Science.gov

Sample records for drum type hydraulic

  1. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  2. Drum dispersion equation for Littrow-type prism spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Sidran, M; Stalzer, H J; Hauptman, M H

    1966-07-01

    A simple analytic procedure has been developed for calibrating the wavelength drum of a Littrow-type prism spectrometer. Only three measured drum readings are required to specify the drum calibration over a broad wavelength range (uv to ir) with an accuracy of the order of the instrumental accuracy. This procedure can be applied to different prism materials for which measurements of refractive index have been performed. It is based on an approximate expression, derived from geometrical optics, relating the drum reading D(lambda) to the calculated refractive index n(lambda): D= A - B(a(2) - n(2))((1/2)). The index n(lambda) is calculated from the appropriate parametric equation. The temperature for the n(lambda) values need not be exactly that of the prism temperature during measurements. This expression was investigated for wavelengths in the range 0.3 micro to 2.25 micro using a sodium chloride prism. Computed drum positions D agreed with measured drum positions to within experimental error. Unknown wavelengths were computed from their measured drum positions to within the accuracy of the measurements.

  3. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  4. Numerical Studies on Time-Varying Stiffness of Disk-Drum Type Rotor with Bolt Loosening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhaoye; Chu, Fulei

    2015-07-01

    Disk-drum type rotors are widely used in industry for their high stiffness and low weight properties. In disk-drum type rotors, the adjacent disks and drums are commonly connected by bolted joints. Those rotating joint interfaces are subjected to numerous combinations of loads during normal operation, where loosening of the connecting bolts might occur. The bolt loosening will change the local stiffness of the rotor, which in turn affect the rotor dynamics and even result in structural failures. In this paper, the local stiffness of a disk- drum rotor with bolt loosening is investigated numerically. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for the bolted disk-drum joint is established in ANSYS, where the bolt loosening is simulated by reducing the preloads of certain bolts, and removing those bolts as the limiting case. Simulations are performed on the FE model to evaluate the joint behaviour under static loads. Periodic variations of the joint deflections with respect to the rotation angle of the shaft are obtained, which implies the appearance of the time-varying local stiffness in the rotor system. The studies in this paper help accurate prediction of the rotor dynamics and early detection of bolt loosening.

  5. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

  6. Waste drum refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-10-18

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

  7. ORNL testing of DOT specification 17H drums (55-gallon) for compliance with DOT specifications for Type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.S.; Lasher, L.C.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) proposes using Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 17H drums (55-gal) for transporting low-level waste (LLW) to Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) for interim storage. This container type was tested and found to be in compliance with DOT specifications for Type A packaging.

  8. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  9. Characterization of a water pump for drum-type washing machine by vibration power approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, YongHwa; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2015-03-01

    Water pumps used in drum-type washing machines to save water are likely to make the washing process noisier than the one without those because the water pumps attached usually onto cabinet structure work as additional vibration and noise sources. In order to either counteract such vibration and noise problems by stiffness design of the cabinet structure or classify the water pumps from the view point of an acceptance test, characterization of the water pumps as excitation sources would be essential. In this paper, several methods to characterize a water pump as an excitation source are investigated. Measurements by traditional methods of blocked force and/or free velocity for a water pump of 35 W are presented. Two methods of vibration power suggested rather recently are reviewed. Then, another method of the vibration power is proposed. Estimations of the vibration power for the water pump operating on a beam structure are obtained and discussed comparatively.

  10. Star-type oscillatory networks with generic Kuramoto-type coupling: A model for "Japanese drums synchrony"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Pikovsky, Arkady; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze star-type networks of phase oscillators by virtue of two methods. For identical oscillators we adopt the Watanabe-Strogatz approach, which gives full analytical description of states, rotating with constant frequency. For nonidentical oscillators, such states can be obtained by virtue of the self-consistent approach in a parametric form. In this case stability analysis cannot be performed, however with the help of direct numerical simulations we show which solutions are stable and which not. We consider this system as a model for a drum orchestra, where we assume that the drummers follow the signal of the leader without listening to each other and the coupling parameters are determined by a geometrical organization of the orchestra.

  11. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  12. Final evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company, WRAP-1,208 liter waste drum, docket 94-35-7A, type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) Drum. The WRAP-1 Drum was tested for DOE-HQ in August 1994, by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under docket number 94-35-7A. Additionally, comparison and evaluation of the approved, as-tested packaging configuration was performed by WHC in September 1995. The WRAP-1 Drum was evaluated against the performance of the DOT-17C, 208 1 (55-gal) steel drums tested and evaluated under dockets 89-13-7A/90-18-7A and 94-37-7A.

  13. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  14. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.

    Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

  15. Reference drums used in calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in a 4π counting geometry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, two kinds of reference drums were developed. One type was constructed with nine layers of large-area sources filled with different materials having five different densities. The other type of reference drums was constructed with nine rod sources filled with the same materials of different densities. The efficiency calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in 4π counting geometry using these two kinds of drums showed that rod-source drums resulted in higher counting efficiency than layered source drums. The counting rates obtained from rod-source drums were closer to those obtained from a standard drum with water solution than counting rates from drums with layered sources. The results of this study recommend to use reference drums with rod-sources to compensate the drawbacks of standard drums with water solution of not being able to adjust the density of material. The proposed reference drums improve the accuracy of radioactivity analysis for waste drums of different densities.

  16. Simple Non-regenerative Deceleration Control of Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motor for Vibration Control in Drum-type Washer/Dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomigashi, Yoshio; Okonogi, Akira; Kishimoto, Keiji

    Drum-type washer/dryers are becoming more common in Japan, but the vibration created by unequally distributed clothes is a significant problem in this type of machine. We have developed a vibration control that prevents this imbalance by re-arranging the balancer fluid on the opposite side of the heavier distribution when there is unequal distribution. The drum, which has a large inertia, must be decelerated rapidly to enable the balancer fluid to shift. When a permanent magnetic synchronous motor is decelerated using an inverter, the machine's energy is converted into electrical energy, which regenerates the power supply. A control method has been developed that adjusts the input power of the motor to zero, thereby eliminating the need for a discharge circuit. However, it is not easy to achieve this method with an inexpensive microcomputer. In this paper, a practical braking method in which energy does not regenerate the power supply is examined. First, a simple method in which non-regenerative braking is possible with low input power is proposed, even though the input power is not zero. The effectiveness of this non-regenerative deceleration control is verified by theoretical numerical analysis and by an experiment. The borderline of the voltage vector for the non-generative braking is affected by dead time, and the experimental results differ from the theoretically calculated results. However, it is experimentally confirmed that the proposed non-regenerative deceleration control can be achieved by correcting the impressed voltage vector based on experimental results. Finally, this control is applied to the vibration control of the drum-type washer/dryer, and it is confirmed that the balancer fluid moves as designed.

  17. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  18. A New Type of Hydraulic Actuator Using Electrorheological Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Eckhard; Büsing, Klaus W.

    Electrorheological Fluids (ERF) are usually used in semi active damping elements, e.g. shock absorbers or engine mounts because of their continuously controllable shear stress. A totally new field of application may be achieved, if an ERF is used as a hydraulic fluid and not only as a control medium. In this case a fundamental need is the capability to produce a volume flow by using normal hydraulic pumps, e.g. gear pumps. The ERF and the hydraulic components both must have a long lifetime without unusual wear. Bayer AG has developed an ERF based on soft crosslinked PU-particles dispersed in silicone oil. These ERF are characterised by a low basic viscosity, a high ER-effect and a moderate conductivity. Compared with previous ERF where hard inorganic particles were used, the new fluid is not abrasive. It is foremostly this characteristic which gives the possibility of using the ERF in hydraulic systems with high shear rates and high shear stresses. The usage of ERF as hydraulic fluid allows the construction of proportional valves without mechanically driven parts. The control of the pressure drop over the valves is realised directly by an electrical signal. It is possible to realise actuators with very fast response times since the reaction time of ERF is within milliseconds. For demonstration purpose Bayer AG has built an actuator which is controlled by an electrorheological valve-block. The calculation of the dimension of this actuator and the valves will be shown and the realised response time will be demonstrated.

  19. 30 CFR 35.4 - Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.4 Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be...

  20. 30 CFR 35.4 - Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.4 Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be...

  1. 30 CFR 35.4 - Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.4 Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be...

  2. 30 CFR 35.4 - Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.4 Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be...

  3. 30 CFR 35.4 - Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.4 Types of hydraulic fluid for which certificates of approval may be...

  4. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  5. Drum lid removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  6. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  7. The Dependence of Peat Soil Hydraulic Conductivity on Dominant Vegetation Type in Mountain Fens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, A. C.; Ronayne, M. J.; Cooper, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The peat soil within fen wetlands provides water storage that can substantially influence the hydrology of mountain watersheds. In this study, we investigated the relationship between hydraulic conductivity and vegetation type for fens occurring in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Vegetation in RMNP fens can be dominated by woody plants and shrubs, such as willows; by mosses; or by herbaceous plants such as sedges. Fens dominated by each vegetation type were selected for study. Six fens were investigated, all of which are in the Colorado River watershed on the west side of RMNP. For each site, soil hydraulic conductivity was measured at multiple locations using a single-ring infiltrometer. As a result of the shallow water table in these fens (the water table was always within 10 cm of the surface), horizontal hydraulic gradients were produced during the field tests. The measured infiltration rates were analyzed using the numerical model HYDRUS. In order to determine the hydraulic conductivity, a parameter estimation problem was solved using HYDRUS as the forward simulator. Horizontal flow was explicitly accounted for in the model. This approach produced more accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity than would be obtained using an analytical solution that assumes strictly vertical flow. Significant differences in hydraulic properties between fens appear to result at least in part from the effects of different dominant vegetation types on peat soil formation.

  8. Improvement of Algorithms for Pressure Maintenance Systems in Drum-Separators of RBMK-1000 Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksakov, A. N. Yankovskiy, K. I.; Dunaev, V. I.; Kushbasov, A. N.

    2015-05-15

    The main tasks and challenges for pressure regulation in the drum-separators of RBMK-1000 reactors are described. New approaches to constructing algorithms for pressure control in drum-separators by electro-hydraulic turbine control systems are discussed. Results are provided from tests of the operation of modernized pressure regulators during fast transients with reductions in reactor power.

  9. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  10. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  11. Rotating drum filter

    DOEpatents

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  12. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  13. Payload Specific Evaluation for Concrete Lined Drums in the Standard Waste Box

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, P.G.

    2002-07-11

    Building 327 uses concrete-lined drums for handling waste generated from deactivation activities. This payload-specific evaluation assesses the shipment of these concrete-lined drums, as well as future drums, in the Standard Waste Box, certified Type A.

  14. CONVERGING PATTERNS OF UPTAKE AND HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION OF SOIL WATER IN CONTRASTING WOODY VEGETATION TYPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used concurrent measurements of soil water content and soil water potential (Ysoil) to assess the effects of Ysoil on uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by roots during seasonal drought cycles in six sites characterized by different types and amounts of woo...

  15. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  16. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  17. Thermal sensing for characterizing the contents of waste storage drums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W. D.; Philipson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility to employ remote sensing for the characterization of the contents of liquid chemical waste storage drums. Philipson et al. (1981) had found that, when the air temperature is changing rapidly, differences in the thermal inertia of the drum contents can lead to detectable differences in the skin temperature of the drums. Thus, postsunset, airborne thermal remote sensing could potentially provide some level of discrimination among chemical storage drums. Discrimination should be possible among steel drums filled largely with: (1) aqueous solvents, (2) organic solvents, or (3) clay packing materials. The response of a drum filled with clay packing materials should be similar to that of an empty drum. The reported study had the objective to verify the theoretical findings, taking into account the use of a hand-held infrared radiometer. It was found that under the proper conditions the temperature differences among drums with the three different types of contents will be significant and consistent.

  18. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  19. Renovation of Nmij's 5 MN Hydraulic Amplification Type Force Standard Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Maejima, Hiroshi; Ueda, Kazunaga; Aokitsu, Mitsuharu

    The 5 MN hydraulic amplification type force standard machine was renovated by replacing its hydraulic pressure control system, measuring ram and cylinder. For re-evaluation of uncertainty of force amplification factor, diameters of the main and mearsuring rams and cylinders were re-measured. A programmable logic controller with a personal computer is used to control the weight motion and the valve actuation, to monitor various kinds of sensors output, and to record readings of a force transducer under calibration. Fluctuation of calibration force was suppressed by using a quartz-resonance type pressure gauge, and measurement repeatability was improved to some extent. However, there remains room for improvement to further stabilize the calibration force by modifying the measuring ram.

  20. Histochemical and immunocytochemical identification of the pituitary cell types in three sciaenid fishes: Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Yan, H Y; Thomas, P

    1991-12-01

    The adenohypophysial cell types in three species of sciaenid teleosts were identified using a combination of classical histochemical techniques and immunocytochemistry with antisera raised against piscine and human pituitary hormones. In general greater specificity for the different cell types was observed with antisera to the piscine pituitary hormones than with antisera raised against the human hormones. The distribution of the cell types did not differ significantly among the three species, Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), and was similar to that reported in several other teleosts. A major portion of the rostral pars distalis was composed of acidophilic prolactin cells which showed specific binding to antisera to carp, coho salmon, and chinook salmon prolactins. The acidophilic corticotrops formed cords of cells which bordered the prolactin cells and showed strong immunoreactivity with anti-human ACTH. This antiserum also cross-reacted with the lead hematoxylin-positive cells in the pars intermedia. The acidophilic growth hormone cells were restricted to the dorsal part of the proximal pars distalis in close contact with the neurohypophysis and were specifically bound by anti-carp and anti-chum salmon growth hormone. The basophilic thyrotrops were located in the dorsal-anterior part of the proximal pars distalis and showed strong immunoreactivity to antiserum to the human thyrotropin beta subunit. This antiserum also bound weakly to the basophilic gonadotrops which were concentrated in the ventral part of the proximal pars distalis and also extended posteriorly to form a border around the pars intermedia. Antiserum to croaker maturational gonadotropin, which recognizes two distinct gonadotropins in sciaendis, bound strongly and specifically to the gonadotrops. The gonadotrops were also bound specifically by antisera to the alpha and beta subunits of human luteinizing hormone

  1. Superior Barrel & Drum, Elk Township, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Superior Barrel and Drum Superfund site is a 5.5-acre property located in Elk Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Superior Barrel and Drum is listed as a drum reconditioning business. These facilities typically clean and recondition metal

  2. Hydraulic Cushion” Type Overload Protection Devices Usable in Mechanical Presses. A Patent Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioară, R.

    2016-11-01

    The possible consequences of machine-tool overload are well-known. In order to prevent such, machine-tools are equipped with various overload protection devices. Mechanical presses, intensively strained machine-tools, are typically equipped with three protection systems: against accidental access to the working area during machine deployment, against torque overload and force overload. Force overload protection systems include either destructible parts and are used in small to medium nominal force mechanical presses, or non-destructible ones used mostly in medium to large nominal force (H-frame) presses. A particular class of force overload protection systems without destructible parts are “hydraulic cushion” type devices. While such systems do not necessarily cause the machine to stop, the slide's stroke does not reach the initial dead centre and consequently cannot exert the designed technological force on the workpiece. By a patent study referencing 19 relevant patents the paper captures both the diversity of the constrictive solutions of “hydraulic cushion” type protection devices and their positioning modalities within the structure of a mechanical press. An important aim of the study is to highlight the reserve of creativity existing in this field, at least from the viewpoint of the hydraulic cushion positioning, as well as to emphasize the essential requirement of a relative motion between the mobile and the fixed parts of the tool, a motion of opposite sense to that of the slide-crank mechanism.

  3. Hydraulic Transients in the Long Diversion-Type Hydropower Station with a Complex Differential Surge Tank

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of hydraulic transients and the method of characteristics (MOC), a mathematic model of the differential surge tank with pressure-reduction orifices (PROs) and overflow weirs for transient calculation is proposed. The numerical model of hydraulic transients is established using the data of a practical hydropower station; and the probable transients are simulated. The results show that successive load rejection is critical for calculating the maximum pressure in spiral case and the maximum rotating speed of runner when the bifurcated pipe is converging under the surge tank in a diversion-type hydropower station; the pressure difference between two sides of breast wall is large during transient conditions, and it would be more serious when simultaneous load rejections happen after load acceptance; the reasonable arrangement of PROs on breast wall can effectively decrease the pressure difference. PMID:25133213

  4. Hydraulic transients in the long diversion-type hydropower station with a complex differential surge tank.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of hydraulic transients and the method of characteristics (MOC), a mathematic model of the differential surge tank with pressure-reduction orifices (PROs) and overflow weirs for transient calculation is proposed. The numerical model of hydraulic transients is established using the data of a practical hydropower station; and the probable transients are simulated. The results show that successive load rejection is critical for calculating the maximum pressure in spiral case and the maximum rotating speed of runner when the bifurcated pipe is converging under the surge tank in a diversion-type hydropower station; the pressure difference between two sides of breast wall is large during transient conditions, and it would be more serious when simultaneous load rejections happen after load acceptance; the reasonable arrangement of PROs on breast wall can effectively decrease the pressure difference.

  5. Dynamics of mechanical feedback-type hydraulic servomotors under inertia loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, Harold; Otto, Edward W; Ransom, Victor L

    1953-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of mechanical feedback-type hydraulic servomotors under inertia loads is developed and experimental verification is presented. The analysis, which is developed in terms of two physical parameters, yields direct expressions for the following dynamic responses: (1) the transient response to a step input and the maximum cylinder pressure during the transient and (2) the variation of amplitude attenuation and phase shift with the frequency of a sinusoidally varying input. The validity of the analysis is demonstrated by means of recorded transient and frequency responses obtained on two servomotors. The calculated responses are in close agreement with the measured responses. The relations presented are readily applicable to the design as well as to the analysis of hydraulic servomotors.

  6. A comparison of the hydraulic efficiency of a palm species (Iriartea deltoidea) with other wood types.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Heidi J; McCulloh, Katherine A; Phillips, Nathan

    2013-02-01

    Palms are an important component of tropical ecosystems, living alongside dicotyledonous trees, even though they have a very different growth pattern and vascular system. As monocots, vessels in palms are located within vascular bundles and, without a vascular cambium that many dicotyledonous trees possess, palms cannot add additional vessels to their vascular system as they get older and taller. This means that hydraulic architecture in palms is more predetermined, which may require a highly efficient hydraulic system. This preset nature, along with the decoupling of hydraulic and mechanical functioning to different cell types, may allow palms to have a more efficient hydraulic system than dicotyledonous trees. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the efficiency of the hydraulic system in the palm Iriartea deltoidea (Ruiz & Pav.) and compare this efficiency with other tree forms. We measured cross-sectional areas of roots, stems and fronds as well as leaf areas of I. deltoidea saplings. Likewise, cross-sections were made and vessel diameters and frequencies measured. This allowed for the calculation of theoretical specific conductivity (K(S,calc)), theoretical leaf-specific conductivity (K(L,calc)), and vessel diameter and vessel number ratios between distal and proximal locations in the palms. Iriartea deltoidea palms were found to have the largest, least frequent vessels that diverged most from the square packing limit (maximum number of vessels that fit into a given area) compared with other major tree forms, and they therefore invested the least space and carbon into water transport structures. Likewise, conduits tapered by ∼1/3 between ranks (root, bole and petiole), which represents an efficient ratio with regard to the trade-offs between safety and efficiency of the conducting system. Conduits also exhibited a high conservation of the sum of the conduit radii cubed (Σr(3)) across ranks, thereby approximating Murray's law patterning. Therefore, our

  7. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  8. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  9. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  10. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  11. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

  12. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, H.E.

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  13. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E.

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  14. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  15. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  16. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG&G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured.

  17. Magnetic properties of unrusted steel drums from laboratory and field-magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ravat, D.

    1996-09-01

    Detection and precise location of buried ferromagnetic objects and estimation of the type and quantity of the objects are becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations worldwide. If laboratory-derived magnetizations were used to model steel drums, the models would under-estimate the resulting magnetic anomalies considerably and, in turn, would overestimate the number of buried drums at an environmental investigation site. Apparent bulk magnetization values for unrusted vertically oriented 55 and 30 gallon drums have been calculated (i.e., the values corrected for the effect of shape demagnetization of the drums). These range from {approximately}90 to {approximately}125 SI units for volume susceptibility and from {approximately} 325 to {approximately} 2,750 A/m for remanent magnetization (based on eight 55 gallon and four 30 gallon drums). Further deviations in these values could arise from the and thickness of the steel and variations in manufacturing conditions affecting magnetizations. From the point of view of modeling the drums, at most source-to-observation distances applicable to environmental investigations, the equivalent source method is able to approximate the observed anomalies of steel drums better than the 3-D modeling method. With two years of rusting, magnetic anomalies of some of the drums have reduced, while in other drums they have slightly increased. The overall magnetic changes caused by rusting appear to be more complex than anticipated, at least in the initial phase of rusting.

  18. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Drum at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault.

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, David J.; Vo, Duc Ta

    2016-11-03

    Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a type B drum Serial number R-1157 to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The Drum, R-1157, spectrum was analyzed using PeakEasy 4.84 and a visual look at the spectrum showed background radiation.

  19. Hand-Drumming to Build Community: The Story of the Whittier Drum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares the story of the Whittier Drum Project and how it succeeded. The Whittier Drum Project has brought the community together through the talents of youth and their dedication to drumming, and has used drumming to link professionals to their own communities. The author adapted the model to meet the therapeutic needs…

  20. Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus mortalities associated with Streptococcus iniae infection.

    PubMed

    Eldar, A; Perl, S; Frelier, P F; Bercovier, H

    1999-05-12

    We isolated for the first time Streptococcus iniae strains associated with diseased marine fish. Diseased red drum Sciaenops ocellatus were lethargic, and presented external signs (exophthalmia and loss of orientation) resembling those of freshwater fish infected by S. iniae. Skin lesions, extending to a necrotizing myositis, were typical of S. iniae infection of red drum. Histopathological findings indicate that S. iniae infection in red drum produces a chronic disease with systemic involvement characterized by multiple necrotic foci. Molecular epidemiology (RFLP [restriction fragment length polymorphism] ribotyping) revealed that 2 different ribotypes were involved in a single outbreak. The first is the EcoRI 'Israeli' trout and tilapine ribotype (Hind III type a strains), while the second is the EcoRI 'American' ribotype (Hind III type b strains), typical of tilapines farmed in Texas and Idaho.

  1. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  2. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  3. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1994-09-01

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers.

  4. Are leaves 'freewheelin'? Testing for a wheeler-type effect in leaf xylem hydraulic decline.

    PubMed

    Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2015-03-01

    A recent study found that cutting shoots under water while xylem was under tension (which has been the standard protocol for the past few decades) could produce artefactual embolisms inside the xylem, overestimating hydraulic vulnerability relative to shoots cut under water after relaxing xylem tension (Wheeler et al. 2013). That study also raised the possibility that such a 'Wheeler effect' might occur in studies of leaf hydraulic vulnerability. We tested for such an effect for four species by applying a modified vacuum pump method to leaves with minor veins severed, to construct leaf xylem hydraulic vulnerability curves. We tested for an impact on leaf xylem hydraulic conductance (Kx ) of cutting the petiole and minor veins under water for dehydrated leaves with xylem under tension compared with dehydrated leaves after previously relaxing xylem tension. Our results showed no significant 'cutting artefact' for leaf xylem. The lack of an effect for leaves could not be explained by narrower or shorter xylem conduits, and may be due to lesser mechanical stress imposed when cutting leaf petioles, and/or to rapid refilling of emboli in petioles. These findings provide the first validation of previous measurements of leaf hydraulic vulnerability against this potential artefact.

  5. Drum ring removal/installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Andrade, William Andrew

    2006-11-14

    A handheld tool, or a pair of such tools, such as for use in removing/installing a bolt-type clamping ring on a container barrel/drum, where the clamping ring has a pair of clamping ends each with a throughbore. Each tool has an elongated handle and an elongated lever arm transversely connected to one end of the handle. The lever arm is capable of being inserted into the throughbore of a selected clamping end and leveraged with the handle to exert a first moment on the selected clamping end. Each tool also has a second lever arm, such as a socket with an open-ended slot, which is suspended alongside the first lever arm. The second lever arm is capable of engaging the selected clamping end and being leveraged with the handle to exert a second moment which is orthogonal to the first moment. In this manner, the first and second moments operate to hold the selected clamping end fixed relative to the tool so that the selected clamping end may be controlled with the handle. The pair of clamping ends may also be simultaneously and independently controlled with the use of two handles/tools so as to contort the geometry of the drum clamping ring and enable its removal/installation.

