes with nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Tao, Ji Ming; Qi, Gao Wei; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2012-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (NLBP) is an increasing health problem for athletes. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment for NLBP. 110 athletes with NLBP were randomly assigned to experimental group with Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment or control group with simple massage therapy. The primary outcome was pain by Chinese Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (C-SFMPQ). The secondary outcome was local muscle stiffness by Myotonometer. After 4 weeks, the experimental group experienced significant improvements in C-SFMPQ and in local muscle stiffness compared with control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, -1.24 points, P = 0.005 in sensory scores; -3.14 points, P < 0.001 in affective scores; -4.39 points, P < 0.001 in total scores; -0.64 points, P = 0.002 in VAS; -1.04 points, P = 0.005 in local muscle stiffness during relaxation state). The difference remained at one month followup, but it was only significant in affective scores (-2.83 points, P < 0.001) at three months followup. No adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for athletes with NLBP.

  4. Cognitive Improvement during Treatment for Mild Alzheimer’s Disease with a Chinese Herbal Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Cui, Yuanwu; Gu, Yun; Guo, Jiakui; Wu, Di; Li, Qiang; Song, Wanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal formula compared with donepezil 5mg/day in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods Patients with mild AD meeting the criteria were randomized into Chinese herbal formula Yishen Huazhuo decoction (YHD) group and donepezil hydrochloride (DH) group during the 24-week trial. The outcomes were measured by ADAS-cog, MMSE, ADL, and NPI with linear mixed-effect models. Results 144 patients were randomized. The mean scores of ADAS-cog and MMSE in both YHD group and DH group both improved at the end of the 24-week treatment period. The results also revealed that YHD was better at improving the mean scores of ADAS-cog and MMSE than DH. Linear mixed-effect models with repeated measures showed statistical significance in time × group interaction effect of ADAS-cog and also in time × group interaction effect of MMSE. The data showed YHD was superior to DH in improving the scores and long term efficacy. Conclusions Our study suggests that Chinese herbal formula YHD is beneficial and effective for cognitive improvement in patients with mild AD and the mechanism might be through reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition in the hippocampus. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002846 PMID:26076022

  5. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-11-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a field that has rapidly grown over the last few years along with increased use of herbal products worldwide. To summarize the various facets of this disease, we undertook a literature search for herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements with reported cases of herbal hepatotoxicity. A selective literature search was performed to identify published case reports, spontaneous case reports, case series and review articles regarding herbal hepatotoxicity. A total of 185 publications were identified and the results compiled. They show 60 different herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements with reported potential hepatotoxicity, additional information including synonyms of individual herbs, botanical names and cross references are provided. If known, details are presented for specific ingredients and chemicals in herbal products, and for references with authors that can be matched to each herbal product and to its effect on the liver. Based on stringent causality assessment methods and/or positive re-exposure tests, causality was highly probable or probable for Ayurvedic herbs, Chaparral, Chinese herbal mixture, Germander, Greater Celandine, green tea, few Herbalife products, Jin Bu Huan, Kava, Ma Huang, Mistletoe, Senna, Syo Saiko To and Venencapsan(®). In many other publications, however, causality was not properly evaluated by a liver-specific and for hepatotoxicity-validated causality assessment method such as the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). This compilation presents details of herbal hepatotoxicity, assisting thereby clinical assessment of involved physicians in the future. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese herbal medicinal alkaloid ingredients in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiyi; Mao, Aihua; Yu, Zhengyu; He, Kongwang

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of sinomenine, fangchinoline, stachydrine, chuanxionggzine, oxymartrine, and evodiamine alkaloids commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines. In an endotoxin (LPS) control group, each mouse was challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. In high-, middle- and low-dose alkaloid groups, mice were initially challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg by IP injection and, 3 h later, dosed intramuscularly (IM) with one of the six alkaloids at one of three levels (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight). In the drug control group, mice were dosed IM with 10 mg/kg body weight of a given alkaloid; mice in a naïve control group were administered the same volume of normal saline. The results revealed the six alkaloids could reduce the incidence/severity of LPS- induced toxicities, e.g., body temperature elevation, weight loss, systemic inflammation, multiple organ dysfunction. Taken together, the data suggested to us that these alkaloids might effectively regulate inflammatory responses and have a potential to be used in anti-endotoxin therapies.

  7. [Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Qin, Feng

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effects of Xiaoyao Powder, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treatment of depression, on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression (PPD). Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, untreated group, fluoxetine hydrochloride group and Xiaoyao Powder group. Except for the control group, the rats in the other 3 groups were injected subcutaneously with estrogen for 23 successive days to induce the "pregnancy" state. In the next 30 successive days, rats were given test drugs respectively and the concentrations of noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in hippocampus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPD was induced in rats of untreated group, and compared with rats of control group, the concentrations of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus significantly reduced (P<0.01), while the concentration of 5-HIAA significantly increased (P<0.01). Xiaoyao Powder treatment significantly improved the behavior indexes and levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus (P<0.01). Xiaoyao Powder and fluoxetine hydrochloride produced similar effects in rats with PPD. Xiaoyao Powder produces an antidepression effect in rats by regulating the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus.

  8. Identifying Chinese Herbal Medicine Network for Eczema: Implications from a Nationwide Prescription Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-hung; Chen, Jiun-liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies. PMID:25685167

  9. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488

  10. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine in combination with mitomycin C on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Che-Chang; Chen, Jian-Jung; Tsai, James Y; Hsueh, Chung-Tsen

    2014-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is frequently used by cancer patients in Chinese community. It remains largely unknown about the interaction between CHM and chemotherapeutic agents. Herein, we evaluated 3 commonly used CHM formulas for cancer patients: Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT), Bao-Yuan-Tang (BYT), and Ju-Yuan-Jian (JYJ). We examined the effects of these 3 formulas in human gastric cancer cells MKN-74, in terms of cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction when used alone or in combination with mitomycin C (MMC). Cytotoxicity was determined by tetrazolium dye colorimetric assay. The 10% inhibitory concentration of CHM was used in this study. Cells were first exposed to CHM or phosphate buffered saline (as control) for 48 h. Then MMC at final concentration of 0.25 μg/ml was added to media for another 24-h. Among these 3 CHM formulas, BZYQT showed the most pronounced effect in augmenting MMC-induced cytotoxicity. The viability of MKN-74 cells was decreased to 43.1% when treated with BZYQT and MMC, compared to 94.9% with MMC alone. We subsequently examined apoptosis induction by quantitative florescent microscopy and single-strand DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and found BZYQT did not enhance MMC-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate BZYQT in combination with MMC induces cell death in gastric cancer cells via non-apoptotic mechanism. Our results provide a rationale for further investigation in the interaction of CHM and anti-cancer treatment.

  11. Prescription pattern of chinese herbal products for breast cancer in taiwan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers.

  12. Identifying chinese herbal medicine network for eczema: implications from a nationwide prescription database.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies.

  13. Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bunchorntavakul, C; Reddy, K R

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the World. There is a tendency for underreporting their ingestion by patients and the magnitude of their use is underrecognised by Physicians. Herbal hepatotoxicity is not uncommonly encountered, but the precise incidence and manifestations have not been well characterised. To review the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity. This review will mainly discuss single ingredients and complex mixtures of herbs marketed under a single label. A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'herbal', 'herbs', 'dietary supplement', 'liver injury', 'hepatitis' and 'hepatotoxicity'. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. The incidence rates of herbal hepatotoxicity are largely unknown. The clinical presentation and severity can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatic failure requiring transplantation. Scoring systems for the causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury may be helpful, but have not been validated for herbal hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity features of commonly used herbal products, such as Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs, black cohosh, chaparral, germander, greater celandine, green tea, Herbalife, Hydroxycut, kava, pennyroyal, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, skullcap, and usnic acid, have been individually reviewed. Furthermore, clinically significant herb-drug interactions are also discussed. A number of herbal medicinal products are associated with a spectrum of hepatotoxicity events. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risks involved are needed to improve herbal medicine safety. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Quality and safety control of tumor-shrinking decoction (TSD): A Chinese herbal preparation for the treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Lin, Wai Ling; Yeung, Wing Fai; Song, Tian-He; Lao, Li-Xing; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Meng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Reproducible efficacy assessments of Chinese herbal medicines are largely based on well-established quality control procedures. This study presents a comprehensive quality control procedure for tumor-shrinking decoction (TSD), a 15-herb preparation under study as a potential therapy for uterine fibroids. Morphological, microscopic, and physicochemical authentications were first carried out on individual herbal medicines composing TSD. Contaminant tests on TSD for the presence of heavy metals and pesticide residues were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Furthermore, batch-to-batch quality monitoring of the decoction was investigated via ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An aqueous extract of the herbal medicines was prepared and formulated into TSD. The tested contaminants were within the maximum permitted levels of the Hong Kong government in proprietary Chinese medicines. UPLC and HPLC fingerprints for quality tracking on TSD were established. The decoction was quantitatively standardized by UPLC and HPLC, respectively, with five and three chemical compounds serving as references. Collectively, the procedure established in this study will not only serve as a fundamental basis for the investigation and development of TSD as a novel therapy for uterine fibroids, but also as a protocol for studying other polycomponent herbal preparations. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. [Chinese herbal medicine enhances sexual function and c-Fos/nNOS expression in the nucleus accumbens of orchidectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyu; Cui, Jianmei; Zhai, Haifeng; Xue, Jinjuan; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2016-06-01

    There was a decrease in accessory genital organ weight, plasma testosterone, and sexual behavior, as well as a low number of c-Fos-positive cells and a large nNOS-positive cell area in orchidectomized rats. Administration of the herbal medicine increased accessory genital organ weight, testosterone level, mating behavior, and c-Fos-positive cell number, while it decreased the nNOS-positive cell area in orchidectomized rats. An increase of plasma testosterone after administration of "kidney-nourishing" herbal medicine might contribute to the elevated sexual function and activity in orchidectomized rats. In addition, a central nervous system mechanism, such as the functional alteration of NAc, might be involved. Abstract To determine whether the central nervous system is involved in the effect of Chinese herbal medicine on sexual function recovery in orchidectomized rats. Orchidectomized rats were administered intragastrically with a decoction of "kidney-nourishing" Chinese herbal medicine once per day for 28 days. Accessory genital organ weight, plasma testosterone, and mating behavior were investigated. The expression of c-Fos and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in neuronal cells in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.

  16. Understanding traditional Chinese medicine anti-inflammatory herbal formulae by simulating their regulatory functions in the human arachidonic acid metabolic network.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; Yin, Ning; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua

    2013-07-01

    Through history, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has adopted oriental philosophical practices of drug combination and interaction to address human diseases. To investigate this from a systems biology point of view, we analysed 28 TCM herbs for their anti-inflammatory function, using molecular docking and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network simulation. The inhibition potential of each herb toward five essential enzymes as well as their possible side effects were examined. Three commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory formulae were simulated to discover the combinatorial properties of each contained herb in regulating the whole metabolic network. We discovered that different ingredients of a formula tend to inhibit different targets, which almost covered all the targets in the whole network. We also found that herbal combinations could achieve the same therapeutic effect at lower doses compared with individual usage. New herbal combinations were also predicted based on the inhibition potentials and two types of synergistic drug combinations of TCM theory were discussed from the perspective of systems biology. Using this combined approach of molecular docking and network simulation, we were able to computationally elucidate the combinatorial effects of TCM to intervene disease networks. We expect novel TCM formulae or modern drug combinations to be developed based on this research.