  6. Fort Drum Miscellaneous Building Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ER D C/ CE R L SR -0 8 -2 Fort Drum Miscellaneous Building Survey Adam Smith and Sunny Stone February 2008 C on st ru ct io n E n...Miscellaneous Building Survey Adam Smith and Sunny Stone Construction Engineering Research Laboratory United States Army Engineer Research and...CERL). The CERL Project Manager was Mr. Adam Smith . Dr. Christopher White is Chief, CEERD-CN-C, and Dr. John Bandy is Chief, CEERD-CN. The Director

  7. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a fiber drum is 1G. (b) Construction requirements for fiber drums are as follows: (1) The body of the drum...

  8. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Joseph, B.J.; May, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes extensive full-scale and scale-model testing of 55-gallon drums used for shipping low-level radioactive waste materials. The tests conducted include static crush, single-can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full-, quarter-, and eighth-scale with different types of waste materials. The full-scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full-scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented. 83 figures, 9 tables.

  9. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  10. The design of a mechanical referencing system for the rear drum of the Longwall Shearer Coal Miner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. W.; Yang, T. C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design of two systems which reference the position of a longwall shearer coal miner to the mine roof of the present cut and of the last cut are presented. This system is part of an automation system that will guide the rear cutting drum in such a manner that the total depth of cut remains constant even though the front drum may be following an undulating roof profile. The rear drum referencing mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof to the floor for the present cut. This system provides a signal to control a constant depth of cut. The last cut follower mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof of the prior cut to the cutting drum. This latter system provides a signal to minimize the step height in the roof between cuts. The dynamic response of this hydraulic-pneumatic and mechanical system is analyzed to determine accumulator size and precharge pressure.

  11. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  16. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. Nondestructive assay of curium-contaminated transuranic waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Lynn A.

    1999-01-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste drums containing non-actinide scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of 244Cm prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of 244Cm. To discrimination between the plutonium and curium materials in the matrix, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A californium shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration, which is relatively insensitive to the 244Cm contamination. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  18. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, L.A.

    1998-11-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  19. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bodey, Isaac T

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel plate. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models are used for fluid dynamics and the transfer of heat from a thermal nuclear fuel plate using the Multi-physics code COMSOL. Simulation outcomes are compared with experimental data from the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop. The computational results for the High Flux Isotope Reactor core system provide a more physically accurate simulation of this system by modeling the turbulent flow field in conjunction with the diffusion of thermal energy within the solid and fluid phases of the model domain. Recommendations are made regarding Nusselt number correlations and material properties for future thermal hydraulic modeling efforts

  20. Hand-drumming to build community: the story of the Whittier Drum Project.

    PubMed

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    Over the years, the author participated in drum circles and classes in Denver, Fort Collins, and Boulder, Colorado. He noticed that drumming made him feel grounded and at peace. Drumming is very accessible, not like playing the piano or violin. Simple rhythms can be taught to people with no drumming experience very quickly and an ensemble rhythm created with a group in one sitting. Drumming turned out to be a highly effective way to engage with young people not only to address their individual spirits but to join with others to create a community.

  1. Drum plug piercing and sampling device and method

    DOEpatents

    Counts, Kevin T.

    2011-04-26

    An apparatus and method for piercing a drum plug of a drum in order to sample and/or vent gases that may accumulate in a space of the drum is provided. The drum is not damaged and can be reused since the pierced drum plug can be subsequently replaced. The apparatus includes a frame that is configured for engagement with the drum. A cylinder actuated by a fluid is mounted to the frame. A piercer is placed into communication with the cylinder so that actuation of the cylinder causes the piercer to move in a linear direction so that the piercer may puncture the drum plug of the drum.

  2. Comparison of Conventional Sprocket Drum and Sprocket Drum with Modified Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Seats in conventional sprocket drums are symmetrical. Due to the set general direction of sprocket drum revolutions resulting from the direction of rock transport, the wear of the seat bottoms and teeth flanks may be reduced by introducing the asymmetry of the profile of the sprocket drum seats. The proposed modification of sprocket drum seats' profile consists of inclining the seat bottom towards the expected direction of the basic drum revolutions. The work compares the loads on the seats and teeth of a conventional drum with its profile conforming to the standard to a modified drum with an asymmetric profile of seats. For the general direction of sprocket drum revolutions, the maximum values of all forces are higher for a standard drum than for a modified drum. The profile asymmetry substantially shortens the friction path of the horizontal link front torus on the seat bottom and relative total friction work on the seat bottom and lessens the occurrence probability of the slide of the horizontal link rear torus on the tooth flank. The modification of the profile causes also the asymmetric wear of link joints. The total relative friction work is considerably reduced in the front joint as compared to a conventional drum, and the total relative friction work in the rear joint is increasing at the same time.

  3. One-trip drum operating instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  4. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  5. Environmental policy -- A leaking drum?

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the US had virtually no overall environmental policy. Since then, one has evolved as a result of accumulated legislation, much of which was crafted in reaction to specific events, typically real or potential disasters. The familiar names of Love Canal, Times Beach, Bhopal and others are the symbolic anchor points of that evolution, which yielded Superfund, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, and other environmental statutes. The laws in each case were developed in response to particular environmental and health issues--clean water for drinking and recreation, unpolluted air, safe production of chemicals and chemical-based products. The result was a growing body of environmental legislation that eventually became an accumulate of requirements lacking internal consistency or coherence. Because policymaking followed, rather than guided, legislative actions, the policy itself became inconsistent and sometimes illogical. Like a drum that gradually and indiscriminately is filled with a mixture of mutually reactive chemicals, environmental policy increasingly became a volatile source of concern for those industries in whose midst it had been placed. Lately, there is growing consensus that the drum not only has been overfilled, it also is leaking.

  6. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J M

    2007-05-02

    fires in TRU waste facilities, the means of storage in which are the Type A, 55-gal drums.

  7. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  8. Energy expenditure in rock/pop drumming.

    PubMed

    De La Rue, S E; Draper, S B; Potter, C R; Smith, M S

    2013-10-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean±SD; age 27±8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate). During live concert performance heart rate was continuously measured and used to estimate energy expenditure (from the energy expenditure vs. heart rate data derived from the drumming test). During concert performance, estimated energy expenditure (mean±SD) was 623±168 kcal.h⁻¹ (8.1±2.2 METs) during performances of 38.6±15.6 min, and drummers achieved a peak heart rate of 186±16 b.min⁻¹. During the drumming test participants attained 78.7±8.3% of the cycle ergometer peak oxygen uptake. Rock/pop drumming represents a relatively high-intensity form of physical activity and as such involves significant energy expenditure. Rock/pop drumming should be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of physical activity.

  9. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily...

  10. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2...

  11. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  12. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  13. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  14. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  15. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a fiber drum is 1G. (b) Construction requirements for fiber drums are as follows: (1)...

  16. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  17. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  18. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  19. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  20. 52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A FRENIER PUMP. THE CHARCOAL HOUSE IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND THE DRUM LEANING AGAINST THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL ANNEX. NOTE THE WELDS IN THE DRUM, THEY DELINEATE THE SPIRAL LEADING TO THE CENTER OF THE DRUM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  1. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  2. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    PubMed

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf .

  3. Theoretical investigation of the thermal hydraulic behaviour of a slab-type liquid metal target

    SciTech Connect

    Dury, T.V.; Smith, B.L.

    1996-06-01

    The thermal hydraulics codes CFDS-FLOW3D and ASTEC have been used to simulate a slabtype design of ESS spallation target. This design is single-skinned, and of tapering form (in the beam direction), with rounded sides in a cross-section through a plane normal to the beam. The coolant fluid used is mercury, under forced circulation, with an inlet temperature of 180{degrees}C. The goal of these computer studies was to understand the behaviour of the coolant flow, and hence to arrive at a design which optimises the heat extraction for a given beam power - in the sense of: (1) minimising the peak local fluid temperature within the target, (2) maintaining an acceptable temperature level and distribution over and through the target outer wall, (3) keeping the overall fluid pressure loss through the complete target to a minimum, (4) staying within the physical limits of overall size required, particularly in the region of primary spallation. Two- and three-dimensional models have been used, with different arrangements and design of internal baffles, and different coolant flow distributions at the target inlet. Nominal total inlet mass flow was 245 kg/s, and a heat deposition profile used which was based on the proton beam energy distribution. This gave a nominal total heat load of 3.23 MW - of which 8.2kW were deposited in the window steel.

  4. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California's Historic Drought of 2014.

    PubMed

    Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Dario, Hannah L; Jacobsen, Anna L; Pratt, R Brandon; Davis, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short-term. Severe droughts can drive

  5. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, Volumes, and Physical-chemical Properties of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Daiss, R.; Williams, L.; Singer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base fluid, proppant, and additives. Additives, comprised of one or more chemicals, are serve a specific engineering purpose (e.g., friction reducer, scale inhibitor, biocide). As part of the USEPA's Draft Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, we investigated the different types, volumes injected, and physical-chemical properties of HF fluid chemicals. The USEPA identified 1,076 chemicals used in HF fluids, based on 10 sources covering chemical use from 2005 to 2013. These chemicals fall into different classes: acids, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, bases, hydrocarbon mixtures, polysaccharides, and surfactants. The physical-chemical properties of these chemicals vary, which affects their movement through the environment if spilled. Properties range from fully miscible to insoluble, from highly hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. Most of these chemicals are not volatile. HF fluid composition varies from site to site depending on a range of factors. No single chemical or set of chemicals are used at every site. A median of 14 chemicals are used per well, with a range of four to 28 (5th and 95th percentiles). Methanol was the chemical most commonly reported in FracFocus 1.0 (72% of disclosures), and hydrotreated light petroleum distillates and hydrochloric acid were both reported in over half the disclosures. Operators store chemicals on-site, often in multiple containers (typically in 760 to 1,500 L totes). We estimated that the total volume of all chemicals used per well ranges from approximately 10,000 to 110,000 L. The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the USEPA.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal, chemical, and biological quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles: therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of w...

  7. Quantitative hydrologic and hydraulic models for jokulhlaup-type outflow channels on Mars: Application of Earth analogues, comparative geomorphology, and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Douglas A.

    To better understand the geologic and hydrologic history of Mars, hydraulic models of catastrophic outflow channels on both Earth and Mars provides insight into the volumes of water necessary to create jokulhlaup-type outflow events. Applying these hydraulic models to Mars outflow channels serves to test hypotheses about the conveyance of water on Mars and if the water source was from air-fall precipitation that was contained in a source basin or if the water was derived from subsurface aquifers beneath a confining cryolithic (ground-ice) layer. Additionally, these models may provide insight to the climate dynamics of the Martian planet. A one-dimensional standard step method hydraulic model is used for the estimation of catastrophic outflow from chaotic terrain on Mars. Jokulhlaup-type Earth analogue sites at Eddy Narrows, Montana, and Jokulsa a Fjollum channel in Iceland are used to refine and calibrate the model and to assess correlations between channel hydraulics and the fluvial geomorphology present. The model uses remote sensing data and geographic information system feature classes to create a more accurate hydraulic profile of the outflow channels. The derived channel geometry profile is input to the hydraulic model where subcritical to supercritical flow is computed under steady flow conditions. A new method is developed as a guide to estimate the channel surface roughness coefficient, Manning's n, utilizing estimated thermal inertia from single-point temperature measurements from Mars orbital satellites and in situ collections from the Mars Exploration Rovers. Earth analogue results show that a re-evaluation of the Glacial Lake Missoula paleoflood peak discharge at Eddy Narrows is less than originally estimated. The proposed new peak discharge is estimated at 8.9 x 10 6 m3 s-1, with a mean flow velocity of 16.5 m s-1 and a power of 4899 W m-2. Hydraulic modeling of the Jokulsa a Fjollum channel in Iceland resulted in the discovery of the largest Holocene

  8. Fuzzy control of a boiler steam drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.; Crockett, W.K.

    1995-10-01

    The authors controlled the inlet water flow to a dynamic model of a steam drum using fuzzy logic. The drum level varied little with step inputs in steam flow. The fuzzy logic controller performed at least as well as a well-tuned traditional PI (which is notoriously difficult to tune). Using plant data in the model provided further evidence that fuzzy logic control gave excellent results. The drum level is a function of inlet water, steam production, and blowdown. To compensate for upsets caused by steam production, independent variables used in the fuzzy controller were drum level and change in drum level. The dependent variable was the change required in the inlet flow. By modeling a 175,000 lb/hr Riley-Stoker boiler, they determined the universe of discourse for each of the three variables. Three triangular and two trapezoidal membership functions characterize each of these universes. The knowledge of experts provided the fuzzy associative memory (FAM) for the variables. The authors modeled the complete dynamic system using Tutsim (Tutsim Products, 200 California Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94306).

  9. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  10. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-06-17

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives.

  11. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  12. 6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM AT THE STEWARD MINE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST DRUM WAS UNDER SHOT, THE WEST OVERSHOT - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  13. Nondestructive testing of waste drum integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.N. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Nondestructive techniques have been investigated to evaluate the structural integrity of low-level transuranic waste drums that have been buried in the ground for up to 15 years. Measurements of artificially corroded samples evaluated suitability, accuracy and rapidity with which commercially available instruments and transducers could perform the examination. Several available instruments have thickness measuring capability and probably could be tailored with a relatively minor amount of effort for precise measurement of the relatively thin wall thickness of a drum or bin. The ultrasonic method was shown capable of providing precise measurement of wall thickness for most critical areas of a drum. Some data were lost due to dents, rust, seams and labels. However, this work characterized the capability of the technique, and it can now be assessed against the need as repository requirements are more completely identified.

  14. TRU Drum Headspace Gas Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.

    1998-10-27

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has approximately 10,000 Transuranic (TRU) waste drums whose final disposition is the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Each drum, prior to shipment to WIPP, must be inspected and tested to certify that is meets the WIPP requirements for acceptance. One, of many requirements, is the analysis of the TRU drum vapor space for hydrogen, methane, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DOE Carlsbad Area Office has published two documents specifying the analytical methodologies and the quality assurance requirements for analyzing TRU drum vapor space.The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was contracted by the Solid Waste Division of SRS to specify, assemble, and test a system that would satisfy the WIPP requirements for drum headspace gas analysis. Since no single vendor supplies a complete system, analytical instrumentation and supporting components were integrated into a configuration that performed that required analyses. This required both software and hardware design and modifications. The major goal of the design team was to integrate commercially available instrumentation and equipment into a seamless production process. The final output of the process is an analytical report formatted to the specifications outlined in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). SRTC has assembled the necessary analytical instrumentation and installed it in a mobile trailer to perform the TRU drum vapor space analyses. This mobile trailer had previously housed instrumentation for reactor tank inspections. As a cost savings it was decided to renovate and install the instrumentation in this trailer to eliminate the need of building or modifying permanent structures. This also allows for portability to meet future analytical needs on or off site.This task was divided into three sub tasks: headspace gas sampling, gas analysis and system component integration, and sample canister cleaning. The following sections

  15. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  16. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  19. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  3. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  4. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  6. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  10. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  11. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  15. Unsteady-state VOC transport in vented waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-08-01

    A model of unsteady-state volatile organic compound (VOC) transport in a vented waste drum has been developed. Model predictions of the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement and the drum headspace are compared to measurements in lab-scale simulated waste drums.

  16. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum...

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  19. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  20. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    DOEpatents

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  1. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  2. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  3. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  4. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-07-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  5. Potential VOC Deflagrations in a Vented TRU Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mukesh, GUPTA

    2005-04-07

    The objective of the analysis is to examine the potential for lid ejection from a vented transuranic (TRU) waste drum due to pressure buildup caused by the deflagration of hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the drum. In this analysis, the AICC pressure for a stoichiometric mixture of VOCs is calculated and then compared against the experimental peak pressure of stoichiometric combustion of propane and hexane in a combustion chamber. The experimental peak pressures of propane and hexane are about 12 percent lower than the calculated AICC pressure. Additional losses in the drum are calculated due to venting of the gases, drum bulging, waste compaction, and heat losses from the presence of waste in the drum. After accounting for these losses, the final pressures are compared to the minimum observed pressure that ejects the lid from a TRU drum. The ejection pressure of 105 psig is derived from data that was recorded for a series of tests where hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited inside sealed TRU drums. Since the calculated pressures are below the minimum lid ejection pressure, none of the VOCs and the hydrogen (up to 4 percent) mixtures present in the TRU waste drum is expected to cause lid ejection if ignited. The analysis of potential VOC deflagrations in a vented TRU drum can be applied across the DOE-Complex since TRU waste is stored in drums throughout the complex.

  6. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.D.; Rahimi, R.S.; Edling, D.

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, volumes, and physical-chemical properties of chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base flui...

  8. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  9. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  10. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  11. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  12. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition.

  13. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  14. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  15. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.

    2001-05-31

    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification.

  16. Frequent Questions About EPA's Mercury Lamp Drum-Top Crusher Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Frequent Questions such as Why did we do the Mercury Lamp Drum-Top Crusher Study?, Should drum-top crushers (DTCs) be used in the management of fluorescent lamps?, Are drum-top crushers (DTCs) safe to use?

  17. The Extraordinary Nature of Barney's Drumming: A Complementary Study of Ordinary Noise Making in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gayet, Pierre; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous study (Dufour et al., 2015) we reported the unusual characteristics of the drumming performance of a chimpanzee named Barney. His sound production, several sequences of repeated drumming on an up-turned plastic barrel, shared features typical for human musical drumming: it was rhythmical, decontextualized, and well controlled by the chimpanzee. This type of performance raises questions about the origins of our musicality. Here we recorded spontaneously occurring events of sound production with objects in Barney's colony. First we collected data on the duration of sound making. Here we examined whether (i) the context in which objects were used for sound production, (ii) the sex of the producer, (iii) the medium, and (iv) the technique used for sound production had any effect on the duration of sound making. Interestingly, duration of drumming differed across contexts, sex, and techniques. Then we filmed as many events as possible to increase our chances of recording sequences that would be musically similar to Barney's performance in the original study. We filmed several long productions that were rhythmically interesting. However, none fully met the criteria of musical sound production, as previously reported for Barney. PMID:28154521

  18. The Extraordinary Nature of Barney's Drumming: A Complementary Study of Ordinary Noise Making in Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Valérie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gayet, Pierre; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2017-01-01

    In a previous study (Dufour et al., 2015) we reported the unusual characteristics of the drumming performance of a chimpanzee named Barney. His sound production, several sequences of repeated drumming on an up-turned plastic barrel, shared features typical for human musical drumming: it was rhythmical, decontextualized, and well controlled by the chimpanzee. This type of performance raises questions about the origins of our musicality. Here we recorded spontaneously occurring events of sound production with objects in Barney's colony. First we collected data on the duration of sound making. Here we examined whether (i) the context in which objects were used for sound production, (ii) the sex of the producer, (iii) the medium, and (iv) the technique used for sound production had any effect on the duration of sound making. Interestingly, duration of drumming differed across contexts, sex, and techniques. Then we filmed as many events as possible to increase our chances of recording sequences that would be musically similar to Barney's performance in the original study. We filmed several long productions that were rhythmically interesting. However, none fully met the criteria of musical sound production, as previously reported for Barney.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE BLANTON CLAMSHELL CLOSUREFOR USE ON RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P

    2007-10-18

    This paper provides a brief history of the U.S. Type B 6M specification container, its introduction into U.S. Code of federal regulations and its scheduled elimination three decades later. The paper also presents development, testing and deployment by the Department of Energy (DOE) of an enhanced drum closure called the 'Blanton Clamshell' (patent pending) that was designed to replace the standard open-head C-ring closure for the 55- and 85-gallon drums described in the 6M specification to extend their safe use. Nuclear Filter Technology has the Exclusive License for Clamshell production. Drum packages utilizing the standard C-ring closure have been a main-stay for over a half of a century in the national and international nuclear industry for shipping radioactive materials and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Drum package use in the U.S. increased heavily in the 1950's with development of the Weapons Complex and subsequently the commercial nuclear reactor industry.

  20. Tractor Hydraulics. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed to help provide a better understanding of how and why hydraulic principles serve the purposes of weight reduction, increase of physical effort, and more precise control to machines of all types. The four components that are necessary to have a workable hydraulic system--a reservoir, a pump, a valve, and a motor (cylinder)…

  1. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  2. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  3. Hydraulic tool

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, J.T.

    1988-04-05

    A hydraulic force-delivering tool including a cylinder, a piston slidable in the cylinder and a hydraulic pump to deliver fluid under pressure to the cylinder the hydraulic pump is described, comprising: a pump body; means forming a cylindrical chamber in the pump body; at least one inlet port opening into one end of the chamber from outside the body; means forming an outlet port at the other end of the chamber; a check valve in the outlet port enabling outward flow only; a pump rod plunger reciprocable through a given stroke in the chamber; inner and outer concentric cylindrical surfaces in the chamber and on the plunger, respectively; an annular shoulder on the chamber inner cylindrical surface facing toward the other end of the chamber; an annular seal member slidable along the pump rod and conditioned to seal against the shoulder; and spring means biasing the seal member toward the shoulder.

  4. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used where they are subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of artificial heat. (d) Unless pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic...

  5. Mobile drum crusher prevents pollution, cuts disposal costs

    SciTech Connect

    Vasseur, J.C. )

    1994-12-01

    Sfanid Renov' Cuves, of Goussainville, France, has developed an alternative to stockpiling potentially dangerous used drums. Quick Futs (''quick barrels'') is a mobile unit that neutralizes metal drums and packaging materials. The onsite treatment system saves customers money on drum processing and transportation costs. The per-ton cost of delivering drums containing chemical residues to a disposal center is substantially higher than the cost of delivering only the residues in bulk or tank trucks, and takes more time. The Quick Futs system cleans drums under high pressure, crushes them, and pumps out and recovers residual chemicals and rinse water before shipping the drums to an approved center for final destruction. As a stationary unit, the Quick Futs system can be used to process empty drums daily, avoiding the need to store used drums in an area that could be used for a more productive purpose. Quick Futs is designed to meet safety requirements for explosion-proof equipment in refineries. As a mobile unit, Quick Futs offers the advantages of the stationary unit and provides added peace of mind for those who see the unit on a customer's premises. The process is especially valuable for companies whose packaging materials cannot be reused.

  6. Impact of drum storage on criticality accident alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finfrock, S.; Watson, T.; Byrd, J.; Miles, B.; Wilkinson, A.

    1997-12-01

    The changing mission from production to decommissioning that is taking place at many U.S. Department of Energy sites is producing an ever-increasing inventory of waste drums. These drums typically contain low-level radioactive waste and, in some cases, significant amounts of fissile materials. Such drums must be handled with all of the care necessary for radioactive materials and, where fissile materials are present, criticality safety controls. As the number of drums increases, the question inevitably arises as to where to store them. Old process buildings present one solution to that question. These buildings are typically large, designed to handle radioactive and fissile materials, and largely unused under the current mission and, as such, would seem ideal candidates for at least short-term storage of waste drums. When undergoing such a major change in mission, however, the building`s nuclear safety systems need to be reevaluated to ensure that they are appropriate for the new activity. One such system that must be evaluated is the building`s criticality accident alarm system (AAS). This system is designed to detect criticality accidents and is generally required anywhere that a criticality accident is credible. If drums are to be stored in a facility where a CAAS is required (either because of other activities in the building or because of the contents of the drums themselves), then those drums must be shown not to prevent the CAAS from functioning as designed.

  7. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a...

  8. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a...

  9. Plant hydraulic responses to long-term dry season nitrogen deposition alter drought tolerance in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Santiago, Louis S; Vourlitis, George L; Grantz, David A; Allen, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition represents a significant N input for many terrestrial ecosystems. N deposition can affect plants on scales ranging from photosynthesis to community composition, yet few studies have investigated how changes in N availability affect plant water relations. We tested the effects of N addition on plant water relations, hydraulic traits, functional traits, gas exchange, and leaf chemistry in a semi-arid ecosystem in Southern California using long-term experimental plots fertilized with N for over a decade. The dominant species were Artemisia california and Salvia mellifera at Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve and Adenostoma fasciculatum and Ceanothus greggii at Sky Oaks Field Station. All species, except Ceanothus, showed increased leaf N concentration, decreased foliar carbon to N ratio, and increased foliar N isotopic composition with fertilization, indicating that added N was taken up by study species, yet each species had a differing physiological response to long-term N addition. Dry season predawn water potentials were less negative with N addition for all species except Adenostoma, but there were no differences in midday water potentials, or wet season water potentials. Artemisia was particularly responsive, as N addition increased stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf carbon isotopic composition, and decreased wood density. The alteration of water relations and drought resistance parameters with N addition in Artemisia, as well as Adenostoma, Ceanothus, and Salvia, indicate that N deposition can affect the ability of native Southern California shrubs to respond to drought.

  10. Analysis Methodologies and Ameliorative Techniques for Mitigation of the Risk in Churches with Drum Domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingone, Gaetano; Calogero, Cucchiara; Licata, Vincenzo

    2008-07-01

    The present work fits into the interesting theme of seismic prevention for protection of the monumental patrimony made up of churches with drum domes. Specifically, with respect to a church in the historic area of Catania, chosen as a monument exemplifying the typology examined, the seismic behavior is analyzed in the linear field using modern dynamic identification techniques. The dynamically identified computational model arrived at made it possible to identify the macro-element most at risk, the dome-drum system. With respect to this system the behavior in the nonlinear field is analyzed through dynamic tests on large-scale models in the presence of various types of improving reinforcement. The results are used to appraise the ameliorative contribution afforded by each of them and to choose the most suitable type of reinforcement, optimizing the stiffness/ductility ratio of the system.

  11. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium

  12. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  13. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  14. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  15. Hydrogen production from cheese whey with ethanol-type fermentation: effect of hydraulic retention time on the microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Paula Rúbia Ferreira; Santos, Samantha Christine; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4, 2, and 1h and varying sources of inoculum (sludge from swine and sludge from poultry) on the hydrogen production in two anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs) were evaluated. Cheese whey was used as a substrate, and 5000mgCODL(-1) was applied. The highest hydrogen yield (HY) of 1.33molmol(-1) lactose and highest ethanol yield (EtOHY) of 1.22molEtOHmol(-1) lactose were obtained at the highest HRT (4h). When the reactors were operated at an HRT of 1h, methane (0.68LCH4h(-1)L(-1)) was produced concurrently with hydrogen (0.51LH2h(-1)L(-1)). The major metabolites observed were soluble ethanol, methanol, acetic acid, and butyric acid. Cloning of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the microbial community were affiliated with the genera Selenomonas sp. (69% of the sequences), and Methanobacterium sp. (98% of the sequences).

  16. Optimal efficiency vector control of induction motor drive system for drum washing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Cheol; Yu, Jae Sung; Jang, Bong An; Won, Chung Yuen

    2005-12-01

    In home appliances, electric energy is optimally controlled by using power electronics technology, creating a comfortable environment in terms of energy saving, low sound generation, and reduced time consumption. Usually simplicity and robustness make the three phase induction motor attractive for use in domestic appliance, including washing machines. Two main types of domestic washing machine have evolved. We focus on efficiency of the front loading machine favored in Europe, which has a horizontal drum axis. This paper presents the control algorithm for optimal efficiency drives of an induction motor for drum washing machine. This system uses a simple model of the induction motor that include equations of the iron losses. The proposed optimal efficiency control algorithm calculates commands of the reference torque and flux currents for the flux oriented control of the induction motor. The proposed algorithm is verified through digital simulation.

  17. On the basically single-type excitation source of resonance in the wind tunnel and in the hydroturbine channel of a hydraulic power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavosov, R. K.; Prozorov, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the spectra of pressure pulsations in the near field of the open working section of the wind tunnel with a vortex flow behind the tunnel blower formed like the flow behind the hydroturbine of a hydraulic power plant. We have made a comparison between the measurement data for pressure pulsations and the air stream velocity in tunnels of the above type and in tunnels in which a large-scale vortex structure behind the blower is not formed. It has been established that the large-scale vortex formation in the incompressible medium behind the blade system in the wind tunnel is a source of narrow-band acoustic radiation capable of exciting resonance self-oscillations in the tunnel channel.

  18. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, S.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.; Duffó, G.

    2013-07-01

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drumscontaining the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina) , it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums.

  19. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California’s Historic Drought of 2014

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Evan D.; Dario, Hannah L.; Jacobsen, Anna L.; Pratt, R. Brandon; Davis, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short-term. Severe droughts can drive

  20. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques.

  1. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil... paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar material. (3) The body and heads of the drum and...

  2. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  3. Slit Logs and Sacred Cows: The History of the Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the drum is presented in both pictures and prose, from its beginning in Africa and the Far Eastern world to its introduction to the Western world where it is now fully accepted as a serious instrument. (KC)

  4. 49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORROLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORR-OLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN THE FILTER CAKE HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....507 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR... effectiveness of the drum for the purpose intended. A material other than plywood, of at least...

  6. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  7. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non..., with their grains crosswise. (3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a...

  8. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  10. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  11. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  12. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE HANDLE, LOOKING NORTH - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  13. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, BRAKE HANDLE, AND REDUCTION GEARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  14. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.; DeRosa, D.C.; Demiter, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Hanford site is one of several U.S. Department of Energy locations that has transuranic radioactive Waste in storage, resulting from nuclear weapons material production. Transuranic waste has extremely long-lived radionuclides requiring great care in management; such waste is slated for eventual disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Most of this waste is stored in 208-{ell} (55-gal) drums below ground. At the Hanford site 37 641 drums are stored in several trenches. The drums were stacked up to five high with plywood sheeting between the layers and on top of the stacks. Plastic tarps were used to cover the drums and the plywood, with several feet of earth backfilled on top of the plastic. A fraction of the drums ({approximately}20%) were covered only with earth, not with plywood and plastic. The drums are either painted low-carbon steel or galvanized low-carbon steel. They have been placed in storage from 1970 to 1988, resulting in between 7 and 25 yr of storage. The environment is either soil or air atmosphere. The air atmosphere environment also includes, for some drum surfaces, contact with the underside of the tarp. The temperature of the air atmosphere is relatively uniform. Year-round measurements have not been taken, but available data suggest that the temperature span should be from {approximately} 10 to 30{degrees}C (50 to 86{degrees}F). Humidity in underground storage module mock-ups has been measured at nearly 90% during testing in the summer months. Subsequent tests have shown that the humidity probably drops to 50 to 60% during other seasons. This report describes results of a project to inspect the condition of the waste drums.

  15. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects - Fort Drum, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-21

    Army Corps of Engineers Figure 2. Solar Walls Installed on a Maintenance Shop at Fort Drum Source: IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and...a $1.6 million Energy Conservation Investment Program project to rehabilitate and install solar walls in Fort Drum maintenance shops. What We...contracted for, and began execution of Recovery Act projects for constructing a child development center and rehabilitating and installing solar

  16. Cardiac function and survival are affected by crude oil in larval red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Khursigara, Alexis J; Perrichon, Prescilla; Martinez Bautista, Naim; Burggren, Warren W; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    Following exposure to weathered and non-weathered oil, lethal and sub-lethal impacts on red drum larvae were assessed using survival, morphological, and cardiotoxicity assays. The LC50 for red drum ranged from 14.6 (10.3-20.9) to 21.3 (19.1-23.8) μgl(-1) ΣPAH with no effect of exposure timing during the pre-hatch window or oil weathering. Similarly, morphological deformities showed dose responses in the low ppb range. Cardiac output showed similar sensitivity resulting in a major 70% reduction after exposure to 2.6μgl(-1) ΣPAH. This cardiac failure was driven by reduced stroke volume rather than bradycardia, meaning that in some species, cardiac function is more sensitive than previously thought. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, much of this type of work has primarily focused on pelagic species with little known about fast developing estuarine species. These results demonstrate similarity sensitivity of the red drum as their pelagic counter parts, and more importantly, that cardiac function is dramatically reduced in concert with pericardial edema.

  17. Characterization of hepatic low-K(m) outer-ring deiodination in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    VanPutte, C L; MacKenzie, D S; Eales, J G

    2001-03-01

    The more biologically active thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)), is primarily derived from peripheral deiodination of thyroxine (T(4)). We characterized hepatic deiodination for a commercially important, warm water teleost fish, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Low K(m) outer-ring deiodination (ORD) activity was determined by production of free iodide ((125)I) upon incubation of hepatic microsomes with radiolabeled T(4). HPLC analysis demonstrated that (125)I, and T(3) were produced in equal amounts, thereby validating 125I as a measure of T(3) production. A small amount of 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T(3)) was also produced by inner-ring deiodination. Production of (125)I was linear over a range of 0--100 microg protein/ml and for incubations of 30 min--4 h. Maximal ORD activity was measured at pH 6.6, 50 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) and an incubation temperature of 20 degrees C. Double reciprocal plots demonstrated that the average apparent K(m) was 5.1 nM and the average V(max) was 3.7 pmol T(4) converted/h per mg protein. ORD was not inhibited by propylthiouracil but was 50% inhibited by 90 microM of iodoacetic acid and 7 microM of gold thioglucose. The substrate analog preference was T(4) = tetraiodoacetic acid = reverse T(3) > triiodoacetic acid > T(3). In relation to other tissues, ORD for liver>gill>intestine>kidney. Similar hepatic deiodination activity was present in adult wild, aquacultured and laboratory-reared red drum, but in adult wild red drum the optimum temperature was higher. Red drum hepatic low-K(m) deiodination activity appears to most closely resemble rainbow trout hepatic and mammalian Type II deiodination. Evidence of inner-ring T(4) deiodination suggests a more active hepatic iodothyronine catabolic pathway than in other teleost species.

  18. Hydraulic fracturing-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

  19. Criticality evaluation for the storage of converter plates in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.P.; Rorer, D.C.; Liu, H.B.

    1993-12-31

    A criticality safety evaluation was performed to support the temporary storage of 20%-enriched uranium converter plates for future use in the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). A total of twelve such plates each containing approximately one kilogram of the {sup 235}U will be stored in DOT-certified 6M-drums, which have the same dimensions as standard 55-gallon drums except that they are twice as high (178.5cm). Each drum contains a Celotex liner surrounding a central 12.7cm-dia steel pipe. The plates have a nominal size of 0.3cm{times}l0.5cm{times}l25.7cm and fit inside the steel pipe, which extends 130cm in the axial direction. Because the accommodation of twelve plates in one drum is physically possible and more economical, this option for plate storage would be recommended provided that the criticality safety limit is not exceeded. In this paper, the neutron multiplication K{sub eff} in drums is calculated using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code (MCNP). For conservatism, several different configurations which could result.in the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} have been examined. As part of the effort to optimize the arrangement of plates in drums, a second group of the MCNP calculations is performed using twelve plates evenly contained within two drums placed immediately adjacent to each other model again simulates the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} estimations.

  20. International water and steam quality standards for thermal power station drum-type and waste heat recovery boilers with the treatment of boiler water with phosphates and NaOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, T. I.; Orlov, K. A.; Dooley, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    One of the ways for improving the operational reliability and economy of thermal power station equipment, including combined-cycle equipment, is to decrease the rates of the corrosion of constructional materials and the formation of scales in the water-steam circuit. These processes can be reduced to a minimum via the use of water with a minimum content of admixtures and the correction treatment of a heat-transfer fluid. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), which unites specialists from every country of the world, has developed water and steam quality standards for power station equipment of different types on the basis of theoretical studies and long-term experience in the operation of power plants in 21 countries. Different water chemistry regimes are currently used at conventional and combined-cycle thermal power stations. This paper describes the conditions for the implementation of water chemistry regimes with the use of sodium salts of phosphoric acid and NaOH for the quality correction of boiler water. Water and steam quality standards and some recommendations for their maintenance under different operational conditions are given for each of the considered water chemistry regimes. The standards are designed for the water-steam circuit of conventional and combined-cycle thermal power stations. It is pointed out that the quality control of a heat-transfer fluid must be especially careful at combined-cycle thermal power stations with frequent startups and shutdowns.

  1. Hydraulic Design of Lock Culvert Valves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Engineering and Design HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF LOCK CULVERT VALVES Distribution Restriction Statement Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Report Documentation Page Report Date 10 Jul 1989 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Hydraulic Design of Lock...from experience and research that may be useful to Corps of Engineers hydraulic designers concerned with the design of control valves for navigation lock

  2. Nuclear criticality safety for drums at Babcock and Wilcox

    SciTech Connect

    Alcorn, F.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B&W) operates a nuclear fuel facility in Lynchburg, Virginia, processing uranium over the full range of possible enrichments (depleted to 97.65 wt% {sup 235}U). Nuclear fuel is produced for defense programs and for various research and test reactors worldwide. The facility has a uranium recovery operation that handles scrap produced at B&W as well as scrap from other U.S. Department of Energy sites. B&W also has a down-blending operation that is currently completing the down-blending of the fully enriched Project Sapphire Uranium to commercial-grade fuel (4 Wt% {sup 235}U). The facility generates approximately two hundred 55-gal drums of radioactive waste each month. Just a few years ago the number of waste drums on-site stood at {approximately}5000; however, through an aggressive waste reduction program, this number has been reduced to {approximately}2000. B&W strives to avoid storing uranium scrap in 55-gal drums; however, there are approximately sixty-four 55-gal drums of scrap on-site. Scrap is that material from which the uranium is recovered because of financial, contractual, or regulatory considerations; waste is that material destined for disposal. Whether waste or scrap, nuclear criticality safety is of paramount concern in the handling, processing, and storing of uranium-bearing drums at B&W. Any shipment complies with applicable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Department of Transportation regulations.

  3. Roller follower hydraulic tappet

    SciTech Connect

    Buente, S.M.; Clark, D.P.

    1986-08-26

    A hydraulic lash adjusting tappet is described for use in the valve gear of an internal combustion engine comprising: (a) body means having the outer periphery thereof adapted for sliding movement in a bore provided in the engine, the bore of the type supplied by an oil passage communicating therewith; (b) roller follower means rotatably received on one end of the body means, the roller follower means adapted for rolling contact with an engine camshaft; (c) registration surface means adapted for moveable registration thereagainst comprising at least one especially configured surface formed on the body means remote from the follower means and adapted for registration thereagainst for orienting the body means in the bore for ensuring proper alignment of the roller means with the engine camshaft; (d) plunger means, including hydraulic lash adjusting means, the plunger means moveably received in a cavity formed in the body means, the plunger formed to interfit the cavity so as to form a hydraulic pressure chamber and define precision leakdown surfaces.

  4. Hydraulic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, P.R.; Jantzen, D.E.

    1984-05-15

    This invention relates to an improved pump jack characterized by a hollow piston rod which telescopes down over the sucker rod to which it is clamped for reciprocating motion. The cylinder, in turn, is fastened in fixed position directly to the upper exposed end of the well casing. As fluid is introduced into the lower end of the cylinder it raises the piston into engagement with a pushrod housed in the upper cylinder head that lifts switch-actuating means associated therewith into a position operative to actuate a switch located adjacent thereto thereby causing the latter to change state and actuate a multi-function solenoid valve so as to cut off fluid flow to the cylinder. As gravity lowers the sucker rod and piston exhausting the hydraulic fluid therebeneath, an adjustable stop engages the pushrod from above so as to return it together with the switch-actuating means associated therewith to their original positions thereby resetting the switch to complete the operating cycle.

  5. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ...-04- 2012-3770 or Site name American Drum & Pallet Superfund Site by one of the following methods: www... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund...

  6. Tread drum for animals. [having an electrical shock station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A device for exercising animals such as primates is described, which includes a cylindrical housing mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis of revolution and has a cylindrical treadway portion on which the animal treads while the drum is rotated by means of a motorized drive. The treadway portion of the drum includes an electrode structure with sectors being independently energizable by means of a commutator and source of potential so that an electrical shock station is created behind a running-in-place station on the moving treadway. In this manner, if the animal should fall behind its running-in-place station, it may be shocked by treading on the energized electrode structure. One end of the tread drum comprises a transparent wall for unobstructed viewing of the animal being exercised.

  7. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Gatlin, D M

    1996-06-01

    A 6-wk feeding experiment was conducted to determine the maximal dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Diets were formulated to provide 35 g crude protein/ 100 g dry weight from solvent-extracted lyophilized red drum muscle and an amino acid premix. This premix provided methionine precisely at the minimum requirement determined for red drum so that potential synthesis of choline from methionine would be limited. Menhaden oil and dextrin were added to all diets to provide 13.8 kJ metabolizable energy/g diet as estimated by physiological fuel values. The diets were supplemented with choline chloride to provide 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg choline/kg diet. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of red drum initially averaging 5.5 g/fish in a closed, recirculating system consisting of 110-L glass aquaria. Dietary choline concentration significantly (P < 0.05) affected weight gain, feed efficiency, total lipid in liver and plasma, as well as plasma cholesterol ester, triglyceride, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine concentrations. Least-squares regression of these responses yielded requirements ranging from 330 to 676 mg choline/kg diet. Based on weight gain data, a maximal requirement estimate (+/- SEM) of 588 (+/- 35) mg choline/kg diet was established. Red drum appear to differ from other animals in regard to the response of total lipid in liver because fish fed choline-deficient diets had reduced liver lipid rather than lipid accumulation. Cultured red drum normally store high levels of lipid in the liver.

  8. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  9. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  10. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  11. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  12. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  13. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  14. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1...

  15. The Oral Tradition in the Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble is a Ghanaian drum and dance ensemble that focusses on music in the Ewe tradition. It is based in an elementary school in the Greater Toronto Area and consists of students in Grade 4 through Grade 8. Students in the ensemble study Ghanaian traditional Ewe drumming and dancing in the oral tradition. Nine students…

  16. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  17. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.506 Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums...

  18. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.506 Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums...

  19. Impact of hydraulic loading rate and media type on removal of bulk organic matter and nitrogen from primary effluent in a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment system.

    PubMed

    Abel, Chol D T; Sharma, Saroj K; Buçpapaj, Ervin; Kennedy, Maria D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and media type on the removal of bulk organic matter and nitrogen from primary effluent during soil aquifer treatment was investigated by conducting laboratory-scale soil column studies. Two soil columns packed with silica sand were operated at HLRs of 0.625 and 1.25 m/d, while a third column was packed with dune filtering material and operated at HLR of 1.25 m/d. Bulk organic matter was effectively removed by 47.5 ± 1.2% and 45.1 ± 1.2% in silica sand columns operated at 0.625 and 1.25 m/d, respectively and 57.3 ± 7.6% in dune filtering material column operated at 1.25 m/d. Ammonium-nitrogen reduction of 74.5 ± 18.0% was achieved at 0.625 m/d compared to 39.1 ± 4.3% at 1.25 m/d in silica sand columns, whereas 49.2 ± 5.2% ammonium-nitrogen reduction was attained at 1.25 m/d in the dune filtering material column. Ammonium-nitrogen reduction in the first 3 m was assumed to be dominated by nitrification process evidenced by corresponding increase in nitrate. Part of the ammonium-nitrogen was adsorbed onto the media, which was observed at higher rates between 3 and 5 m in silica sand column operated at HLR of 0.625 m/d and dune filtering material column operated at 1.25 m/d compared to 1.25 m/d silica.

  20. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  1. The Way of the Drum: When Earth Becomes Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Grafton; Turchetti, Lois Provost

    Two Native people describe their respective journeys to healing, journeys that involved the rediscovery of language and culture. In Part I, "Healing the Tears of Yesterday by the Drum Today: The Oneida Language Is a Healing Medicine" (Grafton Antone), the first narrator taught the Oneida language to adult students at a community center.…

  2. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  3. Dynamics of Axial Separation in Long Rotating Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.S.; Tsimring, L.S.

    1999-06-01

    We propose a continuum description for the axial separation of granular materials in a long rotating drum. The model, operating with two local variables, concentration difference and the dynamic angle of repose, describes both initial transient traveling wave dynamics and long-term segregation of the binary mixture. Segregation proceeds through ultraslow logarithmic coarsening. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... located within easy reach of the operator's station. (3) Electric motor operated hoists shall be provided... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... located within easy reach of the operator's station. (3) Electric motor operated hoists shall be provided... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  7. Flow Straightener for a Rotating-Drum Liquid Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R.; Converse, David G.; Rethke, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    A flow straightener has been incorporated into a rotary liquid separator that originally comprised an inlet tube, a shroud plate, an impeller, an inner drum, an outer drum, a housing, a pitot tube, and a hollow shaft motor. As a consequence of the original geometry of the impeller, shroud, inner drum, and hollow shaft, swirl was created in the airflow inside the hollow shaft during operation. The swirl speed was large enough to cause a significant pressure drop. The flow straightener consists of vanes on the back side of the shroud plate. These vanes compartmentalize the inside of the inner drum in such a way as to break up the flow path and thereby stop the air from swirling; as a result, the air enters the hollow shaft with a predominantly axial velocity instead of a swirl. Tests of the rotary liquid separator at an airflow rate of 10 cu ft/min (0.0047 cu m/s) revealed that the dynamic pressure drop was 8 in. of water (approx.=2 kPa) in the absence of the flow straightener and was reduced to 1 in. of water (approx.=0.25 kPa) in the presence of the flow straightener.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Cherenkov Light Detectors in an Oil Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Castro, Juan; Zavala, Favian; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) has been used in a number of research development in astro-particle physics and particle physics. In an effort to further implement the MPPC detector, we constructed a modular experimental setup using a 16-inch tall acrylic cylinder filled with distilled water as the light producing medium to determine its feasibility as a possible detector for weak Cherenkov light. We have since progressed towards utilizing an oil drum (approximately 30 gallons) as our light-tight container replacing our prototype. In this talk, we would discuss the results regarding our investigation utilizing 1-inch and 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) in an oil drum as we did for our prototype. We would also present our experimental findings comparing our prototype and our oil drum setup using PMTs in coincidence with the MPPC coupled with wavelength-shifting fibers that are submerged in distilled water inside the oil drum vessel. Department of Education grant nymber P031S90007.

  9. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  10. 4. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF SOUTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF SOUTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM, ONE BULL SHAFT AND GEARS, BULL RING AND ROLLERS, AND TOP OF PIER III. WILLBRIDGE AND PORTLAND WEST HILLS IN BACKGROUND. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 14. BULL SHAFT, BULL RING AND PINION, AND DRUM. TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BULL SHAFT, BULL RING AND PINION, AND DRUM. TOP OF PIER III, GRANITE COPING, AND PLAIN CONCRETE PIER BELOW. DETAILS OF WEST PIER PROTECTION FRAMING AT PIER. WILLBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  14. Development of Interpersonal Coordination between Peers during a Drumming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children…

  15. Velocity Profiles in a Rotating Drum: The Effects of Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, Robert C.; Silbert, Leonardo E.; Grest, Gary S.; Levine, Alex J.