  17. Comparison of effectiveness and safety between granules and decoction of Chinese herbal medicine: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui; Li, Qing; Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George; Liu, Jianping

    2012-04-10

    The clinical use of Chinese herbal medicine granules is gradually increasing. However, there is still no systematic review comparing the effectiveness and safety of granules with the more traditional method of herbal decoctions. A literature search was conducted using China National Knowledge Infrastructure Databases (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), China Biomedical Database web (CBM), Wanfang Database, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library until March 10, 2011. Clinical controlled trials (CCTs) including randomized trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness and safety between Chinese herbal medicine granules and decoction were included. Two authors conducted the literature searches, and extracted data independently. The assessment of methodological quality of RCTs was based on the risk of bias from the Cochrane Handbook, and the main outcome data of trials were analyzed by using RevMan 5.0 software. Risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as effect measure. 56 clinical trials (n=9748) including 42 RCTs and 14 CCTs were included, and all trials were conducted in China and published in Chinese literature. 40 types of diseases and 15 syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were reported. Granules were provided by pharmaceutical companies in 13 trials. The included RCTs were of generally low methodological quality: 7 trials reported adequate randomization methods, and 2 of these reported allocation concealment. 10 trials used blinding, of which 5 trials used placebo which were delivered double blind (blinded participants and practitioners). 98.2% (55/56) of studies showed that there was no significant statistical difference between granules and decoctions of Chinese herbal medicine for their effectiveness. No severe adverse effects in either group were reported. Due to the poor methodological quality of most of the included trials, it is not possible to reach a definitive conclusion

  18. Increased risks of chronic kidney disease associated with prescribed Chinese herbal products suspected to contain aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Nan; Lai, Jung-Nien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tseng, Wei-Lum; Chen, Ya-Yin; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2009-04-01

    Nephropathy associated with aristolochic acid (AA) has been documented by human and animal studies. Ancient Chinese herbology claimed to reduce toxicity in their mixtures. It was the objective of this study to determine the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products (CHP) or mixtures of herbs in a national cohort. A retrospective follow-up study was conducted, using a systematic random sample (200 000 people) in the National Health Insurance reimbursement database during 1997-2002. The incidence rates of CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were calculated for the whole sample and those that had used CHP suspected to contain AA. Cox regression models were constructed to control potential confounders, including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. A total of 199 843 persons were included in the final analysis, 102 464 (51.3%) men and 97 379 (48.7%) women, with an average incidence rate of 1964/10(6) person-years for CKD and 279/10(6) person-years for ESRD. After controlling other risk factors, the hazard ratios for development of CKD seemed to increase for patients that had consumed more than 30 g Mu-Tong, and more than 60 g Fangchi. Prescription of more than 30 g Mu-Tong or more than 60 g Fangchi CHP was associated with an increased risk of developing CKD. In addition to prohibiting the use of Guan-Mu-Tong and Guang-Fangchi, patients who have used these CHP should continue to be followed up.

  19. Effect of Chinese herbal medicine on stroke patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Ying-Ju

    2017-03-22

    Complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) include stroke, which is a cerebrovascular disturbance characterized by reduced blood flow in the brain, leading to death or physical disability. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in ancient China for the treatment of diabetes and stroke by supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation. This study aimed to investigate the frequencies and patterns of CHM treatment for stroke patients with T2D and the outcomes of long-term use in Taiwan. We identified 3079 stroke patients (ICD-9-CM: 430-438) with T2D. We allocated 618 stroke patients, matched for age, gender, and T2D-to-stroke duration, to both CHM and non-CHM groups. Chi-square test, conditional multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test were used in this study. The CHM group was characterized by more cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ulcer disease, hyperlipidemia, tobacco use, and higher income. The cumulative survival probability was higher in the CHM group (P<0.001, log rank test); after adjusting for comorbidities, income, and urbanization level, this group also exhibited a lower mortality hazard ratio (0.37, 95% confidence interval [0.25-0.55]). Shu-Jing-Huo-Xue-Tang, Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang, and Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang; and Dan-Shen, Niu-Xi, and Yan-Hu-Suo represented the top three formulas and herbs, respectively. The use of CHM as adjunctive therapy may improve the overall survival (OS) of stroke patients with T2D. The list of the comprehensive herbal medicines that they used might be useful in future large-scale, randomized clinical investigations of agent effectiveness, safety, and potential interactions with conventional treatments in stroke patients with T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.

  1. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L; Lau, Alexander Y L; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-02-01

    Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care.Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.69 to -0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research.

  2. Who are the users of a traditional Chinese sanfu acupoint herbal patching therapy in China?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fen; Wu, Hong-jun; Zhai, Jun-ping; Zhang, Gui-yan; Shao, Yan; Tian, Xia; Xia, Ru-yu; Jia, Li-yan; Li, Wen-yuan; Liang, Ning; Yan, Xiao-yi; Wu, Ruo-han; Zhang, Kang; Li, Xin-lin; Wang, Cong-cong; Liu, Jian-ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sanfu acupoint herbal patching (SAHP) is a unique traditional Chinese medicine therapy, which has become popular for preventing acute attack of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in many regions of mainland China. However, the knowledge about its users is lacking, especially the characteristics of the users and their experience and perspectives. To investigate the demographics of users, conditions for its use and the previous experience of SAHP, as well as users’ perspectives to provide baseline information for its practice. A cross-sectional consecutive-sample survey was conducted at outpatient departments from 3 traditional Chinese medicine hospitals in northern China. Each participant completed a questionnaire, after informed consent. Data description and analyses were done using SPSS 20.0. Among 949 SAHP users from 3 hospitals, female was predominant (n = 592; 62.4%), aged from 2 to 96 years (median = 52 years). 64.7% (380/587) of regular users have applied consecutively for 3 years or over, and the self-perceived satisfaction rates of respiratory diseases were from 45.9% to 77.7%. Positive attitude toward traditional Chinese medicine was the top reason for choosing SAHP. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). SAHP users were mainly female adults or elderly population; more than half were regular users, who predominantly used SAHP for various chronic respiratory diseases during their stable stage. The majority of users expressed satisfaction to previous SAHP for their respiratory diseases. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). The findings from this survey deserve further clinical trials for their clinical effectiveness. PMID:27930519

  3. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  4. Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Wei; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei; Chan, Ying-Shing

    2007-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease resulting from massive degenerative loss of dopamine neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. The most classic therapy for PD is levodopa administration, but the efficacy of levodopa treatment declines as the disease progresses. The neuroprotective strategies to rescue nigral dopamine neurons from progressive death are currently being explored, and among them, the Chinese herbs and herbal extracts have shown potential clinical benefit in attenuating the progression of PD in human beings. Growing studies have indicated that a range of Chinese herbs or herbal extracts such as green tea polyphenols or catechins, panax ginseng and ginsenoside, ginkgo biloba and EGb 761, polygonum, triptolide from tripterygium wilfordii hook, polysaccharides from the flowers of nerium indicum, oil from ganoderma lucidum spores, huperzine and stepholidine are able to attenuate degeneration of dopamine neurons and sympotoms caused by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, accumulating data have suggested that Chinese herbs or herbal extracts may promote neuronal survival and neurite growth, and facilitate functional recovery of brain injures by invoking distinct mechanisms that are related to their neuroprotective roles as the antioxidants, dopamine transporter inhibitor, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, free radical scavengers, chelators of harmful metal ions, modulating cell survival genes and signaling, anti-apoptosis activity, and even improving brain blood circulation. New pharmaceutical strategies against PD will hopefully be discovered by understanding the various active entities and valuable combinations that contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs and herbal extracts.

  5. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques.

  6. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques. PMID:25737605

  7. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  8. Herbal and polymeric approaches for liver-targeting drug delivery: novel strategies and their significance.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Raman; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates, which performs many functions including detoxification, protein synthesis and production of various bio-chemicals which are very important for digestion. A large number of serious liver disorders affect millions of people worldwide which are very difficult to treat properly despite many efforts. There are several factors which are responsible for liver injuries, include plants (Crotalaria Senecio Heliotropium Symphytum officinale), drugs (analgesic and antibiotics), industrial toxins (mercury and lead), water, alcohol and so on. Herbal medicinal preparations can be used for the treatment of a large number of human liver disorders like cirrhosis, hepatitis, carcinomas, etc. Indian Medicinal Practitioner's Co-operative pharmacy and Stores (IMPCPS) approved herbal-based systems (Unani, Siddha and Ayurveda) for the treatment of various chronic liver disorders. Different types of the receptors are found on the surface of hepatocytes, Kupffer cell, hepatic stellate cell and sinusoidal endothelial cells, etc., which can be used for achieving liver targeting. These receptors bind to different types of ligands (galactosylated, lactobionic acid, asialofetuin, etc.) which can be used in the formulation to achieve targeted delivery of the drug. Various novel particulate approaches (liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, micelles, nanosuspensions, etc.) can be used to enhance the targeting efficiency of systems to receptors found on the surface of different cells present in the liver. In this review, we focused on the status of liver targeting via herbal and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches.

  9. An update on clinical drug interactions with the herbal antidepressant St. John's wort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shu-Feng; Lai, Xinsheng

    2008-06-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, SJW) is one of the most commonly used herbal antidepressants for the treatment of minor to moderate depression. Limited clinical trials suggest that hypericum and standard antidepressants have similar beneficial effects, but current evidence regarding the antidepression effects of SJW extracts is inconsistent. A major safety concern about SJW is its ability to alter the pharmacokinetics and/or clinical response of a variety of clinically important drugs. This review highlights and updates the knowledge regarding drug interactions with SJW by a systematic review of all the available evidence, including worldwide published literature and spontaneous case reports. A number of clinically significant interactions of SJW have been identified with conventional drugs. These interactions often result in a decrease in the concentration or effect of the combined drug, most probably due to the induction of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and the key drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by the major active constituents in SJW. SJW is a potent inducer of human CYP3A4 and P-gp in vitro and in vivo. In addition, pharmacodynamic interactions of SJW with some drugs (e.g. selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors) have been identified, which are associated with an increased risk of adverse reactions. Since potential interactions of SJW with conventional drugs is a major safety concern, it is important to minimize and avoid these interactions by taking appropriate approaches. These include systematic research to identify SJW-drug interaction; close therapeutic drug monitoring when SJW is combined with conventional drugs with a narrow therapeutic window; proper dose and regimen adjustment; patient education and communication between the patient and physician; design of new preparations of SJW without inducing ability of CYP3A4 and P-gp while retaining its bioactivity; and appropriate regulation in herbal safety and efficacy. Further clinical and

  10. [Exploration and research on comprehensive evaluation model of Chinese patent medicines supply in national essential drugs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Guang

    2017-07-01

    Chinese medicine prices often have sharp rise or fall, and even the impact of short-term price rise on the quality of feed can't be ignored.On the other hand, the production of traditional Chinese medicine is strictly subject to resource constraints, so much of the industrial production due to lack of or prohibited use of resources must bestopped. Based on 203 Chinese patent medicines in the National Essential Drugs (2012 Edition), the factors that influence the supply of essential drugs of traditional Chinese medicine were analyzed and seven indicators for the supply of essential medicines were designed in this paper. According to the Chinese herbal medicine resources survey and dynamic monitoring service system data, a multi-index comprehensive evaluation model based on radar chart analysis was proposed, providing a holistic and overall evaluation of the supply situation of essential drugs of traditional Chinese medicine. The evaluation results were concise, clear and intuitive. In this paper, Jiuwei Qianghuo Wan and Ganmao Qingre Keli were taken as the examples to prove that the proposed comprehensive evaluation method is concise, clear, intuitive, credible and practical. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Combination of flying needle with Chinese Herbal Medicine in the treatment of Atopic dermatitis: A clinical trial.