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of granular media in a rotating drum is important in a wide range of applications in industry associated with mixing granular materials. The rotating drum also serves as a standard experimental geometry to observe continuous avalanching in the laboratory. We study the effect of interparticle cohesion on the velocity field of the rotating drum using large scale granular dynamics simulations. Such cohesion is easily introduced in the system by a wetting fluid that forms menisci at interparticle contacts. Previously, we have examined the effect of interparticle cohesion in gravity driven chute flows, and have shown that the cohesion has a dramatic effect on the granular rheology. For strong enough cohesion, these forces generate a coherently moving plug at the free surface. In this talk, we examine the velocity profile in the rotating drum geometry in this plug-flow regime. We compare our results for angle of the pile in the continuous flow regime to the experiments of Nowak et al. [Nature Physics, 1 (2005)] and we examine the stress and velocity profile within the pile as well.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  19. Occupational hygiene in a Finnish drum composting plant.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Outi; Nykänen, Jenni; Nivukoski, Ulla; Himanen, Marina; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosols (microbes, dust and endotoxins) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the working air of a drum composting plant treating source-separated catering waste. Different composting activities at the Oulu drum composting plant take place in their own units separated by modular design and constructions. Important implication of this is that the control room is a relatively clean working environment and the risk of exposure to harmful factors is low. However, the number of viable airborne microbes was high both in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The concentration (geometric average) of total microbes was 21.8 million pcs/m3 in the biowaste receiving hall, 13.9 million pcs/m3 in the drum composting hall, and just 1.4 million pcs/m3 in the control room. Endotoxin concentrations were high in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The average (arithmetic) endotoxin concentration was over the threshold value of 200 EU/m3 in both measurement locations. In all working areas, the average (arithmetic) dust concentrations were in a low range of 0.6-0.7 mg/m3, being below the Finnish threshold value of 5 mg/m3. In the receiving hall and drum composting hall, the concentrations of airborne microbes and endotoxins may rise to levels hazardous to health during prolonged exposure. It is advisable to use a respirator mask (class P3) in these areas. Detected volatile organic compounds were typical compounds of composting plants: carboxylic acids and their esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes. Concentrations of VOCs were much lower than the Finnish threshold limit values (Finnish TLVs), many of the quantified compounds exceeded their threshold odour concentrations (TOCs). Primary health effects due VOCs were not presumable at these concentrations but unpleasant odours may cause secondary symptoms such as nausea and hypersensitivity reactions. This situation is typical of composting plants where

  20. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D. K.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  1. Robust Prediction of Hydraulic Roughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    floodplain hydraulics, in particular hydraulic roughness, is critical for flood control concerns; however, diversity of vegetation type and...or particular flood return inter- val analyses. Field Assessment. Field assessment methods refer to those that do not rely on direct mea- surement or...material (riprap) Form Roughness Calculators Brownlie ( 1983 ) Lab, Field H, S, d50, σg 0.082 < R < 55.8 ft (0.025 < R < 17 m), 2.9 × 10-4 < d50

  2. Experience of applying the results of investigations into controlling lines of the salt ratio between the salt and pure sections of high-pressure drum boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Layouts of the connection of the salt ratio lines (SRLs) existing in domestic boiler building are analyzed and the main causes of their low operational efficiency are shown. The results of investigation of hydraulics and the salt mode of an internal boiler layout with the SRL of the TPE-208 boiler are presented. Recommendations on designing the SRL in internal boiler layouts of high-pressure drum boilers, which make it possible to increase the reliability of boilers and to decrease the annual consumption of phosphates, are developed.

  3. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  4. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and incidental certification as to class, condition and weight). (i) In drums (see Note 1) per drum—$1... certified at any plant during any calendar month is equivalent to a total of 2,400 or more drums (counting five bags as equivalent to one drum), the fee shall be computed at the rate of $1.01 per drum and...

  5. IMPROVING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DRUM TYPEPACKAGES BY USING HEAT PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2007-03-06

    This paper presents a feasibility study to improve thermal loading of existing radioactive material packages by using heat pipes. The concept could be used to channel heat in certain directions and dissipate to the environment. The concept is applied to a drum type package because the drum type packages are stored and transported in an upright position. This orientation is suitable for heat pipe operation that could facilitate the heat pipe implementation in the existing well proven package designs or in new designs where thermal loading is high. In this position, heat pipes utilize gravity very effectively to enhance heat flow in the upward direction Heat pipes have extremely high effective thermal conductivity that is several magnitudes higher than the most heat conducting metals. In addition, heat pipes are highly unidirectional so that the effective conductivity for heat transfer in the reverse direction is greatly reduced. The concept is applied to the 9977 package that is currently going through the DOE certification review. The paper presents computer simulations using typical off-the-shelf heat pipe available configurations and performance data for the 9977 package. A path forward is outlined for implementing the concepts for further study and prototype testing.

  6. Essential fatty acid requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Lochmann, R T; Gatlin, D M

    1993-10-01

    Feeding experiments and laboratory analyses were conducted to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Juvenile red drum were maintained in aquaria containing brackish water (5 ± 2‰ total dissolved solids) for two 6-week experiments. Semipurified diets contained a total of 70% lipid consisting of different combinations of tristearin [predominantly 18:0] and the following fatty acid ethyl esters: oleate, linoleate, linolenate, and a mixture of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) containing approximately 60% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate. EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate) rapidly reduced fish growth and feed efficiency, and increased mortality. Fin erosion and a "shock syndrome" also occurred in association with EFA deficiency. Of the diets containing fatty acid ethyl esters, those with 0.5-1% (n-3) HUFA (0.3-0.6% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate) promoted the best growth, survival, and feed efficiency; however, the control diet containing 7% menhaden fish oil provided the best performance. Excess (n-3) HUFA suppressed fish weight gain; suppression became evident at 1.5% (n-3) HUFA, and was pronounced at 2.5%. Fatty acid compositions of whole-body, muscle and liver tissues from red drum fed the various diets generally reflected dietary fatty acids, but modifications of these patterns also were evident. Levels of saturated fatty acids appeared to be regulated independent of diet. In fish fed EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate), monoenes increased and (n-3) HUFA were preferentially conserved in polar lipid fractions. Eicosatrienoic acid [20:3(n-9)] was not elevated in EFA-deficient red drum, apparently due to their limited ability to transform fatty acids. Red drum exhibited some limited ability to elongate and desaturate linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)]; however, metabolism of 18:3(n-3) did not generally result in increased

  7. Gill morphometry of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Don Stevens, E

    1992-08-01

    The structure and morphometry of the gills of the marine teleost, red drum, have been studied. The present analysis of gas exchange area of fish gills is one of the most intensive and the results are compared to less intense averaging methods. Based on the gill area estimates, red drum falls into the category of a fish of intermediate activity. Its gill clearly has an exchange area less than that of the tunas, but is slightly greater than that of trout or bass. The three components that contribute to total exchange area (filament length, lamellar density, and area of individual lamellae) are not all greater in species with a greater total exchange area. The best correlate is total filament length.

  8. Design and fabrication of 55-gallon drum shuffler standards

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, F.; Hoth, C.; Fernandez, R.; Bjork, C.; Sprinkle, J.

    1994-08-01

    To analyze waste with varying levels of nuclear material, suitable standards are needed to calibrate analytical instrumentation. At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, the authors have designed and fabricated a single drum standard for a passive-active neutron counter (shuffler). The standard is modified simply by adding or subtracting plutonium of uranium cylinders to adapt to a range of nuclear material. The plutonium or uranium oxide was placed into small cylindrical containers (1-in. diameter by 5-in. long) and diluted with diatomaceous earth. The cylinders were welded closed and removed from the glove box environment without any external contamination. The containers were leak tested and then placed on a segmented gamma scanner to assure homogeneous distribution of the nuclear material. The cylinders are now placed into the drum to achieve the needed ranges for calibration of the instruments.

  9. Low tension graphene drums for electromechanical pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raj N.; Mathew, John P.; Borah, Abhinandan; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a process to fabricate electromechanical pressure sensors using multilayer graphene in a sealed drum geometry. The drum resonators are fabricated on insulating sapphire substrates with a local back gate for direct radio frequency ({\\text{}}{{rf}}) actuation and detection of the mechanical modes. Using this scheme, we show the detection and electrostatic tuning of multiple resonant modes of the membrane up to 200 MHz. The geometry of the device also helps in attaining low tensile stress in the membrane, thereby giving high gate tunability (∼1 MHz/V) of the resonator modes. We study the resonant frequency shifts in the presence of helium gas and demonstrate a sensing capability of 1 Torr pressure in a cryogenic environment.

  10. A MODULAR STORE FOR DRUMS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.; Holden, G.

    2003-02-27

    Currently, the United Kingdom has no facility for the disposal of any waste above the low level category, indicating that all intermediate and high level waste, apart from spent fuel, has to be stored on the site of origin. To meet this storage requirement, nuclear sites are resorting to converting existing buildings or contemplating the construction of dedicated facilities, resulting in considerable cost implications. These financing aspects not only concern the construction strategy but also impinge on the ultimate decommissioning costs associated with each particular nuclear site. This paper reports on an investigation to apply the commercially available interlocking hollow block system to the design of a store for drums of radioactive waste. This block system can be quickly, and cost effectively, erected and filled with a choice of dense material. Later, the store can be dismantled with a minimum of disposable radioactive waste and the complete facility re - erected at another location if required, considerably reducing both capital construction and decommissioning costs. The investigation also encompassed a detailed review of the equipment required to place the drums of waste into the store, resulting in a scheme for a remotely operated vehicle that did not rely on umbilical control cables. The drum handler design included for 100% redundancy of all functions, meaning that whichever component failed, the handler was always recoverable to effect the necessary repair. The ultimate aim of the waste drum store review was to produce a facility that was as safe as a conventionally constructed unit, but at a lower overall building and decommissioning cost.

  11. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  12. Gas generation results and venting study for transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Arnold, P.M.; Simmons, W.C.; D'Amico, E.L.

    1985-09-23

    Sixteen waste drums, containing six categories of plutonium-contaminated waste, were monitored for venting and gas generation for six months. The venting devices tested appeared adequate to relieve pressure and prevent hydrogen accumulation. Most of the gas generation, primarily H2 and CO2, was due to radiolytic decomposition of the hydrogenous wastes. Comparison of the gas yields with those obtained previously in laboratory tests showed very reasonable agreement with few exceptions.

  13. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

  14. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  16. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  17. EVALUATION OF RADIOLYSIS INDUCED HYDROGEN GENERATION IN DOT 6M DRUMS FROM INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2007-06-18

    Three DOT 6M 30-gallon drums are scheduled to be shipped from the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to L-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These three drums contain radioactive materials that resulted from the material recovery effort following a small explosion that had occurred in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) hot chemistry laboratory (HCL). In support of the shipment and subsequent storage of the three DOT 6M drums, an evaluation of the potential for molecular hydrogen production in the drums has been completed and documented herein. The potential sources of hydrogen evaluated in the current report include radiolytic decomposition of polymeric materials in the DOT 6M drums No.3031 and No.3598 and the radiolytic decomposition of water in drum No.20102. No other potential sources have been identified based upon reported drum contents and packaging configuration. A parametric approach was used to evaluate the maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen that can be expected to evolve in two DOT 6M 30-gallon drums in support of receipt and subsequent interim storage prior to canyon processing. These drums are two of three drums scheduled for shipment from INTEC to SRS as part of the decommissioning effort of the INTEC facility. The three DOT 6M drums will be received at L-Area in SRS and stored for up to 13-years prior to final disposition at HB-Line in 2020. Results of the current analysis do not include parametric analysis of drum No.20102 containing 114/133 SAL (salvage) which contains UO{sub 3} powder. This drum has not been identified as containing polymeric materials and a conservative calculation indicates that the maximum gross molecular hydrogen production due to the radiolysis of adsorbed moisture would yield a production rate of 5.1-cm{sup 3}/yr, driven primarily by the large surface are to volume ratio of the oxide powder. The remaining two drums, No.3031 and No.3598 contain polymer

  18. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Williams, M.

    2013-09-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in Drum#2 and Drum#4) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF VISUAL CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF CORRODED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE DRUMS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (US/DOE) HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-11-01

    Fluor Hanford, Inc., at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, has recently begun retrieving some 37,000 contact-handled, suspect-Transuranic or ''Retrievably Stored Waste'' (CH-TRU) waste drums from its Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The drums are being retrieved, processed and prepared for eventual shipment to the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Immediately upon retrieval, the drums are visually inspected against requirements identified in the facility Authorization Basis to ensure they are safe for handling and fit for on-site transfer. A number of the retrieved drums did not meet specified corrosion criteria and as such required structural evaluation by Ultrasonic Test (UT) thickness checking (including mechanical surface prep) or overpacking into a Conex-type container prior to transfer. The additional evaluation and overpacking increases personnel exposure to the radioactive waste and reduces efficiency of the retrieval process. Based on historic Hanford CH-TRU waste drum corrosion data, showing very low general corrosion rates, there was reason to believe that existing Hanford site-transfer corrosion criteria were more conservative than needed. In an effort to demonstrate this belief, a corrosion investigation was performed. Eleven CH-TRU waste drums not meeting the corrosion criteria were included in the investigation and from these, 92 separate locations, or areas of corrosion, were evaluated. Each of these locations was visually characterized and evaluated for thickness using the UT method. Visual characterization consisted of ranking photographs for each location on a scale from 1 to 6, representing an increasing level of corrosion attack. UT thickness measurements were then plotted against the visual ratings to identify any significant correlation. Analysis of the data indicated that as the corrosion rating increased, wall thickness decreased. It was concluded that drum surfaces characterized by a corrosion rating of 1-4 could be

  20. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  1. Evaluation of potential internal references for quantitative real-time RT-PCR normalization of gene expression in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo-Guang; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively for studying gene expression in diverse organisms including fish. In this study, with an aim to identify reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an economic fish species, we determined the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in healthy and bacterium-infected red drum. Each of the selected candidate genes was amplified by qRT-PCR from the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of red drum infected with or without a bacterial pathogen for 12 and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the genes were analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that in the absence of bacterial infection, translation initiation factor 3, NADH dehydrogenase 1, and QM-like protein may be used together as internal references across the eight examined tissues. Bacterial infection caused variations in the rankings of the most stable genes in a tissue-dependent manner. For all tissues, two genes sufficed for reliable normalization at both 12 and 48 h post-infection. However, the optimal gene pairs differed among tissues and, for four of the examined eight tissues, between infection points. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in red drum under conditions of bacterial infection, the optimal reference genes should be selected on the basis of tissue type and, for accurate normalization, infection stage.

  2. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    constant head we repeated the test for three different rate of fiber compaction within the flow cell, corresponding to three different densities (146 kg/m3, 200 kg/m3 and 240 kg/m3). We observed that with increasing density of the fibers there is an increase of hydraulic conductivity. The importance of the experimental results on permeability acquires greater relevance when compared to the values of hydraulic conductivity already known from the literature for different soils types. In this study, special attention has been given to the value of hydraulic conductivity of this fiber, considering that in the framework of groundwater remediation strategies if the hydraulic conductivity in the barrier is lower than that of the surrounding aquifer, the plume may change its natural pathway, bypassing the barrier and veering towards larger hydraulic conductivity. Reference • Lee, B. G. and Rowell, R. M.: Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using lignocellulosic fibers, J. Natural Fibers, 1, 97-108, 2004. • Troisi, S., Fallico, C., Straface, S., and Mazzuca, L.: Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. Brevetto dell'Università della Calabria (n.: CS2008A00018), 2008. • C. Fallico, S. Troisi, A. Molinari, and M. F. Rivera.: Characterization of broom fibers for PRB in the remediation of aquifers contaminated by heavy metals, Biogeosciences journal , 7, 2545-2556, 2010

  3. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  4. Composting domestic sewage sludge with natural zeolites in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, J; Rodríguez, L; Fernández, F J

    2011-01-01

    This work aimed the influence of zeolites addition on a sludge-straw composting process using a pilot-scale rotary drum reactor. The type and concentration of three commercial natural zeolites were considered: a mordenite and two clinoptilolites (Klinolith and Zeocat). Mordenite caused the greatest carbon removal (58%), while the clinoptilolites halved losses of ammonium. All zeolites removed 100% of Ni, Cr, Pb, and significant amounts (more than 60%) of Cu, Zn and Hg. Zeocat displayed the greatest retention of ammonium and metals, and retention efficiencies increased as Zeocat concentration increased. The addition of 10% Zeocat produced compost compliant with Spanish regulations. Zeolites were separated from the final compost, and leaching studies suggested that zeolites leachates contained very low metals concentrations (<1 mg/kg). Thus, the final compost could be applied directly to soil, or metal-polluted zeolites could be separated from the compost prior to application. The different options have been discussed.

  5. A Mini-Atlas of Ear-drum Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and juvenile red drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  7. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site.

  8. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-05-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms.

  9. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    SciTech Connect

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  10. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.

    1996-05-07

    In situ inspections were performed on tarp-covered 55-gallon drums of transuranic (TRU) waste stored underground at the Hanford Site. These inspections were part of a task to characterize TRU drums for extent of corrosion degradation and uncertainty in TRU designation (inaccuracy in earlier assay determinations may have led to drums that actually were low-level waste to be termed TRU), and to attempt to correlate accuracy of existing records with actual drum contents. Two separate storage trench sites were investigated; a total of 90 drums were inspected with ultrasonic techniques and 104 additional drums were visually inspected. A high-humidity environment in the underground storage trenches had been reported in earlier investigations and was expected to result in substantial corrosion degradation. However, corrosion was much less than expected. Only a small percentage of drums had significant corrosion (with one breach) and the maximum rate was estimated at 0.051 mm/yr (2 mils/yr). The corrosion time of underground exposure was 14 to 15 years. These inspection results should be applicable to other similar environments (this applicability should be restricted to arid climates such as the Hanford Site) where drums are stored underground but shielded from direct soil contact by a tarp or other means. Soil contact would lead to more rapid corrosion.

  11. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Demiter, J.A.; DeRosa, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    In situ inspections were performed on tarp-covered 55-gallon drums of transuranic (TRU) waste stored underground at the Hanford Site. These inspections were part of a task to characterize TRU drums for extent of corrosion degradation and uncertainty in TRU designation (inaccuracy in earlier assay determinations may have led to drums that actually were low-level waste to be termed TRU), and to attempt to correlate accuracy of existing records with actual drum contents. Two separate storage trench sites were investigated; a total of 90 drums were inspected with ultrasonic techniques and 104 additional drums were visually inspected. A high-humidity environment in the underground storage trenches had been reported in earlier investigations and was expected to result in substantial corrosion degradation. However, corrosion was much less than expected. Only a small percentage of drums had significant corrosion (with one breach) and the maximum rate was estimated at 0.051 mm/yr (2 mils/yr). The corrosion time of underground exposure was 14 to 15 years. These inspection results should be applicable to other similar environments (this applicability should be restricted to arid climates such as the Hanford Site) where drums are stored underground but shielded from direct soil contact by a tarp or other means. Soil contact would lead to more rapid corrosion.

  12. Multi-Cultural Awareness Project, the Organization and Implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Stanley G.

    This proposal describes the organization and implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble" as a strategy to solve the problems of low minority academic achievement, high minority discipline incidents, and minority isolationism. The drum ensemble studied and performed music from Caribbean, Hispanic, and African heritages in a middle…

  13. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  14. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  15. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  16. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  17. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  18. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  19. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  20. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement...

  1. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement...

  2. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-10-20

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music.

  3. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  4. WDC - Advanced system for characterization of {alpha}-bearing waste in 200 l and 400 l drums: performances and lessons learned from the first industrial measurement campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Libens, A.; Vandorpe, M.; Cuchet, J.M.

    2007-07-01

    The Waste Drum Characterization installation was originally developed for the assay of alpha-bearing waste in standard 200 1 (55 gallons) drums during the dismantling operations of the Siemens mixed-oxide (MOX) facility in Hanau (Germany). That installation was validated and qualified by the German authorities, its main performances being: - Counting efficiency for coincident neutrons: approx. 1%; Lowest Limit of Detection (LLD): 75 mg {sup 240}Pu{sub eq}; Pu content per drum: up to 100 g tot. (35 g {sup 240}Pu{sub eq}) - Measurement duration: approx. 20 minutes. The success of this system, a passive neutron coincidence counter combined with a high resolution gamma spectrometer, led to the radiological characterization and qualification of about 1,700 drums during the period 2001 - 2004. In 2005, after completion of the dismantling operations of the Siemens MOX facility, Tecnubel took over the WDC installation which could be used in the frame of the future dismantling of the Belgonucleaire's MOX plant in Dessel (Belgium), which can be comparable to the Siemen's one. This second (and new) life for the WDC means that it must be rigorously retested and validated against the Belgian authorities requirements. Furthermore, and additionally to the future use in the Belgonucleaire's facility, Tecnubel was faced with new challenges, namely: Assay of 400 l drums together with the 200 l packages; Determination of the real LLD taking into account the background in different Belgian nuclear facilities, the determination of a value of {approx}5 mg {sup 240}Pu{sub eq} being an objective; - Assay of mixed alpha/beta-gamma wastes; Transportability of the WDC from one plant to another; Assistance to different nuclear operators for the licensing of the WDC for their own waste types. This paper describes the installation itself and its performances, presents the difficulties encountered during the new challenge and the results of the performed revalidation tests; it gives the

  5. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  6. Metal loss characterization in 55-gallon drum steel by the magnetic flux leakage method

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, R.; Riechers, D.; Duncan, D.

    1995-12-31

    A technique, using Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL), has been developed for imaging corrosion damage in real-time on the inner surface of sealed 55-gallon drums. An experimental study and theoretical background are presented showing the sensitivity of an MFL technique for detecting and imaging both general and localized corrosion on the inner surface of sealed 55-gallon drums, inspected from the outer surface. Measurements resulting from studies on natural corrosion and machined defects in 55-gallon drum steel will be discussed. Image processing techniques applied to scan data show metal loss in 2-D gray scale images. This work suggests an approach to designing a real-time, full-coverage, 55-gallon drum inspection system to characterize drum wall thickness for comparison over time to determine corrosion rate.

  7. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The granular mixing in a slurry rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.

    2010-03-01

    The mixing dynamics of granular materials immersed in a liquid was experimentally studied in a quasi-2D rotating drum. A DV (SONY DCR-TRV900 NTSC) motion corder analyzer was used to record the motions of granular materials. The effects of interstitial fluid viscosity and filling degree on the mixing index, mixing rate constant, and dynamic repose angle in the rotating drum were investigated and discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the interstitial fluid viscosity has almost not influence on the final stable mixing index but has significantly effects on the mixing rate constant and dynamic repose angle in slurry granular flows. The results show that the mixing rate and dynamic repose angle increase with increasing the interstitial fluid viscosity. The results also indicate that the filling degree plays an important role in mixing dynamics in slurry granular flows. The mixing rate constant is demonstrated to be decreased with increasing the filling degree. The dynamic repose angle is not altered by the filling degree. Finally, we find that the dynamic repose angle and the mixing rate constant increase slightly at high Stokes number and increase dramatically at low Stokes number with decreasing Stokes number.

  9. Rotary drum composting of vegetable waste and tree leaves.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Singh, Yatish K; Ali, Muntjeer; Khwairakpam, Meena; Kazmi, A A

    2009-12-01

    High rate composting studies on institutional waste, i.e. vegetable wastes, tree leaves, etc., were conducted on a demonstration-scale (3.5 m(3)) rotary drum composter by evaluating changes in some physico-chemical and biological parameters. During composting, higher temperature (60-70 degrees C) at inlet zone and (50-60 degrees C) at middle zone were achieved which resulted in high degradation in the drum. As a result, all parameters including TOC, C/N ratio, CO(2) evolution and coliforms were decreased significantly within few days of composting. Within a week period, quality compost with total nitrogen (2.6%) and final total phosphorus (6 g/kg) was achieved; but relatively higher final values of fecal coliforms and CO(2) evolution, suggested further maturation. Thus, two conventional composting methods namely windrow (M1) and vermicomposting (M2) tried for maturation of primary stabilized compost. By examining these methods, it was suggested that M2 was found suitable in delivering fine grained, better quality matured compost within 20 days of maturation period.

  10. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    SciTech Connect

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-11-17

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods.

  11. Downhole hydraulic actuated pump

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, G.K.

    1988-09-06

    This patent describes a downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of the type having a main housing within which an engine and pump is enclosed; a connecting rod, an engine piston, a pump plunger, means by which the engine and connecting rod reciprocate the pump plunger and thereby produces fluid; the main housing has a lower end having a formation fluid inlet; and upper end having a power fluid inlet; and, a produced fluid outlet; the plunger divides one marginal end of the housing into upper and lower production chambers; the lower end of the connecting rod is hollow and extends through the plunger into fluid communication with the formation fluid inlet to provide a source of formation fluid for the upper and lower production chambers; a traveling value assembly contained within the plunger and arranged to transfer formation fluid from the hollow rod, through the plunger, and into the upper and lower production chambers, respectively, as the plunger upstrokes and downstrokes; produced fluid valve means by which fluid flows from the upper and lower production chambers and through the produced fluid outlet.

  12. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    .... Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of the following...] Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning the Callaway and son Drum Service Superfund Site located in Lake Alfred, Polk County, Florida...

  13. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  14. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  15. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  16. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  17. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  18. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  19. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  20. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  1. Negative feedback regulation of thyrotropin subunits and pituitary deiodinases in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Jones, R A; Cohn, W B; Wilkes, A A; MacKenzie, D S

    2017-01-01

    Thyroxine (T4) undergoes dynamic daily cycles in the perciform fish the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, that are inversely timed to cycles of thyrotropin (TSH) subunit mRNA expression in the pituitary gland. We have proposed that these daily cycles are regulated by negative feedback of circulating T4 on expression of pituitary thyroid hormone deiodinase type 3 (Dio3), such that elevated circulating T4 results in diminished pituitary thyroid hormone catabolism and consequent increased negative feedback on expression of TSH subunits during the day. To determine whether thyroid hormones function to modulate expression of pituitary deiodinase enzymes we developed an immersion technique to administer physiological doses of T3 and T4in vivo. Immersion in T4 or T3 significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the TSH α and β subunits from 4 to 66h of immersion. Pituitary Dio3 expression was significantly diminished by T3 and T4 at 22h. These results indicate that both T4 and T3 are capable of negative feedback regulation of TSH subunit expression in red drum at physiological concentrations and on a time scale consistent with the T4 daily cycle. Furthermore, thyroid hormones negatively regulate Dio3 expression in the pituitary in a manner suggesting that negative thyroxine feedback on Dio3 promotes the release of TSH subunits from TH inhibition and may be an important mechanism for generating daily thyroid hormone cycles. These results highlight a potentially important role for D3 in mediating thyroid hormone feedback on TSH expression, not previously described in other species.

  2. Hydraulic fluid generator

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, D.P.; Tully, L.E.

    1981-08-18

    Two sources of water with a temperature differential of say 20/sup 0/F flow alternately through heat exchanger tubes to expand and contract a working liquid that has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, the whole working cycle being carried out below the boiling point of the working liquid. With check valves preventing reverse flow, the expansion and contraction of the working liquid provides a high pressure hydraulic output which may be used to drive a hydraulic motor. To provide substantially steady output flow, four banks of heat exchangers may be operated sequentially with hydraulic accumulator means smoothing out the flow pulsations. Each bank has a four-stage operating cycle and electrical circuitry controls the four banks simultaneously to cause the four different stages to occur in certain of the four different banks in staggered relation for producing a substantially constant overall hydraulic output.

  3. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  4. Portable Hydraulic Powerpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. A.; Henry, R. L.; Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Rechargeable hydraulic powerpack functions as lightweight, compact source of mechanical energy. Self-contained hydraulic powerpack derives energy from solid chemical charge. Combustion of charge initiated by small hammer, and revolving feeder replaces charges expended. Combustion gases cool during expansion in turbine and not too hot for release to atmosphere. Unit has applications driving wheelchairs and operating drills, winches, and other equipment in remote areas. Also replaces electric motors and internal-combustion engines as source of power in explosive atmospheres.

  5. Analysis of results obtained using the automatic chemical control of the quality of the water heat carrier in the drum boiler of the Ivanovo CHP-3 power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. B.; Kolegov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    Results of industrial tests of the new method used for the automatic chemical control of the quality of boiler water of the drum-type power boiler ( P d = 13.8 MPa) are described. The possibility of using an H-cationite column for measuring the electric conductivity of an H-cationized sample of boiler water over a long period of time is shown.

  6. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  7. Variation in movement patterns of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) inferred from conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Burdick, S.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    We used 25 years of conventional tagging data (n=6173 recoveries) and 3 years of ultrasonic telemetry data (n=105 transmitters deployed) to examine movement rates and directional preferences of four age classes of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in estuarine and coastal waters of North Carolina. Movement rates of conventionally tagged red drum were dependent on the age, region, and season of tagging. Age-1 and age-2 red drum tagged along the coast generally moved along the coast, whereas fish tagged in oligohaline waters far from the coast were primarily recovered in coastal regions in fall months. Adult (age-4+) red drum moved from overwintering grounds on the continental shelf through inlets into Pamlico Sound in spring and summer months and departed in fall. Few tagged red drum were recovered in adjacent states (0.6% of all recoveries); however, some adult red drum migrated seasonally from overwintering grounds in coastal North Carolina northward to Virginia in spring, returning in fall. Age-2 transmittertracked red drum displayed seasonal emigration from a small tributary, but upstream and downstream movements within the tributary were correlated with fluctuating salinity regimes and not season. Large-scale conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry programs can provide valuable insights into the complex movement patterns of estuarine fish.

  8. Hydraulic Response of Highly Compressible Aquitards During Consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, D. L.; Frind, E. O.

    1991-01-01

    The transient hydraulic behavior of highly compressible aquitards is investigated through numerical analysis and field studies. Variations in the hydraulic parameters of an aquitard during consolidation are accounted for by incorporating empirical relationships derived from standard consolidation tests into the one-dimensional flow equation. The resulting equation is highly nonlinear. The hydraulic response of an aquitard with physical properties typical of the compressible clays of Mexico City is evaluated with both standard linear analysis and with a nonlinear approach where the hydraulic parameters are stress-dependent. The results indicate that decreases in the hydraulic diffusivity of the aquitard due to consolidation lead to diminished leakage flux, slower groundwater velocities and solute transport rates, longer transient response periods and less land subsidence than would be predicted by classical linear theory. Evaluation of field data from a site near Mexico City indicates that significant interpretive errors may arise if the stress dependence of the hydraulic parameters is ignored in these types of systems.

  9. Passive neutron design study for 200-L waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.B.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-09-01

    We have developed a passive neutron counter for the measurement of plutonium in 200-L drums of scrap and waste. The counter incorporates high efficiency for the multiplicity counting in addition to the traditional coincidence counting. The {sup 252}Cf add-a-source feature is used to provide an accurate assay over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The room background neutron rate is reduced by using 30 cm of external polyethylene shielding and the cosmic-ray background is reduced by statistical filtering techniques. Monte Carlo Code calculations were used to determine the optimum detector design, including the gas pressure, size, number, and placement of the {sup 3}He tubes in the moderator. Various moderators, including polyethylene, plastics, teflon, and graphite, were evaluated to obtain the maximum efficiency and minimum detectable mass of plutonium.

  10. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  11. The Telescope Array Middle Drum fluorescence detector simulation on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Telescope-Array Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been recognized and widely used as an accelerator for many scientific calculations. In general, problems amenable to parallelization are ones that benefit most from the use of GPUs. The Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence detector response to air showers presents many opportunities for parallelization. In this paper we report on a Monte Carlo program used for the simulation of the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector located at the Middle Drum site which uses GPU acceleration. All of the physics simulation from shower development, light production and atmospheric attenuation, as well as, the realistic detector optics and electronics simulations are done on the GPU. A detailed description of the code implementation is given, and results on the accuracy and performance of the simulation are presented as well. Improvements in computational throughput in excess of 50× are reported and the accuracy of the results is on par with the CPU implementation of the simulation.

  12. Continuum theory of axial segregation in a long rotating drum

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.S.; Vinokur, V.M.; Tsimring, L.S.

    1999-08-01

    We develop a continuum description for the axial segregation of granular materials in a long rotating drum based on the dynamics of the thin near-surface granular flow coupled to bulk flow. The equations of motion are reduced to the one-dimensional system for two local variables only, the concentration difference and the dynamic angle of repose, or the average slope of the free surface. The parameters of the system are established from comparison with experimental data. The resulting system describes both initial transient traveling wave dynamics and the formation of quasi-stationary bands of segregated materials. A long-term evolution proceeds through slow logarithmic coarsening of the band structure which is analogous to the spinoidal decomposition described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Time domain simulation and sound synthesis for the snare drum.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The snare drum is a complex system, relying on the interaction of multiple components: the drumheads, or membranes, a set of snares, the surrounding acoustic field and an internal cavity. Because these components are multidimensional, and due to a strong distributed non-linearity (the snare interaction), many techniques used frequently in physical modeling synthesis applications, such as digital waveguides and modal methods are difficult to apply. In this article, finite difference time domain techniques are applied to a full 3D system, and various features of interest, such as the coupling between membranes, and the interaction between the membranes and the snares, are examined in detail. Also discussed are various numerical features, such as spurious splitting of degenerate modes and bandwidth limitation, and estimates of computational complexity are provided. Sound examples are presented.

  14. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events.

  15. MULTIPLE INPUT BINARY ADDER EMPLOYING MAGNETIC DRUM DIGITAL COMPUTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1960-12-01

    A digital computing apparatus is described for adding a plurality of multi-digit binary numbers. The apparatus comprises a rotating magnetic drum, a recording head, first and second reading heads disposed adjacent to the first and second recording tracks, and a series of timing signals recorded on the first track. A series of N groups of digit-representing signals is delivered to the recording head at time intervals corresponding to the timing signals, each group consisting of digits of the same significance in the numbers, and the signal series is recorded on the second track of the drum in synchronism with the timing signals on the first track. The multistage registers are stepped cyclically through all positions, and each of the multistage registers is coupled to the control lead of a separate gate circuit to open the corresponding gate at only one selected position in each cycle. One of the gates has its input coupled to the bistable element to receive the sum digit, and the output lead of this gate is coupled to the recording device. The inputs of the other gates receive the digits to be added from the second reading head, and the outputs of these gates are coupled to the adding register. A phase-setting pulse source is connected to each of the multistage registers individually to step the multistage registers to different initial positions in the cycle, and the phase-setting pulse source is actuated each N time interval to shift a sum digit to the bistable element, where the multistage register coupled to bistable element is operated by the phase- setting pulse source to that position in its cycle N steps before opening the first gate, so that this gate opens in synchronism with each of the shifts to pass the sum digits to the recording head.

  16. A genetic linkage map of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Renshaw, M A; Hollenbeck, C M; Gold, J R

    2010-12-01

    Second-generation, sex-specific genetic linkage maps were generated for the economically important estuarine-dependent marine fish Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum). The maps were based on F(1) progeny from each of two single-pair mating families. A total of 237 nuclear-encoded microsatellite markers were mapped to 25 linkage groups. The female map contained 226 markers, with a total length of 1270.9 centiMorgans (cM) and an average inter-marker interval of 6.53 cM; the male map contained 201 markers, with a total length of 1122.9 cM and an average inter-marker interval of 6.03 cM. The overall recombination rate was approximately equal in the two sexes (♀:♂=1.03:1). Recombination rates in a number of linkage intervals, however, differed significantly between the same sex in both families and between sexes within families. The former occurred in 2.4% of mapped intervals, while the latter occurred in 51.2% of mapped intervals. Sex-specific recombination rates varied within chromosomes, with regions of both female-biased and male-biased recombination. Original clones from which the microsatellite markers were generated were compared with genome sequence data for the spotted green puffer, Tetraodon nigroviridis; a total of 43 matches were located in 17 of 21 chromosomes of T. nigroviridis, while seven matches were in unknown portions of the T. nigroviridis genome. The map for red drum provides a new, useful tool for aquaculture, population genetics, and comparative genomics of this economically important marine species.

  17. Simultaneous Production of Amyloglucosidase and Exo-Polygalacturonase by Aspergillus niger in a Rotating Drum Reactor.

    PubMed

    Colla, Eliane; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira; Deamici, Kricelle; Magagnin, Glênio; Vendruscolo, Mauricio; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous production of amyloglucosidase (AMG) and exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) was carried out by Aspergillus niger in substrate of defatted rice bran in a rotating drum bioreactor (RDB) and studied by a 3(1) × 2(2) factorial experimental design. Variables under study were A. niger strains (A. niger NRRL 3122 and A. niger t0005/007-2), types of inoculum (spore suspension and fermented bran), and types of inducer (starch, pectin, and a mix of both). Solid-state fermentation process (SSF) was conducted at 30 °C under 60-vvm aeration for 96 h in a pilot scale. Production of AMG and exo-PG was significantly affected by the fungal strain and the type of inoculum, but inducers did not trigger any significant effect, an evidence of the fact that these enzymes are constitutive. The maximum activity of exo-PG was 84 U gdm(-1) whereas the maximum yield of AMG was 886.25 U gdm(-1).

  18. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  19. Hydraulic Actuator System for Rotor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz; Althaus, Josef

    1991-01-01

    In the last ten years, several different types of actuators were developed and fabricated for active control of rotors. A special hydraulic actuator system capable of generating high forces to rotating shafts via conventional bearings is addressed. The actively controlled hydraulic force actuator features an electrohydraulic servo valve which can produce amplitudes and forces at high frequencies necessary for influencing rotor vibrations. The mathematical description will be given in detail. The experimental results verify the theoretical model. Simulations already indicate the usefulness of this compact device for application to a real rotor system.

  20. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  1. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or brushing (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  2. Techniques for improving shuffler assay results for 55-gallon waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Prettyman, T.H.; Stuenkel, D.

    1994-08-01

    Accurate assays of the fissile contents in waste drums are needed to ensure the most proper and economical handling and disposal of the waste. An improvement of accuracy will mean fewer drums disposed as transuranic waste when they really contain low-level waste, saving both money and burial sites. Shufflers are used for assaying waste drums and are very accurate with nonmoderating matrices (such as iron). In the active mode they count delayed neutrons released after fissions are induced by irradiation neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. However, as the hydrogen density from matrices such as paper or gloves increases, the accuracy can suffer without proper attention. The neutron transport and fission probabilities change with the hydrogen density, causing the neutron count rate to vary with the position of the fissile material within the drum. The magnitude of this variation grows with the hydrogen density.

  3. Characterization of waste drums using nonintrusive active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Decman, D.J.; Camp, D.C.; Azevedo, S.G.; Keto, E.R.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a data acquisition scanner for gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) active and passive computed tomography (A&PCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner to acquire data sets of mock-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNIL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with gamma-ray spectroscopy assay, NDA imaging, describe the design and construction of an NDA drum scanner and report on code development for image reconstruction. We also present representative A&PCT assay results of well characterized mock-waste drums. These preliminary results suggest that A&PCT imaging can be used to produce accurate absolute assays of radioactivity in real-waste drums.

  4. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L.; Hensley, C.

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Compulsive Drumming Induced by Dopamine Agonists in Parkinson’s Disease: Another Aspect of Punding

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Carmine; Trojano, Luigi; Barone, Paolo; Errico, Domenico; Agosti, Valeria; Sorrentino, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a man affected by Parkinson’s disease who developed an unusual, severe, repetitive behavior characterized by an irrepressible need to drum and beat percussion instruments following to the introduction of pramipexole. This compulsive behavior was not associated to a pattern of chronic inappropriate overuse of dopaminergic medication or other psychiatric symptoms. Sharing many features with other repetitive behaviors, compulsive drumming might be considered a distinct manifestation of punding in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23242361

  6. Mercury concentrations in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from estuarine and offshore waters of Florida.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Onorato, Gregory V

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal muscle tissue from 712 red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from Florida waters were analyzed for total mercury content. Mercury levels detected in these red drum varied but in most study areas were usually lower than regulatory threshold guidelines. Total mercury levels in individual fish from all study areas ranged from 0.020 to 3.6 ppm (wet weight). Total mercury levels detected in red drum from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area were often higher than those in fish from all other estuarine study areas. Positive relationships between total mercury levels and fish size (length and weight) and fish age were observed in most Florida study areas, indicating that mercury levels tend to increase over time as red drum grow. The majority of large, mature red drum examined contained mercury levels greater than the 0.5-ppm threshold level set by the Florida Department of Health (DOH). Approximately 94% of all adult red drum from offshore waters adjacent to Tampa Bay contained mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level, and 64% contained levels greater than or equal to the DOH 1.5-ppm "no consumption" level. All fish from this area with mercury levels greater than 1.5 ppm were large individuals (670 mm SL). Eight percent of legal-size red drum from Florida waters contained total mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level. The majority (52%) of these legal-size fish greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm were from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area. In the Florida recreational fishery, the current maximum size limit for this species is an effective filter that prevents humans from consuming those red drum with the greatest likelihood of containing high mercury levels.

  7. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted.

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  9. Integration in Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    This paper presents an application of integration to the field of hydraulics. An integral relation for the time required to drop the fluid contained in a cylindrical tank from one level to another using a hole in the tank wall is derived. Procedures for constructing the experimental equipment and procedures for determining the coefficient of…

  10. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  11. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-03-02

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70{degrees} and 90{degrees}).

  12. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  13. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application.

  14. On the Hydraulics of Flowing Horizontal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, A.; Zhan, H.

    2003-12-01

    A flowing horizontal well is a special type of horizontal well that does not have pumping/injecting facility. The discharge rate of a flowing horizontal well is controlled by the hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the well and it generally varies with time if the hydraulic head of the aquifer is transient. This type of well has been used in landslide control, mining dewatering, water table control, underground water transportation through a horizontal tunnel, agricultural water drainage, and other applications. Flowing horizontal wells have quite different hydrodynamic characteristics from horizontal wells with fixed pumping or injecting rates because their discharge rates are functions of the aquifer hydraulic heads (Zhan et al, 2001; Zhan and Zlotnik, 2002). Hydraulics of flowing horizontal wells have rarely been studied although the hydraulics of flowing vertical wells have been extensively investigated before. The purpose of this paper is to obtain analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a flowing horizontal-well in a confined aquifer, in a water table aquifer without precipitation, and in a water table aquifer with precipitation. The functions of the flowing horizontal well discharge rates versus time will be obtained under above mentioned different aquifer conditions. The relationships of the aquifer hydraulic heads versus the discharge rates of the well will be investigated. The rate of water table decline due to the dewatering of the well will also be computed, and this solution is particularly useful for landslide control and mining dewatering. The theoretical solutions will be compared with results of experiments that will be conducted in the hydrological laboratory at Texas A&M University. Reference: Zhan, H., Wang, L.V., and Park, E, On the horizontal well pumping tests in the anisotropic confined aquifers, J. hydrol., 252, 37-50, 2001. Zhan, H., and Zlotnik, V. A., Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

  15. Hydraulic catworks system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.L.

    1981-03-03

    A hydraulic catworks system is described for use on a well drilling rig for making up and breaking out a drill string which includes a hydraulic makeup piston and cylinder assembly for actuating a makeup line connected to the makeup tongs, and a breakout piston and cylinder assembly connected to a breakout line for actuating the breakout tongs. A makeup hydraulic control valve controls hydraulic fluid to first and second lines connected to the makeup assembly with the first line connected for extending the makeup line and the second line connected for retracting the makeup line. A breakout hydraulic control valve controls fluid to third and fourth lines with the third line connected for extending the breakout line and the fourth line connected for retracting the breakout line. Manual air control means are provided for selectively actuating the makeup and breakout control valves. A variable pressure control is connected to the second line for controlling the makeup torque. Preferably, the makeup and breakout assemblies are vertically connected to the legs of the drilling rig and rollers are positioned horizontally with the makeup and breakout tongs and connected to the breakout and makeup lines. Preferably, a sheave is connected to the makeup assembly and the makeup line passes over the sheave with its free end fixedly secured. A re-generative system is provided on the makeup assembly for increasing the speed of the makeup line extension. Preferably the makeup and breakout cylinders are of the same cross-sectional area with the stroke of the breakout cylinder being less than the stroke of the makeup cylinder.

  16. Rotary drum composting of different organic waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kazmi, Absar A

    2009-03-01

    The effects of three different mixtures of organic waste on composting in a rotary drum were examined by measuring changes in physico-chemical and biological parameters. It was observed that the time courses of the three mixtures: run A (grass cuttings, vegetable waste and food waste), run B (cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust) and run C (cattle manure, food waste, vegetable waste, paper waste and sawdust) were quite diverse. Run B, with initial C/N ratio 22 and containing a large proportion of cattle manure produced high quality and mature compost within 20 days. It showed a final total nitrogen (2.1%), final total phosphorus 3.52 g kg(-1), final total organic carbon (TOC) (24.8%) and final moisture content (44%). At the end of 20 days, higher degradation led to final chemical oxygen demand (COD) (454 mg L(- 1)), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (107 mg L(- 1)), fecal coliform (1.2 x 10(2) bacteria g(- 1)), fecal streptococci (85 bacteria g(-1)) and low electrical conductivity (1.658 dS m(-1)), respectively. Furthermore, run C with initial C/N ratio of 30 and containing a larger amount of food and vegetable waste produced good quality compost and resulted in 4.34% total nitrogen and 2.42% total phosphorus after 20 days, but, it had higher final fecal coliform 2.5 x 10(4) bacteria g( -1), fecal streptococci 2.1 x 10(4) bacteria g(-1), high TOC and NH(4)-N and a BOD/COD ratio of 0.63, which rendered it hygienically unsafe and immature. Finally, run A with initial C/N ratio of 15 showed a higher amount of EC (4.84 dS m(-1)), NH(4)-N, BOD/COD ratio of 0.4 with 15% nitrogen loss, which indicated an unstable product even after 20 days of composting. Therefore, it was found that rotary drum composting of a combination of cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust resulted in a primary stabilized compost within 20 days of composting.

  17. 118. Stage basement. View, facing south, of the south hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Stage basement. View, facing south, of the south hydraulic ram (type D) in the middle row. Photo was taken before the stage flooring was removed. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. Model for polygonal hydraulic jumps.

    PubMed

    Martens, Erik A; Watanabe, Shinya; Bohr, Tomas

    2012-03-01

    We propose a phenomenological model for the polygonal hydraulic jumps discovered by Ellegaard and co-workers [Nature (London) 392, 767 (1998); Nonlinearity 12, 1 (1999); Physica B 228, 1 (1996)], based on the known flow structure for the type-II hydraulic jumps with a "roller" (separation eddy) near the free surface in the jump region. The model consists of mass conservation and radial force balance between hydrostatic pressure and viscous stresses on the roller surface. In addition, we consider the azimuthal force balance, primarily between pressure and viscosity, but also including nonhydrostatic pressure contributions from surface tension in light of recent observations by Bush and co-workers [J. Fluid Mech. 558, 33 (2006); Phys. Fluids 16, S4 (2004)]. The model can be analyzed by linearization around the circular state, resulting in a parameter relationship for nearly circular polygonal states. A truncated but fully nonlinear version of the model can be solved analytically. This simpler model gives rise to polygonal shapes that are very similar to those observed in experiments, even though surface tension is neglected, and the condition for the existence of a polygon with N corners depends only on a single dimensionless number φ. Finally, we include time-dependent terms in the model and study linear stability of the circular state. Instability occurs for sufficiently small Bond number and the most unstable wavelength is expected to be roughly proportional to the width of the roller as in the Rayleigh-Plateau instability.

  19. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Harry E.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Hollerbach, Karin; Logan, Clinton M.; Ashby, Elaine; Bernardi, Richard

    1999-12-02

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed, 1.) Our computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. 2.) We are developing NDE and NDA techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  20. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C.

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  1. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, E; Bernardi, R; Hollerbach, K; Logan, C; Martz, H; Roberson, G P

    1999-06-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have been increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed. (1) The computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. (2) They are developing NDE and NDE techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  2. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  3. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). RED DRUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RANGE MORPHOLOGY/IDENTIFICATION AIDS Scientific name ............ Sciaenops The red drum has 11 spines on the ocellatus (Linnaeus) dorsal fin (the 11th...34 prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The red drum ( Sciaenops k- .. ocellatus ) is an estuarine dependent species. It spends its...oescriptors Estuaries Growth Fishes Feeding .. Idetrf..rs/Ole. .Ended Tamn-, Red drum Habitat requirements Sciaenops ocellatus Spawning Temperature

  4. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  5. Source Test Report for the 205 Delayed Coking Unit Drum 205-1201 and Drum 205-1202 Depressurization Vents (Marathon Petroleum Company LLC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2010 Source Test was performed during the atmospheric depressurization step of the delayed coking process prior to the removal of petroleum coke from the coke drum. The 205 DCU was operated under a variety of conditions during the 2010 Source Test.