    PubMed

    X Quan, Xiaohong; Cheng, Shenrong; Ma, Hong; Huang, Hengxuan; Wang, Bin; Chen, Xiuhua

    2014-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (Atopic dermatitis, AD) is a kind of chronic recurrent dermatitis. So far, no curative treatment has been found yet. Acupuncture, as a kind of alternative medicine, Flying Needle is a kind of acupuncture, which has a unique curative effectiveness in improving the skin lesion and itch. A single-center, prospective, randomized clinical design was conducted. The curative effect of the combination of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture for the treatment of Atopic dermatitis was assessed. Thirty (30) patients were treated with Flying Needle and Chinese herbal medicine. Because of personal reasons, one (1) dropped out. The patients accepted Flying Needle treatment 3 times a week and the internal medicine 3 times daily for in all 12 weeks. Before treatment, and after treat 4,8 and 12 weeks, assessments were performed. After treat 12 weeks, all patients of SCORAD score were dropped, with the mean SCORAD score declining to 19.58 ± 12.21. The recovery and removal rate comparison (*δx² = 5.28, P= 0.03<0.05). There are no side effects. The results hint that combine Flying Needle with Chinese herbal medicine are benefit on patients with atopic dermatitis and the effectiveness may better than oral medicine alone.

  12. Traditional Chinese herbal extracts inducing autophagy as a novel approach in therapy of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cong; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Li, Pei-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver diseases around the world due to the modern sedentary and food-abundant lifestyle, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver related with causes other than alcohol abuse. It is widely acknowledged that insulin resistance, dysfunctional lipid metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis/necrosis may all contribute to NAFLD. Autophagy is a protective self-digestion of intracellular organelles, including lipid droplets (lipophagy), in response to stress to maintain homeostasis. Lipophagy is another pathway for lipid degradation besides lipolysis. It is reported that impaired autophagy also contributes to NAFLD. Some studies have suggested that the histological characteristics of NAFLD (steatosis, lobular inflammation, and peri-sinusoid fibrosis) might be improved by treatment with traditional Chinese herbal extracts, while autophagy may be induced. This review will provide insights into the characteristics of autophagy in NAFLD and the related role/mechanisms of autophagy induced by traditional Chinese herbal extracts such as resveratrol, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, dioscin, bergamot polyphenol fraction, capsaicin, and garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine, which may inhibit the progression of NAFLD. Regulation of autophagy/lipophagy with traditional Chinese herbal extracts may be a novel approach for treating NAFLD, and the molecular mechanisms should be elucidated further in the near future. PMID:28373762

  13. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351 ± 0.017, 0.136 ± 0.010, 0.140 ± 0.005, and 2.281 ± 0.406 mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  14. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351 ± 0.017, 0.136 ± 0.010, 0.140 ± 0.005, and 2.281 ± 0.406 mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension. Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone. In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and 7 studies reported significant effects of XZD for improving symptoms compared with the control group (P < 0.00001). Meanwhile, studies reported XZD was more efficacious than antihypertensive drugs in improving total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, hemorheology, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index (P < 0.05). No severe adverse event was reported. This meta-analysis provides evidence that XZD is beneficial for hypertension. Although concerns regarding selective bias and methodologic flaws were raised, our findings suggests XZD as a new candidate cardioprotective drug for hypertension, which should be given priority for future preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26496333

  16. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally

  17. Seeking an oracle: using the Delphi process to develop practice guidelines for the treatment of endometriosis with Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George T; Little, Paul

    2007-11-01

    For most complementary and alternative medicine interventions, the absence of a high-quality evidence base to define good practice presents a serious problem for clinicians, educators, and researchers. The Delphi process may offer a pragmatic way to establish good practice guidelines until more rigorous forms of assessment can be undertaken. To use a modified Delphi to develop good practice guidelines for a feasibility study exploring the role of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of endometriosis. To compare the outcomes from Delphi with data derived from a systematic review of the Chinese language database. An expert group was convened for a three-round Delphi that initially produced key statements relating to the CHM diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis (round 1) and then anonymously rated these on a 1-7 Likert scale (rounds 2 and 3). Statements with a median score of 5 and above were regarded as demonstrating positive group consensus. The differential diagnoses within Chinese Medicine and rating of the clinical value of individual herbs were then contrasted with comparable data from a review of Chinese language reports in the Chinese Biomedical Retrieval System (1978-2002), and China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (1985-2002) databases and the Chinese TCM and magazine literature (1984-2004) databases. Consensus (good practice) guidelines for the CHM treatment of endometriosis relating to common diagnostic patterns, herb selection, dosage, and patient management were produced. The Delphi guidelines demonstrated a high degree of congruence with the information from the Chinese language databases. In the absence of rigorous evidence, Delphi offers a way to synthesize expert knowledge relating to diagnosis, patient management, and herbal selection in the treatment of endometriosis. The limitations of the expert group and the inability of Delphi to capture the subtle nuances of individualized clinical decision-making limit the usefulness of

  18. [Analysis of traditional and modern application of prepared decoction pieces of herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    He, Xiu-Min; Chen, Chao; Ma, Bing-Zhi; Wang, Shu-Xia

    2013-07-01

    The paper described the rationality of traditional and modern application of prepared decoction pieces of herbal medicine on basis of application, statistics and comparison analysis of three forms of drugs of traditional Chinese herbal pieces prepared for decoction, prepared decoction pieces in small packing and granules; and illustrated different opinions correlative to the three forms of drugs; put forward the counter-measures and proposals for the problems facing the traditional Chinese herbal pieces for decoction; the paper stated clearly that the traditional Chinese herbal pieces for decoction should not be replaced, instead, the viewpoint and the reasons on its application must be holding on; and the trend of development and expectations of the Chinese herbal pieces for decoction were predicted as well.

  19. Common and unique mechanisms of Chinese herbal remedies on ischemic stroke mice revealed by transcriptome analyses.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Hou, Yu-Chang; Lin, Yun-Lan; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Sun, Hsing-Jen; Liao, Ko-Hsun; Wang, Hsei-Wei

    2015-09-15

    Four traditional Chinese herbal remedies (CHR) including Buyang Huanwu decoction (BHD), Xuefu Zhuyu decoction (XZD), Tianma Gouteng decoction (TGD) and Shengyu decoction (SYD) are popular used in treating brain-related dysfunction clinically with different syndrome/pattern based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) principles, yet their neuroprotective mechanisms are still unclear. Mice were subjected to an acute ischemic stroke to examine the efficacy and molecular mechanisms of action underlying these CHR. CHR treatment significantly enhanced the survival rate of stroke mice, with BHD being the most effective CHR. All CHR were superior to recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment in successfully ameliorating brain function, infarction, and neurological deficits in stroke mice that also paralleled to improvements in blood-brain barrier damage, inflammation, apoptosis, and neurogenesis. Transcriptome analyses reveals that a total of 774 ischemia-induced probe sets were significantly modulated by four CHR, including 52 commonly upregulated genes and 54 commonly downregulated ones. Among them, activation of neurogenesis-associated signaling pathways and down-regulating inflammation and apoptosis pathways are key common mechanisms in ischemic stroke protection by all CHR. Besides, levels of plasma CX3CL1 and S100a9 in patients could be used as biomarkers for therapeutic evaluation before functional recovery could be observed. Our results suggest that using CHR, a combinatory cocktail therapy, is a better way than rt-PA for treating cerebral ischemic-associated diseases through modulating a common as well as a specific group of genes/pathways that may partially explain the syndrome differentiation and treatment principle in TCM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adjuvant Chinese Herbal Products for Preventing Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Liu, Chun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are widely used for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Taiwan. We investigated the effect of adjuvant CHPs in preventing ischemic stroke in patients with AF. Methods Taiwanese patients in the Health Insurance Database newly diagnosed with AF during 2000–2011 were enrolled. Medication treatment with/without CHPs was administered within 7 days after the AF diagnosis. The clinical endpoint was an ischemic stroke. The Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Student t test were used to examine differences between the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and non-TCM cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the risk for ischemic stroke between two cohorts. Results Three hundred and eleven patients underwent TCM treatment and 1715 patients did not. Compared to non-TCM users, TCM users had a lower incidence of stroke (12.59% vs. 1.93%, respectively) and lower risk of stroke [CHA2DS2-VASc score = 0–2 (hazard ratio = 0.20; 95% confidence interval = 0.06–0.65)]. Compared to non-TCM users, the stroke risk was significantly lower in TCM users with AF who were female or younger than 65 years, but not in males, people more than 65 years old, or people with comorbidities. Compared to TCM users, non-TCM users who received conventional treatment had a higher ischemic stroke risk. The risk for AF-related hospitalization was significantly lower in TCM users (0.64%) than in non-TCM users (38.1%). Conclusions Users of TCM with AF have a lower risk of new-onset ischemic stroke. Therefore, adjuvant CHP therapy may have a protective effect and may be used in AF patients to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:27428543

  1. A Chinese herbal medicine, fu-ling, regulates interleukin-10 production by murine spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Liou, Chian-Jiun; Tseng, Jerming

    2002-01-01

    Fu-ling is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effect of fu-ling on interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in vivo. Mice were i.p. administered 0.1 mg to 1.0 mg fu-ling per gram body weight daily for three days. The spleen cells were isolated and assayed for both IL-10 and immunoglobulin (Ig) production. Results indicated that the mice treated with fu-ling had significantly increased spleen cell ability to secrete IL-10. Spleen cells isolated from the mice injected with either 0.1 mg or 1.0 mg fu-ling per gram body weight also showed an increase in IL-10 mRNA expression. As IL-10 is a potent differentiation factor of B-lymphocytes, the possible effect of fu-ling on Ig production was also studied. Results indicated that fu-ling significantly induced an increase in IgG and IgA secretion by spleen cells but showed no effect on IgM secretion. Thus, fu-ling may affect the function of B-lymphocytes via stimulating IL-10 production.

  2. [Application prospect and expectation of fungistatic agents of plants in preservation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Hu, Yi-chen; Zhao, Lian-hua; Yang, Shi-hai; Yang, Mei-hua

    2015-10-01

    During the process of growth, harvesting, transportation, processing and storage, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) can be easily contaminated by fungi and their metabolites like mycotoxins, which not only express negative effects on the quality and safety of CHMs and their processed products, but also pose great threats to human health. Now, some chemical synthetic fungicides have been frequently used to control the growth of fungi and accumulation of mycotoxins in the preservation of CHMs. However, the concentration and type of chemical fungicides allowed for postharvest application are restricted due to the disadvantages of their high residual toxicity, long degradation period and pollution to the environment and so on. Therefore, it is critical to research and develop some highly effective, safe and non-toxic, natural, environment-friendly fungistatic agents from plants to prevent CHMs from being contaminated by fungi and mycotoxins. The paper reviews mycotoxins and their harmfulness, the effective compounds of fungistatic plants as well as the antifungal mechanism to provide scientific evidences for developing novel and effective fungistatic agents plants. Then, the application prospect of fungistatic agents from plants in the preservation of CHMs was discussed.