  6. CFD Aided Design and Production of Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alper; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Demirel, Gizem; Ayli, Ece; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are turbo machines which produce electricity from hydraulic energy. Francis type turbines are the most common one in use today. The design of these turbines requires high engineering effort since each turbine is tailor made due to different head and discharge. Therefore each component of the turbine is designed specifically. During the last decades, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become very useful tool to predict hydraulic machinery performance and save time and money for designers. This paper describes a design methodology to optimize a Francis turbine by integrating theoretical and experimental fundamentals of hydraulic machines and commercial CFD codes. Specific turbines are designed and manufactured with the help of a collaborative CFD/CAD/CAM methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and five-axis machining for hydraulic electric power plants. The details are presented in this study. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  7. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  8. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  9. Production of elemental sulfur and bentonite clay granules in a rotary drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Ian Wallace

    Biological oxidation of sulfur granules is a critical component in elemental sulfur fertilizers since it converts sulfur to plant available sulfate. The level of biological oxidation is, in turn, regulated by the size and surface area of the sulfur granules. The aim of this research was to produce coarse sulfur granules that disintegrate to the correct particle size for biological oxidation, as well as the correct size for ballistic distribution from a spreader. Thus the interaction between mineral powders such as serpentine rock was investigated to get a better understanding of how these types of minerals react at different size fractions in granulation. Sulfur granules were developed from mixtures of 10% sodium bentonite clay with molten elemental sulfur. This was accomplished by sprayed a mixture bentonite and elemental sulfur into a falling curtain of fine material powder within a rotating drum. When comparing the seed materials, the serpentine rock showed sufficiently lower electrostatic build-up than phosphate rock. Serpentine rock also appears to help facilitate the disintegration of the granules when they are exposed to water. The outcome of the research was that it is possible to make a granulated sulfur fertilizer that had the correct size fraction and disintegration characteristics suitable for agronomic use.

  10. The hydraulic windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browing, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    An hydraulic windmill is described. It pumps pressurized oil from rotor shaft level to the ground where a motor generator produces electricity. Alternatively, the useful output may be heat. Rotor speed is governed by a flow valve. Over pressure, the result of high wind velocity, rotates the tail to move the rotor blades out-of-the-wind. Loss of oil pressure causes a brake to close as well as to swing the tail to its maximum distance from the rotor plane.

  11. Hydraulic Actuator Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    Hydraulic Actuator Project Stakeholder meeting held 7- 8 October in Los Angeles; 58 attendees representing aircraft and actuator OEMs, seal...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory,4555 Overlook Ave., SW ,Washington,DC,20375 8 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8 -98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Actuator JTP: Coupon Testing Substrate

  12. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  13. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  14. Hydraulic friction heat generator

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtry, R.V.

    1987-08-11

    A hydraulic friction heat generator filled with hydraulic heat transfer fluid is described which consists of: a cylindrical housing with a central axis through its interior and with end plates generally normal to the central axis, the generator having an inlet conduit means and an outlet conduit means located at opposite ends of the cylindrical housing thereof; a drive shaft bearingly mounted in each of the end plates in coaxial alignment with the central axis and passing through one of the end plates to extend outwardly therefrom; an external power source joined to the extended shaft for rotating the shaft; and smooth-surfaced thin discs with outer generally annular peripheral edges closely-spaced from the inner wall of the cylindrical housing, the discs being fixedly mounted in axially spaced relationship on the drive shaft to be rotated thereby in a single direction, with no stationary elements interposed between the discs, each disc having at least two radially-oriented slits partially transecting the disc to extend inward from the disc peripheral edges, and the discs having a portion of each disc on one side of the slit feathered outward from the plane of the disc to form a vane for turbulently forcing the hydraulic fluid axially toward the outlet conduit means.

  15. Dietary arginine requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) based on weight gain and feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Barziza, D E; Buentello, J A; Gatlin, D M

    2000-07-01

    Increasing aquacultural production of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) has prompted the determination of many of this species' nutritional requirements. However, limited information is available concerning its amino acid requirements, especially for arginine. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted with juvenile red drum to determine their quantitative dietary requirement for arginine. Experimental diets contained 35 g crude protein/100 g from red drum muscle and crystalline amino acids. Incremental levels of arginine were added to the diets in place of a mixture of glycine and aspartic acid to maintain all diets isonitrogenous. All diets were fed in triplicate to juvenile red drum for 7 wk. Graded levels of arginine significantly (P < 0.05) affected weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and plasma arginine levels of the fish. Based on least-squares regression of feed efficiency and PER data, the minimum requirement (+/- SEM) of red drum for arginine was estimated at 1.44 (+/- 0.15) and 1.48 (+/- 0.12) g/100 g diet (4.11 and 4.23 g/100 g dietary protein), respectively. The arginine requirements estimated from weight gain data were 1.75 (+/- 0.18) g/100 g diet or 5.0 g/100 g dietary protein. These values are similar to those reported for other carnivorous fish species.

  16. A computer model of gas generation and transport within TRU waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    1988-06-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict radiolytic gas generation and transport within Transuranic (TRU) waste drums and surrounding enclosures. Gas generation from the radiolytic decomposition of organic material contaminated with plutonium is modeled and the concentrations of gas throughout the waste drum and enclosures are determined using a diffusional transport model. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured gas concentrations. With polyethylene waste in unvented drums, the model predicts that the concentration of hydrogen gas can exceed 4 mole percent (lower flammable limit) with only about 5 curies of plutonium. If the drum liner is punctured and an unrestricted 0.75-in. carbon composite filter vent is installed in the drum lid, the plutonium loading can be increased to 240 Ci without generating flammable gas mixtures. Larger diameter filters can be used to increase the curie loading. The model has been used to show that shipments of 1000 Ci of plutonium-238 contaminated waste from Savannah River to the WIPP site are feasible using the TRUPACT shipping container. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    SciTech Connect

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C.; Bachelet, F.

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  18. Turbulent Motion of Liquids in Hydraulic Resistances with a Linear Cylindrical Slide-Valve.

    PubMed

    Velescu, C; Popa, N C

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the motion of viscous and incompressible liquids in the annular space of controllable hydraulic resistances with a cylindrical linear slide-valve. This theoretical study focuses on the turbulent and steady-state motion regimes. The hydraulic resistances mentioned above are the most frequent type of hydraulic resistances used in hydraulic actuators and automation systems. To study the liquids' motion in the controllable hydraulic resistances with a linear cylindrical slide-valve, the report proposes an original analytic method. This study can similarly be applied to any other type of hydraulic resistance. Another purpose of this study is to determine certain mathematical relationships useful to approach the theoretical functionality of hydraulic resistances with magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. In this report, we established general analytic equations to calculate (i) velocity and pressure distributions, (ii) average velocity, (iii) volume flow rate of the liquid, (iv) pressures difference, and (v) radial clearance.

  19. Turbulent Motion of Liquids in Hydraulic Resistances with a Linear Cylindrical Slide-Valve

    PubMed Central

    Velescu, C.; Popa, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the motion of viscous and incompressible liquids in the annular space of controllable hydraulic resistances with a cylindrical linear slide-valve. This theoretical study focuses on the turbulent and steady-state motion regimes. The hydraulic resistances mentioned above are the most frequent type of hydraulic resistances used in hydraulic actuators and automation systems. To study the liquids' motion in the controllable hydraulic resistances with a linear cylindrical slide-valve, the report proposes an original analytic method. This study can similarly be applied to any other type of hydraulic resistance. Another purpose of this study is to determine certain mathematical relationships useful to approach the theoretical functionality of hydraulic resistances with magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. In this report, we established general analytic equations to calculate (i) velocity and pressure distributions, (ii) average velocity, (iii) volume flow rate of the liquid, (iv) pressures difference, and (v) radial clearance. PMID:26167532

  20. The effect of otolith malformation on behavior and cortisol levels in juvenile red drum fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Browning, Zoe S; Wilkes, Allison A; Moore, Erica J; Lancon, Trevor W; Clubb, Fred J

    2012-08-01

    Captive-raised red drum fish were observed with phenotypic abnormalities, including deformities of the spine, jaw, and cephalic region, that were consistent with vitamin C deficiency during the larval stage. In light of their visible exterior skeletal abnormalities, we suspected that the affected fish would also have abnormal otoliths. Otoliths are dense calcareous structures that function in fish hearing. We hypothesized that abnormal fish would have irregular otoliths that would alter behavior and cortisol levels as compared with those of phenotypically normal fish. The normal and abnormal fish had statistically significant differences in behavior, cortisol levels, and otolith volume and density. MicroCT assessment of abnormal fish revealed operculum abnormalities, malocclusions, and several types of otolith malformations. Therefore, the affected fish had not only an abnormal skeletal appearance but also significantly abnormal behavior and cortisol responses.

  1. Large Scale Geologic Controls on Hydraulic Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, J. D.; Bhide, R.

    2014-12-01

    When simulating a hydraulic fracturing, the analyst has historically prescribed a single planar fracture. Originally (in the 1950s through the 1970s) this was necessitated by computational restrictions. In the latter part of the twentieth century, hydraulic fracture simulation evolved to incorporate vertical propagation controlled by modulus, fluid loss, and the minimum principal stress. With improvements in software, computational capacity, and recognition that in-situ discontinuities are relevant, fully three-dimensional hydraulic simulation is now becoming possible. Advances in simulation capabilities enable coupling structural geologic data (three-dimensional representation of stresses, natural fractures, and stratigraphy) with decision making processes for stimulation - volumes, rates, fluid types, completion zones. Without this interaction between simulation capabilities and geological information, low permeability formation exploitation may linger on the fringes of real economic viability. Comparative simulations have been undertaken in varying structural environments where the stress contrast and the frequency of natural discontinuities causes varying patterns of multiple, hydraulically generated or reactivated flow paths. Stress conditions and nature of the discontinuities are selected as variables and are used to simulate how fracturing can vary in different structural regimes. The basis of the simulations is commercial distinct element software (Itasca Corporation's 3DEC).

  2. Gas Transfer in Hydraulic Jumps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    gas transfer based on measurements made in a hydraulic model. 5. Hydraulic jumps are flow phenomena that are part of the energy dissipation design at...gas transfer to energy dissipation. In a hydraulic jump, the energy loss is related to the Froude number of incoming flow. Fig- ures 15, 16, and 17...number in a similar manner for each of the unit discharges tested. As energy dissipation and Froude number in- creased, gas loss increased for a

  3. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  4. Fireproof Hydraulic Brake System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    UC C C U L 77 L D-R163 542 FIREPROOF HYDRAULIC DRAKE SYSTEN(U) BOEING NILITARY 21𔃾 AIRPLANE CO SEATTLE MA 0 M NULING ET AL. OCT 85 RFURL-TR-85-2072...aFrom reference 2, Appendix A A Table 3.2 bModulus of elasticity = 28,000,000 lb/in 2 CBulk modulus = 16,000 lb/in2 118...a CRT, line printer and other peripheral equipment. Figure C.2 shows the relationships and communication links between the elements within the

  5. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  6. Ringlike spin segregation of binary mixtures in a high-velocity rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decai, Huang; Ming, Lu; Gang, Sun; Yaodong, Feng; Min, Sun; Haiping, Wu; Kaiming, Deng

    2012-03-01

    This study presents molecular dynamics simulations on the segregation of binary mixtures in a high-velocity rotating drum. Depending on the ratio between the particle radius and density, similarities to the Brazil-nut effect and its reverse form are shown in the ringlike spin segregation patterns in radial direction. The smaller and heavier particles accumulated toward the drum wall, whereas the bigger and lighter particles accumulated toward the drum center. The effects of particle radius and density on the segregation states were quantified and the phase diagram of segregation in the ρb/ρs - rb/rs space was plotted. The observed phenomena can be explained by the combined percolation and the buoyancy effects.

  7. Lanthanide nano-drums: a new class of molecular nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard A; Gnanam, Annie J; Arambula, Jonathan F; Jones, Jessica N; Swaminathan, Jagannath; Yang, Xiaoping; Schipper, Desmond; Hall, Justin W; DePue, Lauren J; Dieye, Yakhya; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chandler, Don J; Marcotte, Edward M; Sessler, Jonathan L; Ehrlich, Lauren I R; Brown, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a new class of lanthanide-based self-assembling molecular nanoparticles as potential reporter molecules for imaging, and as multi-functional nanoprobes or nanosensors in diagnostic systems. These lanthanide "nano-drums" are homogeneous 4d-4f clusters approximately 25 to 30 Å in diameter that can emit from the visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Here, we present syntheses, crystal structures, photophysical properties, and comparative cytotoxicity data for six nano-drums containing either Eu, Tb, Lu, Er, Yb or Ho. Imaging capabilities of these nano-drums are demonstrated using epifluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), and two-photon microscopy. We discuss how these molecular nanoparticles can to be adapted for a range of assays, particularly by taking advantage of functionalization strategies with chemical moieties to enable conjugation to protein or nucleic acids.

  8. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report.

  9. Tertiary volcanic rocks and uranium in the Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains, Juab County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.

    1982-01-01

    The Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains have a history of volcanism, faulting, and mineralization that began about 42 m.y. (million years) ago. Volcanic activity and mineralization in the area can be divided into three stages according to the time-related occurrence of rock types, trace-element associations, and chemical composition of mineral deposits. Compositions of volcanic rocks changed abruptly from rhyodacite-quartz latite (42-39 m.y. ago) to rhyolite (38-32 m.y. ago) to alkali rhyolite (21 and 6-7 m.y. ago); these stages correspond to periods of chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, no mineralization(?), and lithophile metal mineralization, respectively. Angular unconformities record episodes of cauldron collapse and block faulting between the stages of volcanic activity and mineralization. The youngest angular unconformity formed between 21 and 7 m.y. ago during basin-and-range faulting. Early rhyodacite-quartz latite volcanism from composite volcanoes and fissures produced flows, breccias, and ash-flow tuff of the Drum Mountains Rhyodacite and Mt. Laird Tuff. Eruption of the Mt. Laird Tuff about 39 m.y. ago from an area north of Joy townsite was accompanied by collapse of the Thomas caldera. Part of the roof of the magma chamber did not collapse, or the magma was resurgent, as is indicated by porphyry dikes and plugs in the Drum Mountains. Chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, resulting in deposits of copper, gold, and manganese, accompanied early volcanism. Te middle stage of volcanic activity was characterized by explosive eruption of rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and collapse of the Dugway Valley cauldron. Eruption of the Joy Tuff 38 m.y. ago was accompanied by subsidence of this cauldron and was followed by collapse and sliding of Paleozoic rocks from the west wall of the cauldron. Landslides in The Dell were covered by the Dell Tuff, erupted 32 m.y. ago from an unknown source to the east. An ash flow of the Needles Range

  10. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with...) All material in a hydraulic system must be suitable for use with the hydraulic fluid used and must...

  11. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at least... material in a hydraulic system must be suitable for use with the hydraulic fluid used and must be of...

  12. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with...) All material in a hydraulic system must be suitable for use with the hydraulic fluid used and must...

  13. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at least... material in a hydraulic system must be suitable for use with the hydraulic fluid used and must be of...

  14. Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbery, Richard

    This guide is designed to assist industrial vocational instructors in teaching a course on fluid power and basic hydraulics. Covered in the unit on the basics of fluid power and hydraulics are the following topics: the fundamentals of fluid power and hydraulics, basic hydraulic circuits, and servicing a hydraulic jack. The second unit, consisting…

  15. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  16. Results of the gamma-neutron mapper performance test on 55-gallon drums at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Roybal, L.G.; Svoboda, J.M.; Harker, D.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Carpenter, M.V.; Josten, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The primary purpose of the gamma-neutron mapper (G@) is to provide accurate and quantitative spatial information of the gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields as a function of position about the excavation of a radioactive waste site. The GNM is designed to operate remotely and can be delivered to any point on an excavation by the robotic gantry crane developed by the dig-face project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). It can also be easily adapted to other delivery systems. The GNM can be deployed over a waste site at a predetermined scan rate and has sufficient accuracy to identify and quantify radioactive contaminants of importance. The results reported herein are from a performance test conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area, Building 628, of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex located at the INEL. This building is an active interim-storage area for 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning a stack of drums five high by five wide. Prior to the test, radiation fields were measured by a health physicist at the center of the drums and ranged from 0.5 mR/h to 35 mR/h. Scans of the drums using the GNM were taken at standoff distances from the vertical drum stack of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans and a comparison of these results with the manifests of these drums are compared and discussed.

  17. Drumming as a Medium to Promote Emotional and Social Functioning of Children in Middle Childhood in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Kim; van Niekerk, Caroline; le Roux, Liana

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential of drumming to enhance emotional and social functioning of children in residential care. Fifteen children (aged 7-12) from a child and youth care centre in South Africa attended four months of weekly drumming sessions. Gestalt theory principles informed the workshops' theoretical foundation and interpretation of…

  18. An ABC of Drumming: Children's Narratives about Beat, Rhythm and Groove in a Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I use a bricolage of arts-based research and writing practices to explore narratives by Grade 4 children about their experiences in a drumming circle called "Bam Bam" as represented in a text they created with me called An ABC of drumming. The term "narrative" is used here in a contemporary sense to…

  19. 110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON RIGHT; ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Hazardous Waste Characterization Survey of Unknown Drums at the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing, Elmendorf and Shemya Air Force Bases, and Galena and King Salmon Airports, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    identified by the base bioenvironmental engineer. 2 DISCUSSION Method The field work consisted of two tasks: screening all drums for waste oil and sampling...drums. At Elmendorf AFB the waste oil drums were marked to be processed through a recycle program by an Armstrong Laboratory contractor. For Shemya, the...constant Artic winds. At Galena the drums were physically moved to an adjacent waste oil storage area for use as fuel in waste oil burners being

  2. Rolling, Sliding and Mixing of a 2D Granular Media in a Thin Vertical Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolsky, Daniel; Galbreath, Ashford; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.

    2000-11-01

    Even for a relatively small number of particles, interactions of collision and friction complicate the understanding of the dynamics in granular flows. A rich assortment of interesting dynamics is exhibited in a 2D experiment of stainless steel disks contained in a rotating, thin, vertical drum. Analysis of high-speed and high-resolution photography reveals various distributions of translational and rotational kinetic energy within the granular flow as the number of particles in the drum is increased. A detailed examination of the collective behavior in this experiment is important for understanding mixing in granular flows.

  3. Short-term physiological responses of wild and hatchery-produced red drum during angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallman, E.A.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1999-01-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolalities increased in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (26.0-65.5 cm total length) during angling in estuarine waters (17-33 g/L salinity, 21-31??C). Angling time varied from as fast as possible (10 s) to the point when fish ceased resisting (up to 350 s). The increases in the physiological characteristics were similar in wild and hatchery-produced fish. This study indicates that hatchery-produced red drum may be used in catch-and-release studies to simulate the responses of wild fish.

  4. Analysis of a boron-carbide-drum-controlled critical reactor experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    In order to validate methods and cross sections used in the neutronic design of compact fast-spectrum reactors for generating electric power in space, an analysis of a boron-carbide-drum-controlled critical reactor was made. For this reactor the transport analysis gave generally satisfactory results. The calculated multiplication factor for the most detailed calculation was only 0.7-percent Delta k too high. Calculated reactivity worth of the control drums was $11.61 compared to measurements of $11.58 by the inverse kinetics methods and $11.98 by the inverse counting method. Calculated radial and axial power distributions were in good agreement with experiment.

  5. Natural mortality rates of freshwater drum larvae in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Hergenrader, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Instantaneous total mortality rates for planktonic larval freshwater drums (Aplodinotus grunniens) in a channelized stretch of the Missouri River were estimated from analyses of cumulative catch curves. Mortality rates, which ranged from 0.11 to 0.21 per day, were significantly greater in 1976 than in 1974. Basing our interpretation on the underrepresentation of eggs and early larvae in the channelized river samples, we hypothesize that favorable environments upstream represent a more significant source of recruitment of larvae to the freshwater drum population than the channelized river.

  6. Hydraulic tests with direct-push equipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; Healey, J.M.; McCall, G.W.; Garnett, E.J.; Loheide, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    The potential of direct-push technology for hydraulic characterization of saturated flow systems was investigated at a field site with a considerable degree of subsurface control. Direct-push installations were emplaced by attaching short lengths of screen (shielded and unshielded) to the bottom end of a tool string that was then advanced into the unconsolidated sediments. A series of constant-rate pumping tests were performed in a coarse sand and gravel aquifer using direct-push tool strings as observation wells. Very good agreement (within 4%) was found between hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates from direct-push installations and those from conventional wells. A program of slug tests was performed in direct-push installations using small-diameter adaptations of solid-slug and pneumatic methods. In a sandy silt interval of moderate hydraulic conductivity, K values from tests in a shielded screen tool were in excellent agreement (within 2%) with those from tests in a nearby well. In the coarse sand and gravel aquifer, K values were within 12% of those from multilevel slug tests at a nearby well. However, in the more permeable portions of the aquifer (K > 70 m/day), the smaller-diameter direct-push rods (0.016 m inner diameter [I.D.]) attenuated test responses, leading to an underprediction of K. In those conditions, use of larger-diameter rods (e.g., 0.038 m I.D.) is necessary to obtain K values representative of the formation. This investigation demonstrates that much valuable information can be obtained from hydraulic tests in direct-push installations. As with any type of hydraulic test, K estimates are critically dependent on use of appropriate emplacement and development procedures. In particular, driving an unshielded screen through a heterogeneous sequence will often lead to a buildup of low-K material that can be difficult to remove with standard development procedures.

  7. Relationship between Anisotropy in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is saturation-dependent. Accurate characterization of soil anisotropy is very important in simulating flow and contaminant (e.g., radioactive nuclides in Hanford) transport. A recently developed tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (TCT) concept describes the hydraulic conductivity tensor of the unsaturated anisotropic soils as the product of a scalar variable, the symmetric connectivity tortuosity tensor, and the hydraulic conductivity tensor at saturation. In this study, the TCT model is used to quantify soil anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The TCT model can describe different types of soil anisotropy; e.g., the anisotropy coefficient, C, can be monotonically increase or decrease with saturation and can vary from greater than unity to less than unity and vice versa. Soil anisotropy is independent of soil water retention properties and can be characterized by the ratio of the saturated hydraulic conductivities and the difference of the tortuosity-connectivity coefficients in two directions. ln(C) is linearly proportional to ln(Se) with Se being the effective saturation. The log-linear relationship between C and Se allows the saturation-dependent anisotropy to be determined using linear regression with the measurements of the directional hydraulic conductivities at a minimum of two water content levels, of which one may be at full saturation. The model was tested using measurements of directional hydraulic conductivities.

  8. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayler, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report details some recent field measurements and compares predicted and measured values of hydraulic conductivities for three locations at the Hanford Site. Measurements from small (6-cm-dia) /open quotes/point/close quotes/ and large (2-m by 2-m) /open quotes/plot/close quotes/ areas utilized inflitration and drainage techniques to obtain in situ data for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The Guelph permeameter was used for point sampling, and the unsteady drainage-flux method was used on plots for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measurements. Steady-state techniques were used to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in small columns in the laboratory for one of the three soils tested to provide a comparison with data obtained from the field. Measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and those predicted from particle-size distribution and bulk density data agree within one-half to one and one-half orders of magnitude, depending on soil type. To use a particle-size distribution to estimate water retention characteristics and, subsequently, to predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, measurements of water-retention characteristics are necessary to determine a parameter value used in one of the models. No single method for measuring or calculating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities was found appropriate for all Hanford Site soils. Ideally, several methods should be used to take advantage of the strengths of each method, considering the data needs and resources available. 45 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easily.

    PubMed

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter "accidentally" dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.

  10. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  11. Temporal Variation in Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Antibodies in Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) Indicates Cyclic Transmission in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Rothering, Anna; Marcquenski, Susan; Koenigs, Ryan; Bruch, Ronald; Kamke, Kendall; Isermann, Daniel; Thurman, Andrew; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an emerging pathogen that causes mass mortality in multiple fish species. In 2007, the Great Lakes freshwater strain, type IVb, caused a large die-off of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, USA. To evaluate the persistence and transmission of VHSV, freshwater drum from Lake Winnebago were tested for antibodies to the virus using recently developed virus neutralization (VN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Samples were also tested by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect viral RNA. Of 548 serum samples tested, 44 (8.03%) were positive by VN (titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:1,024) and 45 (8.21%) were positive by ELISA, including 7 fish positive by both assays. Antibody prevalence increased with age and was higher in one northwestern area of Lake Winnebago than in other areas. Of 3,864 tissues sampled from 551 fish, 1 spleen and 1 kidney sample from a single adult female fish collected in the spring of 2012 tested positive for VHSV by rRT-PCR, and serum from the same fish tested positive by VN and ELISA. These results suggest that VHSV persists and viral transmission may be active in Lake Winnebago even in years following outbreaks and that wild fish may survive VHSV infection and maintain detectable antibody titers while harboring viral RNA. Influxes of immunologically naive juvenile fish through recruitment may reduce herd immunity, allow VHSV to persist, and drive superannual cycles of transmission that may sporadically manifest as fish kills. PMID:26135873

  12. An Experimental Investigation into the Effects of the Anisotropy of Shale on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chong; He, Jianming; Li, Xiao; Wan, Xiaole; Zheng, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a key technology in the exploitation of shale gas. Shale formations are a type of typical transverse isotropic material. The mechanisms that generate complex fracture networks during the fracturing process are of vital importance to hydraulic fracturing design. In this article, in order to analyze the effects of the anisotropic characteristics on the propagation of hydraulic fractures in shale formations, a series of hydraulic fracturing experiments were carried out with different stress conditions and injection rates. The effects of the anisotropic structure on the propagation of hydraulic fractures were revealed. The results show that the breakdown pressure increases with an increase in the injection rate of the fracturing fluid. It is suggested that the bedding plane angle of the shale formation has a great influence on the fracturing results. Additionally, as the deviator stress increases, the breakdown pressure decreases. From macroscopic observation of the fractures, different hydraulic fracture morphologies and hydraulic fracture propagation patterns were observed.