  3. Identifying Chinese Herbal Medicine Network for Endometriosis: Implications from a Population-Based Database in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sien-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a common but bothersome gynecological disease, and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is used for treating endometriosis. The aim of this study is to explore CHM network and core treatments for endometriosis by analyzing nationwide CHM prescription database. Methods From 1998 to 2013, the CHM prescriptions made primarily for endometriosis among women diagnosed with endometriosis (ICD-9-CM code: 671) by gynecologists during their reproductive age were collected. CHM network analysis was then carried out by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Results A total of 12,986 CHM prescriptions made for endometriosis were analyzed. There were 556 kinds of CHM ever used, and, in average, each prescription was composed of 6.2 CHMs. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (GZFLW) was used most frequently, followed by Cyperus rotundus (28.1% and 18.8% of all prescriptions, resp.). Additionally, the combination of Cyperus rotundus with GZFLW (8.0%) was the most frequently used combination of two CHMs. CHM network showed that GZFLW was the core CHM for endometriosis and graphically demonstrated the extensive coverage of TCM syndromes and pathogenesis of endometriosis. Conclusions CHM network provides graphical demonstration and summary of commonly used CHMs for endometriosis, and further studies are warranted based on these findings. PMID:28740539

  4. Effectiveness and Safety of Manufactured Chinese Herbal Formula for Knee Osteoarthritis: Insights from a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liguo; Yang, Shaofeng; Wang, Shangquan; Gong, Hao; Li, Linghui; Wei, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the current clinical evidence of manufactured Chinese herbal formulae (MCHF) for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods. Seven databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of MCHF for KOA were included. Data extraction, methodological assessment, and meta-analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. A total of 17 kinds of MCHF were identified from the twenty-six included trials. Meta-analyses showed that MCHF significantly relieved the global pain of knee joints, either used alone or combined with routine treatments. Additionally, MCHF plus routine treatments significantly decreased the scores of WOMAC and Lequesne index. However, there were no statistical differences between MCHF group and routine treatment group in walk-related pain and WOMAC scores. No significant differences were found in Lysholm scores. There were twenty-one trials that mentioned adverse events. A pooled analysis showed that adverse events occurred more frequently in control group compared with MCHF group. Conclusions. Our results indicated that MCHF showed some potential benefits for KOA. However, we still cannot draw firm conclusions due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. More high-quality RCTs would help to confirm the evidence. PMID:26609310

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology: an improved pharmacology approach for chinese herbal medicine research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Zhou, Ying-Wu; Qin, Xiu-de; Hua, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Lian; Kang, Li-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in the health maintenance of specific survival environment for neurons and glial cells, has been constructed and applied to CHM research for treating ND. In the present review, the concept and advantages of CSFP are briefly introduced. The approaches and key technologies of CSFP in CHM research are also collated and analyzed. Furthermore, the developing tendency of CSFP is summarized, and its framework in CHM research is also proposed. In summary, CSFP provides a new strategy not only to eliminate some barriers of CHM research for treating ND, but also to broaden the pharmacology research for bridging the gap between CHM and modern medicine. Moreover, the advancements in CSFP will bring about a conceptual move in active ingredients discovery of CHM and make a significant contribution to CHM modernization and globalization.

  6. Effects of a Chinese herbal health formula, "Gan-Lu-Yin", on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chun-Hsu; Hsieh, I-Chun; Liu, Fon-Chang; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Koizumi, Ayano; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2010-07-14

    According to the known effects of each ingredient, Gan-Lu-Yin (GLY), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has the potential to be an antiangiogenic agent. The purpose of this study was to explore the putative effect of GLY on antiangiogenesis. An ethanol extract of GLY was tested on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to evaluate the effects of GLY extract on cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. The results showed that treatment with 1.0 mg/mL of GLY extract could markedly reduce cell migration and in vitro tube formation of HUVEC, and 1.5 mg/mL of GLY extract was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of HUVEC. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of HUVEC was significantly decreased by 1.5 and 2.0 mg/mL of GLY extract. In chicken CAM assay, all tested concentrations of GLY extract were found to reduce the capillary mesh on the CAM of fertilized eggs. The inhibitory effects of GLY extract (1 mg/mL) were also found on tumor cell-induced HUVEC proliferation and tube formation. These observations suggested that GLY extract has an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis, which in turn may prevent tumor growth, and its mechanism might be partially associated with blocking VEGF protein expression of HUVEC.

  7. Traditional chinese herbal products for coronary heart disease: an overview of cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this overview was to evaluate and summarize Cochrane reviews of traditional Chinese herbal products (TCHPs) as the treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods. We searched the Cochrane Database that was concerned with the effectiveness of TCHPs for CHD. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reviews and primary studies of TCHP as the treatment of any type of CHD were included. Data were extracted according to predefined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Results. Six Cochrane reviews were included. They related to a wide range of TCHPs for different types of CHD. Four reviews were concerned with angina pectoris (unstable or stable), one review was concerned with heart failure, and for acute myocardial infarction. No reviews concluded that TCHPs were definitely effective for CHD because of the weak evidence. Eight primary studies were TCHPs from CHD. These studies also maybe result in bias, but better than before. Conclusion. Several Cochrane reviews of TCHPs for the treatment of different types of CHD have recently been published. None of these reviews got definite conclusion favoring the effectiveness of TCHPs due to the weak evidence. With the improved quality of the new registered RCTs. The potential role of TCHPs in treating CHD is anticipated to be detected.

  8. Chinese herbal medicine for Alzheimer's disease: Clinical evidence and possible mechanism of neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Xia-Wei; Chen, Shuang; Shan, Chun-Shuo; Xu, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Jia-Zhen; Bao, Xiao-Yi; Lin, Yan; Zheng, Guo-Qing; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there is lack of cure or disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is purported to ameliorate AD progression, perhaps by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we conducted an updated systematic review to investigate the efficacy and safety of CHM for AD based on high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviewed its possible mechanisms of neurogenesis according to animal-based researches. Twenty eligible studies with 1767 subjects were identified in eight database searches from inception to February 2017. The studies investigated the CHM versus placebo (n=3), CHM versus donepezil (n=9 with 10 comparisons), CHM plus donepezil versus donepezil (n=3), CHM versus a basic treatment (n=3), and CHM plus basic treatment versus basic treatment (n=2). Adverse events were reported in 11 studies, analyzed but not observed in 3 studies, and not analyzed in 6 studies. The main findings of present study are that CHM as adjuvant therapy exerted an additive anti-AD benefit, whereas the efficacy of CHM as a monotherapy was inconclusive. Additionally, CHMs were generally safe and well tolerated in AD patients. Active molecules in frequent constituents of CHMs can alter multiple critical signaling pathways regulating neurogenesis. Thus, the present evidence supports, to a limited extent, the conclusion that CHM can be recommended for routine use in AD patients and its possible mechanism enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis through activating the multi-signal pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Chinese Herbal Formula IBS-20 In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Ip, Siu Po; Che, Chun-Tao; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Wu, Justin C.; Sung, Joseph J.; Berman, Brian; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder and the etiology is not well understood. Currently there is no cure for IBS and no existing medication induces symptom relief in all patients. IBS-20 is a 20-herb Chinese medicinal formula that offers beneficial effects in patients with IBS; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study showed that IBS-20 potently inhibited LPS- or IFNΓ-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as classically activated macrophage marker nitric oxide synthase 2. Similarly, IBS-20 or the component herb Coptis chinensis decreased LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from JAWS II dendritic cells. IBS-20 or the component herbs also blocked or attenuated the IFNΓ-induced drop in transepithelial electric resistance, an index of permeability, in fully differentiated Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the up-regulation of key inflammatory cytokines in inflamed colon from TNBS-treated mice was suppressed significantly by orally administrated IBS-20, including IFNΓ and IL-12p40. These data indicate that the anti-inflammatory activities of IBS-20 may contribute to the beneficial effects of the herbal extract in patients with IBS, providing a potential mechanism of action for IBS-20. In addition, IBS-20 may be a potential therapeutic agent against other Th1-dominant gut pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:22461841

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gaomin; Tan, Shengkui

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) by performing a meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing CHM vs no treatment, placebo, conventional western medicine (CWM), or general non-specific surgical treatment for DUB were identified by electronic and manual searches. Trials of CHM treatments with CWM treatments were compared with CWM treatments alone. Jadad scale and allocation concealment were used to assess the quality of included studies. Four RCTs or quasi-RCTs involving 525 patients were included. The methodological quality was poor in all trials except one trial. No serious adverse events were reported in the included studies. With the lack of trials comparing CHM with no treatment or placebo, it is impossible to accurately evaluate the efficacy of CHM. However, CHM in these studies seem to show an encouraging comparative effectiveness with CWM. More RCTs with a higher quality are required. PMID:18955223

  11. The prevalence, characteristics, and factors associated with purchasing Chinese herbal medicine among adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun -Chuan; Huang, Lu-Hsiang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Lane, Hsin-Long; Hsieh, Chang-Ju; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Li-Wei; Chen, Ta-Liang; Liao, Chien-Chang

    2017-03-27

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with purchasing Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) without a physician's prescription among adults. Using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and National Health Insurance, we identified 16,756 individuals aged 20 years and older. Socio-demographic factors, lifestyle, medical services utilization and health behaviors were compared between people with and without a history of purchasing CHM by calculating adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a multiple logistic regression analysis. The one-month prevalence of purchasing CHM without a physician' prescription was 5.2% in Taiwan. People more likely to purchase CHM included people aged ≥70 years (OR 2.84, 95% CI 2.03-3.99), women (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.48), non-indigenous people (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.29-5.30), and people with an illness not receiving medical care (OR 2.69, 95% CI 2.19-3.31). The prevalence of purchasing CHM without a physician's prescription is high in Taiwan and is correlated with factors such as socio-demographics, disease history, and behaviors surrounding the utilization of medical care.

  12. Optimising resolution for a preparative separation of Chinese herbal medicine using a surrogate model sample system.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haoyu; Ignatova, Svetlana; Peng, Aihua; Chen, Lijuan; Sutherland, Ian

    2009-06-26

    This paper builds on previous modelling research with short single layer columns to develop rapid methods for optimising high-performance counter-current chromatography at constant stationary phase retention. Benzyl alcohol and p-cresol are used as model compounds to rapidly optimise first flow and then rotational speed operating conditions at a preparative scale with long columns for a given phase system using a Dynamic Extractions Midi-DE centrifuge. The transfer to a high value extract such as the crude ethanol extract of Chinese herbal medicine Millettia pachycarpa Benth. is then demonstrated and validated using the same phase system. The results show that constant stationary phase modelling of flow and speed with long multilayer columns works well as a cheap, quick and effective method of optimising operating conditions for the chosen phase system-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.8:1:0.6, v/v). Optimum conditions for resolution were a flow of 20 ml/min and speed of 1200 rpm, but for throughput were 80 ml/min at the same speed. The results show that 80 ml/min gave the best throughputs for tephrosin (518 mg/h), pyranoisoflavone (47.2 mg/h) and dehydrodeguelin (10.4 mg/h), whereas for deguelin (100.5 mg/h), the best flow rate was 40 ml/min.

  13. Expression Profiling and Proteomic Analysis of JIN Chinese Herbal Formula in Lung Carcinoma H460 Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Luyu; Zhang, Weiyi; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Huarong; Xiong, Fei; Yu, Yang; Chen, Meijuan; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Mingyan; Cheng, Ge; Duan, Jinao; Yu, Wei; Lin, Biaoyang; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been used in cancer therapy. The JIN formula is an ancient herbal formula recorded in the classic TCM book Jin Kui Yao Lue (Golden Chamber). The JIN formula significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous human H460 xenografted tumors in vivo compared with the growth of mock controls. Gene array analysis of signal transduction in cancer showed that the JIN formula acted on multiple targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, hedgehog, and Wnt signaling pathways. The coformula treatment of JIN and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) affected the stress/heat shock pathway. Proteomic analysis showed 36 and 84 differentially expressed proteins between the mock and DDP groups and between the mock and JIN groups, respectively. GoMiner analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins between the JIN and mock groups were enriched during cellular metabolic processes, and so forth. The ones between the DDP and mock groups were enriched during protein-DNA complex assembly, and so forth. Most downregulated proteins in the JIN group were heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP90AA1 and HSPA1B, which could be used as markers to monitor responses to the JIN formula therapy. The mechanism of action of the JIN formula on HSP proteins warrants further investigation. PMID:24066008

  14. [Exploration of quality control of inorganic elements in Chinese herbal medicines for stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-feng; Fan, Mei-mei; Wang, Guan-min; Tu, Long-fei; Wang, Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Researches have shown the close relationships between inorganic elements and curative efficiencies of various Chinese herbal medicines. Yet, in studies of chemical composition and quality control of Chinese herbal medicines for stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints, inorganic substances are often overlooked. In order to improve and reestablish the standard of quality control of Chinese herbal medicines, the authors attempted a method that would incorporate the composition of inorganic elements as part of the quality control. In the present study, the authors used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure the contents of fifteen inorganic elements, namely, Cu, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, Mn, Zn, Na, Cr, Cd, and Hg, in several Chinese herbal medicines, including Da Huo Luo Wan. The authors then discussed the relationship between these inorganic elements and curative efficiencies of these Chinese herbal medicines. By comparing the levels of inorganic elements found in Da Huo Luo Wan with those found in other Chinese herbal medicines used in the study, it was revealed that trace elements, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, contribute to the curative efficiency of Da Huo Luo Wan. The authors' results showed that the amounts of trace elements Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn found in Chinese herbal medicine Da Huo Luo Wan are related to the following curative effects of Da Huo Luo Wan: relieving rheumatism, rectifying breathing and alleviating phlegm, stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints. The measurement and analysis of inorganic elements in Da Huo Luo Wan will also provide evidences and references for the fingerprint establishment of Da Huo Luo Wan in the future.

  15. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; da Silva, Patricia Bento; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines. PMID:24363556

  16. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review.

    PubMed

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Silva, Patricia Bento da; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines.

  17. Chemical and Biological Assessment of Angelica Roots from Different Cultivated Regions in a Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendy L.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Zhu, Kevin Y.; Zhan, Janis Y. X.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chen, J. P.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction. PMID:23476692

  18. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  19. Chinese Herbal Bath Therapy for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng; Chung, Mei; Lin, Xun; Zhang, Min; Pang, Jian; Wang, Chenchen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Chinese herbal bath therapy (CHBT) has traditionally been considered to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. We conducted the first meta-analysis evaluating its benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. We searched three English and four Chinese databases through October, 2014. Randomized trials evaluating at least 2 weeks of CHBT for knee OA were selected. The effects of CHBT on clinical symptoms included both pain level (via the visual analog scale) and total effectiveness rate, which assessed pain, physical performance, and wellness. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using mean difference. Results. Fifteen studies totaling 1618 subjects met eligibility criteria. Bath prescription included, on average, 13 Chinese herbs with directions to steam and wash around the knee for 20–40 minutes once or twice daily. Mean treatment duration was 3 weeks. Results from meta-analysis showed superior pain improvement (mean difference = −0.59 points; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −0.83 to −0.36; p < 0.00001) and higher total effectiveness rate (risk ratio = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.28; p < 0.00001) when compared with standard western treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Chinese herbal bath therapy may be a safe, effective, and simple alternative treatment modality for knee OA. Further rigorously designed, randomized trials are warranted. PMID:26483847

  20. Java brucea and Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of cholesterol granuloma in the suprasellar and sellar regions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhe; Cao, Yang; Zhai, Lin-zhu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A cholesterol granuloma (CG) is usually found in the middle ear, papilla, orbits, petrous apex, and choroid plexus, but is highly uncommon in the skull. In spite of benign clinicopathological lesions, bone erosion can be seen occasionally in the patient with CG. The optimal treatment strategy is radical surgery, but complete excision is usually impossible due to anatomical restrictions and a risk of injury to the key structures located nearby. Here, we report a patient with CGs in the suprasellar and sellar regions who was successfully treated with Java brucea and Chinese herbal medicine. Patient concerns: A 31-year-old man presenting with progressive decreased vision in both eyes was analyzed. Diagnoses: A skull magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a low-density tumor in the uprasellar and sellar regions and histopathological examination revealed a CG. Interventions: The patient was referred the surgery and radiotherapy. In the meantime, brucea soft capsules and herbal medicine combined were administered to him. Outcomes: The related clinical symptoms and signs resolved significantly after several months, as his therapy progressed. The patient showed no sign of recurrence during the treatment period. Furthermore, he was still alive and disease-free at 37 months of follow-up visit. Lessons: Overall, brucea soft capsules and a Chinese herbal formula treatment combined could be beneficial in improving the patient's quality of life with CG in the skull. PMID:28151875

  1. Chinese Herbal Medicine Qi Ju Di Huang Wan for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Guoyan; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Li, Jun; Yang, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbs are potentially effective for hypertension. Qi Ju Di Huang Wan (QJDHW) is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine as a monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on the effectiveness and safety of QJDHW for EH. Methods and Findings. CENTRAL, PubMed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of QJDHW for essential hypertension up to January 2013 with no language restrictions. A total of 10 randomized trials involving 1024 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in lowering blood pressure and improving TCM syndrome for the treatment of essential hypertension than antihypertensive drugs used alone. No trials reported severe adverse events related to QJDHW. Conclusions. Our review suggests that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs might be an effective treatment for lowering blood pressure and improving symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the finding should be interpreted with caution because of the poor methodological quality of included trials. There is an urgent need for well-designed, long-term studies to assess the effectiveness of QJDHW in the treatment of essential hypertension. PMID:23878593

  2. [Safety of herbal medicinal drugs in acute respiratory diseases of children].

    PubMed

    Kraft, Karin

    2004-11-01

    For children, the use of herbal medicinal drugs for treatment of acute respiratory diseases is widespread. After many decades or centuries of experience they are assumed to be safe, but the scientific proof is still rather weak for most of them. The few studies performed so far, are often not available, as they are usually not published in peer-reviewed journals. The postmarketing surveys and observational studies of recent years, which are presented in the following article, however, do not reveal any new unknown risk.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis of phytochemical substances in herbal drugs and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Roberto

    2011-06-25

    This paper reviews the applications of electromigration methods in analysis of phytochemical substances in herbal drugs and medicinal plants. A short description of the basic principles of capillary electrophoretic techniques is firstly given, then the overview deals with the applications of selected methods published in the period 2005-2010. The phytochemical substances have been classified according to their chemical nature (e.g. alkaloids, polyphenols, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes) and the applied CE approaches, namely CZE, NACE, MEKC, MEEKC and CEC, together with the different detection methods, are critically discussed for each of the considered classes of natural compounds.

  4. Frequency and pattern of Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009: analysis of the national health insurance database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale pharmaco-epidemiological studies of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treatment of urticaria are few, even though clinical trials showed some CHM are effective. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions for urticaria by analysing the population-based CHM database in Taiwan. Methods This study was linked to and processed through the complete traditional CHM database of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan during 2009. We calculated the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions used for treatment of urticaria, of which the diagnosis was defined as the single ICD-9 Code of 708. Frequent itemset mining, as applied to data mining, was used to analyse co-prescription of CHM for patients with urticaria. Results There were 37,386 subjects who visited traditional Chinese Medicine clinics for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009 and received a total of 95,765 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 18 and 35 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (32.76%). In addition, women used CHM for urticaria more frequently than men (female:male = 1.94:1). There was an average of 5.54 items prescribed in the form of either individual Chinese herbs or a formula in a single CHM prescription for urticaria. Bai-Xian-Pi (Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb while Xiao-Feng San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. The most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Xiao-Feng San plus Bai-Xian-Pi while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Xiao-Feng San, Bai-Xian-Pi, and Di-Fu Zi (Kochia scoparia). Conclusions In view of the popularity of CHM such as Xiao-Feng San prescribed for the wind-heat pattern of urticaria in this study, a large-scale, randomized clinical trial is warranted to research their efficacy and safety. PMID:23947955

  5. Oral granulated Chinese herbal medicine (YXBCM01) plus topical calcipotriol for psoriasis vulgaris: study protocol for a double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shefton; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Goodman, Greg; Wen, Zehuai; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changlie

    2014-12-19

    Probably related to immune dysfunction, psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, painful, disfiguring and disabling dermatological disease, carrying an increased risk of serious comorbidities. Current conventional therapies can be costly, show risks of side effects and have limited efficacy, with relapse common on treatment cessation. Chinese herbal medicine is effective in treating psoriasis vulgaris. However, any benefit of adding Chinese herbal medicine to conventional treatments when treating psoriasis vulgaris is yet to be determined. This is a pilot randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded trial. The pilot is primarily to determine the feasibility of undertaking a full size randomized trial. Thirty participants with psoriasis vulgaris and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores ≥ 7 and ≤ 12 will be included. Participants will be randomized (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive oral granulated Chinese herbal medicine YXBCM01 plus topical calcipotriol 0.005% or oral YXBCM01 placebo plus topical calcipotriol 0.005% treatment for 12 weeks, with a 12-week follow-up phase. The Chinese herbal medicine or placebo will be administered orally as dissolvable granules. The primary outcome measure will be PASI change (%) from baseline to the end of treatment phase. Secondary outcomes will include safety, key psoriasis-related cytokine changes (for example, IL12, IL17 and IL 23) during the entire trial and symptom relapse rates at the end of the follow-up phase. The study will evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial investigating combined conventional and Chinese herbal medicine therapy for psoriasis vulgaris. The ingredients of YXBCM01 were selected based on literature, the expert opinion on herbal medicine and pre-clinical evidence, for instance Chinese herbal medicine possesses anti-inflammatory or antiproliferative properties. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000493640.

  6. Herbal use amongst multiethnic medical patients in Penang Hospital: pattern and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Saw, J T; Bahari, M B; Ang, H H; Lim, Y H

    2006-10-01

    A cross sectional survey on pattern and perception of herbal use among medical patients in Penang Hospital was conducted. Among 250 patients surveyed, 67.9% were using herbal medicine and conventional medicine concomitantly. A majority of the patients used herbs for health maintenance (51.3%) purpose. More than 90% of herbal users did not disclose herbal use to their physician and "Doctor never asked" was the major reason given (54.2%). The Chinese reported the highest rate of herbal use but was least likely to disclose. These findings are important for health professionals to ensure medication safety and recognise potential drug herb interaction.

  7. [Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yiqi Huayu formula on substance P expression in skin ulcers of rats with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-fei; Que, Hua-fa

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi (Yiqi) and dissolving stasis (Huayu) on substance P expression in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes mellitus. One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats with back full-thickness skin lesion were randomly divided into five groups: ulcer control group, diabetic ulcer group, Yiqi Huayu herb group, Yiqi herb group, and Huayu herb group. Except ulcer control group, the other rats were also injected streptozotocin to induce diabetes mellitus. Rats in each group were given normal saline or herbal drugs for 15 d and the wound healing rate of the rats was observed on days 8 and 15, respectively. After treatment, the expression of substance P in granulation tissues of the rats was tested with immunohistochemical method and the immunohistochemical index was calculated. On the 8th and 15th days after treatment, the wound healing rate of the ulcer control group was higher than that of the diabetic ulcer group (P<0.01); the wound healing rates of all the treated groups were higher than that of the diabetic ulcer group (P<0.05); the wound healing rate of the Yiqi Huayu herb group was higher than those of the Yiqi herb group and the Huayu herb group (P<0.05). Compared with the diabetic ulcer group, the expression of substance P of the ulcer control group was increased (P<0.05); the expressions of substance P of the Yiqi Huayu herb group and the Huayu herb group were higher than that of the diabetic ulcer group (P<0.05). Yiqi Huayu herbs can promote wound healing in rats with diabetes mellitus by up-regulating the expression of substance P.

  8. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576

  9. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models.

    PubMed

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2008-08-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis.