  13. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  14. Coarse coal hydraulic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Petry, E.F.

    1982-10-01

    Discusses the development of coarse coal pipeline technology requiring a minimum of product size reduction. Initial concentration on continuous face haulage and later on mainline haulage areas led eventually to the system in operation at Loveridge mine in West Virginia. Key features of the hydraulic transport system (as shown in diagram) include the pump house, vertical hoisting, overland slurry lines, a preparation/ dewatering plant, a continuous miner, a coal crusher/injection vehicle, a flexible hose hauler, a rigid slurry line, a longwall injection station, and a slurry storage/reclaim system. Explains that the system was built primarily to serve a longwall face, but it also handles coal from 2 continuous miners on longwall development work.

  15. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME BENTONITES IN ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi

    A high-level radioactive waste disposal facility might be built in a coastal area in Japan from the viewpoint of feasible transportation of waste. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of seawater on a bentonite-based buffer. This study investigated the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of three common sodium-types of bentonite and one calcium-type bentonite by the laboratory experiments. From the results of laboratory experiment, this study discussed the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of bentonites from the viewpoints of kinds of bentonite such as exchangeable-cation type and montmorillonite content and dry density of bentonite-based buffer.

  16. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... be the same. (d) Linings and pads. The thickness of the brake linings or pads shall meet...

  17. 77 FR 47840 - American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... the settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name American... AGENCY American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement... Company Superfund Site located in Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee. DATES: The Agency will...

  18. PCR primer pairs for 100 microsatellites in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were isolated and characterized. Eight of the microsatellites had tetra-nucleotide motifs, while 92 had di-nucleotide motifs. The average number of alleles at the 100 microsatellites among a sa...

  19. Process and formulation effects on solar thermal drum dried prune pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing of dried plums into prune juice and concentrate yields prune pomace as a coproduct; the pomace could potentially be utilized as a food ingredient but requires stabilization for long-term storage. Drum drying is one method that could be used to dry and stabilize prune pomace, and a dru...

  20. Drums and Poems: An Intervention Promoting Empathic Connection and Literacy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Expressive therapies can be used with groups of children to increase empathy and reduce bullying and violence. When educators feel pressured to focus on standardized tests and basic skills, there is little attention and time for such programs. Drums and Poems is an intervention that counselors and teachers can use to address these problems by…

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  6. 5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  8. Low-head recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile red drum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Center for Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute-FAU (HBOI-FAU) are collaborating to evaluate low-head recirculating aquaculture system designs to intensively produce red drum juveniles as part of the Florida Fish an...

  9. Dyadic Drumming across the Lifespan Reveals a Zone of Proximal Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn, Anna; Riediger, Michaela; Schmiedek, Florian; von Oertzen, Timo; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Many social interactions require the synchronization--be it automatically or intentionally--of one's own behavior with that of others. Using a dyadic drumming paradigm, the authors delineate lifespan differences in interpersonal action synchronization (IAS). Younger children, older children, younger adults, and older adults in same- and mixed-age…

  10. A UK comparison for measurements of low levels of gamma-emitters in waste drums.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian

    2009-05-01

    Much of the work of the UK nuclear industry is now concerned with decommissioning many of the existing power stations and other facilities. An important aspect of this work is the accurate measurement of low levels of radioactivity in waste forms such as building materials in order that these materials can be assigned to the correct waste streams. This has led to a call for suitable standards and reference materials, and the specific needs of UK users were identified at an NPL workshop in 2005. One of the highest priorities was for 'soft waste' spiked with gamma-emitters in a 200 L drum format, with an activity concentration of just under 0.4 Bq g(-1). In response, NPL prepared a single reference drum meeting this specification. The low density was achieved by loading the drum with plastic bottles, each partially loaded with ion-exchange resin. The resin in each bottle had been previously spiked with a mixture of (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co, all traceable to national standards. The drum would be used primarily as the basis of a comparison exercise, but feedback on its usefulness as a calibration standard would also be sought. The drum was measured by 17 radioassay groups at 15 UK sites. The monitors used were mostly commercial gamma-spectrometry systems designed to accommodate waste drums. Some groups measured the drum on more than one monitor and some used more than one efficiency calibration. Many of the groups used mathematical modelling to derive their efficiencies. The results of the exercise were discussed at a second NPL workshop (2007), after which the participants were allowed to submit supplementary or replacement results (with reasons for any changes clearly stated). In total, 88 results were submitted. A total of 51 results were in agreement with the NPL values; of the remaining results, 24 were explained by the participants concerned (or were revised to provide supplementary values), but the other 13 results were either clearly discrepant or

  11. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE HYDROGEN DATA & ACCUMULATION OF HYDROGEN IN UNVENTED TRANSURANIC (TRU) DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    DAYLEY, L

    2004-06-24

    This document provides a response to the second action required in the approval for the Justification for Continued Operations (JCO) Assay and Shipment of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers in 218-W-4C. The Waste Management Project continues to make progress toward shipping certified TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As the existing inventory of TRU waste in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) storage buildings is shipped, and the uncovered inventory is removed from the trenches and prepared for shipment from the Hanford Site, the covered inventory of suspect TRU wastes must be retrieved and prepared for processing for shipment to WIPP. Accumulation of hydrogen in unvented TRU waste containers is a concern due to the possibility of explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. The frequency and consequence of these gas mixtures resulting in an explosion must be addressed. The purpose of this study is to recommend an approach and schedule for venting TRU waste containers in the low-level burial ground (LLBG) trenches in conjunction with TRU Retrieval Project activities. This study provides a detailed analysis of the expected probability of hydrogen gas accumulation in significant quantities in unvented drums. Hydrogen gas accumulation in TRU drums is presented and evaluated in the following three categories: Hydrogen concentrations less than 5 vol%; Hydrogen between 5-15 vol%; and Hydrogen concentrations above 15 vol%. This analysis is based on complex-wide experience with TRU waste drums, available experimental data, and evaluations of storage conditions. Data reviewed in this report includes experience from the Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratories (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, (ORNL), Rocky Flats sites, Matrix Depletion Program and the National Transportation and Packaging Program. Based on this analysis, as well as an assessment of the probability and

  12. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    PubMed

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  13. Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.

  14. Results for the Independent Sampling and Analysis of Used Oil Drums at the Impact Services Facility in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), via the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, perform independent sampling and analysis of used oils contained within eight 55 gallon drums stored at the former IMPACT Services facility, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These drums were originally delivered by LATA Sharp Remediation Services (LSRS) to IMPACT Services on January 11, 2011 as part of the Bldg. K-33 demolition project, and the drums plus contents should have been processed as non-hazardous non-radiological waste by IMPACT Services. LSRS received a certificate of destruction on August 29, 2012 (LSRS 2012a). However, IMPACT Services declared bankruptcy and abandoned the site later in 2012, and eight of the original eleven K-33 drums are currently stored at the facility. The content of these drums is the subject of this investigation. The original drum contents were sampled by LSRS in 2010 and analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using both compositing and grab sampling techniques. The objective of this 2013 sample and analysis effort was to duplicate, to the extent possible, the 2010 sampling and analysis event to support final disposition decisions. Part of that decision process includes either verifying or refuting the assertion that oils that are currently stored in drums at the IMPACT Services facility originated from Bldg. K-33 equipment.

  15. Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.

    PubMed Central

    Ahtiainen, Jari J.; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

    2004-01-01

    One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small

  16. Granular avalanches in a two-dimensional rotating drum with imposed vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amon, Daniel L.; Niculescu, Tatiana; Utter, Brian C.

    2013-07-01

    We present statistics on granular avalanches in a rotating drum with and without imposed vertical vibration. The experiment consists of a quasi-two-dimensional, vertical drum containing pentagonal particles and rotated at a constant angular velocity. The drum rests on an electromagnetic shaker to allow vibration of the assembly as it rotates. We measure time series of the slope of the interface and find that the critical angle for slope failure θc and the resulting angle of repose θr are broadly distributed with an approximate power-law distribution of avalanches θc-θr for large avalanches. The faceted pentagonal grains used lead to significant interlocking with critical and repose angles (θc≈45∘ and θr≈39∘) larger than experiments using spherical grains, even with vibration, and avalanche magnitudes correlated with the prior build-up and anti-correlated with the prior avalanche. We find that the stability of the assembly increases with small vibrations and is destabilized at vibration amplitudes above a dimensionless acceleration (peak acceleration divided by acceleration due to gravity) of Γ=0.2. We also study history dependence of the avalanches by periodically oscillating the drum to compare the initial avalanche upon reversal of shear to steady-state distributions for avalanches during continuous rotation. We observe history dependence as an initial decrease in critical angle upon reversal of the drum rotation direction, indicating that a texture is induced to resist continued shear such that the surface is weaker to reversals in shear direction. Memory of this history is removed by sufficient external vibration (Γ≥0.8), which leads to compaction and relaxation of the surface layer grains responsible for avalanching dynamics, as initial and steady-state avalanche distributions become indistinguishable.

  17. Granular avalanches in a two-dimensional rotating drum with imposed vertical vibration.

    PubMed

    Amon, Daniel L; Niculescu, Tatiana; Utter, Brian C

    2013-07-01

    We present statistics on granular avalanches in a rotating drum with and without imposed vertical vibration. The experiment consists of a quasi-two-dimensional, vertical drum containing pentagonal particles and rotated at a constant angular velocity. The drum rests on an electromagnetic shaker to allow vibration of the assembly as it rotates. We measure time series of the slope of the interface and find that the critical angle for slope failure θ(c) and the resulting angle of repose θ(r) are broadly distributed with an approximate power-law distribution of avalanches θ(c)-θ(r) for large avalanches. The faceted pentagonal grains used lead to significant interlocking with critical and repose angles (θ(c)≈45° and θ(r)≈39°) larger than experiments using spherical grains, even with vibration, and avalanche magnitudes correlated with the prior build-up and anti-correlated with the prior avalanche. We find that the stability of the assembly increases with small vibrations and is destabilized at vibration amplitudes above a dimensionless acceleration (peak acceleration divided by acceleration due to gravity) of Γ=0.2. We also study history dependence of the avalanches by periodically oscillating the drum to compare the initial avalanche upon reversal of shear to steady-state distributions for avalanches during continuous rotation. We observe history dependence as an initial decrease in critical angle upon reversal of the drum rotation direction, indicating that a texture is induced to resist continued shear such that the surface is weaker to reversals in shear direction. Memory of this history is removed by sufficient external vibration (Γ≥0.8), which leads to compaction and relaxation of the surface layer grains responsible for avalanching dynamics, as initial and steady-state avalanche distributions become indistinguishable.

  18. Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Jari J; Alatalo, Rauno V; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

    2004-09-07

    One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small

  19. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  20. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  1. Alluvial channel hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackers, Peter

    1988-07-01

    The development and utilisation of water resources for irrigation, hydropower and public supply can be severely affected by sediment. Where there is a mature and well vegetated landscape, sediment problems may be relatively minor; but where slopes are steep and vegetation sparse, the yield of sediment from the catchment gives high concentrations in the rivers. In utilising these resources, for whatever purpose, an understanding of the hydraulics of alluvial channels is vital. The regime of any conveyance channel in alluvium depends on the interrelationships of sediment transport, channel resistance and bank stability. The regime concept was originally based on empirical relations obtained from observations from canal systems in the Indian subcontinent, and for many years was surrounded by a certain degree of mystique and much scepticism from academics. In more recent years the unabashed empiricism of the original method has been replaced by process-based methods, which have also served as broad confirmation of the classic regime formulae, including their extension to natural channels and meandering channels. The empirical approach to the hydraulics of alluvial channels has thus been updated by physically based formulae for sediment transport and resistance, though there remains some uncertainty about the third function to complete the definition of slope and geometry. Latest thoughts in this respect are that the channel seeks a natural optimum state. Physical modelling using scaled down representations of rivers and estuaries has been used for almost a century, but it requires the correct simulation of the relevant processes. The coming of a better understanding of the physics of sediment transport and the complexity of alluvial channel roughness leads to the conclusion that only in very restricted circumstances can scale models simulate closely the full-size condition. However, the quantification of these processes has been instrumental in the development of

  2. Method of production H/sub 2/ using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, L.E.

    1988-05-13

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300/degree/ to 1400/degree/F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices. 1 fig.

  3. Characterizing hydraulically fractured reservoirs using induced microearthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Fehler, M.

    1991-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a common method employed to increase the production of oil and gas fields. Recently, there has been increased interest in monitoring the microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing as a means of obtaining data to characterize reservoir changeS induced by the injection. Two types of microearthquakes have been observed during hydraulic fracturing. Tensile events have been observed and modeled as the parting of the surfaces of a fracture. A majority of the events observed have been shear-slip events, where two sides of a fault plane slip parallel to each other but in opposite directions. The locations of the microearthquakes can be analyzed to determine regions where significant seismic energy was released, which presumably are regions where injected fluid penetrated into the rock along pre-existing fractures or zones of weakness. The spatial patterns in the locations can be analyzed to fine regions where events cluster along planes, which are interpreted to be the dominant fluid flow paths. Imaging methods can also be applied to the travel time and waveform data to obtain direct evidence for the locations of the fractures or fracture zones. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Hydraulic release oil tool

    SciTech Connect

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-03-11

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member.

  5. The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hydraulic fracturing, know as fracking or hydrofracking, produces fractures in a rock formation by pumping fluids (water, proppant, and chemical additives) at high pressure down a wellbore. These fractures stimulate the flow of natural gas or oil.

  6. Diesel Fuels Hydraulic Fracturing (DFHF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides information on how hydraulic fracturing is regulated by the Underground Injection Control Program. It includes information about what owners and operators need to do to be in compliance and guidance for EPA Class II permit writers.

  7. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  8. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  10. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  11. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  13. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  14. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  15. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  20. Cold regions hydrology and hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.L. ); Crissman, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This monograph addresses a narrow aspect of cold regions engineering, namely the effects of cold weather on the traditional civil engineering disciplines of hydrology and hydraulics. Hydrologic and hydraulic considerations in the design, construction, and operation of civil works are very important. Many of the problems encountered in the design and construction of buildings, transportation systems, water supply facilities, waste treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities, for example are closely tied to the characteristics of the site hydrology.

  1. Production Hydraulic Packer Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schneller, Tricia; Salas, Jose

    2000-06-30

    In October 1999, the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Halliburton Energy Services cooperated on a field test of Halliburton's new Production Hydraulic Packer technology on Well 46-TPX-10 at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 near Casper, WY. Performance of the packer was evaluated in set and unset operations. The packer's ability to seal the annulus between the casing and tubing was hydraulically tested and the results were recorded.

  2. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  3. Hydraulics Graphics Package. Users Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    Engineering Center, Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, as the origin of the program(s). IT, i HGP -3!OO Ju ’ ŕ Dlst! 3pbo.i:, HYDRAULICS GRAPHICS...Davis, California 95616 (916) 551-1748 (FTS) 460-1748 HGP Hydraulics Graphics Package Users Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Subject Page 1 Introduction...5 2.4 Use of Disk Files ........ ................ 6 3 HGP Free Format User Input 3.1 Command Language Syntax ...... ............. 8 3.2

  4. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  5. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  6. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  7. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  8. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  9. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  10. Geomorphic Segmentation, Hydraulic Geometry, and Hydraulic Microhabitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska - Methods and Initial Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River of Nebraska is a geologically, ecologically, and economically significant resource. The State of Nebraska has recognized the need to better manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the Niobrara River so they are sustainable in the long term. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the hydrogeomorphic settings and hydraulic geometry of the Niobrara River to assist in characterizing the types of broad-scale physical habitat attributes that may be of importance to the ecological resources of the river system. This report includes an inventory of surface-water and ground-water hydrology data, surface water-quality data, a longitudinal geomorphic segmentation and characterization of the main channel and its valley, and hydraulic geometry relations for the 330-mile section of the Niobrara River from Dunlap Diversion Dam in western Nebraska to the Missouri River confluence. Hydraulic microhabitats also were analyzed using available data from discharge measurements to demonstrate the potential application of these data and analysis methods. The main channel of the Niobrara was partitioned into three distinct fluvial geomorphic provinces: an upper province characterized by open valleys and a sinuous, equiwidth channel; a central province characterized by mixed valley and channel settings, including several entrenched canyon reaches; and a lower province where the valley is wide, yet restricted, but the river also is wide and persistently braided. Within the three fluvial geomorphic provinces, 36 geomorphic segments were identified using a customized, process-orientated classification scheme, which described the basic physical characteristics of the Niobrara River and its valley. Analysis of the longitudinal slope characteristics indicated that the Niobrara River longitudinal profile may be largely bedrock-controlled, with slope inflections co-located at changes in bedrock type at

  11. Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic conductance in southern California shrubs: a test of the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Sack, Lawren; Santiago, Louis S

    2014-08-01

    Coordination of water movement among plant organs is important for understanding plant water use strategies. The hydraulic segmentation hypothesis (HSH) proposes that hydraulic conductance in shorter lived, 'expendable' organs such as leaves and longer lived, more 'expensive' organs such as stems may be decoupled, with resistance in leaves acting as a bottleneck or 'safety valve'. We tested the HSH in woody species from a Mediterranean-type ecosystem by measuring leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) and stem hydraulic conductivity (KS). We also investigated whether leaves function as safety valves by relating Kleaf and the hydraulic safety margin (stem water potential minus the water potential at which 50% of conductivity is lost (Ψstem-Ψ50)). We also examined related plant traits including the operating range of water potentials, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf area to sapwood area ratio to provide insight into whole-plant water use strategies. For hydrated shoots, Kleaf was negatively correlated with KS , supporting the HSH. Additionally, Kleaf was positively correlated with the hydraulic safety margin and negatively correlated with the leaf area to sapwood area ratio. Consistent with the HSH, our data indicate that leaves may act as control valves for species with high KS , or a low safety margin. This critical role of leaves appears to contribute importantly to plant ecological specialization in a drought-prone environment.

  12. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). Red drum. [Sciaenops ocellatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, R.E.

    1985-06-01

    The red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is an estuarine dependent species. It spends its entire life in estuaries or nearshore coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Red drum spawn from mid-August to November; peak spawning is from mid-September through October. Larvae and juveniles remain in estuaries and adults live along the coast and in passes. Commercial landings in Louisiana (1971-81) ranged from 723,700 to 2,212,500 lb. Texas closed commercial fishing in 1979. In most Gulf States, the sport catch usually exceeds commercial landings. There are few data on population dynamics of the species. Larval and juvenile red drum eat primarily invertebrates; adults feed on fish, shrimp, and crabs. Red drum tolerate a wide range of temperatures (2/sup 0/ to 37.5/sup 0/C) and salinities (0.14 to 50 ppt). 47 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    PubMed

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation.

  14. Motion sickness and gastric myoelectric activity as a function of speed of rotation of a circular vection drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Senqi; Stern, Robert M.; Vasey, Michael W.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and electrogastrograms (EGGs) were obtained from 60 healthy subjects while they viewed an optokinetic drum rotated at one of four speeds: 15, 30, 60 or 90 deg/s. All subjects experienced vection, illusory self-motion. Motion sickness symptoms increased as drums speed increased up to 60 deg/s. Power, spectral intensity, of the EGG at the tachygastria frequencies (4-9 cpm) was calculated at each drum rotation speed. The correlation between the motion sickness symptoms and the power at 4-9 cpm was significant. Thus, drum rotation speed influenced the spectral power of the EGG at 4-9 cpm, tachygastria, and the intensity of motion sickness symptoms.

  15. Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculational Analysis for Fissile Mass Limits and Spacing Requirements for 55 - Gallon Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Thomas C.; Hesse, David J.; Tayloe, Jr., Robert W.

    1994-05-01

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis was performed to determine the fissile mass limits and spacing requirements for the storage of 55-gallon waste drums at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS).

  16. Task committee on experimental uncertainty and measurement errors in hydraulic engineering: An update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahlin, B.; Wahl, T.; Gonzalez-Castro, J. A.; Fulford, J.; Robeson, M.

    2005-01-01

    As part of their long range goals for disseminating information on measurement techniques, instrumentation, and experimentation in the field of hydraulics, the Technical Committee on Hydraulic Measurements and Experimentation formed the Task Committee on Experimental Uncertainty and Measurement Errors in Hydraulic Engineering in January 2003. The overall mission of this Task Committee is to provide information and guidance on the current practices used for describing and quantifying measurement errors and experimental uncertainty in hydraulic engineering and experimental hydraulics. The final goal of the Task Committee on Experimental Uncertainty and Measurement Errors in Hydraulic Engineering is to produce a report on the subject that will cover: (1) sources of error in hydraulic measurements, (2) types of experimental uncertainty, (3) procedures for quantifying error and uncertainty, and (4) special practical applications that range from uncertainty analysis for planning an experiment to estimating uncertainty in flow monitoring at gaging sites and hydraulic structures. Currently, the Task Committee has adopted the first order variance estimation method outlined by Coleman and Steele as the basic methodology to follow when assessing the uncertainty in hydraulic measurements. In addition, the Task Committee has begun to develop its report on uncertainty in hydraulic engineering. This paper is intended as an update on the Task Committee's overall progress. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  17. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: PCR primers for 100 microsatellites in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Sten; Renshaw, Mark A; Rexroad Iii, Caird E; Gold, John R

    2008-03-01

    One hundred nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic library of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were isolated and characterized. Eight microsatellites had tetranucleotide motifs; 92 had dinucleotide motifs. The average number of alleles per microsatellite (sample of 22-24 fish) was 17.7 (range = 2-30); gene diversity averaged 0.796 (range = 0.227-1.000). Following Bonferroni correction, genotype frequencies at 90 microsatellites did not deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. Occurrence of null alleles was inferred at 15 microsatellites; alleles differing by only a single base were observed at 11 microsatellites. The microsatellites developed should prove useful for population-genetic studies of 'wild' red drum and in construction of a genetic map.

  18. Ecological performance of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae exposed to environmental levels of the insecticide malathion.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Alvarez, Maria; Fuiman, Lee A

    2006-05-01

    Malathion is a highly soluble organophosphate insecticide that is widely used in agriculture and mosquito eradication campaigns. Fish species, such as red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), that use seagrass beds as nursery areas could be affected by runoff waters contaminated with malathion. We exposed red drum larvae at the size they reach in estuarine nursery areas to environmentally realistic and sublethal levels of malathion (0, 1, and 10 microg/L). We evaluated the effects of such exposure on ecologically significant behaviors (routine swimming and predator evasion), growth, and resting metabolism. Malathion exposure to relatively low but ecologically realistic concentrations did not affect routine behavior, escape behavior, resting metabolic rate, or growth, indicating that reported environmental levels may be safe for young fishes. However, a recent substantial increase in the use of malathion may elevate surface-water concentrations to levels above those tested in the present study.

  19. Effects of pre-exposures to a rotating optokinetic drum on adaptation to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Senqi; Stern, Robert M.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of two different preexposure procedures on the adaptation to motion-sickness-causing rotation motion in a rotating optokinetic drum were investigated in three groups of human subjects. The first (control) group had a standard 16-min exposure in a drum rotating at 60 deg/sec, with no preexposure. The second (incremental exposure) group had two separated 4-min preexposure periods, at 15 deg/min and 30 deg/min, immediately prior to the standard 16-min exposure. The third (abrupt exposure) group had the same preexposure but with the second rotation at 60 deg/min, followed by the standard exposure. It was found that subjects in the incremental exposure group had significantly fewer motion sickness symptoms during the standard rotation period than did the subjects in the other two groups.