  10. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

  11. Chinese herbal medicine for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Age Associated Memory Impairment: a review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Yang, Angela W H; Zhang, Anthony L; Owens, Michael D; Bennett, Louise; Head, Richard; Cobiac, Lynne; Li, Chun Guang; Hugel, Helmut; Story, David F; Xue, Charlie C L

    2009-04-01

    This review assesses the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). Electronic searches of English and Chinese databases and hand searches of Chinese journal holdings were conducted. Randomised controlled trials comparing orally administered CHM with placebo, no intervention or other therapy were considered. Ginkgo biloba was excluded. Ten trials met inclusion criteria. Eight different CHM were investigated. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad scale and five studies scored three or above. Two studies compared CHM with placebo and eight with another intervention. This review found an overall benefit on some outcome measures for the eight CHMs involved in the 10 RCTs but methodological and data reporting issues were evident. Meta-analysis of three studies found the effects of the CHMs were at least equivalent to piracetam on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. No severe adverse events were reported.

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine as Adjunctive Therapy to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xu; Zhang, Xing; Nian, Jia-Yun; Guo, Jiao; Yin, Yi; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yu, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yang, Guo-Wang; Yang, Lin; Cheng, Pei-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been increasingly employed during therapy for breast cancer, but its efficacy remains a matter of debate. This systematic review examined randomized controlled trials to provide a critical evaluation of this treatment. The results demonstrated that the combined use of CHM with chemotherapy may improve the immediate tumor response and reduce chemotherapy-associated adverse events. Our findings highlight the poor quality of Chinese studies, and additional well-designed randomized controlled trials addressing the role of CHM are warranted. The lack of molecular-based evidence for CHM and Zheng has resulted in a limited understanding and acceptance of CHM and traditional Chinese medicine in Western countries. We believe that researchers should immediately explore a CHM-based cure, and CHM should be applied to routine care as soon as conclusive data are available. PMID:27190531

  13. Effect of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulation on Cell Survival and Apoptosis of MPP(+)-Treated MES 23.5 Dopaminergic Cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuifen; Koon, Ho Kee; Fan, Wen; Xu, Yihui; Wei, Wei; Xu, Chuanshan; Cai, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy of these currently used drugs is limited while traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the management of neurodegenerative diseases for many years. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a modified traditional Chinese herbal medicine decoction, Cong Rong Jing (CRJ), on cell survival and apoptosis of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium- (MPP(+)-) treated MES23.5 dopaminergic cells. CRJ was prepared as a decoction from three Chinese herbs, namely, Herba Cistanches, Herba Epimedii, and Rhizoma Polygonati. We reported here that CRJ significantly enhanced the cell survival of MES23.5 cells after the exposure of MPP(+) and inhibited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by MPP(+). CRJ also prevented the MPP(+)-treated MES23.5 cells from apoptosis by reducing the externalization of phosphatidylserine and enhancing the Bcl-2/Bax protein expression ratio. Signaling proteins such as JAK2, STAT3, and ERK1/2 were also involved in the action of CRJ. Taken together, these results provide a preliminary mechanism to support clinical application of the TCM formulation in PD and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases associated with ROS injury and apoptosis.

  14. Acute adverse events from over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines: a population-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although over-the-counter traditional Chinese herbal medicine (COTC) is commonly used to treat everyday illness in many parts of the world, no population-based study has been done to examine the prevalence and factors associated with COTC-related adverse events. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese adults in 2011 (n = 1100) with informed verbal consent. Stepwise logistic regression of demographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables was used to determine factors associated with past-year adverse events. Results Of study respondents, 71.7% (789/1100) reported past-year COTC use and 2.3% (25/1100) reported at least one COTC-related adverse event in the past year. Of the 27 adverse events cases reported among COTC users, the most common were allergic reactions (n = 11) dizziness (n = 5), and gastro-intestinal problems (n = 4). Pills/capsules were the dosage form that caused the highest proportion of adverse events (n = 10), followed by plasters (n = 7), creams/ointments (n = 5), and ingestible powders (n = 2). Although COTC users reporting adverse events were more likely to report greater practices to avoid adverse events (OR = 6.47; 95% CI: 1.38-30.3); they were also more likely to possess lower education levels (OR = 9.64, 95% CI: 2.20-42.3) and to have received COTC information from non-reliable, mass-media information sources such as magazines (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.01-8.50) or television (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.03-10.7). Package labels were also felt to be unclear by 42.9% of COTC users. A large proportion of COTC users demonstrated low levels of COTC-related knowledge, while the main impediment to greater information-seeking was the belief that reliable COTC information is not obtainable from Western health professionals. Conclusions Despite global movements toward more stringent complementary medicine regulation, the limited accessibility of reliable information

  15. The Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Nung; Hu, Wen-Long; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In Oriental countries, combinations of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are often utilized as therapeutic agents for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effects of CHPs on COPD have been previously reported. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of prescription and usage of CHPs in patients with COPD in Taiwan. In this nationwide population-based cross-sectional study, 19,142 patients from a random sample of one million individuals in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID 2000) of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) were enrolled from 2000 to 2011. The multiple logistic regression method was used to evaluate the adjusted odds ratios for the utilization of CHPs. For patients with COPD, there was an average of 6.31 CHPs in a single prescription. The most frequently prescribed CHP for COPD was Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) (2.6%), and the most commonly used combination of two formula CHPs was XQLT with Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) (1.28%). The most commonly used single CHP for COPD was Bulbus Fritillariae (3.65%), and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Bulbus Fritillariae with Puerariae Lobatae (1.09%). These results provide information regarding personalized therapies and may promote further clinical experiments and pharmacologic research on the use of CHPs for the management of COPD. Furthermore, we found that TCM usage was more prevalent among men, younger, manual workers, residents of Northern Taiwan, and patients with chronic bronchitis and asthma. This information on the distribution of TCM usage around the country is valuable to public health policymakers and clinicians.

  16. Effects of Chinese herbal mixture on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; He, W L; Wang, Z B; Xu, T S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) in laying hen diets on performance, egg quality and egg nutrition components, as well as selected blood biochemical parameters. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 24 week of age, were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments and fed for 6 week. The CHM was used at the levels of 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% in the diets of the control and two treatment groups respectively. Each dietary treatment was divided into five replicates, comprising of 18 hens each. Hens were housed in a 3-tier battery system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, mortality, eggshell thickness, albumen height, Haugh units, eggshell-breaking strength and egg-shape index. Dietary supplementation of CHM significantly improved (p < 0.05) laying rate and the lowest feed conversion ratio were observed with 1.0% CHM supplementation diets. CHM supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) cracked-egg rate, egg yolk cholesterol, blood serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and increased blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). No differences in serum total protein, serum albumen, serum glucose and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were observed in hens fed CHM. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHM improved egg production and egg quality and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Dietary supplementation of 1.0% CHM in layer diets may be a feasible means of producing eggs with lower cholesterol and higher egg yolk phospholipid contents for health conscious consumers.

  17. Efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for stroke modifiable risk factors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenbo; Lauche, Romy; Ferguson, Caleb; Frawley, Jane; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of stroke burden is attributable to its modifiable risk factors. This paper aimed to systematically summarise the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions on stroke modifiable risk factors for stroke prevention. A literature search was conducted via the MEDLINE, CINAHL/EBSCO, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Database from 1996 to 2016. Randomised controlled trials or cross-over studies were included. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. A total of 46 trials (6895 participants) were identified regarding the use of CHM interventions in the management of stroke risk factors, including 12 trials for hypertension, 10 trials for diabetes, eight trials for hyperlipidemia, seven trials for impaired glucose tolerance, three trials for obesity, and six trials for combined risk factors. Amongst the included trials with diverse study design, an intervention of CHM as a supplement to biomedicine and/or a lifestyle intervention was found to be more effective in lowering blood pressure, decreasing blood glucose level, helping impaired glucose tolerance reverse to normal, and/or reducing body weight compared to CHM monotherapy. While no trial reported deaths amongst the CHM groups, some papers do report moderate adverse effects associated with CHM use. However, the findings of such beneficial effects of CHM should be interpreted with caution due to the heterogeneous set of complex CHM studied, the various control interventions employed, the use of different participants' inclusion criteria, and low methodological quality across the published studies. The risk of bias of trials identified was largely unclear in the domains of selection bias and detection bias across the included studies. This study showed substantial evidence of varied CHM interventions improving the stroke modifiable risk factors. More rigorous research examining the use of CHM products for sole or multiple major stroke risk factors are warranted.

  18. Heavy metal and pesticide content in commonly prescribed individual raw Chinese Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Harris, Eric S J; Cao, Shugeng; Littlefield, Bruce A; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Kaptchuk, Ted; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Woolf, Alan D; Eisenberg, David M

    2011-09-15

    Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues

  19. Identification of marker compounds in herbal drugs on TLC with DART-MS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Jee, Eun Hye; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Choi, Hyo Sook; Jang, Young Pyo

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to provide a more versatile and specific information on Thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) analysis of medicinal plants. TLC plates developed with the extract of herbal medicines were analyzed with direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source. Three well known herbal drugs were extracted and developed on a silica-coated TLC plate with the conditions pre-established in Korean Pharmacopoeia IX. The developed plate was placed between the DART ion source and TOF-MS analyzer to get real time mass spectra from the bands on the TLC plate directly. The marker coumarin compounds, decursin and decursinol were successfully identified from the TLC plate developed with Angelicae gigantis radix, along with alkaloid compounds of rutaecarpine and evodiamine from Evodiae fructus, and lignan molecules of gomisin A, N, and schisandrin from Schisandrae fructus. This hyphenation system of TLC and DART-MS could provide unique and specific information on the major constituents of crude plant drug on TLC through uncovering high resolution mass number of each band on the TLC plate directly in real time.

  20. Novel spectrofluorimetric method for boldine alkaloid determination in herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Cecilia M.; Henestrosa, Cecilia; Gil, Raúl A.; Fernández, Liliana P.; Acosta, Gimena

    2017-09-01

    A new green on-line method for Boldine determination (BOL) in herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals, using its native fluorescence in acid media (λex = 282 nm; λem = 373 nm) has been developed. The presented methodology involves for the first time, a flow injection (FI) strategy using a mini-column of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as retention agent coupled with molecular fluorescence. Different parameters influence as sample pH and flow rate, eluent flow rate and composition; on BOL sensitivity and elution time was investigated by multifactorial techniques. Adequate dynamic calibration range (r2 = 0.9993) was obtained over a concentration interval of 0.029-27.0 μg mL- 1 BOL. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.008 and 0.029 μg mL- 1, respectively. The average recoveries in explored samples ranged from 95% to 103%. Under optimized conditions, the throughput sample as high as 30 h- 1 was achieved with high repeatability performance (99%). The proposed development represents a useful and valuable tool emulating the analytical efficiency of the official methodologies for quality control of herbal and phytopharmaceutical drugs containing BOL. Moreover, this approach shows advantages respect to low cost, simplicity and environmental and analyst friendly.

  1. Novel spectrofluorimetric method for boldine alkaloid determination in herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Cecilia M; Henestrosa, Cecilia; Gil, Raúl A; Fernández, Liliana P; Acosta, Gimena

    2017-09-05

    A new green on-line method for Boldine determination (BOL) in herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals, using its native fluorescence in acid media (λex=282nm; λem=373nm) has been developed. The presented methodology involves for the first time, a flow injection (FI) strategy using a mini-column of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as retention agent coupled with molecular fluorescence. Different parameters influence as sample pH and flow rate, eluent flow rate and composition; on BOL sensitivity and elution time was investigated by multifactorial techniques. Adequate dynamic calibration range (r(2)=0.9993) was obtained over a concentration interval of 0.029-27.0μgmL(-1) BOL. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.008 and 0.029μgmL(-1), respectively. The average recoveries in explored samples ranged from 95% to 103%. Under optimized conditions, the throughput sample as high as 30h(-1) was achieved with high repeatability performance (99%). The proposed development represents a useful and valuable tool emulating the analytical efficiency of the official methodologies for quality control of herbal and phytopharmaceutical drugs containing BOL. Moreover, this approach shows advantages respect to low cost, simplicity and environmental and analyst friendly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Determination of Total Sulfur Dioxide in Chinese Herbal Medicines via Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-wei; Liu, Jing-fu; Guan, Hong; Wang, Xiao-yan; Shag, Bing; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Li-ping; Zhang, Ni-na

    2016-02-01

    As an important treatment method, sulfur fumigation plays an essential role in the production and preservation of traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Although there is strict regulation on the use of sulfur dioxide, the abuse of sulfur dioxide still occurred from time to time. And the public faces a high risk of exposure. Because of the poor precision and tedious preparation procedures of traditional recommended titration, the accurate and convenient determination of sulfur dioxide in Chinese herbal medicines is still a critical analytical task for medicines safety and the public health. In this study, an accurate, high-throughput, and convenient method for the absolute determination of SO₂ in Chinese herbal medicines based on triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) technique is developed. The study compared the quantitative ability for sulfur when the ICP-MS operated under traditional single quadrupole (QMS) mode and novel triple quadrupole (MS/MS) mode with three Reaction/Collision cell condition (no gas, helium, and oxygen). The result indicated that when the concentration of sulfate ranging from 0.5 to 100 mg · L⁻¹, isotopic ³⁴S can be selected as quantitative ion either the ICP-MS operated under the QMS mode or MS/MS mode. The use of helium in the Reaction/Collision cell decreased the single intensity of background ions. Better than QMS mode, the MS/MS mode can effectively reduced background interference. But there are no significant differences about the linear range and limit of detection. However, when the ICP-MS operated under MS/MS mode and oxygen was used as reaction gas in the Reaction/Collision cell, the ICP-MS/MS provided an interference-free performance, the linear range and limit of detection improved significantly. Either ³²S or ³⁴S exhibits an excellent linearity (r > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.02-100 mg · L⁻¹, with a limit of detection of 5.48 and 9.76 µg · L⁻¹ for

  3. Updated clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaojia; Shergis, Johannah Linda; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Li, Yan; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-12-01

    This systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for people with insomnia. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating oral CHM alone or in combination with conventional therapies for primary insomnia were identified by searching English and Chinese publications and databases of clinical trial registration. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2.4. Seventy-nine trials (7886 participants) were finally included in the review, and 76 were included in the meta-analysis. Twenty-seven trials reported the methods of random sequence generation, and five of them used the allocation concealment. Blinding of participants and personnel were used in 10 studies. The main meta-analysis showed that CHM alone was more effective than placebo by reducing scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (mean difference, MD: -3.06, 95% confidence interval, CI: -5.14 to -0.98, I(2) = 97%) and benzodiazepine drugs (BZDs) (MD: -1.94, 95% CI: -2.45 to -1.43, I(2) = 96%). The effect was also seen when CHM was combined with BZDs compared with placebo plus BZDs (MD: -1.88, 95% CI: -2.78 to -0.97, I(2) = 0%) or cognitive and behavioral therapy (MD: -3.80, 95% CI: -4.91 to -2.68, I(2) = 68%) alone. There was no significant difference between CHM and placebo regarding the frequency of adverse events (relative risk, RR: 1.65, 95% CI: 0.67-4.10, I(2) = 0). Overall, oral CHM used as a monotherapy or as an adjunct to conventional therapies appears safe, and it may improve subjective sleep in people with insomnia. However, the typical effect of CHM for insomnia cannot be determined due to heterogeneity. Further study focusing on individual CHM formula for insomnia is needed. The development of a comparable placebo is also needed to improve the successful blinding in RCTs.

  4. Bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicine enhance endogenous neurogenesis in animal models of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Huang; Chen, Zi-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yan; Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Xia-Wei; Chen, Shuang; Lu, Lin; Gu, Yong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to treat stroke for thousands of years. The objective of the study is to assess the current evidence for bioactive components of CHM as neurogenesis agent in animal models of ischemic stroke. Methods: We searched PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Database, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals published from the inception up to November 2015. The primary measured outcome was one of neurogenesis biomarker, including Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Results: Thirty eligible studies were identified. The score of quality assessment ranged from 2 of 10 to 7 of 10. Compared with controls, 10 studies conducting neurobehavioral evaluation showed significant effects on bioactive components of CHM for improving neurological deficits score after ischemic insults (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); 6 studies in Morris water-maze test showed bioactive components of CHM significantly decreased escape latency and increased residence time (P < 0.05); 5 studies demonstrated that bioactive components of CHM significantly reduced infarct volume after ischemic stroke (P < 0.05); 25 of 26 studies showed that bioactive components of CHM significantly increased the expression of BrdU and/or Nestin markers in rats/mice brain after ischemic injury (P < 0.05, or P < 0.01); 4 of 5 studies for promoting the expression of PSA-NCAM or DCX biomarker (P < 0.05); 5 studies for improving the expression of NeuN biomarker (P < 0.05); 6 of 7 studies for promoting the expression of GFAP biomarker in brain after ischemic stroke (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that bioactive components of CHM may improve neurological function, reduce infarct volume, and promote endogenous neurogenesis, including

  5. Neuroprotective effect of a novel Chinese herbal decoction on cultured neurons and cerebral ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Ip, Fanny Chui-Fun; Zhao, Yu-Ming; Chan, Kim-Wan; Cheng, Elaine Yee-Ling; Tong, Estella Pui-Sze; Chandrashekar, Oormila; Fu, Guang-Miao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Ip, Nancy Yuk-Yu

    2016-11-04

    Historically, traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used to treat stroke. Based on the theory of Chinese medicine and the modern pharmacological knowledge of herbal medicines, we have designed a neuroprotective formula called Post-Stroke Rehabilitation (PSR), comprising seven herbs - Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Cassia obtusifolia L., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. We aim to examine the neuroprotective activity of PSR in vitro and in vivo, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, to better understand its therapeutic effect and to further optimize its efficacy. PSR extract or vehicle was applied to primary rat neurons to examine their survival effects against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-elicited excitotoxicity. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was conducted to examine the NMDA-induced current in the presence of PSR. ERK- and CREB-activation were revealed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, PSR was tested for CRE promoter activation in neurons transfected with a luciferase reporter. The protective effect of PSR was then studied in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. MCAO rats were either treated with PSR extract or vehicle, and their neurobehavioral deficit and cerebral infarct were evaluated. Statistical differences were analyzed by ANOVA or t-test. PSR prominently reduced the death of cultured neurons caused by NMDA excitotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, indicating its neuroprotective property. Furthermore, PSR significantly reduced NMDA-evoked current reversibly and activated phosphorylation of ERK and CREB with distinct time courses, with the latter's kinetics slower. PSR also triggered CRE-promoter activity as revealed by the increased expression of luciferase reporter in transfected neurons. PSR effectively reduced cerebral infarct and deficit in neurological behavior in MCAO rats when PSR

  6. Chinese herbal medicine granules (PTQX) for children with moderate to severe atopic eczema: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sherman X; Zhang, Anthony L; Coyle, Meaghan E; Mo, Xiumei; Lenon, George B; Cranswick, Noel E; Chen, DaCan; Xue, Charlie C

    2015-07-07

    Atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Current conventional medical treatment for moderate and severe atopic eczema is not satisfactory. There is promising evidence derived from randomised clinical trials to support the clinical use of Chinese herbal medicine in the management of atopic eczema. However, the available evidence is compromised by the high risk of bias associated with most of the included trials. Therefore, well-designed and adequately powered randomised clinical trials are needed. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral ingestion of an oral Chinese herbal formula (Pei Tu Qing Xin granules; PTQX) in children aged between 6 and 16 years with moderate to severe atopic eczema. We have designed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm, parallel clinical trial with 12 weeks of treatment and a 4-week follow-up period. A pilot study with 30 participants will be conducted at the RMIT University in Australia to determine the feasibility of the full-scale randomised clinical trial (N = 124). Eczema Area and Severity Index score will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcome measures include change in symptoms using the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure, the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index and the use of concomitant medicines. Safety parameters include report of adverse events and pathology tests during the trial period. Key elements for conducting a high-quality randomised clinical trial have been addressed in this protocol. Findings from the proposed trial will provide critical evidence regarding Chinese herbal medicine treatment for atopic eczema. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ACTRN12614001172695. Date of Registration: 7 November 2014.

  7. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  8. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects

  9. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus

  10. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2010-07-07

    Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects.Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in

  11. Clinical presentations and outcomes of bile duct loss caused by drugs and herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Kleiner, David E; Gu, Jiezhun; Odin, Joseph A; Russo, Mark W; Navarro, Victor M; Fontana, Robert J; Ghabril, Marwan S; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-04-01

    Bile duct loss during the course of drug-induced liver injury is uncommon, but can be an indication of vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS). In this work, we assess the frequency, causes, clinical features, and outcomes of cases of drug-induced liver injury with histologically proven bile duct loss. All cases of drug-induced liver injury enrolled into a prospective database over a 10-year period that had undergone liver biopsies (n = 363) were scored for the presence of bile duct loss and assessed for clinical and laboratory features, causes, and outcomes. Twenty-six of the 363 patients (7%) with drug-, herbal-, or dietary-supplement-associated liver injury had bile duct loss on liver biopsy, which was moderate to severe (<50% of portal areas with bile ducts) in 14 and mild (50%-75%) in 12. The presenting clinical features of the 26 cases varied, but the most common clinical pattern was a severe cholestatic hepatitis. The implicated agents included amoxicillin/clavulanate (n = 3), temozolomide (n = 3), various herbal products (n = 3), azithromycin (n = 2), and 15 other medications or dietary supplements. Compared to those without, those with bile duct loss were more likely to develop chronic liver injury (94% vs. 47%), which was usually cholestatic and sometimes severe. Five patients died and 2 others underwent liver transplantation for progressive cholestasis despite treatment with corticosteroids and ursodiol. The most predictive factor of poor outcome was the degree of bile duct loss on liver biopsy. Bile duct loss during acute cholestatic hepatitis is an ominous early indicator of possible VBDS, for which at present there are no known means of prevention or therapy. (Hepatology 2017;65:1267-1277). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity and Prevention by Herbal Antioxidants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Cho, William C.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the center for drug and xenobiotic metabolism, which is influenced most with medication/xenobiotic-mediated toxic activity. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is common and its actual frequency is hard to determine due to underreporting, difficulties in detection or diagnosis, and incomplete observation of exposure. The death rate is high, up to about 10% for drug-induced liver damage. Endorsed medications represented >50% of instances of intense liver failure in a study from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group of the patients admitted in 17 US healing facilities. Albeit different studies are accessible uncovering the mechanistic aspects of medication prompted hepatotoxicity, we are in the dilemma about the virtual story. The expanding prevalence and effectiveness of Ayurveda and natural products in the treatment of various disorders led the investigators to look into their potential in countering drug-induced liver toxicity. Several natural products have been reported to date to mitigate the drug-induced toxicity. The dietary nature and less adverse reactions of the natural products provide them an extra edge over other candidates of supplementary medication. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism involved in drug-induced liver toxicity and the potential of herbal antioxidants as supplementary medication. PMID:26858648

  13. Mass spectrometry-driven drug discovery for development of herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2016-12-23

    Herbal medicine (HM) has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with regard to identifying products compounds. Currently, more attention has been focused on drug discovery from natural compounds of HM. Despite the rapid advancement of modern analytical techniques, drug discovery is still a difficult and lengthy process. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) can provide us with useful structural information for drug discovery, has been recognized as a sensitive, rapid, and high-throughput technology for advancing drug discovery from HM in the post-genomic era. It is essential to develop an efficient, high-quality, high-throughput screening method integrated with an MS platform for early screening of candidate drug molecules from natural products. We have developed a new chinmedomics strategy reliant on MS that is capable of capturing the candidate molecules, facilitating their identification of novel chemical structures in the early phase; chinmedomics-guided natural product discovery based on MS may provide an effective tool that addresses challenges in early screening of effective constituents of herbs against disease. This critical review covers the use of MS with related techniques and methodologies for natural product discovery, biomarker identification, and determination of mechanisms of action. It also highlights high-throughput chinmedomics screening methods suitable for lead compound discovery illustrated by recent successes.

  14. Salmonella typhimurium A1-R tumor targeting in immunocompetent mice is enhanced by a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Su, Shibing; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a bacterial cancer therapy strategy using the genetically-engineered strain Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). A1-R is auxotrophic for leu and arg which attenuates bacterial growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human and murine cancer cell lines in clinically-relevant nude-mouse models. However, A1-R treatment of tumors in immunocompetent mouse models with high doses is limited by toxicity. The current study evaluated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture in combination with A1-R therapy in a syngeneic metastatic immunocompetent mouse model of highly aggressive lung cancer. In a model of Lewis lung carcinoma, the combination of a TCM herbal mixture and S. typhimurium A1-R enabled bacteria to be safely administered at the large dose of 2 × 10(7) colony forming units once a week i.v. with increased treatment efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to monotherapy with A1-R. The herbal mixture prevented body weight loss, spleen weight gain and liver infection by A1-R, as well as hemorrhagic lesions on the skin, liver, and spleen, all observed with A1-R monotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that the combination of A1-R and TCM has important potential for therapy of highly aggressive types of cancer, including those which are resistant to standard therapy.

  15. A case of unilateral pleural effusion secondary to congestive heart failure successfully treated with traditional Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Dao; Chiu, Hsien-Hsueh Elley

    2012-05-01

    A case is presented that illustrates the potential effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulas on treatment for unilateral pleural effusion secondary to congestive heart failure (CHF). A 79-year-old woman experienced episodic dyspnea with unilateral pleural effusion for 2 years. Thoracocentesis with pleural fluid analysis revealed no infection, tuberculosis, or malignancy. She had received conventional treatment for CHF but the symptoms persisted. Therefore, she visited the authors' TCM clinic for help. This patient was treated with TCM herbal granules including Shengmaisan, Xiebaisan, and Tinglizi, 3 times a day for 4 weeks. The daily dosage was adjusted on the basis of the patient's clinical response and her follow-up chest x-ray studies. After 8 months of treatment, her symptoms improved and the pleural effusion showed significant regression. It is suggested that TCM herbal formulas could play an important role in preventing the progression of unilateral pleural effusion secondary to CHF, in case of poor response to conservative treatment. Additional studies about the mechanism of action of the medication involved are warranted.

  16. The In Vitro and In Vivo Wound Healing Properties of the Chinese Herbal Medicine “Jinchuang Ointment”

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tsung-Jung; Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Lin, Guang-Huey; Li, Tzong Shiun; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yang, Jai-Sing; Hsieh, Ming-Chuan; Wu, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Hao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    “Jinchuang ointment” is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex for treatment of incised wounds. For more than ten years, it has been used at China Medical University Hospital (Taichung, Taiwan) for the treatment of diabetic foot infections and decubitus ulcers. Three different cases are presented in this study. “Jinchuang” ointment is a mixture of natural product complexes from nine different components, making it difficult to analyze its exact chemical compositions. To further characterize the herbal ingredients used in this study, the contents of reference standards present in a subset of the ointment ingredients (dragon's blood, catechu, frankincense, and myrrh) were determined by HPLC. Two in vitro cell based assay platforms, wound healing and tube formation, were used to examine the biological activity of this medicine. Our results show that this herbal medicine possesses strong activities including stimulation of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell migration, which provide the scientific basis for its clinically observed curative effects on nonhealing diabetic wounds. PMID:27200097

  17. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tohru; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sassa, Shuji; Nomura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2007-01-19

    Chinese herbal medicines, Inchinko-to, Bofu-tsusho-san and Dai-saiko-to, containing 3, 18 and 8 components, respectively, have since long been used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, choleretic and diuretic agent for liver disorders and jaundice, as an anti-obesity agent, a hypocholesterolemic agent for liver disorders and a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for cholesterol gallstone disease with hypertriglycerid-emia in China and Japan, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these three herbal medicines in young male mice fed a high-fat diet. Plasma levels of lipids and the numbers of the fatty droplets in the liver cytoplasm were markedly lowered by the diets supplemented with three herbal medicines. The liver weights and the body growth were reduced by the diet supplemented with Dai-saiko-to, which slightly affected the concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine or calcium, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Thus, Dai-saiko-to, besides Bofu-tsusho-san, seems effective in the activities of anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperlipids in liver cytoplasm, when used carefully.

  18. [Wood creosote: a historical study and its preparation in combination with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Tani, T

    2001-01-01

    Two kinds of creosote have been found based on historical evidence of the medicinal uses and origins. One is wood creosote, and distillate of wood-tar containing guaiacol and creosol. The other type of creosote is coal-tar creosote, obtained from coal-tar, containing naphthalene and anthracene as the major constituents. Wood creosote was prepared for the first time in Germany in 1830 and was used for medicinal purposes. It had been listed officially in the German, American, and Japanese Pharmacopoeia as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, diarrhea, and external injury. In recent days, it has been deleted from the Pharmacopoeia in Western countries and not officially used for medicinal purposes. However, wood creosote is still been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia and is used for the treatment of diarrhea. Since the interest of common people in herbal medicines and self-medication has been increasing, the use of wood creosote has also been modified in combination with some herbal drugs, "Seiro-gan" especially is quite popular in Japan as a self-medication for digestive trouble, including food poisoning or diarrhea.

  19. Rational quality assessment procedure for less-investigated herbal medicines: Case of a Congolese antimalarial drug with an analytical report.

    PubMed

    Tshitenge, Dieudonné Tshitenge; Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Lami, José Nzunzu; Ndelo-di-Phanzu, Josaphat; Mufusama, Jean-Pierre Koy Sita; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Herbal medicines are the most globally used type of medical drugs. Their high cultural acceptability is due to the experienced safety and efficiency over centuries of use. Many of them are still phytochemically less-investigated, and are used without standardization or quality control. Choosing SIROP KILMA, an authorized Congolese antimalarial phytomedicine, as a model case, our study describes an interdisciplinary approach for a rational quality assessment of herbal drugs in general. It combines an authentication step of the herbal remedy prior to any fingerprinting, the isolation of the major constituents, the development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical method with internal markers, and the application of the method to several batches of the herbal medicine (here KILMA) thus permitting the establishment of a quantitative fingerprint. From the constitutive plants of KILMA, acteoside, isoacteoside, stachannin A, and pectolinarigenin-7-O-glucoside were isolated, and acteoside was used as the prime marker for the validation of an analytical method. This study contributes to the efforts of the WHO for the establishment of standards enabling the analytical evaluation of herbal materials. Moreover, the paper describes the first phytochemical and analytical report on a marketed Congolese phytomedicine.

  20. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Kong, X F; Yin, Y L; He, Q H; Yin, F G; Liu, H J; Li, T J; Huang, R L; Geng, M M; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z Y; Xie, M Y; Wu, G

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or 2 g/kg of the powder, or 0.2 g/kg of colistin (an antibiotic) to corn- and soybean meal-based diets (n = 20 per group). Blood samples from five piglets per group were collected on days 7, 14, and 28 to determine serum AA concentrations. In Experiment 2, 12 barrows with an average initial body weight of 7.64 kg were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments, followed by surgical placement of a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. All of the diets contained 0.1% titanium oxide as a digestibility marker. The samples of terminal ileal digesta were collected on day 7 for determining AID of AA. Results show that dietary supplementation with the herbal powder increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations and AID of most AA by 10-50% and 10-16%, respectively. As an indicator of improved intestinal function, AID values of calcium were also enhanced in piglets supplemented with the herbal powder. Dietary supplementation of colistin increased serum concentrations and AID values of some AA by 8-44% and 10-15%, respectively, in comparison with the non-supplemented group. These novel findings demonstrate that the herbal powder can enhance the digestibility of dietary protein and the intestinal absorption of AA into the systemic circulation in post-weaning pigs, therefore providing a new mechanism for its growth- and immunity-promoting efficacy.

  1. Concurrent use of prescription drugs and herbal medicinal products in older adults: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Agbabiaka, Taofikat; Wider, Barbara; Watson, Leala Kay; Goodman, Claire

    2016-04-21

    There has been a global increase in the use of herbal medicinal products (HMPs). About a quarter of UK adults use HMPs, bought over the counter by self-prescription and often not disclosed to healthcare professionals. Potential herb-drug interaction is a clinical concern, with older people at greater risk because of co-morbidities and slower clearance of pharmacologically active compounds. While there is a good understanding of general herbal medicine use by older people, less is known about the extent and implications of concurrent use with prescription medicines. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the prevalence, patterns, safety issues and other factors associated with concurrent prescription and herbal medicines use among older adults. Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Web of Science and Cochrane from inception till present for studies reporting the concurrent use of prescription medicines with HMPs in older adults (≥65 years). Lateral searching via related citation (PubMed) and checking reference lists of identified studies will be performed. Two reviewers will independently screen studies, extract data and appraise methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for prevalence data and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Qualitative and quantitative studies from all settings will be included. Non-empirical papers, in vitro experiments and animal studies will be excluded. Primary outcomes are prevalence and patterns of concurrent use, number and types of prescription and HMPs and adverse reactions reported. Secondary outcomes are disclosure of HMP use to healthcare professionals and cost of HMPs. A narrative synthesis of included studies will be performed to summarise the evidence. This review will synthesise and critically appraise

  2. Exploring in integrated quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines: the integrated quality index (IQI) for aconite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Wang, Jia-bo; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-07-01

    Good medicinal herbs, good drugs. Good evaluation method and indices are the prerequisite of good medicinal herbs. However, there exist numerous indices for quality evaluation and control in Chinese medicinal materials. However, most of these indices are non-interrelated each other, as well as having little relationship with efficiency and safety. The results of different evaluatior methods may not be consistent, even contradictory. Considering the complex material properties of Chinese medicinal materials, single method and index is difficult to objectively and comprehensively reflect the quality. Therefore, it is essential to explore the integrated evaluation methods. In this paper, oriented by the integrated evaluation strategies for traditional Chinese medicine quality, a new method called integrated quality index (IQI) by the integration of empirical evaluation, chemical evaluation, and biological evaluation was proposed. In addition, a study case of hypertoxic herb Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. was provided to explain this method in detail. The results suggested that in the view of specifications, the average weight of Jiangyou aconite was the greatest, followed by Weishan aconite, Butuo aconite, Hanzhong aconite, and Anxian aconite; from the point of chemical components, Jiangyou aconite had the characteristic with strong efficacy and weak toxicity, next was Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite; taking toxicity price as the index, Hanzhong aconite and Jiangyou aconite have the lower toxicity, while Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite have the relatively higher one. After the normalization and integration of evaluation results, we calculated the IQI value of Jiangyou aconite, Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite were 0.842 +/- 0.091, 0.597 +/- 0.047, 0.442 +/- 0.033, 0.454 +/- 0.038, 0.170 +/- 0.021, respectively. The quality of Jiangyou aconite is significantly better than the

  3. Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang from a Molecula