  20. Analog of the Kutateladze crisis and uplifting water formation in drum boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Shreiber, I.

    1995-07-01

    The paper deals with a model for the formation of a vapor bubble cavitation zone within a water layer due to a rarefied wave propagating in a drum boiler circulation circuit. The water in the layer is close to the saturation line (subheated). Models are presented for vapor cavitation zone development, pressure field formation and the phenomenon of swelling. The specific feature of the cavitation problem is the multiply reflected rarefied wave at the bottom and the formation of the most intensive cavitation zone near the bottom. The coalescing and floating bubbles can uplift the water layer and create an emergency situation in the control of the drum. The phenomenon is similar to the Kutateladze crisis for boiling liquid near a wall. The control system of the power station must take into account the danger of such uplifting.

  1. Multisensory integration of drumming actions: musical expertise affects perceived audiovisual asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin; Dahl, Sofia; Rocchesso, Davide; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Avanzini, Federico; Puce, Aina; Pollick, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effect of musical expertise on sensitivity to asynchrony for drumming point-light displays, which varied in their physical characteristics (Experiment 1) or in their degree of audiovisual congruency (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 21 repetitions of three tempos x three accents x nine audiovisual delays were presented to four jazz drummers and four novices. In Experiment 2, ten repetitions of two audiovisual incongruency conditions x nine audiovisual delays were presented to 13 drummers and 13 novices. Participants gave forced-choice judgments of audiovisual synchrony. The results of Experiment 1 show an enhancement in experts' ability to detect asynchrony, especially for slower drumming tempos. In Experiment 2 an increase in sensitivity to asynchrony was found for incongruent stimuli; this increase, however, is attributable only to the novice group. Altogether the results indicated that through musical practice we learn to ignore variations in stimulus characteristics that otherwise would affect our multisensory integration processes.

  2. a Study on the Squeal of a Drum Brake which has Shoes of Non-Uniform Cross-Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, J. M.; YOO, S. W.; KIM, J. H.; AHN, C. G.

    2001-03-01

    A stability analysis of a drum brake, which has shoes of non-uniform cross-section, is performed to find a simple and effective method of reducing the squeal of the drum brake by partially changing the shapes of the shoes. The squeal is considered as a noise induced by the self-excited vibration of the drum brake which makes the brake unstable. Shoes of non-uniform cross-section are often used for the drum brake of current passenger cars to reduce the squeal. However, the influence of this non-uniformity upon the squeal has not been analyzed theoretically. In this study, the drum and the shoes are assumed as a uniform ring and non-uniform arches, respectively, for modelling the brake. For a reasonable method of modelling, the vibration characteristics of the brake and their relations to the squeal are discussed based on the results of modal tests. The influences of brake design parameters upon the squeal are investigated, and a minor change of the cross-section is proposed to reduce the squeal. The effect of the minor change is verified through noise dynamometer tests. In addition, the effect of asymmetry of the drum, which can be built by mass addition, is presented.

  3. Proposed hydraulic pump testing for hydraulic fluid qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Melief, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    The current ASTM D-2882 hydraulic vane pump test does not provide the necessary correlation required for the prediction of the lubricating properties of a hydraulic fluid in various piston pump operations. All too often, a fluid will exhibit excellent wear properties in the Vickers V-104 vane pump used in the ASTM D-2882 test, yet produce catastrophic failure at various wear interfaces in a piston pump which may consist of different material pairs, contact loading, configuration or speed. In this paper, a new piston pump test, which is conducted under cycled pressure testing conditions, is proposed. The new test will provide an excellent assessment of the lubricating properties of a hydraulic fluid under a wide variety of wear conditions.

  4. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  5. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer.

  6. Flow rate testing of valves used with the 500 gallon collapsible drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdue, William D.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers the test and evaluation of four couplings/valves used with the 500-gallon collapsible drum: the existing poppet valve, a new redesigned poppet valve, a Carter refuel/defuel valve that works in conjunction with the single point refueling nozzle, and a Kamvalok dry-break coupling valve. The purpose of this testing was to determine maximum flow capability of each valve design and identify any new characteristics that may impact performance of the FARE system.

  7. Study of Asphaltic Concrete Produced in Dryer Drum Mixers for Airport Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    STWDARDS-163- w S 4 -- , ,a, i I Report No-c FAA-RD-76-165 STUDY OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE PRODUCED IN DRYER DRUM MIXERS FOR AIRPORT PAVEMENTS 0 E. T...PREFACE This study was supported by the Systems Research and Development Service of the Federal Aviation Administration. This is a final report presenting...the asphaltic concrete . In September, 1976 the Alaskan Region of FAA reported that the runway pavement had transverse thermal cracks approximately 200

  8. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M.

    2015-10-19

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO3), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  9. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... steering axle of a truck, truck-tractor or bus shall not be less than 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) at the shoe center for a shoe with a continuous strip of lining; less than 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) at the shoe center for a shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  10. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... steering axle of a truck, truck-tractor or bus shall not be less than 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) at the shoe center for a shoe with a continuous strip of lining; less than 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) at the shoe center for a shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  11. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... steering axle of a truck, truck-tractor or bus shall not be less than 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) at the shoe center for a shoe with a continuous strip of lining; less than 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) at the shoe center for a shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  12. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... steering axle of a truck, truck-tractor or bus shall not be less than 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) at the shoe center for a shoe with a continuous strip of lining; less than 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) at the shoe center for a shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  13. Inherent Limitations of Hydraulic Tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; Butler, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a cautionary note in response to an increasing level of enthusiasm regarding high-resolution aquifer characterization with hydraulic tomography. We use synthetic examples based on two recent field experiments to demonstrate that a high degree of nonuniqueness remains in estimates of hydraulic parameter fields even when those estimates are based on simultaneous analysis of a number of carefully controlled hydraulic tests. We must, therefore, be careful not to oversell the technique to the community of practicing hydrogeologists, promising a degree of accuracy and resolution that, in many settings, will remain unattainable, regardless of the amount of effort invested in the field investigation. No practically feasible amount of hydraulic tomography data will ever remove the need to regularize or bias the inverse problem in some fashion in order to obtain a unique solution. Thus, along with improving the resolution of hydraulic tomography techniques, we must also strive to couple those techniques with procedures for experimental design and uncertainty assessment and with other more cost-effective field methods, such as geophysical surveying and, in unconsolidated formations, direct-push profiling, in order to develop methods for subsurface characterization with the resolution and accuracy needed for practical field applications. Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider.

  15. The hydraulic limitation hypothesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael G; Phillips, Nathan; Bond, Barbara J

    2006-03-01

    We proposed the hydraulic limitation hypothesis (HLH) as a mechanism to explain universal patterns in tree height, and tree and stand biomass growth: height growth slows down as trees grow taller, maximum height is lower for trees of the same species on resource-poor sites and annual wood production declines after canopy closure for even-aged forests. Our review of 51 studies that measured one or more of the components necessary for testing the hypothesis showed that taller trees differ physiologically from shorter, younger trees. Stomatal conductance to water vapour (g(s)), photosynthesis (A) and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance (K L) are often, but not always, lower in taller trees. Additionally, leaf mass per area is often greater in taller trees, and leaf area:sapwood area ratio changes with tree height. We conclude that hydraulic limitation of gas exchange with increasing tree size is common, but not universal. Where hydraulic limitations to A do occur, no evidence supports the original expectation that hydraulic limitation of carbon assimilation is sufficient to explain observed declines in wood production. Any limit to height or height growth does not appear to be related to the so-called age-related decline in wood production of forests after canopy closure. Future work on this problem should explicitly link leaf or canopy gas exchange with tree and stand growth, and consider a more fundamental assumption: whether tree biomass growth is limited by carbon availability.

  16. Inherent limitations of hydraulic tomography.

    PubMed

    Bohling, Geoffrey C; Butler, James J

    2010-01-01

    We offer a cautionary note in response to an increasing level of enthusiasm regarding high-resolution aquifer characterization with hydraulic tomography. We use synthetic examples based on two recent field experiments to demonstrate that a high degree of nonuniqueness remains in estimates of hydraulic parameter fields even when those estimates are based on simultaneous analysis of a number of carefully controlled hydraulic tests. We must, therefore, be careful not to oversell the technique to the community of practicing hydrogeologists, promising a degree of accuracy and resolution that, in many settings, will remain unattainable, regardless of the amount of effort invested in the field investigation. No practically feasible amount of hydraulic tomography data will ever remove the need to regularize or bias the inverse problem in some fashion in order to obtain a unique solution. Thus, along with improving the resolution of hydraulic tomography techniques, we must also strive to couple those techniques with procedures for experimental design and uncertainty assessment and with other more cost-effective field methods, such as geophysical surveying and, in unconsolidated formations, direct-push profiling, in order to develop methods for subsurface characterization with the resolution and accuracy needed for practical field applications.

  17. Performance test of a gamma/neutron mapper on stored TRU waste drums at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Josten, N.E.; Lawrence, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    The results from a performance test of a {gamma}- and neutron-radiation measurement instrument used to provide two-dimensional radiation field maps are reported. The performance test was conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) where interim storage is provided for 55-gal. drums of TRU waste from the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning drums stacked five high and five wide to identify high radiation areas and possible discrepancies with the waste manifest. Scans were taken at standoff distances of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans are presented as one, two and three dimensional contour plots of the radiation fields. A comparison of these results with manifests of these drums are compared and discussed. While the T-radiation fields as measured by the Health Physicist and by the radiation maps are in general in agreement, the TRU content as given in the manifest did not often correlate with the neutron map.

  18. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  19. Use of comparative genomics to develop EST-SSRs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Portnoy, David S; Gold, John R

    2012-12-01

    Microsatellites physically linked to expressed sequence tags (EST-SSRs) are an important resource for linkage mapping and comparative genomics, and data mining in publicly available EST databases is a common strategy for EST-SSR discovery. At present, many species lack species-specific EST sequence data needed for the efficient characterization of EST-SSRs. This paper describes the discovery and development of EST-SSRs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an estuarine-dependent sciaenid species of economic importance in the USA and elsewhere, using a phylogenetically informed, comparative genomics approach to primer design. The approach entailed comparing existing genomic resources from species closely allied phylogenetically to red drum, with resources from more distantly related outgroup species. By taking into account the degree to which flanking regions are conserved across taxa, the efficiency of PCR primer design was increased greatly. The amplification success rate for primers designed for red drum was 100 % when using EST libraries from confamilial species and 92 % when using an EST library from a species in the same suborder. The primers developed also amplified EST-SSRs in a wide range of perciform fishes, suggesting potential use in comparative genomics. This study demonstrates that EST-SSRs can be efficiently developed for an organism when limited species-specific data are available by exploiting genomic resources from well-studied species, even those at extended phylogenetic distances.

  20. Linkage Mapping and Comparative Genomics of Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Portnoy, David S; Wetzel, Dana; Sherwood, Tracy A; Samollow, Paul B; Gold, John R

    2017-03-10

    Developments in next-generation sequencing allow genotyping of thousands of genetic markers across hundreds of individuals in a cost-effective manner. Because of this, it is now possible to rapidly produce dense genetic linkage maps for nonmodel species. Here, we report a dense genetic linkage map for red drum, a marine fish species of considerable economic importance in the southeastern United States and elsewhere. We used a prior microsatellite-based linkage map as a framework and incorporated 1794 haplotyped contigs derived from high-throughput, reduced representation DNA sequencing to produce a linkage map containing 1794 haplotyped restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) contigs, 437 anonymous microsatellites, and 44 expressed sequence-tag-linked microsatellites (EST-SSRs). A total of 274 candidate genes, identified from transcripts from a preliminary hydrocarbon exposure study, were localized to specific chromosomes, using a shared synteny approach. The linkage map will be a useful resource for red drum commercial and restoration aquaculture, and for better understanding and managing populations of red drum in the wild.

  1. Linkage Mapping and Comparative Genomics of Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Christopher M.; Portnoy, David S.; Wetzel, Dana; Sherwood, Tracy A.; Samollow, Paul B.; Gold, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Developments in next-generation sequencing allow genotyping of thousands of genetic markers across hundreds of individuals in a cost-effective manner. Because of this, it is now possible to rapidly produce dense genetic linkage maps for nonmodel species. Here, we report a dense genetic linkage map for red drum, a marine fish species of considerable economic importance in the southeastern United States and elsewhere. We used a prior microsatellite-based linkage map as a framework and incorporated 1794 haplotyped contigs derived from high-throughput, reduced representation DNA sequencing to produce a linkage map containing 1794 haplotyped restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) contigs, 437 anonymous microsatellites, and 44 expressed sequence-tag-linked microsatellites (EST-SSRs). A total of 274 candidate genes, identified from transcripts from a preliminary hydrocarbon exposure study, were localized to specific chromosomes, using a shared synteny approach. The linkage map will be a useful resource for red drum commercial and restoration aquaculture, and for better understanding and managing populations of red drum in the wild. PMID:28122951

  2. DEM simulation of particle mixing for optimizing the overcoating drum in HTR fuel fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Malin; Lu, Zhengming; Liu, Bing; Shao, Youlin

    2013-06-01

    The rotating drum was used for overcoating coated fuel particles in HTR fuel fabrication process. All the coated particles should be adhered to equal amount of graphite powder, which means that the particle should be mixed quickly in both radial and axial directions. This paper investigated the particle flow dynamics and mixing behavior in different regimes using the discrete element method (DEM). By varying the rotation speed, different flow regimes such as slumping, rolling, cascading, cataracting, centrifuging were produced. The mixing entropy based on radial and axial grid was introduced to describe the radial and axial mixing behaviors. From simulation results, it was found that the radial mixing can be achieved in the cascading regime more quickly than the slumping, rolling and centrifuging regimes, but the traditional rotating drum without internal components can not achieve the requirements of axial mixing and should be improved. Three different structures of internal components are proposed and simulated. The new V-shaped deflectors were found to achieve a quick axial mixing behavior and uniform axial distribution in the rotating drum based on simulation results. At last, the superiority was validated by experimental results, and the new V-shaped deflectors were used in the industrial production of the overcoating coated fuel particles in HTR fuel fabrication process.

  3. Growth, reproduction, mortality, distribution, and biomass of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1984-01-01

    Predominant age-groups in the Lake Erie freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunnienspopulation were 3, 4, and 5 as determined from gill net, trap net, bottom trawl, and midwater trawl samples. Age and growth calculations indicated that females grew faster than males. However, the length-weight relation did not differ between sexes and was described by the equation: log W = −5.4383 + 3.1987 log L. Some males became sexually mature at age 2 and all were mature by age 6. Females matured 1 year later than males. Three sizes of eggs were present in ovaries; the average total number was 127,000 per female for 20 females over a length range of 270 to 478 mm. Seasonal analysis of the ovary-body weight ratio indicated that spawning extended from June to August. A total annual mortality rate of 49% for drum aged 4 through 11 was derived from catch-curve analysis. Freshwater drum were widely distributed throughout Lake Erie in 1977–1979, the greatest concentration being in the western basin. They moved into warm, shallow water (less than 10 m deep) during summer, and returned to deeper water in late fall. Summer biomass estimates for the western basin, based on systematic surveys with bottom trawls, were 9,545 t in 1977 and 2,333 t in 1978.

  4. Weld repair of carbon-moly coke drums without postweld heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    Investigations to evaluate weld repair of C-{1/2}Mo coke drums without postweld heat treatment (PWHT) are discussed in this paper. These investigations showed that shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) without PWHT produced heat-affected zones (HAZ) and weld deposits with Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact toughness that exceeded the toughness of ex-service plate material. PWHT de-embrittles strain age-embrittled ex-service plate material. However, warming of drums to 200 F before putting in feed compensates for the omission of the de-embrittling PWHT. Additional testing showed that the de-embrittling PWHT did not significantly improve the fatigue properties of the ex-service plate material. As-welded SMAW repairs were found to be feasible for coke drums, and repairs have now been in service successfully for up to 2 years. The as-welded SMAW repairs were qualified on the basis of a 300 F preheat using small diameter electrodes for the first pass followed by larger diameter electrodes to temper the HAZ of the first pass. A half-bead technique was not used. Heat input is not precisely controlled as would be required for controlled deposition welding. Following the implementation of SMAW repairs without PWHT, the author extended the work to include as-welded repairs with automatic gas metal-arc welding (GMAW).

  5. Demand-side management implementation and verification at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Dixon, D.R.; Richman, E.E.; Rowley, S.E.

    1994-12-01

    Through the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) process, the US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has identified present value savings of nearly $47 million in cost-effective energy conservation measures (ECMs) at Fort Drum, New York. With associated costs of more than $16 million (1992 $), the measures provide a net present value of $30.6 million for all identified projects. By implementing all cost-effective ECMs, Fort Drum can reduce its annual energy use by more than 230,000 MBtu (11% of its fossil energy consumption) and more than 27,000 MWh (32% of its electric energy consumption). The annual cost of energy services will decrease by $2.8 million (20%) at current energy rates. The servicing utility (Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation) has informally agreed to finance and implement cost-effective ECMs and to participate in the verification of energy savings. Verification baselining is under way; implementation of retrofit projects is expected to begin in late 1994. The utility-administered financing and contracting arrangements and the alternative federal programs for implementing the projects are described. The verification protocols and sampling plans for audit, indirect, and direct measurement levels of verification and the responsibilities of Fort Drum, the utility, the energy service companies (ESCOs), and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the verification process are also presented. A preliminary weather-normalized model of baseline energy consumption has been developed based on a full year`s metered data.

  6. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  7. Motion sickness severity and physiological correlates during repeated exposures to a rotating optokinetic drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Senqi; Grant, Wanda F.; Stern, Robert M.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-two subjects were exposed to a rotating optokinetic drum. Ten of these subjects who became motion sick during the first session completed two additional sessions. Subjects' symptoms of motion sickness, perception of self-motion, electrogastrograms (EGGs), heart rate, mean successive differences of R-R intervals (RRI), and skin conductance were recorded for each session. The results from the first session indicated that the development of motion sickness was accompanied by increased EGG 4-9 cpm activity (gastric tachyarrhythmia), decreased mean succesive differences of RRI, increased skin conductance levels, and increased self-motion perception. The results from the subjects who had three repeated sessions showed that 4-9 cpm EGG activity, skin conductance levels, perception of self-motion, and symptoms of motion sickness all increased significantly during the drum rotation period of the first session, but increased significantly less during the following sessions. Mean successive differences of RRI decreased significantly during the drum rotation period for the first session, but decreased significantly less during the following sessions. Results show that the development of motion sickness is accompanied by an increase in gastric tachyarrhythmia, and an increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in parasympathetic activity, and that adaptation to motion sickness is accompanied by the recovery of autonomic nervous system balance.

  8. Application of remote Raman screening to processing of mixed wastes in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.; Jewett, J.R.; Parker, K.E.; Petersen, C.A.

    1993-02-01

    Disposal of transuranic and low-level drum waste involves decisions based on transportation restrictions, Waste Isolation Pilot Project - Waste Acceptance Criteria, and regulation resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the Washington State Department of Ecology. To support the decisions made concerning final disposition of these wastes, characterization protocols must be established that ultimately aid in defining the environmental impact. Under current methods, Intensive and expensive laboratory analyses are requested to support these decisions. Alternative screening analyses have been investigated to support characterization and reduce costs and sample turn-around times. One promising screening technique involves application of remote Raman spectroscopy for identification of unknown salts, sludges, and solids in wastes. Raman spectroscopy when used with real-time radiography and visual documentation expands the information base available for making real-time decisions for treatment of diverse drummed radioactive solid waste in a waste processing facility. Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy has been successfully employed to identify oxidizing reagent waste solutions disposed on vermiculite. In addition, it has been proven that low concentrations of material in binary salt mixtures can be detected by using fiber optic remote Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. Development of an extensive solid waste libraryis a key element in the deployment of this technology in the process environment of solid waste drums and barrels.

  9. Combined discrete particle and continuum model predicting solid-state fermentation in a drum fermentor.

    PubMed

    Schutyser, M A I; Briels, W J; Boom, R M; Rinzema, A

    2004-05-20

    The development of mathematical models facilitates industrial (large-scale) application of solid-state fermentation (SSF). In this study, a two-phase model of a drum fermentor is developed that consists of a discrete particle model (solid phase) and a continuum model (gas phase). The continuum model describes the distribution of air in the bed injected via an aeration pipe. The discrete particle model describes the solid phase. In previous work, mixing during SSF was predicted with the discrete particle model, although mixing simulations were not carried out in the current work. Heat and mass transfer between the two phases and biomass growth were implemented in the two-phase model. Validation experiments were conducted in a 28-dm3 drum fermentor. In this fermentor, sufficient aeration was provided to control the temperatures near the optimum value for growth during the first 45-50 hours. Several simulations were also conducted for different fermentor scales. Forced aeration via a single pipe in the drum fermentors did not provide homogeneous cooling in the substrate bed. Due to large temperature gradients, biomass yield decreased severely with increasing size of the fermentor. Improvement of air distribution would be required to avoid the need for frequent mixing events, during which growth is hampered. From these results, it was concluded that the two-phase model developed is a powerful tool to investigate design and scale-up of aerated (mixed) SSF fermentors.

  10. Hydraulic processes on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Alluvial fans are among the most prominent landscape features in the American Southwest and throughout the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The importance of developing a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the hydraulic processes which formed, and which continue to modify, these features derives from their rapid and significant development over the past four decades. As unplanned urban sprawl moved from valley floors onto alluvial fans, the serious damage incurred from infrequent flow events has dramatically increased. This book presents a discussion of our current and rapidly expanding knowledge of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans. It addresses the subject from a multidisciplinary viewpoint, acquainting the reader with geological principles pertinent to the analysis of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans.

  11. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  12. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  13. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, David E.; Daly, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  14. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  15. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  16. Effects of somatolactin on melanosome aggregation in the melanophores of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) scales.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Thomas, P

    1997-01-01

    The effects of purified red drum somatolactin on pigment movement in red drum scales were studied in vitro and in vivo. The integument became pale within 2 min following an intramuscular injection of somatolactin (1 nmol/g body weight) in fish held in a black-background aquarium, and gradually regained its black coloration during the subsequent 30 min. No melanosome aggregation was observed in fish injected with vehicle or somatolactin over the dose range of 10(-9)-10(2) pmol/g. Melanosomes in the melanophores of scales were completely aggregated within 10 min of incubation with 1 microM somatolactin in vitro. The effect of somatolactin on melanosome aggregation was dose-dependent. Somatolactin caused only partial aggregation at a concentration of 500 nM and 250 nM somatolactin had little or no effect. Somatolactin caused melanosome aggregation in both innervated and denervated melanophores. Aggregated melanosomes which had been preincubated with somatolactin dispersed within 30 min after rinsing with a physiological buffer. No melanosome aggregation was observed in scales incubated with 10 nM-1 microM of red drum prolactin (PRL), red drum growth hormone (GH), ovine PRL, or recombinant tuna GH. These results indicate that the action of somatolactin on melanosome movement is direct, specific, reversible, and is probably mediated by a specific somatolactin receptor on the melanophores. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and norepinephrine (NE) also induced melanosome aggregation in scales at a low concentration of 10 nM. Addition of 1 microM alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) following preincubation of scales with 1 microM somatolactin, 10 nM MCH, or 10 nM NE resulted in partial dispersion of the melanosomes. These results suggest that melanosome migration in red drum scales is under multiple hormonal control. Although a direct action of somatolactin on melanosome aggregation is demonstrated in this study, its physiological role in the regulation of

  17. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  18. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  19. Field Hydraulic and Air-Blast Sprayers for Row Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses techniques and equipment used in spraying field crops. In the discussion of field hydraulic sprayers, specific topics include types of sprayers, tanks, pumps, pressure regulators, hoses, boom spraying, directed spraying, and nozzle bodies. In the discussion…

  20. 7. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC HAMMER STAMPING PRESS ON SIDE A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC HAMMER STAMPING PRESS ON SIDE A OF BUILDING 883. THIS TYPE OF PRESS WAS USED FOR BOTH STAINLESS STEEL AND FOR DEPLETED URANIUM. (7/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO