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Sample records for dry distillation technique

  1. Improving flow ability of distillers dried grains by novel processing techniques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A distillers dried grains (DDG) sample obtained from MCP Corporation was processed by jet cooking at various pH levels and fractionated. Among the various fractions, free flowing particles were obtained that appear to have several opportunities for a range of industrial applications. Rheological p...

  2. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  3. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  5. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  6. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  7. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  8. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds.

  9. Characterization of Physical, Chemical, and Flow Properties of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and DDGS Extrudates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main coproduct from dry grind ethanol manufacturing. Significant quantities of distillers grains are being produced due to the increased demand for ethanol as a fuel additive. Marketing of distillers grains, however, is hampered by inconsistencies ...

  10. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  11. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein source in diets of tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research efforts by nutritionists to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains after ...

  12. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein sources in diets of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research efforts by nutritionist to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other more expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains af...

  13. Insoluble distillers' dried grain (DDG) fraction in chemically leavened bread

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of thermo-mechanically treated corn Distillers’ Dried Grain (DDG) on batter and bread quality characteristics. DDG was processed by jet-cooking homogenized slurry of DDG and water followed by centrifugation and drum drying the insoluble fract...

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics of microwave-dried wheat distillers grain with solubles.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Maria Rosario P; Tabil, Lope G; Meda, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-prepared samples of wheat distillers grain with solubles with varying condensed distillers solubles (CDS) content were dried under varying microwave power, and microwave convection settings using a domestic microwave oven to examine their effect on the chemical, structural, color, flow, compression, thermal, and frictional properties of the product, which is dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). As CDS level increased, protein and ash content increased, while fat and fiber content decreased in wheat-based DDGS. Fat content was also markedly effected by the microwave oven drying conditions. While CDS level, microwave power or microwave convection setting, and/or their interactions significantly effected a number of physical properties; results indicated that CDS level had a stronger influence compared to the other factors. DDGS samples with high CDS levels were significantly denser, finer but more differentiated in size, less flowable, and less dispersible. These also produced denser and stronger pellets.

  15. Gels of ferulated arabinoxylans extracted from distillers dried grains with solubles: rheology, structural parameters and microstructure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the major by-products of bioethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Maize is one of the main sources for the production of this biofuel. In this way, dietary fiber represents the principal fraction of DDGS, which could be a potential source of added-value biomolecu...

  16. Properties of Low-oil Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn-based ethanol production is exponentially growing in the U.S. As the use of ethanol as a fuel source increases, so does the need to find valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a good source of fiber and protein. Cu...

  17. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24...

  18. Mechanical and thermal properties of high density polyethylene – dried distillers grains with solubles composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Injection molded composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of DDGS, and either 5% of 0% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding and injection mo...

  19. On the physical properties of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a complex heterogeneous granular solid that exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical properties. This fact is one of the major reasons that livestock nutritionists often find it difficult to include it in their feed rations. The rapid growth of ...

  20. Physical Properties of Low Oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn-based ethanol production is exponentially growing in the U.S. As the use of ethanol as a fuel source increases, so does the need to find valuable uses for coproducts of the production process, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a good source of nutrients, energy, and...

  1. Resistant starch, total dietary fiber and antioxidants in distillers dried grains (DDG)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) is a cereal byproduct of the rapidly growing fuel ethanol industry in United States. Currently, DDG is used for livestock feed since it is high in protein. Because of the shear magnitude of agricultural crop biomass converted to fuel ethanol, large quantities of DDG a...

  2. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  3. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  4. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: II. Effect on metabolic profile

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected metabolic profile, plasma fatty acid profile, and reproductive maturation. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d old) were used in a 24-wee...

  5. Twin screw extrusion processing of feed blends containing distillers dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  6. Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-06

    Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)

  7. Evaluating energy efficient strategies and product quality for distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in dry-grind ethanol plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tian

    The drying of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of dry-grind corn processing to ethanol utilizes about 30% of the total energy required for the production of a liter of fuel ethanol. Therefore, improving DDGS drying energy efficiency could have significant impact on the economics of the dry-grind corn-to-ethanol process. Drying process improvements must take account into the effects of various drying strategies on the final quality of DDGS which is primarily utilized as a feed ingredient. Previous studies in the literature have shown that physical and chemical properties of DDGS vary according to the ratio of the two primarily feed streams, wet distillers grains (WDG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) which make up DDGS. Extensive research using plant-scale and bench-scale experiments have been conducted on the effect of process variables (ratios of WDG, CDS and DDGS add-back) during drying on the physical and chemical properties of DDGS. However, these investigations did not correlate the product characteristics data to drying efficiency. Additionally, it cannot be clearly determined from the literature on DDGS drying that processes used in the industry are optimized for both product quality and energy efficiency. A bench-scale rotary drum dryer heated by an electrically powered heat gun was used to investigate the effects of WDG, CDS and add-back ratios on both energy efficiency, drying performance and DDGS physical and chemical properties. A two stage drying process with the bench-scale rotary dryer was used to simulate the drying of DDGS using ICM (ICM, Inc., Colwich, KS) dry-grind process technology for DDGS drying which uses two rotary drum dryers in series. Effects of drying process variables, CDS content (0, 10, 20 and 40% by mass) and percent DDGS add-back (0, 20, 40 and 60% by mass) on energy performance and product quality were determined. Sixteen different drying strategies based on drying process variable ratios were

  8. Process simulation of modified dry grind ethanol plant with recycle of pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed distillers' grains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    Distillers' grains (DG), a co-product of a dry grind ethanol process, is an excellent source of supplemental proteins in livestock feed. Studies have shown that, due to its high polymeric sugar contents and ease of hydrolysis, the distillers' grains have potential as an additional source of fermentable sugars for ethanol fermentation. The benefit of processing the distillers' grains to extract fermentable sugars lies in an increased ethanol yield without significant modification in the current dry grind technology. Three different potential configurations of process alternatives in which pretreated and hydrolyzed distillers' grains are recycled for an enhanced overall ethanol yield are proposed and discussed in this paper based on the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of distillers' grains. Possible limitations of each proposed process are also discussed. This paper presents a compositional analysis of distillers' grains, as well as a simulation of the modified dry grind processes with recycle of distillers' grains. Simulated material balances for the modified dry grind processes are established based on the base case assumptions. These balances are compared to the conventional dry grind process in terms of ethanol yield, compositions of its co-products, and accumulation of fermentation inhibitors. Results show that 14% higher ethanol yield is achievable by processing and hydrolyzing the distillers' grains for additional fermentable sugars, as compared to the conventional dry grind process. Accumulation of fermentation by-products and inhibitory components in the proposed process is predicted to be 2-5 times higher than in the conventional dry grind process. The impact of fermentation inhibitors is reviewed and discussed. The final eDDGS (enhanced dried distillers' grains) from the modified processes has 30-40% greater protein content per mass than DDGS, and its potential as a value-added process is also analyzed. While the case studies used to illustrate the

  9. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Price, Neil Pj

    2013-01-01

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune were examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan from agricultural biomass. Strains were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1% (w/v) distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by the dry grind process. Ten of 11 strains tested produced more than 2 g schizophyllan/L. Two strains, ATCC 20165 and CBS 266.60, produced more than 10 g schizophyllan/L. Schizophyllan from these strains was similar to commercial product in terms of solution viscosity, molecular weight, and surface tension properties, suggesting that they would be equivalent in biomaterial applications.

  10. Dry-distillation of astatine-211 from irradiated bismuth targets: a time-saving procedure with high recovery yields.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jensen, H J

    2001-08-01

    Astatine-211 was produced via the 209Bi(alpha,2n) 211At reaction. The radionuclide was isolated with a novel procedure employing dry-distillation of the irradiated target material. The astatine was condensed as a dry residue in a PEEK-capillary cryotrap. Distillation was completed within 1-2 min with isolation yields of 92 +/- 3%. Subsequent work-up of the nuclide resulted in final recovery yields of 79 +/- 3%.

  11. Development and characterization of thermoplastic films from sorghum distillers dried grains grafted with various methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Shi, Zhen; Temme, Lisa; Xu, Helan; Xu, Lan; Hou, Xiuliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2014-03-19

    Distillers Dried Grains (DDG) obtained during production of ethanol from grain sorghum were grafted with methacrylates and compression molded into films with good dry and wet tensile properties. Since sorghum DDG contains up to 45% proteins that are indigestible by animals, it is necessary to find alternative applications to make sorghum ethanol economically competitive. In this research, sorghum DDG was grafted with methyl, ethyl, and butyl methacrylates, the grafted DDG was compression molded into films, and the properties of the grafted DDG and films were studied. At a grafting ratio of 40%, butyl methacrylate (BMA) grafted films had a strength of 4.8 MPa and elongation of 1.8% when dry and 3.1 MPa and 8.1% when wet, indicating that the films had good strength and wet stability. Films developed from grafted DDG show the potential to overcome the brittleness and poor water stability of biopolymer-based films and be useful for various applications.

  12. Nutrition evaluation and mutagenicity testing of freeze-dried distiller's grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pintauro, S J; al-Nasser, A S

    1989-01-01

    Distiller's grains with solubles (DGS) was obtained from a commercial fermentation of 90% corn and 10% wheat for ethanol production. The DGS was freeze-dried and proximate analysis resulted in 17.6% protein, 5.5% fat, 3.0% ash, 17.3% moisture, 21.6% neutral detergent fiber, and 35% carbohydrate by difference. Fatty acid analysis and amino acid analysis were similar to those of corn. Tryptophan was the limiting amino acid with a chemical score of 47. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) was 1.49. Mutagenicity testing of lipid and aqueous extracts of DGS in the Ames Salmonella mammalian microsome assay were negative.

  13. Feeding value of dried distillers' grains (DDG) in beef feedlot rations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Matsushima, J.K.

    1980-06-01

    Dried distillers' grains (DDG) replaced flaked corn in the feed for steers in the Colorado State University feedlot at rates of 0%, 15%, and 30% of finishing rations. Steers were randomly assigned to six pen treatments with each treatment replicated. No significant differences in weight gains, feed efficiency, or general health were observed between treatments. Likewise, differences in carcass quality were negligible. Under the conditions of this experiment ad prevailing prices, DDG was worth $113/ton. If its full value as a protein supplement had been credited, it would have had a value of $131/ton. This compares to the market price at the time of $150/ton for DDG.

  14. Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.

    PubMed

    Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial.

  15. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of reduced-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to broilers from 23 to 31 days of age.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Perryman, K R; Hess, J B

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using male Ross×Ross 708 broiler chicks to determine the effect of oil extraction from corn distillers dried grains with solubles on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility from 23 to 31 d of age. On an as-fed basis, ether extract concentrations were determined as 5.4% (L-distillers dried grains with solubles), 7.9% (M-distillers dried grains with solubles), and 10.5% (H-distillers dried grains with solubles) for the 3 experimental distillers dried grains with solubles sources. Prior to experimentation, each sample (H-distillers dried grains with solubles (control), M-distillers dried grains with solubles and L-distillers dried grains with solubles) was analyzed on an as-fed basis for crude protein (29.2, 27.6, and 27.9%), starch (4.4, 5.2, and 6.1%), neutral detergent fiber (29.5, 33.2, and 29.9%), and total dietary fiber (31.4, 36.6, and 33.6 %). Four hundred and thirty-two male chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.04 m2 per bird) were randomly assigned to 36 battery grower cages. Broilers were fed one of 3 semi-purified diets, which were comprised of 76% L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M- distillers dried grains with solubles, or H-distillers dried grains with solubles as the sole amino acid source from 23 to 31 d of age. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients were negatively affected (P<0.05) by oil extraction for Met (0.722, 0.788, and 0.791), Lys (0.504, 0.510, and 0.552), Thr (0.563, 0.566, and 0.612), Trp (0.708, 0.733, and 0.767), and Arg (0.762, 0.776, and 0.799) for L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M-distillers dried grains with solubles, and H-distillers dried grains with solubles, respectively. Conversely, no differences in apparent amino acid coefficients were reported for Ile, Leu, and Val. These results indicated that L-distillers dried grains with solubles had lower apparent amino acid digestibility coefficients for Met, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Arg compared with H-distillers dried grains with

  16. Analysis of organic gas phase compounds formed by hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Madsen, René B; Christensen, Per S; Houlberg, Kasper; Lappa, Elpiniki; Mørup, Anders J; Klemmer, Maika; Olsen, Eva M; Jensen, Mads M; Becker, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B; Glasius, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive characterization of the gas phase from hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) collected during a 24-h continuous experiment. The gas consisted mainly of CO2, CO, H2, CH4 and C2H6 accounting for 96 v/v% while further analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed additionally 62 compounds of which 54 were tentatively identified. These products included methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, various olefins and several aromatic compounds. The composition provided clear indication of the steady state of the system. Apart from CO2, olefins were the most abundant compound class and could provide a source of revenue.

  17. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  18. Formulation of a biodegradable, odor-reducing cat litter from solvent-extracted corn dried distillers grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cats are among the most popular pets in the U.S., and the majority of these animals are kept indoors where litter boxes containing some type of absorbent litter material are needed. Dried distillers grains (DDGs) are a major co-product of the ethanol industry, and are principally sold as animal fee...

  19. Formulation of a biodegradable, odor-reducing cat litter from solvent-extracted corn dried distillers grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cats are among the most popular pets in the U.S., and the majority of these animals are kept indoors where litter boxes containing some type of absorbent litter material are needed. Dried distillers grains (DDGs) are one of the two major co-products (with carbon dioxide) of the corn ethanol industry...

  20. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and ...

  1. Use of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Soybean Meal by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SM) used in the diets of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Six isocaloric (3.22 ± 0.02 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (30.1 ± 0.2% SE) experimental diets were formulate...

  2. Selected factors affecting crude fat analysis of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with ground corn.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With increasing production of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS), both fuel ethanol and animal feed industries are demanding standardized protocols for characterizing its quality. AOCS Approved Procedure (Am 5-04) was used for measuring crude oil content in ground corn (GC) and resulting DD...

  3. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) through a narrowing of particle size distribution followed by aspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve 3 screening and 3 air classification unit operatio...

  4. The Effects of Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to investigate the production of balanced diets for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) feeds. Six isocaloric (3.20 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (31.5% db) ingredient blends were formulated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at a feed...

  5. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior res...

  6. Milk and methane production in lactating dairy cattle consuming distillers dried grains and solubles or canola meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of byproducts as an alternative feed source is becoming increasingly popular among dairy producers. A study using 12 multiparous (79 ± 16 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows, was conducted over 5 months to evaluate the effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or canola meal...

  7. Fate of Free and Conjugated Mycotoxins within the Production of Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Dzuman, Zbynek; Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Vaclavikova, Marta; Tomaniova, Monika; Veprikova, Zdenka; Slavikova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-06-22

    Contamination of feed with mycotoxins represents a serious worldwide problem concerning animal health and related economic losses. The present paper provides comprehensive knowledge about the fate of mycotoxins during the production of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The study was carried out using naturally infected maize material in five repetitions. For mycotoxin analysis, a QuEChERS-like ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") isolation approach and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used. A significant increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its glycosylated form, DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc), was observed during the first part of fermentation, when hydrolytic enzymes were added. After yeast addition, the total DON content rapidly decreased. An opposite trend was observed for fumonisin B1 (FB1), in which yeast addition contributed to increase of its content. Further considerable change in mycotoxin content occurred during the drying step, in which approximately two-thirds of the original content was lost.

  8. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed increasing concentrations of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Oba, M

    2012-07-01

    In Western Canada, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced from mixtures of corn and wheat at variable ratios, and used as a source of dietary crude protein (CP) in diets of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing dietary allocation of wheat DDGS on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, feed efficiency, plasma metabolites, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows in midlactation. Sixteen multiparous and 16 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary treatments were a control diet containing canola meal as the primary protein source (CON) and diets containing increasing concentrations of wheat DDGS in place of corn DDGS (0, 50, and 100% of dietary DDGS allocation). The treatment protein sources supplied approximately 35% of dietary CP. Yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and energy-corrected milk were greater for diets containing DDGS compared with the CON diet. Although cows fed the DDGS diets tended to have lower CP digestibility compared with those fed the CON diet, concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and milk urea nitrogen were higher, but milk protein concentration was lower for cows fed the DDGS diets. Although dry matter intake increased linearly as the dietary allocation of wheat DDGS increased, milk yield was not affected, thus decreasing feed efficiency linearly. Feeding increasing levels of wheat DDGS tended to decrease plasma glucose concentration linearly. Plasma Leu concentration decreased linearly and plasma Gln concentration increased linearly as dietary inclusion of wheat DDGS increased. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients except for CP was not affected by dietary treatments. A mixture of wheat and corn DDGS seems to have similar feeding values to both DDGS sources and it can be used as an alternative protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows

  9. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  10. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  11. Content and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in distillers dried grains with solubles in chicks.

    PubMed

    Martinez Amezcua, C; Parsons, C M; Noll, S L

    2004-06-01

    Total phosphorus analysis was performed on 20 samples of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and three experiments were conducted to determine the bioavailability of P in different samples of DDGS varying in Lys digestibility and heat processing (autoclaving). Relative bioavailability of P was estimated from tibia ash using the slope ratio method after chicks were fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with 0.05 or 0.10% P from KH2PO4 or supplemented with 2 levels of the test DDGS (7 to 25%). The mean total P value for the 20 DDGS samples was 0.73 +/- 0.04% (SD), with an average dry matter value of 88 +/- 0.8% (SD). In experiment 1, the bioavailability coefficient for P in a random sample of DDGS relative to KH2PO4 was 69%. In experiment 2, the relative bioavailabilities of P in low digestible Lys DDGS 1, low digestible Lys DDGS 2, and high digestible Lys DDGS 3 were 102, 82 and 75%, respectively (P < 0.05). For experiment 3, the P bioavailability coefficients for a light-colored nonautoclaved DDGS and the same DDGS autoclaved at 121 degrees C and 124 pKa were 75 and 87%, respectively (P < 0.05). Our results showed that the total P content of DDGS was similar to the 0.72% value reported by the NRC (1994), but the relative P bioavailability is higher than the value estimated from NRC (1994) based on table values for total and nonphytate P content. Our results also indicated that there is substantial variability in P bioavailability among different DDGS samples and suggest that increased heat processing may increase the bioavailability of P in DDGS.

  12. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as an alternative ingredient for broilers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Tillman, P B; Payne, R L

    2011-02-01

    The effects of graded levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated as a partial replacement for sources of protein, energy, and other nutrients for broilers when the digestible amino acid balance was maintained. Zero, 8, 16, and 24% DDGS were incorporated into isonutritive diets at the expense of corn, soybean meal, and dl-Met. Poultry oil, l-Lys, and l-Thr additions increased with increasing levels of DDGS. Diets were each fed to 36 Cobb 500 straight-run broilers in 6 floor pens in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, broilers fed ≥8% DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet during the 0- to 18-d starter period (P = 0.0164) but were almost identical in BW at 42 d (P = 0.9395). The only difference at 42 d was in the carcass fat composition of female broilers: percentage of fat pad decreased with increasing DDGS level (P = 0.0133). Corn DDGS reduced the pellet durability index. However, the pellet durability index was not related to growth or feed utilization. In experiment 2 at 42 d, broilers fed all levels of DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet. Broilers may perform well when fed properly balanced feeds containing up to 24% DDGS despite reduced pellet quality.

  13. The occurrence and concentration of mycotoxins in U.S. distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Caupert, John; Imerman, Paula M; Richard, John L; Shurson, Gerald C

    2009-10-28

    To provide a scientific sound assessment of the prevalence and levels of mycotoxins in U.S. distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), we measured mainly aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone in 235 DDGS samples collected from 20 ethanol plants in the midwestern United States and 23 export shipping containers from 2006 to 2008 using state-of-the-art analytical methodologies. The results suggested that (1) none of the samples contained aflatoxins or deoxynivalenol levels higher than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for use in animal feed; (2) no more than 10% of the samples contained fumonisin levels higher than the recommendation for feeding equids and rabbits, and the rest of the samples contained fumonisins lower than FDA guidelines for use in animal feed; (3) none of the samples contained T-2 toxins higher than the detection limit, and no FDA guidance levels are available for T-2 toxins; (4) most samples contained zearalenone levels lower than the detection limit, and no FDA guidance levels are available for zearalenone; and (5) the containers used for export shipping of DDGS did not seem to contribute to mycotoxin production. This study was based on representative DDGS samples from the U.S. ethanol industry, and the data were collected using reference methods. This study provided a comprehensive and scientifically sound assessment of the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in DDGS from the U.S. ethanol industry.

  14. In vitro ruminal fluid fermentation as influenced by corn-derived dried distillers' grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Miśta, Sdorota; Pecka, Ewa; Zachwieja, Andrzej; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Bodarski, Rafał; Paczyńska, Katarzyna; Tumanowicz, Joanna; Kupczyński, Robert; Adamski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate changes to in vitro ruminal fluid fermentation due to the use of corn-derived dried distillers' grains with solubles (corn DDGS) as a partial or complete replacement for crushed cereal and oilseed meals in the fermentation substrate. The control substrate consisted of mixed cereal and oilseed meals (barley, wheat, soybean and rapeseed), while the experimental substrates were the same meals with increasing portions replaced with corn DDGS. Including corn DDGS decreased the total VFA concentration (P<0.05), ammonia level (P<0.001), methane emission (P<0.05) and total gas production (P<0.001) during microbial fermentation. Using DDGS-containing substrates did not change the proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate, but did decrease the proportions of isobutyrate and isovalerate (P<0.001). The fermentation efficiency, VFA utilization index, cell yield coefficient and pH of the ruminal fluid also remained unchanged. The partial replacement of cereal and oilseed meals with corn DDGS had no deleterious effects on ruminal fluid fermentation.

  15. Supercritical CO2 extraction of lipids from grain sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Weller, Curtis L; Schlegel, Vicki L; Carr, Timothy P; Cuppett, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    Experiments were carried out on a lab supercritical CO(2) extraction system to determine the effects of extraction conditions, including mass ratio of CO(2) consumed to distillers dry grain with solubles (DDGS) extracted, extraction pressure, extraction temperature and time, on yield and composition of extracted lipids. A maximum lipid yield of 150 g/kg DDGS was achieved with a mass ratio approximately 45, an extraction pressure at 27.5 MPa, an extraction temperature at 70 degrees C and an extraction time of 4 h. Under these extraction conditions, the contents of tocols, phytosterols, policosanols and free fatty acids were 0.44, 15.6, 31.2 and 155.3 mg/g in the extract. Experimental results indicated that shorter extraction time and higher flow rate of CO(2) can achieve higher contents of tocols, phytosterols and policosanols but lower content of free fatty acids in the lipid extract. Extraction conditions had no observed effects on the composition of free fatty acids in the extract. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were three main free fatty acids extracted and constituted about 94% of all free fatty acids.

  16. Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E; Ruan, Roger

    2011-05-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

  17. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Trupia, S; Winkler-Moser, J K; Guney, A C; Beckstead, R; Chen, C-Y O

    2016-11-01

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller's dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluated. Neither R-DDGS nor L-DDGS at up to 20% of laying hen feeds had a statistically significant impact on hen weight gain, egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg mass, or egg weight. Specific gravity was slightly lower for eggs from hens fed 10% R-DDGS or 20% L-DDGS. Eggs from layers fed DDGS had enhanced levels of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls in the yolk, as well as also increased yolk yellow and red color. Eggs from L-DDGS diet had higher tocopherol content, but eggs from R-DDGS diets had higher xanthophylls. Fatty acid composition in eggs was slightly altered by DDGS, but the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was very similar. Feeding DDGS to layer hens had no effect on lecithin or cholesterol content of the eggs. Thus, inclusion of DDGS in the diet of laying hens resulted in increases of several beneficial lipophilic nutrients in egg yolks with no apparent detrimental effects. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Extruded aquafeeds containing distillers dried grains with solubles: effects on extrudate properties and processing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mjoun, Kamal; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2011-12-01

    The tremendous supply and low cost of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) make it an attractive feedstuff for aquaculture diets. Also, several studies have shown that DDGS can be successfully fed to various finfish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of DDGS (0, 250, 500 g kg(-1) ), feed moisture content (350, 450 g kg(-1) ) and die opening area (die A = 18.85 mm(2) , die B = 3988.45 mm(2) ) on the properties of the extrudates and on processing behaviour using a single-screw extruder. Increasing the inclusion rate of DDGS resulted in extrudates with lower unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, water solubility index and brightness (Hunter L) but higher redness (Hunter a) and yellowness (Hunter b). The increase in moisture content affected the extrudate properties in different ways: it increased bulk density, Hunter L, Hunter b and mass flow rate, whereas specific mechanical energy decreased at high moisture content. Increasing the die opening area primarily decreased expansion ratio of extrudates, power consumption and barrel temperatures but increased mass flow rate. Extrudates from all treatments exhibited high durability and floatability, and less energy was required to produce extrudates when DDGS was used compared with soybean meal-based diets. The aquaculture industry can use this information to develop high-quality feeds at low cost. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, John; Ruan, Roger

    2011-05-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syngas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5-50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5-62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy content of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650°C and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heating value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of highly flexible thermoplastic films from cyanoethylated corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-03-09

    Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be made into highly flexible thermoplastic films without the need for plasticizers. DDGS is an abundantly available coproduct of ethanol production that is inexpensive ($80-130/ton) compared to most of the polymers used for thermoplastic applications. In this research, oil-and-zein-free DDGS was cyanoethylated using acrylonitrile, and cyanoethylation conditions were optimized to obtain high percent weight gain of up to 42%. Cyanoethylated DDGS was characterized using (1)H NMR, FTIR, DSC, and TGA. Cyanoethylated DDGS was compression molded into thermoplastic films, and the tensile properties of the films were studied. It was found that DDGS films with elongation as high as 38% and strength of 14 MPa could be obtained without the use of any plasticizers. Alternatively, films with strength as high as 651 MPa but with relatively low elongation (2.5%) were obtained by varying the extent of cyanoethylation. This research showed that cyanoethylation could be a viable approach to develop biothermoplastics from biopolymers for applications such as packing films, extrudates, and resins for composites.

  1. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles composition, and lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David J; Moreau, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the compositional difference between grain sorghum and corn impact ethanol yields and coproduct value when grain sorghum is incorporated into existing corn ethanol facilities. Fermentation properties of corn and grain sorghum were compared utilizing two fermentation systems (conventional thermal starch liquefaction and native starch hydrolysis). Fermentation results indicated that protease addition influenced the fermentation rate and yield for grain sorghum, improving yields by 1-2% over non-protease treated fermentations. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles produced from sorghum had a statistically significant higher yields and significantly higher protein content relative to corn. Lipid analysis of the Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles showed statistically significant differences between corn and sorghum in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and free fatty acid levels. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  3. Comparisons of three dry application autoradiographic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Parson, M.J.; Parker, B.C. )

    1987-06-01

    We compared three common dry application techniques applied for the first time to phytoplankton taking up water-soluble radioisotopically labeled substrates. Following incubation of live phytoplankton communities in oligotrophic, nitrogen-limited Mountain Lake, Virginia, with Carbon-14 labeled methylamine-hydrochloride, an ammomium analog, we concentrated cells on 0.8 um pore size Millipore filters, then preserved filters in liquid nitrogen, and freeze-dried. Differences in the techniques are application of stripping film, preparation of freshly prepared film by dipping loops into liquid emulsion, and dipping cover slips in liquid emulsion. Following dark-incubation and development, autoradiographs were evaluated microscopically for reproducibility, fine resolution of silver grains, background scatter, and eaes of technique.

  4. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( < 0.01) with increasing level of DDGS in diets. There was a main effect ( < 0.001) of phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P.

  5. Effect of process variables on the quality characteristics of pelleted wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Lope Tabil; Anthony Opoku; Maria Rosario Mosqueda; Olaniyi Fadeyi

    2011-04-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol processing plants in Canada has resulted in a significant increase in the production of wheat-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Transportation and flowability problems associated with DDGS necessitate investigations on pelleting. In the present study, the effect of process variables like die temperature (T) and feed moisture content (Mw) on the pellet properties like pellet moisture content, durability and pellet density was explored using a single pelleting machine; further studies on pelleting DDGS using a pilot-scale pellet mill were also conducted to understand the effect of die diameter and steam conditioning on durability and bulk density of pellets. Proximate analysis of DDGS indicated that crude protein and dry matter were in the range of 37.37–40.33% and 91.27–92.60%, respectively. Linear regression models developed for pellet quality attributes like pellet moisture content, pellet density and durability adequately described the single pelleting process with R2 value of 0.97, 0.99 and 0.7, respectively. ANOVA results have indicated that linear terms T and Mw and the interaction term T × Mw were statistically significant at P < 0.01 and P < 0.1 for pellet moisture content and pellet density. Based on the trends of the surface plots, a medium T of about 50–80 °C and a low Mw of about 5.1% resulted in maximum pellet density and durability and minimum pellet moisture content. Results from pilot-scale studies indicated that bulk density, durability and throughput values were 436.8–528.9 kg m-3, 60.3–92.7% and 45.52–68.77 kg h-1, respectively. It was observed that both die diameter and steam addition had a significant effect on the bulk density and the durability values. The highest bulk density and durability were achieved with 6.4 mm die diameter with steam addition compared to 7.9 mm die with or without steam addition.

  6. Dried distillers grains with solubles with reduced corn silage levels in beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Depenbusch, B E; Reinhardt, C D; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Cole, N A; Drouillard, J S

    2010-07-01

    Two finishing experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of 25% dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DDG) in beef cattle finishing diets by partially replacing a portion of the grain and soybean meal in the control diets. In Exp.1, crossbred heifers (n = 377; BW 378 +/- 4.1 kg) were fed diets consisting of steam-flaked corn (SFC) with a control diet containing 0% DDG and 15% corn silage (CS), 25% DDG and 15% CS, or 25% DDG and 5% CS. Compared with the control treatment, heifers fed DDG and 15% CS had a greater proportion of USDA yield grade 4 and 5 carcasses (P = 0.04; 5.68 vs. 14.12), and smaller LM area (P = 0.04; 86.09 vs. 82.48 cm(2)). In Exp. 2, crossbred heifers (n = 582; BW = 377 +/- 27.09 kg) were fed diets similar to Exp. 1 except dry-rolled corn (DRC) and SFC were compared as the basal grain sources. Treatments included DRC or SFC: with control diets containing 0% DDG and 15% CS, 25% DDG and 15% CS, or 25% DDG and 5% CS. Feeding SFC decreased DMI (P < 0.01), improved G:F (P < 0.01) and final shrunk BW (P = 0.05) compared with DRC. Average USDA yield grade was greater for cattle fed DRC than for those fed SFC (P = 0.02), but calculated yield grade was not different among treatments (P = 0.71). Feeding DDG and 5% CS, regardless of grain source, led to decreased DMI and greater G:F than feeding DDG and 15% CS (P = 0.02). When comparing the control treatments with the diets containing 25% DDG and 15% CS shrunk final BW, ADG, and G:F were decreased (P < or = 0.05); however, carcass-adjusted measurements were not different (P > 0.52). Results indicate that roughage levels can be reduced in feedlot diets containing 25% DDG with no adverse effects on BW gain, feed efficiency, or carcass quality.

  7. Interaction of corn processing and distillers dried grains with solubles on health and performance of steers.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Lardy, G P; Karges, K K; Eckerman, S R; Berg, P T; Schauer, C S

    2012-02-01

    Feeding increased concentrations of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to ruminants has been avoided due to risks of S toxicity and concerns about animal performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of feeding an increasing concentration of DDGS and corn processing method on animal performance, incidence of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), and concentration of H(2)S gas in feedlot steers. Sixty steer calves (336 ± 13.2 kg) were individually fed for an average of 136 d in a completely random design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Main effects included concentration of DDGS (20, 40, or 60% DM basis) and corn processing method [high-moisture (HMC; 71.7% DM) vs. dry-rolled corn (DRC; 86.2% DM)] resulting in treatments of 1) 20% DDGS with DRC, 2) 40% DDGS with DRC, 3) 60% DDGS with DRC, 4) 20% DDGS with HMC, 5) 40% DDGS with HMC, and 6) 60% DDGS with HMC. Ruminal H(2)S gas concentrations were measured on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, and 91 via rumen puncture. Animal performance and carcass characteristic data were collected. The day × corn processing × DDGS interaction for H(2)S gas concentrations was not significant (P = 0.91). Ruminal H(2)S concentration increased with increasing DDGS concentration (P < 0.001) and day (P < 0.001), but was not influenced by corn processing method (P = 0.94). Carcass-adjusted final BW decreased linearly (P = 0.009), whereas carcass-adjusted ADG decreased quadratically (P = 0.05) with increasing concentration of DDGS in the diet. Carcass-adjusted G:F was not affected (P ≥ 0.28) by increasing concentration of DDGS in the diet. Carcass characteristics reflected the decrease in final BW with decreased HCW (P = 0.009), as well as decreased fat depth (P = 0.005) with increasing concentrations of DDGS. The combination of decreased HCW and backfat thickness resulted in decreased (P = 0.02) yield grade with increasing DDGS inclusion. There were no confirmed cases of PEM. In conclusion

  8. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles affects composition but not oxidative stability of milk.

    PubMed

    Testroet, E D; Li, G; Beitz, D C; Clark, S

    2015-05-01

    Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in dairy cow diets containing dried distillers grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Linke, P L; Rennich, D R; Abdelqader, M M; Yoon, I

    2010-06-01

    Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (127+/-52 d in milk) were used in 4 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods to evaluate interactions of dietary inclusion of a fermentation product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; XPC, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) on production of milk and milk components when fed diets containing approximately 30% dietary neutral detergent fiber with calculated forage neutral detergent fiber of 19.3% of diet dry matter (DM). Treatments were a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with SC included at 0 or 14 g/d and DDGS at 0 or 20% of diet DM. Diets consisted of 27% corn silage, 18% alfalfa hay, and 55% concentrate mix on a DM basis. Diets not containing DDGS included additional corn, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, soyhulls, and rumen inert fat to remain isocaloric and isonitrogenous with DDGS diets. Dry matter intake (26.0 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk production increased with the addition of SC to diets (43.6 vs. 42.0 kg/d for diets without SC) and decreased for cows fed diets containing DDGS (42.0 kg/d vs. 43.6 kg/d for diets not containing DDGS). Milk fat percentage (3.05 vs. 3.22% for DDGS and non-DDGS diets, respectively) and yield (1.27 vs. 1.41 kg/d) were decreased by the addition of DDGS but were not affected by the addition of SC. Concentrations of long-chain, polyunsaturated, trans-, and conjugated fatty acids in milk of cows fed DDGS were increased, but milk fatty acid profiles were not affected by SC. Milk true protein concentrations were similar for all diets; however, the addition of SC increased yield of true protein (1.32 vs. 1.27 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen increased when SC was included in the diet with DDGS. The DDGS decreased yields of energy-corrected milk (39.4 vs. 42.1 kg/d) and tended to decrease feed efficiency (1.53 vs. 1.61 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake). Body weights and condition scores were not affected by

  10. Evaluation of various sources of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles for lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmit, D H; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) from different sources on milk production and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous and 4 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments consisted of total mixed diets containing no DDGS (CON), or DDGS from source 1 (DDGS-1), source 2 (DDGS-2), or source 3 (DDGS-3) at 20% of diet dry matter. The processing of DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 was intended to decrease heat damage and improve nutritional quality. The DDGS in the diets replaced a portion of the ground corn and soybean meal, allowing them to be isonitrogenous at 16% crude protein. All diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45. Dry matter intake (21.4 kg/d) did not differ among diets, but cows fed diets containing DDGS had greater yields of milk (34.6 vs. 31.2 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (32.7 vs. 29.6 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (35.4 vs. 32.3) compared with cows fed the CON diet. Feed efficiency was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (1.78 vs. 1.63). Milk fat yield was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with those fed CON (1.26 vs. 1.14 kg/d). Milk protein percentages (3.28, 3.13, 3.19, and 3.17% for CON, DDGS-1, DDGS-2, and DDGS-3, respectively) were greater for CON vs. DDGS and tended to be lower for DDGS-1 than for DDGS-2 and DDGS-3. Milk protein yields tended to be greater for cows fed DDGS than for those fed CON (1.09 vs. 1.02 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were lower in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (9.36 vs. 10.6 mg/dL). Feeding DDGS decreased arterial plasma concentrations of Arg, Ile, Lys, and Thr and increased His and Leu compared with CON. Arterial plasma from cows fed DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 had greater concentrations of Ile, Trp, and Val compared with DDGS-1. In all diets, Lys, Met, and Phe were the first 3 limiting amino acids for protein synthesis with Lys being first limiting in DDGS-1 and DDGS

  11. Survey of mycotoxins in U.S. distiller's dried grains with solubles from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Caupert, John

    2012-01-18

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a major coproduct of the fuel-ethanol industry and is becoming a popular low-cost ingredient for animal feed. Uncertainties regarding the risk factors in DDGS, such as level of mycotoxins, could limit its application in the animal feed industry. To provide a scientifically sound assessment of the prevalence and levels of mycotoxins in U.S. DDGS, we measured aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone in 67 DDGS samples collected from 8 ethanol plants in the midwestern United States from 2009 to 2011. Among the five mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol was the main focus of the study because the crop year of 2009 was favorable for deoxynivalenol occurrence in corn. We learned that no more than 12% of the samples contained deoxynivalenol levels higher than the minimum advisory level for use in animal feed provided by the U.S. FDA, and the deoxynivalenol levels in all DDGS collected in 2011 were <2 mg/kg. Besides, intensive study showed that the enrichment of deoxynivalenol from contaminated corn to DDGS was about 3.5 times. With regard to the other mycotoxins in DDGS, the study suggested that (1) almost none of the DDGS samples produced in 2010 contained detectable aflatoxins and the highest level of aflatoxins in DDGS was 5.7 μg/kg; (2) no more than 6% of the samples contained fumonisin levels higher than the guidance level for feeding equids and rabbits provided by the U.S. FDA; (3) none of the samples contained T-2 higher than the detection limit; (4) most samples contained zearalenone levels between 100 and 300 μg/kg. This study was based on representative DDGS samples from the U.S. ethanol industry, and the data were collected using state-of-the-art analytical methodology. This study provided a comprehensive and scientifically sound assessment of the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in DDGS produced from 2009 to early 2011 by the U.S. ethanol industry.

  12. Amino acid digestibility in low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Curry, Shelby Marie; Navarro, Diego Mario David Labadan; Almeida, Ferdinando Nielsen; Almeida, Juliana Abranches Soares; Stein, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different concentrations of fat. Twelve growing barrows (initial body weight: 76.1 [Formula: see text] 6.2 kg) were randomly allotted to a replicated 6 × 4 Youden square design with 6 diets and 4 periods. The fat content of the 3 sources of DDGS were 11.5, 7.5, and 6.9% respectively. Diets contained 60% DDGS and fat concentration of the diets were 7.5, 5.2, and 5.2%, respectively. Two additional diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with 7.5 and 6.9% fat were also formulated, and corn oil was added to these diets to increase the concentration of fat in the diets to levels that were calculated to be similar to the diet containing conventional DDGS with 11.5% fat. A N-free diet was also formulated to calculate endogenous losses of crude protein (CP) and AA from the pigs. Pigs were fed experimental diets during four 7-d periods. The first 5 d of each period were an adaptation period and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The apparent ileal digestibililty (AID) and SID of CP and all indispensable AA, except AID Pro and SID of Trp, were greater (P < 0.01) in conventional DDGS than in the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat. Adding oil to the diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat did not consistently increase SID of AA. In conclusion, conventional DDGS has greater SID values for most AA compared with DDGS that contains less fat and inclusion of additional oil to diets containing low-fat DDGS does not increase AID or SID of AA. The lower AA digestibility in low-fat DDGS could not be overcome by the inclusion of additional fat to the diets.

  13. Evaluation of dried distillers grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Depenbusch, B E; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Reinhardt, C D; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and alfalfa hay (AH) or corn silage (CS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility in cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. In trial 1, crossbred heifers (n = 358; BW = 353 +/- 13 kg) were used in a finishing trial to evaluate interactions between corn-DDGS and roughage source (AH or CS) in terms of impact on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Experimental diets (DM basis) consisted of SFC and 11% CS without DDGS (SFC-CS), SFC and 11% CS with 25% DDGS (DDGS-CS), SFC and 6% AH without DDGS (SFC-AH), and SFC with 25% DDGS and 6% AH (DDGS-AH). Heifers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily for 97 d. Results indicated no interaction between DDGS and roughage source with respect to animal performance. Feeding DDGS did not affect ADG (P = 0.19), DMI (P = 0.14), or feed conversion (P = 0.67). Heifers fed CS had greater DMI than those fed AH (P = 0.05), but ADG (P = 0.56) and G:F (P = 0.63) were not different. There were no differences among treatments with respect to HCW, dressing percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, quality grades, or yield grades (P > 0.20). Cattle fed CS tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores than those fed AH. There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between roughage and DDGS with respect to incidence of liver abscess. The greatest incidence was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when CS was fed, and the least was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when AH was used. In the second trial, ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility were examined in 12 cannulated Holstein steers fed similar diets to those fed in the finishing trial. Ruminal pH for all treatments was below 5.8 for 14 h after feeding. Acetate:propionate ratios were less (P = 0.02) in steers fed 25% DDGS but had greater (P = 0.02) ruminal lactate concentrations compared with cattle fed 0

  14. Growth and physiological responses of growing pigs to wheat-corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ayoade, D I; Kiarie, E; Slominski, B A; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-06-01

    Gaining a detailed knowledge on the impact of a feedstuff on pig growth and physiological responses is critical for its effective utilization. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles derived from co-fermentation of wheat and corn (wcDDGS) on performance, carcass and visceral organ weights, whole-body O2 consumption and heat production (HP) in growing barrows. The experimental diets were as follows: corn-soybean meal diet (Control), Control + 15% wcDDGS and Control + 30% wcDDGS. In Exp. 1, 48 pair-housed pigs of average BW 18.6 ± 1.5 kg (mean ± SD) were allotted to the 3 diets (n = 8). Pigs had free access to water and feed for a 28-day period during which ADG and ADFI were calculated weekly. Thereafter, 1 pig/pen was killed to measure carcass and visceral organ weights. Overall, wcDDGS linearly decreased (p < 0.05) ADFI and ADG but had no effect on G:F (p > 0.10). The ADFI was 1.55, 1.45 and 1.36 kg/day for diets containing 0, 15 and 30% wcDDGS respectively; corresponding values for ADG were 0.79, 0.75 and 0.67 kg/day respectively. A linear decline (p = 0.01) in eviscerated hot carcass weight was observed as dietary wcDDGS increased. In Exp. 2, 18 pigs of average BW 20.4 ± 2.4 kg (mean ± SD) were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed the 3 diets (n = 6) at 550 kcal ME kg BW(-0.60) day for a 16-day period followed by measurement of O2 consumption using an indirect calorimeter. Diet had no effect (p > 0.10) on whole-body O2 consumption and HP. In conclusion, increasing wcDDGS content in growing pig diets linearly reduced ADFI, ADG and eviscerated hot carcass weight but had no effect on G:F, visceral organ weights or HP. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P < 0.01) when compared with 25% DDGS inclusion. With 25% DDGS in the diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P < 0.01). A similar response (P < 0.01) occurred for total VFA concentrations at 0 h postfeeding. However, at 3 and 6 h postfeeding, propionate concentrations increased (P ≤ 0.05) in cattle fed the 60% DDGS diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with

  16. Effects of acid extrusion on the degradability of maize distillers dried grain with solubles in pigs.

    PubMed

    de Vries, S; Pustjens, A M; van Rooijen, C; Kabel, M A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-12-01

    Commonly used feed processing technologies are not sufficient to affect recalcitrant nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) such as arabinoxylans present in maize distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Instead, hydrothermal treatments combined with acid catalysts might be more effective to modify these NSP. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal maleic acid treatment (acid extrusion) on the degradability of maize DDGS in growing pigs. It was hypothesized that acid extrusion modifies DDGS cell wall architecture and thereby increases fermentability of NSP. Two diets, containing either 40% (wt/wt) unprocessed or acid-extruded DDGS, were restrictedly fed to groups of gilts (n=11, with 4 pigs per group; initial mean BW: 20.8±0.2 kg) for 18 d and performance and digestibility were analyzed. Acid extrusion tended to decrease apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (approximately 3 percentage units [% units]); P=0.063) and starch (approximately 1% unit; P=0.096). Apparent digestibility of CP and starch measured at the mid colon (2% units, P=0.030, for CP and 0.3% units, P<0.01, for starch) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD; 3% units, P<0.01, for CP and 0.2% units, P=0.024, for starch) were lower for the acid-extruded diet compared with the control diet. Hindgut disappearance was, however, not different between diets, indicating that reduced CP and starch digestibility were mainly due to decreased AID. Acid extrusion tended to increase AID of NSP (6% units; P=0.092) and increased digestibility of NSP measured at the mid colon (6% units; P<0.01), whereas hindgut disappearance and ATTD of NSP did not differ between diets. Greater NSP digestibility was mainly due to greater digestibility of arabinosyl, xylosyl, and glucosyl residues, indicating that both arabinoxylan and cellulose degradability were affected by acid extrusion. In conclusion, these results show that acid extrusion did not improve degradation of DDGS for

  17. Processing method and corn cultivar affected anthocyanin concentration from dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Wang, Zhaoqin; West, Megan; Singh, Vijay; West, Leslie; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with health benefits and potential use as food colorants. The objectives of this work were to (1) determine optimum parameters for the extraction of anthocyanins from dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), (2) develop a method of anthocyanin extraction from DDGS, (3) quantify and identify the extracted anthocyanins, and (4) determine the effect of processing methods and corn cultivars on anthocyanin concentration. DDGS samples were prepared from purple (PC) and dark (DC) corn and processed using conventional enzymes (C) and granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GC). Three independent variables (ethanol concentration (0, 12.5, and 25%); liquid-to-solid ratio (30:1, 40:1, 50:1 mL/g); and extraction temperature (4, 22, and 40 °C)) and two dependent variables (anthocyanin concentration and a-value (redness)) were used. Results showed that dark corn DDGS gave anthocyanin concentration higher than that of purple corn. The GC process showed total anthocyanin concentration higher than that of the conventional method of DDGS production. The maximum anthocyanin concentration was obtained at 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C for C-PC [321.0 ± 37.3 μg cyanidin-3 glucoside (C3G) equivalent/g DDGS]. For GC-PC, 25% ethanol, 30:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C gave 741.4 ± 12.8 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. For GC-DC, 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 °C extraction gave 1573.4 ± 84.0 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. LC/MS-MS analysis showed that the major anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6″-malonyl) glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6″malonyl) glucoside. In conclusion, anthocyanin extraction from colored corn DDGS can be optimized using 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 mL/g ratio, and 22 °C.

  18. Effect of different inclusion level of condensed distillers solubles ratios and oil content on amino Acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Xu, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, J D; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S; Ma, X K; Piao, X S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS.

  19. A soil water distillation technique using He-purging for stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatev, A.; Velivetckaia, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Ueta, A.

    2013-08-01

    A new method of soil water extraction for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis has been developed; this method uses a helium flow system as an alternative to the conventional vacuum extraction method. The method significantly increases the efficiency of sample preparation and simplifies the extraction. During the water distillation, a helium carrier gas transfers water vaporized at 95 °C from the soil sample to a cold trap at liquid nitrogen temperature. An extraction time of 180 min is used to distill the water from the fine-grained soil completely. The proposed He-purging distillation technique makes it possible to distill approximately a dozen samples simultaneously. The method was tested using liquid water samples and clayey soil samples hydrated with water of known isotopic composition. The standard deviations for these tests were 0.08‰ for δ18O and 0.7‰ for δD. An intercomparison test was conducted for the helium and vacuum extraction methods using natural soil samples. The correlation coefficients between the methods were 0.9926 and 0.9939 for δD and δ18O, respectively. The proposed He-purging distillation method can achieve high precision for clayey soil samples with low water content and has the potential to provide adequate isotopic data in hydrological and ecological studies. The method is relatively fast, efficient, and inexpensive. We also recommend using the method to distill salt solutions (sea water, mineralized water) before determining the δD and δ18O values using a chromium or carbon reduction method to avoid “salt effects”.

  20. Rapid analysis of the essential oil components of dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim by Fe2O3-magnetic-microsphere-assisted microwave distillation and simultaneous headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing

    2013-06-01

    In this work, microwave distillation assisted by Fe2 O3 magnetic microspheres (FMMS) and headspace single-drop microextraction were combined, and developed for determination of essential oil compounds in dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim (ZBM). The FMMS were used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of dried ZBM. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction, and concentration of essential oil compounds can be carried out in a single step. The experimental parameters including extraction solvent, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added FMMS, were studied. The optimal analytical conditions were: 2.0 μL decane as the extraction solvent, microwave power of 300 W, irradiation time of 2 min, and the addition of 0.1 g FMMS to ZBM. The method precision was from 4 to 10%. A total of 52 compounds were identified by the proposed method. The conventional steam distillation method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in dried ZBM and only 31 compounds were identified by steam distillation method. It was found that the proposed method is a simple, rapid, reliable, and solvent-free technique for the determination of volatile compounds in Chinese herbs.

  1. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  2. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) – A Key to the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  3. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers' dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distiller grains with soluble (DDGS) have roughly three times the amount of oil as regular corn used in feeds, and several studies have shown that DDGS also have higher concentrations of lipophilic bioactives such as tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls, because the levels found in whole corn...

  4. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  5. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Meloche, K J; Kerr, B J; Billor, N; Shurson, G C; Dozier, W A

    2014-06-01

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior research data were used to generate a best-fit equation for AMEn based on proximate analysis. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 4.98 to 14.29% (DM basis) were collected from various dry-grind ethanol plants and were subsequently fed to broiler chicks to determine AMEn content. A corn-soybean meal control diet was formulated to contain 15% dextrose and test diets were created by mixing the control diet with 15% DDGS at the expense of dextrose. In each trial, male Ross × Ross 708 chicks were housed in grower battery cages and received a common starter diet until the experimental period. Each cage was randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments (trial 1 and trial 2: control + 6 test diets, 13 replicates per diet; trial 3: control + 3 test diets, 12 replicates per diet). Experimental diets were fed over a 6-d acclimation period, followed by a 48-h total excreta collection period. On a DM basis, AMEn of the 15 DDGS samples ranged from 1,975 to 3,634 kcal/kg. Analyses were conducted to determine gross energy, CP, EE, DM, starch, total dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber (CF), acid detergent fiber, and ash content of the DDGS samples. All results were reported on a DM basis. Application of the 4 equations to the validation data resulted in root mean square error (RMSE) values of 335, 381, 488, and 502 kcal/kg, respectively. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator technique was applied to proximate analysis data for 30 corn coproducts adapted from prior research and resulted in the following best-fit equation: [AMEn (kcal/kg) = 3,673 - (121.35 × CF) + (51.29 × EE) - (121.08 × ash); P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.70; R(2) adj = 0.67; RMSE = 270 kcal/kg]. The RMSE values

  6. Energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and oilseed meals for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Kong, C

    2014-01-01

    The energy values of 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from corn, triticale, and sorghum and 3 oil seed meals including canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and sunflower meal (SFM) were determined in 2 experiments. For both of experiments, 24 crossbred barrows (initial BW: 28.0 ± 1.60 and 28.0 ± 2.0 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were grouped by weight into 6 blocks and placed in a metabolism crate with 1 pig per crate. There were 4 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 3 test diets. The test diet consisted of each of 3 DDGS (Exp. 1) or 3 oil seed meals (Exp. 2) that partly replaced the energy yielding sources in the reference diet at 300 (Exp. 1) or 200 g/kg (Exp. 2) such that same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The DE, apparent ME (AME), and N-corrected AME (AMEn) of the test ingredients were determined by the difference method in 2 experiments each consisting of a 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total but separate collection of feces and urine. The respective DM or GE of corn DDGS, triticale DDGS, sorghum DDGS, CM, CSM, and SFM were 918, 927, 904, 912, 907, and 898 g/kg or 5,429, 5,298, 5,295, 5,063, 5,327, and 4,589 kcal/kg of DM. Addition of DDGS to reference diet in Exp. 1 decreased (P < 0.01) dietary DE, AME, and AMEn of the test diet. However, in Exp. 2, the respective energy values of the test diet were not affected by the addition of oil seed meals to reference diet except for SFM, which decreased (P < 0.01) the energy values. The respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,751, 3,559, and 3,361 kcal/kg of DM for corn DDGS, 3,720, 3,537, and 3,315 kcal/kg of DM for triticale DDGS, and 3,520, 3,355, and 3,228 kcal/kg of DM for sorghum DDGS. There was no difference in any of energy values among 3 DDGS evaluated in the current study. Furthermore, the respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,577, 3,428, and 3,087 kcal/kg of DM for CM and 3,281, 3,139, and 2

  7. Pretreatment of dried distillers grains with solubles by soaking in aqueous ammonia and subsequent enzymatic/dilute acid hydrolysis to produce fermentable sugars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15% w/w NH4OH solution at a solid:liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied...

  8. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total tract digestibility of nutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d ol...

  9. Thermophilic Dry Methane Fermentation of Distillation Residue Eluted from Ethanol Fermentation of Kitchen Waste and Dynamics of Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic dry methane fermentation is advantageous for feedstock with high solid content. Distillation residue with 65.1 % moisture content was eluted from ethanol fermentation of kitchen waste and subjected to thermophilic dry methane fermentation, after adjusting the moisture content to 75 %. The effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on thermophilic dry methane fermentation was investigated. Results showed that thermophilic dry methane fermentation could not be stably performed for >10 weeks at a C/N ratio of 12.6 and a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg sludge/d; however, it was stably performed at a C/N ratio of 19.8 and a VTS loading rate of 3 g/kg sludge/d with 83.4 % energy recovery efficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacteria and archaea decreased by two orders of magnitude at a C/N ratio of 12.6, whereas they were not influenced at a C/N ratio of 19.8. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relative abundance of protein-degrading bacteria increased and that of organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and acetic acid-oxidizing bacteria decreased at a C/N ratio of 12.6. Therefore, there was accumulation of NH4(+) and acetic acid, which inhibited thermophilic dry methane fermentation.

  10. Heat Transfer Study of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) Using Simulation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Jeffrey León; Martínez, Edgar Leonardo; Wolf, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2011-08-01

    Separation processes is largely used in petroleum refining and alcohol industries. Distillation columns consume a huge amount of energy in industrial process. Therefore, the concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) was studied using simulation techniques in order to overcome this drawback. In this configuration the column is composed for two concentric sections called rectifying and stripping. The heat transfer is conducted from the rectifying section (which works at higher pressure and temperature) to the stripping section (which works at lower pressure and temperature) using the heat present in the process and decreasing the energy charge required by the reboiler. The HIDiC column offers great potential to reduce energy consumption compared to conventional columns. However, the complexity of the internal configuration requires the development of rigorous works that enable a better understanding of the column operation. For this reason, techniques of simulation were used through of computational software. The current work presents a heat transfer study in a concentric stage of a HIDiC column. The results obtained by Aspen Plus and CFD simulation showed the internal heat transfer in a concentric tray as a promissory configuration in order to decrease energy consumption in distillation processes.

  11. Biodiesel from corn distillers dried grains with solubles: preparation, evaluation and properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of dry-grind ethanol fermentation and represents a low-cost feedstock with potential to improve process economics and logistics of biodiesel manufacture through integration of biodiesel and ethanol production. Oil extracted from DDGS...

  12. Techniques for drying thick southern pine veneer

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1964-01-01

    Thick veneers cut from southern pine are relatively easy to dry, but they are not easy to dry free of distortion. The research reported here was undertaken to compare five drying systems. Factors evaluated included rate of water loss, degree of distortion, and the effect on strength. Effects on gluability were also briefly studied.

  13. Influence of dry-rolled corn processing and increasing dried corn distillers grains plus solubles inclusion for finishing cattle on growth performance and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K C; Islas, A; Carlson, Z E; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L

    2014-06-01

    Sixty-four yearling steers (345 ± 4.2 kg BW) were used to study the effects of degree of dry-rolled corn processing and corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) inclusion on feeding and ruminating behavior, G:F, and carcass characteristics. Steers were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental treatments (n = 16 per treatment): 1) coarse-rolled (2.68 mm) corn and 20% DDGS, 2) coarse-rolled corn and 40% DDGS, 3) fine-rolled (1.46 mm) corn and 20% DDGS, and 4) fine-rolled corn and 40% DDGS. Final BW and ADG were not affected by corn processing or DDGS. Dry matter intake (kg/d and % of BW) decreased (P < 0.001) and G:F increased (P < 0.001) with increasing inclusion of DDGS. Meal number increased (P ≤ 0.05) and meal size decreased (P < 0.001) with finer dry-roll corn processing and with increasing inclusion of DDGS. Drinking time decreased (P = 0.03) with finer dry-rolled corn processing and tended to increase (P = 0.06) with increased inclusion of DDGS. Rumination time while standing decreased (P = 0.03) with increased inclusion of DDGS. Increasing inclusion of DDGS from 20 to 40% decreased intake, increased G:F, and altered feeding behavior of finishing steers consuming a 90% concentrate diet without affecting carcass quality. Increasing the degree of dry-roll corn processing did not impact growth performance and did not interact with increasing inclusion of DDGS in finishing diets.

  14. Taste masking by spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Bora, Divyakumar; Borude, Priyanka; Bhise, Kiran

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop the taste-masked microspheres of intensely bitter drug ondansetron hydrochloride (OSH) by spray-drying technique. The bitter taste threshold value of OSH was determined. Three different polymers viz. Chitosan, Methocel E15 LV, and Eudragit E100 were used for microsphere formation, and the effect of different polymers and drug-polymer ratios on the taste masking and release properties of microspheres was investigated. The microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Drug loading, in vitro bitter taste evaluation, and drug-release properties. The taste masking was absent in methocel microspheres at all the drug-polymer ratios. The Eudragit microspheres depicted taste masking at 1:2 drug-polymer ratio whereas with Chitosan microspheres the taste masking was achieved at 1:1 drug-polymer ratio. The drug release was about 96.85% for eudragit microspheres and 40.07% for Chitosan microspheres in 15 min.

  15. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids.

  16. Effect of incorporation of distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on quality of cornbread

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent increase in biofuel production creates a sizable stockpile of its co-product in the form of Distiller’s Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) that needs to be utilized beyond animal feeds. We evaluated cornbreads, which were formulated incorporating 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% corn DDGS into co...

  17. Study of lipids and lipid components in corn dried distiller's grains (DDG)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We extracted oil from corn dried distiller’s grains (DDG) with ethanol, hexane, and supercritical CO2 and found that it has a very large amount of some valuable nutraceutical phytochemicals including phytosterols, ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The oil fatty acid ...

  18. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune, to our knowledge never before examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan, were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1.0% (w/v) distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by...

  19. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  20. High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of ...

  1. Pond demonstration of production diets using high levels of distiller's dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation for channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the increased availability and potential price advantage of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), there is considerable interest in utilizing this product in aquaculture diets. The response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to practical diets containing 20% and 30% DDGS with and...

  2. Properties of dried distillers grains with solubles, Paulownia wood, and pine wood reinforced high density polyethylene composites: Effect of maleation, chemical modification, and the mixing of fillers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a need to identify usable lignocellulosic materials that can be blended with thermoplastic resins to produced commercial lignocellulosic plastic composites (LPC) at lower costs with improved performance. The core objectives of this study are to: 1) evaluate the use of dried distillers grai...

  3. Effects of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles composition on digestible and metabolizable energy value and prediction in growing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) containing variable ether extract (EE) concentrations and to develop DE and ME prediction equations based on nutritional measurements. Ether extract content of corn-DDGS ranged...

  4. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  5. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine growers are increasingly supplementing animal diets with dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS) to offset cost of a typical corn-soybean meal diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of DDGS diets on both on manure composition and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ammoni...

  7. Effects of increasing inclusion rates of a low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LF-DDGS) in finishing broiler diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...

  8. The effect of brown midrib corn silage and dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk production, nitrogen utilization and microbial community structure in dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-six Holstein cows, four of which were ruminally cannulated, (mean ± SD, 111 ± 35 DIM; 664 ± 76.5 kg BW) were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of brown midrib (bm3) and conventional (DP) corn silages and the inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG...

  9. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on animal performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-four crossbred steers (308 ± 8 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) and steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets with and without 35% wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) derived from corn to determine impacts of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on animal performance and carcass chara...

  10. Effect of fiber removal from ground corn, distillers dried grains with solubles and soybean meal using the Elusieve process on broiler performance and processing yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Elusieve process, a combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), has been found to be effective in fiber separation from ground corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SBM). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of removing fiber fro...

  11. Evaluation of grain distillers dried yeast as a fish meal substitute in practical-type diets of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain distillers dried yeast (GDDY) is a single-cell protein obtained as a co-product during the production of fuel ethanol that may have potential as a protein replacement for rainbow trout. The goal of this study was to examine the suitability of GDDY as a replacement for fishmeal on a digestible ...

  12. Effect of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and Eimeria acervulina infection on growth performance and the intestinal microbiota of young chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicks were used to determine whether dietary corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may prevent or ameliorate Eimeria acervulina (EA) infection. The experiment had a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 diets (inclusion of 0, 10, or 20% DDGS) × 2 challenge treat...

  13. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2014-03-05

    The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L(-1)·day(-1) during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows' daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH₄ production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH₄ production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  14. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  15. In pursuit of objective dry eye screening clinical techniques.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial, progressive, and chronic disease of the tears and ocular surface. The disease is multi-factorial and has intermittent symptoms. Discomfort, visual disturbance, tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface, and increased tear film osmolarity are known associates. Dry eye is a common clinical problem for eye-care providers worldwide and there is a large number of clinical investigative techniques for the evaluation of dry eye. Despite this, however, there is no globally accepted guideline for dry eye diagnosis and none of the available tests may hold the title of the 'gold standard'. The majority of the techniques involved in the diagnosis of the disease, particularly for its early stages, has a large degree of subjectivity. The purpose of this article is to review existing dry eye investigative techniques and to present a new objective dry eye screening technique based on optical coherence tomography.

  16. Effects of feeding distillers dried grains with solubles, high-protein distillers dried grains, and corn germ to growing-finishing pigs on pig performance, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M R; McGinnis, L M; Wulf, D M; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate pig performance, carcass quality, and palatability of pork from pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG), and corn germ. Eighty-four pigs (initial BW, 22 +/- 1.7 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Diets were fed for 114 d in a 3-phase program. The control treatment was based on corn and soybean meal. Two treatments were formulated using 10 or 20% DDGS in each phase. Two additional treatments contained HP-DDG in amounts sufficient to substitute for either 50 or 100% of the soybean meal used in the control treatment. An additional 2 treatments contained 5 or 10% corn germ, which was calculated to provide the same amount of fat as 10 or 20% DDGS. Results showed that for the entire experiment, pig performance was not affected by DDGS or HP-DDG, but final BW increased (linear, P < 0.05) as corn germ was included in the diets. Carcass composition and muscle quality were not affected by DDGS, but LM area and LM depth decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as HP-DDG was added to the diets. Lean meat percentage increased and drip loss decreased as corn germ was included in the diets (quadratic, P < 0.05). There was no effect of DDGS on fat quality except that belly firmness decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary DDGS concentration increased. Including HP-DDG or corn germ in the diets did not affect fat quality, except that the iodine value increased (linear, P < 0.05) in pigs fed HP-DDG diets and decreased (linear, P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn germ diets. Cooking loss, shear force, and bacon distortion score were not affected by the inclusion of DDGS, HP-DDG, or corn germ in the diets, and the overall palatability of the bacon and pork chops was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS or high levels of HP-DDG to growing-finishing pigs did not negatively affect overall pig performance, carcass

  17. Biogas Production from Distilled Grain Waste by Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic Digestion: Pretreatment of Feedstock and Dynamics of Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-08-24

    Distilled grain waste (DGW) eluted from the Chinese liquor making process poses potential serious environmental problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of converting DGW to biogas by thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion. To improve biogas production, the effects of dilute H2SO4 and thermal pretreatment on DGW were evaluated by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The results indicate that 90 °C thermal pretreatment provided the highest methane production at 212.7 mL/g-VTSadd. The long-term thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a 5-L separable flask for more than 3 years at a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg-sludge/d, using synthetic waste, untreated and 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW as the feedstock, respectively. A higher methane production, 451.6 mL/g-VTSadd, was obtained when synthetic waste was used; the methane production decreased to 139.4 mL/g-VTSadd when the untreated DGW was used. The 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW increased the methane production to 190.5 mL/g-VTSadd, showing an increase of 36.7% in methane production compared with that using untreated DGW. The microbial community structure analysis indicates that the microbial community in the thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion system maintained a similar structure when untreated or pretreated DGW was used, whereas the structure differed significantly when synthetic waste was used as the feedstock.

  18. Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of corn- or wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS or WDDGS) on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from growing beef cattle and determine if the oil in CDDGS was responsible for any response observed. Effects of CDDGS or WDDGS on total N excretion and partitioning between urine and fecal N were also examined in this replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 16 ruminally cannulated crossbreed heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg of initial BW). The control diet contained (DM basis) 55% whole crop barley silage, 35% barley grain, 5% canola meal, and 5% vitamin and mineral supplement. Three dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) diets were formulated by replacing barley grain and canola meal (40% of dietary DM) with CDDGS, WDDGS, or WDDGS plus corn oil (WDDGS+oil). For WDDGS+oil, corn oil was added to WDDGS (4.11% fat DM basis) to achieve the same fat level as in CDDGS (9.95% fat DM basis). All total mixed diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted between d 11 and 14. Enteric CH4 was measured between d 18 and 21 using 4 environmental chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber). Methane emissions per kilogram of DM intake (DMI) and as percent of GE intake (GEI) among heifers fed WDDGS (23.9 g/kg DMI and 7.3% of GEI) and the control (25.3 g/kg DMI and 7.8% of GEI) were similar (P = 0.21 and P = 0.19) whereas heifers fed CDDGS (21.5 g/kg DMI and 6.6% of GEI) and WDDGS+oil (21.1 g/kg DMI and 6.3% of GEI) produced less (P < 0.05) CH4. Total N excretion (g/d) differed (P < 0.001) among treatments with WDDGS resulting in the greatest total N excretion (303 g/d) followed by WDDGS+oil (259 g/d), CDDGS (206 g/d), and the control diet (170 g/d), respectively. Compared with the control diet, heifers offered WDDGS, CDDGS, and WDDGS+oil excreted less fecal N (P < 0.001) but more (P < 0.001) urinary N. Results suggest that high-fat CDDGS or WDDGS+oil can mitigate enteric

  19. Alterations in the Colonic Microbiota of Pigs Associated with Feeding Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Burrough, Eric R.; Arruda, Bailey L.; Patience, John F.; Plummer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration, which has the potential to impact the colonic microbiota considerably as the large intestine contains a dynamic microenvironment with tremendous interplay between microorganisms. Any alteration to the physical or chemical properties of the colonic contents has the potential to impact the resident bacterial population and potentially favor or inhibit the establishment of pathogenic species. In the present study, colonic contents collected at necropsy from pigs fed either 30% or no DDGS were analyzed to examine the relative abundance of bacterial taxa associated with feeding this ingredient. No difference in alpha diversity (richness) was detected between diet groups. However, the beta diversity was significantly different between groups with feeding of DDGS being associated with a decreased Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P = .004) and a significantly lower abundance of Lactobacillus spp. (P = .016). Predictive functional profiling of the microbiota revealed more predicted genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, protein digestion, and degradation of glycans in the microbiota of pigs fed DDGS. Taken together, these findings confirm that alterations in dietary insoluble fiber significantly alter the colonic microbial profile of pigs and suggest the resultant microbiome may predispose to the development of colitis. PMID:26555787

  20. In vitro study of the effect of corn dried distillers grains with solubles on rumen fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pecka-Kiełb, E; Zawadzki, W; Zachwieja, A; Michel, O; Mazur, M; Miśta, D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the in vitro study was to determine the effect of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (corn DDGS), used as a replacement for the concentrate ingredients of sheep diet, on rumen fermentation. The material for the study was the ruminal fluid of Polish Merino sheep which was incubated during 4-, 8- or 24-hour periods. Five groups of samples were prepared for in vitro fermentation: C - control, incubated with the substrate consisting of the concentrate ingredients; D1, D2 and D3, where DDGS was used as a substrate added in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% of dry matter of the concentrate; and D4, where 100% DDGS was used as a substrate. After fermentation, the gas and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analyses were performed using gas chromatography. The ammonia concentration and pH were also determined, and the SCFA utilization index (NGR), the fermentation efficiency (FE) and the index of cell yield of ruminal microorganisms (CY) were calculated. This research showed no effect of DDGS on the methane emission. The positive correlations between the amount of methane and ammonia concentrations in the 8- and 24-hour fermentation periods were found. DDGS addition increased propionate proportion, but decreased production of acetate (p<0.01). Additionally, D1, D2, D3 and D4 substrates lowered isobutyrate (p<0.05) and isovalerate (p<0.01) production. Based on the results obtained, it can be stated that partial substitution of the concentrate ingredients with DDGS did not have deleterious effect on sheep rumen fermentation processes.

  1. Determination of the Mycotoxin Content in Distiller's Dried Grain with Solubles Using a Multianalyte UHPLC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Campbell, Katrina; Magowan, Elizabeth; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-11-04

    There are more than 300 potential mycotoxins that can contaminate food and feed and cause adverse effects in humans and animals. The data on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in novel animal feed materials, such as distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), are limited. Thus, a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of 77 mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites was used to analyze 169 DDGS samples produced from wheat, maize, and barley and 61 grain samples. All DDGS samples analyzed were contaminated with 13-34 different mycotoxins. Fumonisins were present in all 52 maize DDGS samples (81.0-6890 μg/kg for fumonisin B1), and deoxynivalenol was present in all 99 wheat DDGS samples (39.3-1120 μg/kg). A number of co-occurring mycotoxins were also identified. Due to the high co-occurrence of mycotoxins, routine screening of the animal feed ingredients is highly recommended to allow the highlighted risks to be effectively managed.

  2. Efficacy of feed enzymes in pig and poultry diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles: a review.

    PubMed

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Wlosek, A; Jozefiak, D

    2016-02-01

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of the ethanol industry, are often used as feed material in livestock and poultry nutrition. Results of many experiments have indicated, however, that a high dietary level of DDGS can negatively affect the digestibility of nutrients and the performance of monogastric animals due to their high content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Nevertheless, using high levels of DDGS as a protein source in livestock diets can be still economically justifiable in view of the rising prices of soya bean meal and other protein sources. The aim of some recent experiments with poultry and pigs was to improve the nutritional efficacy of high-NSP diets through the addition of feed enzymes. As presented and discussed in this review article, the efficacy of feed enzymes added to poultry and pig diets containing DDGS is not consistent and depends on many factors. However, NSP-hydrolysing enzymes generally seemed to be more efficient than phytases in terms of the digestibility of nutrients and the growth performance of poultry and pigs fed high-DDGS diets. For this reason, supplementation with NSP-hydrolysing enzymes could be an efficient way to enable the use of increased levels of DDGS in poultry and pig diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Comparison of wheat- versus corn-based dried distillers' grains with solubles on meat quality of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Aldai, N; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Robertson, W M; McAllister, T A; Walter, L J; McKinnon, J J

    2010-03-01

    A considerable amount of information has been generated on the feeding value and impact of corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) on meat quality, whereas little is known about the effects of wheat DDGS on meat quality, and no direct comparison of these two sources of DDGS has been completed. The current study was conducted to examine the objective and subjective carcass and meat quality traits of cattle fed diets containing corn or wheat (20% or 40%) DDGS (DM basis) as compared to a standard barley-based finishing diet (control). In general, meat obtained from animals fed the barley-based control diet was slightly darker in colour (lower chroma and hue at 24 h, P<0.01) and less tender (highest proportion of tough shears at 2 d and lowest proportion of tender shears at 20 d). Meat from corn DDGS was rated as more tender and palatable than control samples (P<0.05), and 20% corn samples were rated better for beef flavour intensity (P<0.01) and desirability (P<0.05) than 40% corn DDGS samples. In contrast, meat from steers fed wheat DDGS showed intermediate characteristics between steers fed control and corn DDGS diets. Hence, feeding wheat DDGS had no negative effects, and feeding corn DDGS had some positive effects on meat quality characteristics of beef. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methane production from the soluble fraction of distillers' dried grains with solubles in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, D P; Hirl, P J; Belia, E

    2008-06-01

    Methane production from the soluble fraction of distillers' dried grains with solubles, a co-product of ethanol production, was studied in 2-L anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) under 10 different operating conditions. Methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were quantified for a wide range of operating parameters. Chemical oxygen demand removals of 64 to 95% were achieved at organic loading rates ranging from 1.5 to 22.2 g COD/L x d, solids retention times from 8 to 40 days, and food-to-microorganism ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 g COD/g volatile suspended solids (VSS) x d. Biogas methane content varied from 61 to 74%, with 0.29 L CH4 produced/g COD removed. Roughly 56% of the influent COD and 84% of the COD removed in the ASBRs was converted to methane. Microbial yield (Y) and decay (b) constants were determined to be Y = 0.126 g VSS/g COD removed and b = 0.032 day(-1), respectively. Methane produced from co-products can reduce the costs and fossil-fuel consumption of ethanol manufacture.

  5. Suitability of some selected maize hybrids from Serbia for the production of bioethanol and dried distillers' grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Semenčenko, Valentina V; Mojović, Ljiljana V; Dukić-Vuković, Aleksandra P; Radosavljević, Milica M; Terzić, Dušanka R; Milašinović Šeremešić, Marija S

    2013-03-15

    Bioethanol is mostly produced from starchy parts of the corn grain kernel leaving significant amounts of valuable by-products such as dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) which can be used as a substitute for traditional feedstuff. The suitability of six maize hybrids from Serbia was investigated for bioethanol and DDGS production. The correlation between physical and chemical characteristics of the grain, bioethanol yield and quality of the corresponding DDGS was assessed. All hybrids had very different chemical composition and physical characteristics which could allow various applications. The highest bioethanol yield (94.5% of theoretical) and volumetric productivity (2.01 g l(-1) h(-1)) were obtained with hybrid ZP 434 and the lowest with ZP 611k. Regarding chemical composition, all DDGS samples manifested good properties as feed components. Their protein content was higher compared to the kernel. In addition, the samples showed high digestibility and high mineral content, especially of calcium and phosphorus. A hybrid ZP 434 was selected as the most promising bioethanol producer. This property is attributed to the highest level of soft endosperm which is more susceptible to starch-hydrolysing enzymes. A high yield potential per hectare makes it the best candidate for commercial bioethanol production. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following microwave distillation and headspace solid-phase microextraction for fast analysis of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Deng, Chunhui; Li, Yan; Ye, Hao; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2006-11-10

    In this paper, a novel method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following microwave distillation-headspace solid-phase microextraction (MD-HS-SPME) was developed for the determination of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is dried before being preserved and used, there is too little water to absorb microwave energy and heat the TCM samples. In the work, carbonyl iron powders (CIP) was added and mixed with the dried TCM sample, which was used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of the TCM. At the same time, SPME was used for the extraction and concentration of essential oil after MD. The dry rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea DC was used as the model TCM, and used in the study. The MD-HS-SPME parameters including fiber coating, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added CIP, were studied. To demonstrate the method feasibility, the conventional HS-SPME method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in the TCM. Experimental results show that more compounds were isolated and identified by MD-HS-SPME than those by HS-SPME. Compared to conventional HS-SPME, the advantages of the proposed method are: short extraction time and high extraction efficiency. All experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative tool for fast analysis of essential oils in dry TCMs.

  7. Experimental methods for the Palaeolithic dry distillation of birch bark: implications for the origin and development of Neandertal adhesive technology.

    PubMed

    Kozowyk, P R B; Soressi, M; Pomstra, D; Langejans, G H J

    2017-08-31

    The destructive distillation of birch bark to produce tar has recently featured in debates about the technological and cognitive abilities of Neandertals and modern humans. The abilities to precisely control fire temperatures and to manipulate adhesive properties are believed to require advanced mental traits. However, the significance given to adhesive technology in these debates has quickly outgrown our understanding of birch bark tar and its manufacture using aceramic techniques. In this paper, we detail three experimental methods of Palaeolithic tar production ranging from simple to complex. We recorded the fuel, time, materials, temperatures, and tar yield for each method and compared them with the tar known from the Palaeolithic. Our results indicate that it is possible to obtain useful amounts of tar by combining materials and technology already in use by Neandertals. A ceramic container is not required, and temperature control need not be as precise as previously thought. However, Neandertals must have been able to recognize certain material properties, such as adhesive tack and viscosity. In this way, they could develop the technology from producing small traces of tar on partially burned bark to techniques capable of manufacturing quantities of tar equal to those found in the Middle Palaeolithic archaeological record.

  8. Effects of sex and inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles on slaughter yield and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Adamski, M P; Kowalczyk, A M; Lukaszewicz, E T; Korzeniowska, M

    2011-12-01

    1. The effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) dietary inclusion concentration, and sex, on body weight, slaughter efficiency and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica, strain P55) were studied. 2. Sexed ducklings (n = 160) were divided randomly into 4 groups (each with 4 replicates). From d 1 to d 21, all the birds received the same commercial feed, then from 22 to 49 d of age the ducks were fed in the following groups: control (commercial feed) and three experimental groups (15%, 25% and 30% inclusion of DDGS). All ducks were weighed individually at d 1, 21 and 49. On the day of slaughter, 5 males and 5 females, of body weight close to the average weight for group and sex, were selected from each group, slaughtered and the following parameters were evaluated: slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of particular elements of carcase, physical and chemical characteristics of meat. 3. The results obtained showed that DDGS included from 22 to 49 d of rearing, at concentrations up to 30%, in a commercial Pekin duck diet did not affect the live body weight, slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of breast and leg muscle, skin with subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat. There were no differences in physical characteristics (pH(15), pH(24,) meat colour values L*, a*and b*, and hygroscopicity) of breast muscle, as well as in cholesterol content. DDGS addition at 30% significantly increased fat content in male, and crude protein in female, breast meat. Sex effect was observed only in a few traits and was diet dependent. Final body weight of females fed 30% DDGS was significantly lower than males; in the control and 15% DDGS group females had higher percentage of skin with subcutaneous fat. 4. The results obtained, and relative costs of feeds produced, allows the recommendation of DDGS addition at up to 30% to commercial Pekin duck diets from 22 d of age.

  9. Assessment of caecal parameters in layer hens fed on diets containing wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Richards, P J; Wu, S; Mellits, K H; Wiseman, J

    2015-01-01

    There is much interest in quantifying the nutritional value of UK wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (W-DDGS) for livestock species. A study was designed to evaluate caecal parameters (pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial diversity) in layer hens fed on balanced diets containing graded concentrations of W-DDGS. A total of 32 layer hens (Bovans Brown strain at 27 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments containing W-DDGS at 0, 60, 120 or 180 g/kg. Each treatment was fed to 8 replicate individually housed layer hens over a 5-d acclimatisation period, followed by a 4-week trial. Individual feed intakes were monitored and all eggs were collected daily for weeks 2, 3 and 4 of the trial, weighed and an assessment of eggshell "dirtiness" made. All hens were culled on d 29 and caecal pH and SCFAs measured. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16 S rDNA gene was used to assess total bacterial diversity of luminal caecal content from hens fed the 0 and 180 g W-DDGS/kg diets. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrograms were generated from DGGE banding patterns. Increasing W-DDGS dietary concentrations resulted in a more acidic caecal environment. Caecal SCFAs were unaffected by diet aside from a quadratic effect for molar proportions of isobutyric acid. Diversity profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from luminal caecal contents were unaffected by W-DDGS inclusion. The results of the current study suggest that W-DDGS can be successfully formulated into nutritionally balanced layer diets (supplemented with xylanase and phytase) at up to 180 g/kg with no detrimental effects to the caecal environment.

  10. Effects of sodium hydroxide treatment of dried distillers' grains on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Freitas, T B; Relling, A E; Pedreira, M S; Santana Junior, H A; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the optimum inclusion of NaOH necessary to buffer the acidity of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and its effects on digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and metabolic acidosis in feedlot steers. Rumen cannulated Angus-crossed steers were blocked by BW (small: 555 ± 42 kg initial BW, = 4; large: 703 ± 85 kg initial BW, = 4) over four 21-d periods in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Steers were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) 50% untreated DDGS, 2) 50% DDGS treated with 0.5% (DM basis) sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 3) 50% DDGS treated with 1.0% (DM basis) NaOH, and 4) 50% DDGS treated with 1.5% (DM basis) NaOH. The remainder of the diets, on a DM basis, was composed of 20% corn silage, 20% dry-rolled corn, and 10% supplement. Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments ( = 0.56) or by a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.15). In situ NDF and ruminal DM disappearance did not differ ( ≥ 0.49 and ≥ 0.47, respectively) among treatments. Similar to in situ results, apparent total tract DM and NDF digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.33 and ≥ 0.21, respectively) by increasing NaOH inclusion in the diets. Urinary pH increased (linear, < 0.01) with increasing NaOH concentration in the diet. Blood pH was not affected ( ≥ 0.20), and blood total CO and partial pressure of CO were similar ( ≥ 0.56 and ≥ 0.17, respectively) as NaOH increased in the diet. Increasing NaOH in the diet did not affect ( ≥ 0.21) ruminal concentrations of total VFA. There were no linear ( = 0.20) or quadratic ( = 0.20) effects of treatment on ruminal acetate concentrations, nor was there a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.22) for acetate. Furthermore, there were no effects ( ≥ 0.90) of NaOH inclusion on ruminal propionate concentration. However, there was a quadratic response ( = 0.01) of ruminal butyrate concentrations as NaOH inclusion increased in the diet; ruminal butyrate concentrations were greatest with the 0.5 and 1

  11. Ruminal degradability of dry matter, crude protein, and amino acids in soybean meal, canola meal, corn, and wheat dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-08-01

    Different protein sources, such as canola meal (CM) or dried distillers grains (DDG), are currently used in dairy rations to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, little data exists comparing their rumen degradation in a single study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and AA of SBM, CM, high-protein corn DDG (HPDDG), and wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS). In situ studies were conducted with 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows fed a diet containing 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate. Each protein source was incubated in the rumen of each cow in nylon bags for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h to determine DM and CP rumen degradation kinetics, whereas additional bags were also incubated for 16 h to evaluate AA ruminal disappearance. Rumen DM and CP degradability was calculated from rumen-undegraded residues corrected or not for small particle loss. Data were fitted to an exponential model to estimate degradation parameters and effective degradability (ED) was calculated with a passage rate of 0.074 h(-1). The WDDGS and SBM had higher uncorrected ED (DM=75.0 and 72.6%; CP=84.8 and 66.0%, respectively) than CM and HPDDG (DM=57.2 and 55.5%; CP=59.3 and 48.2%, respectively), due to higher soluble fraction in WDDGS and a combination of higher potentially degradable fraction and rate of degradation in SBM. Correction for small particle loss from bags, higher for WDDGS than for the other protein sources, decreased estimated ED but did not alter feed ranking. The ruminal disappearance of AA after 16 h of incubation reflected the overall pattern of CP degradation between protein supplements, but the ruminal disappearance of individual AA differed between protein supplements. Overall, these results indicate that, in the current study, (1) SBM and WDDGS were more degradable in the rumen than CM and HPDDG, and (2) that small particle loss correction is relevant but does not alter this

  12. Evaluation of sulfur content of dried distillers grains with solubles in finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn or dry-rolled corn.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Schneider, C J; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Hollis, L C; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2011-08-01

    Crossbred yearling steers (n=80; 406 ± 2.7 kg of BW) were used to evaluate the effects of S concentration in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal concentrations of CH(4) and H(2)S in finishing steers fed diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC) or dry-rolled corn (DRC) and containing 30% DDGS (DM basis) with moderate S (0.42% S, MS) or high S (0.65% S, HS). Treatments consisted of SFC diets containing MS (SFC-MS), SFC diets containing HS (SFC-HS), DRC diets containing MS (DRC-MS), or DRC diets containing HS (DRC-HS). High S was achieved by adding H(2)SO(4) to DDGS. Ruminal gas samples were analyzed for concentrations of H(2)S and CH(4). Steers were fed once daily in quantities that resulted in traces of residual feed in the bunk the following day for 140 d. No interactions (P ≥ 0.15) between dietary S concentration and grain processing were observed with respect to growth performance or carcass characteristics. Steers fed HS diets had 8.9% less DMI (P < 0.001) and 12.9% less ADG (P=0.006) than steers fed diets with MS, but S concentration had no effect on G:F (P=0.25). Cattle fed HS yielded 4.3% lighter HCW (P = 0.006) and had 16.2% less KPH (P=0.009) than steers fed MS. Steers fed HS had decreased (P=0.04) yield grades compared with steers fed MS. No differences were observed among treatments with respect to dressing percentage, liver abscesses, 12th-rib fat thickness, LM area, or USDA quality grades (P ≥ 0.18). Steers fed SFC had less DMI (P < 0.001) than steers fed DRC. Grain processing had no effect (P > 0.05) on G:F or carcass characteristics. Cattle fed HS had greater (P < 0.001) ruminal concentrations of H(2)S than cattle fed MS. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was inversely related (P ≤ 0.01) to ADG (r=-0.58) and DMI (r=-0.67) in cattle fed SFC, and to DMI (r=-0.40) in cattle fed DRC. Feeding DDGS that are high in dietary S may decrease the DMI of beef steers and compromise the growth

  13. New approach for dry formulation techniques for rhizobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elchin, A. A.; Mashinistova, A. V.; Gorbunova, N. V.; Muratov, V. S.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    Two beneficial Pseudomonas isolates selected from rhizosphere of abundant weed - couch-grass Elytrigia repens L. Nevski have been found to have biocontrol activity. An adequate biocontrol effect requires high yield and long stability of the bacterial preparation [1], which could be achieved by an effective and stable formulation. This study was aimed to test various approaches to dry formulation techniques for Pseudomonas- based preparations. To reach this goal, two drying formulation techniques have been tested: the first one, spray drying and the second, low-temperature contact-convective drying in fluidized bed. The optimal temperature parameters for each technique were estimated. Main merits of the selected approach to dry technique are high yield, moderate specific energy expenditures per 1 kg of evaporated moisture, minimal time of contact of the drying product with drying agent. The technological process for dry formulation included the following stages: the obtaining of cell liquids, the low-temperature concentrating and the subsequent drying of a concentrate. The preliminary technological stages consist in cultivation of the rhizobacteria cultures and concentrating the cell liquids. The following requirements for cultivation regime in laboratory conditions were proposed: optimal temperatures are 26-28°С in 3 days, concentration of viable cells in cell liquid makes 1010-1011 cell/g of absolutely dry substance (ADS). For concentrating the cell liquids the method of a vacuum evaporation, which preserves both rhizobacteria cells and the secondary metabolites of cell liquid, has been used. The process of concentrating was conducted at the minimum possible temperature, i.e. not above 30-33°С. In this case the concentration of viable cells has decreased up to 109-1010 cell/g of ADS. For spray drying the laboratory up-dated drier BUCHI 190, intended for the drying of thermolabile products, was used. The temperatures of an in- and outcoming air did not exceed

  14. Seed germination of Cistus creticus L. and Cistus laurifolius L. as influenced by dry-heat, soaking in distilled water and gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Tilki, Fahrettin

    2008-03-01

    The effects of dry-heat and seed soaking in distilled water or in gibberellic acid on germination performance of Cistus creticus L. and C. laurifolius L. were studied in the present study Germination percentages of two Cistus species were low due to dormancy Soaking in distilled water for 24 hr resulted in 28% germination in C. creticus and 43% in C. laurifolius. Gibberellic acid applications (20, 100 and 250 mg l(-1)) for 24 hr gave 32, 30 and 23% germination, respectively in Cistus creticus and 33, 37 and 28% germination, respectively in C. laurifolius. Dry-heat pretreatments at 50, 80 and 100 degrees C for several times (1-60 min) also significantly increased germination percentage in two species. The highest germination in C. creticus was obtained with dry-heat at 100 degrees C for 1 or 5 min (80% and 83%, respectively) and in C. laurifolius at 100 degrees C for 5 min (87%). A significant increase in germination rate was also achieved under different pretreatments. The physiological dormancy caused by an impermeable seed coat can be overcome by dry-heat pretreatments in two Cistus species.

  15. Effects of increasing concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on the egg production and internal quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Lee, E J; Samaraweera, H; Persia, M; Ragheb, H S; Ahn, Dong U

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on egg production and the internal quality of eggs from laying hens. Four diets were formulated to contain 0, 17, 35, or 50% corn DDGS. A total of two hundred forty 54-wk-old Single-Comb White Leghorn laying hens were randomly allotted to 2 birds per cage with 3 consecutive cages representing an experimental unit (EU). Each EU was assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments according to a completely randomized design. Hens were fed for a 24-wk experimental period after transition feeding to gradually increase corn DDGS inclusion over a 4-wk period. Two sets of experimental diets were formulated, and each diet was fed for 12 wk. Egg production, feed consumption, egg component, yolk color, Haugh unit during storage times, and shell breaking strength were measured. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed efficiency were adversely affected by the highest level of DDGS in the diet (50%) during the first 12-wk period. Once diets were reformulated to include an increased concentration of both lysine and methionine, differences among the dietary treatments were reduced, as the performance of the 50% DDGS diets was greatly improved. Over the last 6 wk of study, no differences in egg production, egg weight, and feed intake among DDGS treatments were found. The DDGS diets positively affected the internal quality of eggs during storage. Improved yolk color and Haugh unit were observed as the dietary DDGS levels increased, but the increase for Haugh unit was significant only when the DDGS level was 50%. Shell weight percentage was increased in the 50% DDGS diet, but no differences in yolk and albumen percentage were observed. It was concluded that up to 50% of DDGS could be included in the layer's diet without affecting egg weight, feed intake, egg mass, feed efficiency, and egg production as long as digestible amino acids were

  16. Effects of increasing levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles to steers offered moderate-quality forage.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S

    2009-12-01

    Supplementation of forage-fed livestock has been studied for decades; however, as by-products become available research is needed to determine optimal feeding rates for increased efficiency. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated beef steers (446 +/- 42 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of increasing level of supplemental corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 25.4% CP, 9.8% fat, DM basis) on DMI, rate and site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of ad libitum quantities of moderate-quality smooth brome hay (10.6% CP; DM basis), free access to water and trace mineral salt block, and 1 of 5 levels of DDGS (0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% of BW daily of DDGS; DM basis). Diets were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated rumen degradable protein requirements (assumed microbial yield = 10.5%). All supplements were fed at 0600 h before forage was fed. Steers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Hay OM intake decreased (linear; P < 0.001), whereas total OM intake increased (linear; P < 0.001) with increasing DDGS level. Total CP intake, duodenal OM and CP flows, and total tract OM and NDF digestibilities increased (linear; P

  17. Relationship of protein molecular structure to metabolisable proteins in different types of dried distillers grains with solubles: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang; Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G

    2010-11-01

    To date, there has been no study of protein molecular structures affected by bioethanol processing in relation to protein nutritive values of the new co-products of bioethanol production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between protein molecular structures (in terms of protein α-helix and β-sheet spectral intensity and their ratio and amide I to amide II spectral intensity and their ratio) and protein rumen degradation kinetics (rate and extent), estimated protein intestinal digestibility and total truly absorbed protein in small intestine (metabolisable protein) in different types of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), such as wheat DDGS, maize DDGS and blend DDGS (wheat:maize = 70:30). The protein molecular structures of the different types of DDGS affected by processing were identified using diffuse reflectance IR Fourier transform spectroscopy. The results showed that the protein structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio in the DDGS had a strongly negative correlation with estimated intestinal digestibility of ruminally undegraded protein (%dRUP, R - 0.95, P = 0.04), tended to have a significant correlation with the protein PC subfraction (which was undegradable and contained proteins associated with lignin and tannins and heat-damaged proteins) (R 0.91, P = 0.09) and had no correlation (P>0.10) with rumen degradation kinetics (rate and extent), total intestinally absorbed protein supply and degraded protein balance. However, the protein amide I to amide II ratio in the DDGS had a strongly positive correlation with soluble crude protein (CP) (R 0.99, P < 0.01), protein PA subfraction (which was instantaneously solubilised at time zero) (R 0.99, P < 0.01), protein PB2 subfraction (which was intermediately degradable) (R - 0.95, P = 0.04) and total digestible CP (R 0.95, P = 0.04). The amide I to amide II ratio also had strongly negative correlations with ruminally undegraded protein (%RUP: R - 0.96, P = 0.03) and the

  18. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  19. Variations in chemical composition and in vitro and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of dried distillers' grains with solubles from European ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Steingass, Herbert; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise variations in the composition and nutritive value of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) for ruminants, and to estimate the undegradable crude protein (UDP) in DDGS. Thirteen samples originating from wheat, corn, barley and blends of different substrates were studied. The rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) was determined using the nylon bag technique. Samples were incubated for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 72 h, and in situ degradation kinetics were determined. The UDP was estimated using a passage rate of 8%/h. In vitro gas production was measured to estimate the metabolisable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NE(L)) and in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVDOM). Chemical profiles varied among samples [in g/kg dry matter (DM) ± standard deviation]; the values were 310 ± 33 CP, 86 ± 37 ether extract, 89 ± 18 crude fibre, 408 ± 39 neutral detergent fibre, 151 ± 39 acid detergent fibre and 62 ± 31 acid detergent lignin, as well as in protein fractions according to the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System [in g/kg CP]; the values were for fractions A, 161 ± 82; B1, 24 ± 11; B2, 404 ± 105; B3, 242 ± 61; and C, 170 ± 87. The ME, NE(L) [MJ/kg DM] and IVDOM [%] also varied among samples: 12.1 ± 0.59, 7.3 ± 0.39 and 72.5 ± 4.30, respectively. The in situ rapidly degradable CP fraction (a) varied from 10.2% to 30.6%, and the potentially degradable fraction (b) averaged to 66.8%. The UDP varied from 8.6% to 62.6% of CP. The present study suggests significant variations in composition and nutritive value among different sources of DDGS. The UDP could be predicted on the basis of analysed CP fractions, but the accuracy of UDP prediction improved upon the inclusion of neutral-detergent insoluble nitrogen, explaining 94% of the variation in the UDP values. We conclude that chemical protein fractions may be used to predict the UDP values of DDGS and that the variability in the protein

  20. A novel dehydration technique for carrot slices implementing ultrasound and vacuum drying methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A novel drying technique using a combination of ultrasound and vacuum dehydration was developed to shorten the drying time and improve the quality of carrot slices. Carrot slices were dried with ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying and vacuum drying at 65 °C and 75 °C. The drying rate was significantly influenced by the drying techniques and temperatures. Compared with vacuum drying, USV drying resulted in a 41-53% decrease in the drying time. The drying time for the USV and vacuum drying techniques at 75 °C was determined to be 140 and 340 min for carrot slices, respectively. The rehydration potential, nutritional value (retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid), color, and textural properties of USV-dried carrot slices are predominately better compared to vacuum-dried carrot slices. Moreover, lower energy consumption was used in the USV technique. The drying data (time versus moisture ratio) were successfully fitted to Wang and Singh model.

  1. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  2. Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility of high-protein distillers dried grains and corn germ fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M R; McGinnis, L M; Stein, H H

    2007-11-01

    Three experiments were conducted to measure energy, P, and AA digestibility in 2 novel co-products from the ethanol industry [i.e., high-protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and corn germ]. These products are produced by dehulling and degerming corn before it enters the fermentation process. Experiment 1 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure DE and ME in HP DDG, corn germ, and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW, 48.9 +/- 1.99 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on corn, corn and HP DDG, or corn and corn germ. Pigs were allotted to a replicated, 3 x 3 Latin square design. The DE and ME in corn (4,056 and 3,972 kcal/kg of DM, respectively) did not differ from the DE and ME in corn germ (3,979 and 3,866 kcal/kg of DM, respectively). However, HP DDG contained more (P < 0.05) energy (4,763 kcal of DE/kg of DM and 4,476 kcal of ME/kg of DM) than corn or corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and true total tract digestibility of P in HP DDG and corn germ. Thirty growing pigs (initial BW, 33.2 +/- 7.18 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed a diet based on HP DDG or corn germ. A P-free diet was used to measure endogenous P losses. Pigs were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design, with 10 replications per treatment. The ATTD and the retention of P were calculated for the diets containing HP DDG and corn germ, and the endogenous loss of P was estimated from pigs fed the P-free diet. The ATTD was lower (P < 0.05) in corn germ (28.6%) than in the HP DDG (59.6%). The retention of P was also lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn germ (26.7%) than in pigs fed HP DDG (58.9%). The endogenous loss of P was estimated to be 211 +/- 39 mg per kg of DMI. The true total tract digestibility of P for HP DDG and corn germ was calculated to be 69.3 and 33.7%, respectively. In Exp. 3, apparent ileal digestibility and standardized ileal digestibility values of CP and AA in HP DDG

  3. Feeding distillers dried grains with solubles and organic trace mineral sources to swine and the resulting effect on gaseous emissions.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Powers, W; Hill, G M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the dietary effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with either inorganic or organic trace mineral sources on air emissions. Three diets were compared: a corn- and soybean meal-based control diet (Con), a diet containing 20% DDGS with inorganic trace mineral sources (20In), and a diet containing 20% DDGS with organic trace mineral sources (20Org). Groups of 6 pigs were allocated randomly to 1 of 12 environmentally controlled rooms for a 98-d experiment. A total of 72 pigs were blocked into 3 light and 3 heavy BW groups to minimize BW variation. Average initial BW for the light and heavy blocks were 22.6 kg and 27.0 kg, respectively. Concentrations and airflow of NH₃, H₂S, N₂O, CH(4), CO₂, and nonmethane total hydrocarbons (NMTHC) were measured in the exhaust air from each room. Body weight gain (94 kg per pig; P = 0.36) and G:F (0.39; P = 0.79) were not different as a result of diet, although a reduced feed intake was observed in pigs offered 20Org (P < 0.05). Total daily H₂S emission mass was greater (P = 0.03) in rooms where the 20In diet was offered (462.26 mg) compared with rooms where the Con (354.62 mg) and 20Org (323.10 mg) diets were offered. No dietary effect (P = 0.47) was observed when H₂S emissions were adjusted for S consumption (14.38 mg of H₂S emitted daily per gram of S consumed). Compared with NH₃ emitted on the Con diet, the daily mass of NH₃ emitted decreased by 7.6% when pigs were fed 20In and increased by 11.0% in rooms where the 20Org was fed (P < 0.05). On a N consumption basis, feeding swine 20In significantly reduced NH₃ emissions compared with 20Org and Con, whereas NH₃ emissions from pigs fed 20Org were significantly greater than emissions from pigs fed the Con diet (P < 0.01). The NH₃ emission mass from rooms offered the Con, 20In, and 20Org diets was 120.1, 109.8, and 142.8 mg/g of N consumed/d, respectively (P < 0.01). Feeding DDGS with either inorganic

  4. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on fatty acid digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fatty acids in diets containing 0 or 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 0, 5, or 10% tallow. Barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 25 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs (n = 4/diet) were randomly assigned to diets: corn-soybean meal control (CON), CON plus 5% tallow (5T0D), CON plus 10% tallow (10T0D), CON plus 30% DDGS (0T30D), CON plus 5% tallow and 30% DDGS (5T30D), and CON plus 10% tallow and 30% DDGS (10T30D). Eight replicates per treatment were achieved by randomizing diets among pigs for a second collection period. Each pig was fed their respective diet for a 5-d adaptation period followed by 3-d fecal collection and 2-d ileal digesta collection periods. The AID and ATTD of fatty acids was calculated using the index method and acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. When tallow was added to diets with 0% DDGS, there was no effect on AID of palmitic acid (C16:0) or SFA, while AID of stearic acid (C18:0) was increased (66.87% for CON, 72.06% for 5T0D, and 76.81% for 10T0D; P < 0.01). However, when diets contained 30% DDGS, the AID of all SFA was reduced as levels of tallow increased C16:0 (77.62% for 0T30D, 69.66% for 5T30D, and 68.43% for 10T30D), C18:0 (85.87% for 0T30D, 64.08% for 5T30D, and 61.25% for 10T30D), and SFA (79.88% for 0T30D, 68.23% for 5T30D, and 66.29% for 10T30D). The AID of MUFA was not affected when tallow was added to diets with 30% DDGS but actually increased in 5T0D and 10T0D. The amount of apparent ileal digested fatty acids increased with the addition of DDGS and tallow regardless of their digestibility. Amounts of ileal digested MUFA and PUFA increased when both DDGS (P < 0.01) and tallow (P < 0.01) were included in the diet compared to when either ingredient was excluded. For ileal digestible SFA, an interaction (P < 0.01) between DDGS and tallow was

  5. Fatigue limits of enamel bonds with moist and dry techniques.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Shear fatigue limit (SFL) testing, coupled with shear bond strength (SBS) measurements can provide valuable information regarding the ability of adhesive systems to bond to mineralized tooth structures. The clinical technique for enamel bonding with adhesive resins has shifted from bonding to a thoroughly dried acid conditioned surface to a moist surface to facilitate dentin bonding. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of ethanol-containing etch-and-rinse adhesive (ERA) systems on moist and dry enamel by determining the resin composite to enamel SBS and SFL, and examining the relationship of SBS and SFL. Twelve specimens each were used to determine 24-h resin composite (Z100 - 3M ESPE) to enamel SBS to moist and dry surfaces with two ERA systems, Adper Single Bond Plus (SBP) and OptiBond Solo Plus (OBP). A staircase method of fatigue testing was used in a four-station fatigue cycler to determine the SFL of resin composite to enamel bonds (moist and dry) with the two ERA systems (20 specimens for each test condition) at 0.25Hz for 40,000 cycles. ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test were used for the SBS data and a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for comparisons of SFL. The two ERA systems each generated statistically similar SBS (p>0.05) to moist and dry enamel and the SBS of SBP was significantly higher than OBP on dry enamel (p<0.05). The SFL of SBP was significantly greater to dry enamel when compared to moist enamel and there was not a significant difference in the SFL of OBP on dry and moist enamel. There were no significant differences in SFL values between SBP on either moist or dry enamel and OBP on both moist and dry enamel. Fatigue testing may provide more useful information than SBS tests regarding the performance of dental adhesive systems. The chemical composition, solvents and filler components of ERA systems may influence their ability to develop long-term durable bonds to both moist and dry enamel surfaces.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of raloxifene-loaded solid dispersion nanoparticle by spray-drying technique without an organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan Hiep; Poudel, Bijay K; Marasini, Nirmal; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, raloxifene by solid dispersion (SD) nanoparticles using the spray-drying technique. These spray-dried SD nanoparticles were prepared with raloxifene (RXF), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tween 20 in water. Reconstitution of optimized RXF-loaded SD nanoparticles in pH 1.2 medium showed a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that RXF existed in an amorphous form within spray-dried nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed an enhanced dissolution rate of RXF at pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and distilled water as compared to pure RXF powder. The improved dissolution of raloxifene from spray-dried SD nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced oral bioavailability of raloxifene in rats. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the spray-dried SD nanoparticles showed increased AUC(0-∞) and C(max) of RXF by approximately 3.3-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the preparation of RXF-SD nanoparticles using the spray drying technique without organic solvents might be a promising approach for improving the oral bioavailability of RXF.

  7. A spin-drying technique for lyopreservation of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Nilay; Chang, Anthony; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Menze, Michael A; Hand, Steven C; Toner, Mehmet

    2011-05-01

    Stabilization of cellular material in the presence of glass-forming sugars at ambient temperatures is a viable approach that has many potential advantages over current cryogenic strategies. Experimental evidence indicates the possibility to preserve biomolecules in glassy matrices of low-molecular mobility using "glass-forming" sugars like trehalose at ambient temperatures. However, when cells are desiccated in trehalose solution using passive drying techniques, a glassy skin is formed at the liquid/vapor interface of the sample. This glassy skin prevents desiccation of the sample beyond a certain level of dryness and induces non-uniformities in the final water content. Cells trapped underneath this glassy skin may degrade due to a relatively high molecular mobility in the sample. This undesirable result underscores the need for development of a uniform, fast drying technique. In the present study, we report a new technique based on the principles of "spin drying" that can effectively address these problems. Forced convective evaporation of water along with the loss of solution due to centrifugal force leads to rapid vitrification of a thin layer of trehalose containing medium that remains on top of cells attached to the spinning glass substrate. The glassy layer produced has a consistent thickness and a small "surface-area-to-volume" ratio that minimizes any non-homogeneity. Thus, the chance of entrapping cells in a high-mobility environment decreases substantially. We compared numerical predictions to experimental observations of the drying time of 0.2-0.6 M trehalose solutions at a variety of spinning speeds ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The model developed here predicts the formation of sugar films with thicknesses of 200-1000 nm, which was in good agreement with experimental results. Preliminary data suggest that after spin drying cells to about 0.159 ± 0.09 gH₂O/gdw (n = 11, ±SE), more than 95% of cells were able to preserve their membrane integrity

  8. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma

    2008-04-01

    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  9. Preparation of an Aroma Fraction from Dried Bonito by Steam Distillation and Its Effect on Modification of Salty and Umami Taste Qualities.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Mochimaru, Shinsuke; Ueda, Reiko; Ban, Masayasu; Kabuto, Shizuya; Abe, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of dried bonito aroma on taste perception, dried bonito aroma fraction (DBAF) as a steam distillate in liquid was added to the salt solutions containing 5 different salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5% [w/v]) before sensory evaluations. Perception of the taste qualities of salt solutions with added DBAF varied depending on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrations (0.68% to 0.83%), after-taste intensity of saltiness and overall taste intensity were significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF. This suggests that DBAF can be applied to a low-salt seasoning at these salt concentrations. Umami taste intensity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF at all salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5%). The addition of heat-treated DBAF, which no longer had the dried bonito odor, exerted no significant influences on any taste descriptors. As the result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, sulfur-containing compounds, pyrazines, alcohols, and phenols were contained in DBAF and not detected in heat-treated DBAF. Because these compounds contributed to the dried bonito odor, the taste modifications were thought to be induced by these compounds. The effects of the DBAF on Japanese noodle soup (mentsuyu) were also examined. The saltiness intensity of 1.2% salt concentration of mentsuyu containing both DBAF and DBS (dried bonito stock) as a hot water extract of dried bonito was not significantly differ from that of 1.5% salt concentration of mentsuyu not containing any of them. It will thus be possible to develop a reduced salt seasoning by combining DBAF and DBS.

  10. The effects of feeder design and dietary dried distillers' grains with solubles on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J R; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of a conventional dry (five 30.5-cm spaces 152.4 cm wide; Staco Inc., Schaefferstown, PA) vs. a wet-dry (double sided; each side = 38.1-cm space; Crystal Spring; GroMaster Inc., Omaha, NE) finishing feeder (Exp. 1 and 2) and to evaluate the effects of feeder design and dietary level of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS; >10% oil; Exp. 3) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 1,186 pigs (32.1 kg BW) were used in a 69-d experiment. There were 26 to 28 pigs per pen and 22 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 4 phases. In Exp. 2, 1,236 pigs (28.7 kg BW) were used in a 104-d experiment, with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 23 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 5 phases. Carcass measurements were obtained from 11 pens of each feeder design after harvest. In Exp. 3, 1,080 pigs (35.1 kg BW) were used in a 99-d 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of feeder design (dry vs. wet-dry feeders) and DDGS (20 vs. 60%) with 10 pens of 27 pigs per treatment and all diets fed in 4 phases. Jowl fat samples were collected from 2 pigs per pen for fatty acid analysis and iodine value (IV) determination. In all experiments, pigs fed with the wet-dry feeder had greater (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and final BW. In Exp. 2 and 3, HCW and backfat depth were increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed with a wet-dry feeder, but G:F and fat-free lean index (FFLI) were reduced. Jowl IV was also reduced (P < 0.05) with a wet-dry feeder in Exp. 3. Pigs fed 60% DDGS in Exp. 3 had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, final BW, HCW, and backfat but increased jowl IV and a tendency (P < 0.07) toward greater FFLI regardless of feeder type. In conclusion, pigs fed with this specific type of wet-dry feeder had improved ADG and ADFI, poorer G:F, and increased backfat depth compared to pigs fed with a conventional dry feeder. The poorer growth performance and increased jowl IV of

  11. Spray drying technique. I: Hardware and process parameters.

    PubMed

    Cal, Krzysztof; Sollohub, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    Spray drying is a transformation of feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate form by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium. The main aim of drying by this method in pharmaceutical technology is to obtain dry particles with desired properties. This review presents the hardware and process parameters that affect the properties of the dried product. The atomization devices, drying chambers, air-droplet contact systems, the collection of dried product, auxiliary devices, the conduct of the spray drying process, and the significance of the individual parameters in the drying process, as well as the obtained product, are described and discussed.

  12. Emission spectrographic determination of volatile trace elements in geologic materials by a carrier distillation technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, H.N.

    1986-01-01

    Trace levels of chalcophile elements that form volatile sulfide minerals are determined in stream sediments and in the nonmagnetic fraction of a heavy-mineral concentrate of stream sediments by a carrier distillation emission spectrographic method. Photographically recorded spectra of samples are visually compared with those of synthetic standards for the two sample types. Rock and soil samples may also be analyzed by comparison with the stream-sediment standards. A gallium oxide spectrochemical carrier/buffer enhances the early emission of the volatile elements. Detection limits in parts per million attained are: Sb 5, As 20, Bi 0.1, Cd 1, Cu 1, Pb 2, Ag 0.1, Zn 2, and Sn 0.1. A comparison with other methods of analysis, total-burn emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy, shows good correlation for standard reference for materials and samples from a variety of geologic terranes. ?? 1986.

  13. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat.

  14. Origin identification of dried distillers grains with solubles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy after in situ oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ph; Fernández Pierna, J A; Abbas, O; Dardenne, P; Baeten, V

    2015-12-15

    The ban on using processed animal proteins in feedstuffs led the feed sector to look for other sources of protein. Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) could be considered as an important source in this regard. They are imported into Europe mainly for livestock feed. Identifying their origin is essential when labelling is missing and for feed safety, particularly in a crisis situation resulting from contamination. This study investigated applying attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-MIR) to the oil fraction extracted from samples in situ in order to identify the origin of DDGS. The use of spectroscopic and chemometric tools enabled the botanical and geographical origins of DDGS, as well as the industrial process used to produce them, to be identified. The models developed during the study provided a classification higher than 95% using an external validation set.

  15. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits.

  16. Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2013-09-18

    Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.

  17. Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and ractopamine (Paylean) on quality and shelf-life of fresh pork and bacon.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Puls, C L; Ellis, M; Killefer, J; Carr, T R; Scramlin, S M; England, M B; Gaines, A M; Wolter, B F; Carr, S N; McKeith, F K

    2010-08-01

    Pigs (n = 240) were allotted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with 5 levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS): 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60%, and 2 ractopamine (RAC) levels: 0 and 5 mg/kg. Four pigs per pen (2 barrows, 2 gilts) closest to pen mean BW were used for meat quality evaluation. Loins (n = 119) were evaluated for objective color; moisture and fat; subjective color, marbling, and firmness; and drip loss. Bellies (n = 119) were evaluated for weight, length, width, thickness, objective fat color, and firmness. Cured bellies were evaluated for pump yield, cook loss, and sliced bacon cook loss. Loin thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated on enhanced (salt and phosphate) boneless chops held in modified atmosphere (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) packages for 0, 7, 14, and 21 d. Bacon TBARS were evaluated on sliced bacon held in vacuum packages for 0, 28, 56, and 84 d. Fat samples were collected from each jowl and belly and evaluated for fatty acid profile and iodine value (IV). Increasing DDGS decreased subjective marbling (P = 0.0134) and firmness (P = 0.0235), and increased drip loss (P = 0.0046). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin pH, subjective or objective color, percent moisture, or percent fat (P > 0.05). The RAC decreased subjective color (P = 0.0239), marbling (P = 0.0445), and a* (P = 0.0355). Increasing DDGS decreased belly weight (P = 0.0155), length (P = 0.0008), thickness (P = 0.0019), and firmness (P = 0.0054); decreased belly fat L* (P = 0.0818); and increased belly cook loss (P = 0.0890). Ractopamine did not affect any belly measurements, and there were no DDGS x RAC interactions (P > 0.05). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin TBARS at 0, 7, or 14 d. At 21 d, loin TBARS from 30, 45, and 60% DDGS groups were increased compared with 0 and 15% groups (P < 0.05). Ractopamine did not affect (P > 0.05) loin TBARS, and there were no (P > 0.05) DDGS x RAC interactions. Distillers dried

  18. The effects of dry-rolled corn particle size on performance, carcass traits, and starch digestibility in feedlot finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, E F; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D

    2016-03-01

    Crossbred yearling steers ( = 360; 395 ± 33.1 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate the effects of dry-rolled corn (DRC) particle size in diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and starch digestibility. Steers were used in a randomized complete block design and allocated to 36 pens (9 pens/treatment, with 10 animals/pen). Treatments were coarse DRC (4,882 μm), medium DRC (3,760 μm), fine DRC (2,359 μm), and steam-flaked corn (0.35 kg/L; SFC). Final BW and ADG were not affected by treatment ( > 0.05). Dry matter intake was greater and G:F was lower ( < 0.05) for steers fed DRC vs. steers fed SFC. There was a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in DMI in the final 5 wk on feed with decreasing DRC particle size. Fecal starch decreased (linear, < 0.01) as DRC particle size decreased. In situ starch disappearance was lower for DRC vs. SFC ( < 0.05) and linearly increased ( < 0.05) with decreasing particle size at 8 and 24 h. Reducing DRC particle size did not influence growth performance but increased starch digestion and influenced DMI of cattle on finishing diets. No differences ( > 0.10) were observed among treatments for any of the carcass traits measured. Results indicate improved ruminal starch digestibility, reduced fecal starch concentration, and reduced DMI with decreasing DRC particle size in feedlot diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains on a DM basis.

  19. Effects of calcium oxide treatment of dry and modified wet corn distillers grains plus solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent digestibility of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A R; Duckworth, M J; Shike, D W; Schoonmaker, J P; Felix, T L

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding dried corn distillers grains (DDGS) or modified wet corn distillers grains (MDGS) with or without CaO treatment to feedlot steers on 1) growth performance and carcass characteristics and 2) diet digestibility, pattern of intake, and meal distribution. In Exp. 1, steers (n = 139; average initial BW = 336 ± 75 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and pens were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): 1) 50% DDGS untreated, 2) 48.8% DDGS treated with 1.2% CaO, 3) 50% MDGS untreated, or 4) 48.8% MDGS treated with 1.2% CaO. The remainder of the diet was corn husklage, dry rolled corn, and vitamin and mineral supplement. In Exp. 2, fistulated steers (n = 8; average initial BW = 540 ± 250 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with the same dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.14) between distillers grains plus solubles (DGS) and CaO inclusion for DMI, ADG, final BW, or USDA yield and quality grades. However, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had decreased (P < 0.01) DMI, regardless of DGS type. Because CaO treatment decreased DMI without affecting (P = 0.66) ADG, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had increased (P < 0.01) G:F compared to steers not fed CaO. The variation in DMI found in this experiment could be explained by differences in meal size and distribution. Steers fed CaO-treated DGS ate a similar (P = 0.36) number of meals but ate smaller (P < 0.01) meals. No effects (P ≥ 0.55) of CaO treatment or its interaction with DGS type were found for apparent total tract DM or NDF digestibility. However, steers fed MDGS had increased (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility compared to steers fed DDGS. In conclusion, CaO treatment of DGS improved feed efficiency when DGS-based diets were fed but did not improve digestibility.

  20. Growth Responses and Resistance to Streptococccus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  1. Performance characteristics of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus fed diets containing graded levels of distillers dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two feeding trials were performed to investigate levels of dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) as a supplemental protein source for juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In trial 1, three isocaloric (2.32 ± 0.09 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (28.03 ± 0.03% protein) experimental diets w...

  2. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Freetly, H C; Shackelford, S D; King, D A

    2013-07-01

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain greater concentrations of NDF and ADF, compared with other grains and concentrates they replace in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the United States contain 8.3% and 9.0% roughage. Therefore, it is plausible that the dietary concentration of roughage can be altered when distillers grains are included in feedlot diets. The effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled, corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) were evaluated in steers (n = 128; initial BW = 339 kg), using Calan gates. Each diet was based on dry-rolled corn and contained 25% WDGS with coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH), replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of DM. Feed offered was recorded daily, orts were measured weekly, and BW was measured on d 0, 1, 35, 70, 105, 140, 174, and 175. After commercial harvest and chilling, carcasses were evaluated on-line with a beef carcass grading camera to assess marbling and yield grade traits. The data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS, in which contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of AH inclusion. Decreasing concentrations of AH in the finishing diet resulted in a tendency for a quadratic response (P = 0.07) in final BW, where BW increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion but then decreased from 6 to 14% inclusion. Similarly, ADG from d 0 to end responded quadratically (P < 0.01), in which ADG increased from 2 to 6% yet subsequently decreased from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Dry matter intake from d 0 to end increased linearly (P = 0.02) as AH inclusion increased in the diet, whereas G:F increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion and then decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Concentration of AH in the finishing diet did not affect HCW, marbling score, or the proportion of cattle grading USDA choice (P ≥ 0.18). However, dressing

  3. A New Hybrid BFOA-PSO Optimization Technique for Decoupling and Robust Control of Two-Coupled Distillation Column Process.

    PubMed

    Abdelkarim, Noha; Mohamed, Amr E; El-Garhy, Ahmed M; Dorrah, Hassen T

    2016-01-01

    The two-coupled distillation column process is a physically complicated system in many aspects. Specifically, the nested interrelationship between system inputs and outputs constitutes one of the significant challenges in system control design. Mostly, such a process is to be decoupled into several input/output pairings (loops), so that a single controller can be assigned for each loop. In the frame of this research, the Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) forms the control structure for each decoupled loop. The paper's main objective is to develop a parameterization technique for decoupling and control schemes, which ensures robust control behavior. In this regard, the novel optimization technique Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO) is utilized for the minimization of summation of the integral time-weighted squared errors (ITSEs) for all control loops. This optimization technique constitutes a hybrid between two techniques, which are the Particle Swarm and Bacterial Foraging algorithms. According to the simulation results, this hybridized technique ensures low mathematical burdens and high decoupling and control accuracy. Moreover, the behavior analysis of the proposed BELBIC shows a remarkable improvement in the time domain behavior and robustness over the conventional PID controller.

  4. A New Hybrid BFOA-PSO Optimization Technique for Decoupling and Robust Control of Two-Coupled Distillation Column Process

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amr E.; Dorrah, Hassen T.

    2016-01-01

    The two-coupled distillation column process is a physically complicated system in many aspects. Specifically, the nested interrelationship between system inputs and outputs constitutes one of the significant challenges in system control design. Mostly, such a process is to be decoupled into several input/output pairings (loops), so that a single controller can be assigned for each loop. In the frame of this research, the Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) forms the control structure for each decoupled loop. The paper's main objective is to develop a parameterization technique for decoupling and control schemes, which ensures robust control behavior. In this regard, the novel optimization technique Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO) is utilized for the minimization of summation of the integral time-weighted squared errors (ITSEs) for all control loops. This optimization technique constitutes a hybrid between two techniques, which are the Particle Swarm and Bacterial Foraging algorithms. According to the simulation results, this hybridized technique ensures low mathematical burdens and high decoupling and control accuracy. Moreover, the behavior analysis of the proposed BELBIC shows a remarkable improvement in the time domain behavior and robustness over the conventional PID controller. PMID:27807444

  5. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) with 25% and 45% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism, and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing beef steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed ...

  6. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  7. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on fatty acids, sensory attributes, and shelf life of loins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-four crossbred steers were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) based finishing rations with or without 35% wet distiller's grain plus solubles (WDGS) to determine effects of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on marbling attributes, sensory attributes, and shelf-life of...

  8. Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with soluble diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three experiments were conducted determine the effect of narasin on growth performance, and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with...

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Energy conservation in distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, T. W.; Dweck, J. S.; Weinberg, M.; Armstrong, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    An audit of major industrial and processes and key colums in each major process indicated that approximately twoquads of energy were consumed for distillation in the US in 1976. Energy usage by industry is included: petroleum refineries, 66% chemical (including petrochemical) industry, 29% natural gas liquids processing, 5%. Techniques and current practices for conserving distillation energy are reviewed, and guidelines indicating those process conditons which favor the use of each energy conserving technique are enumerated. Expressions for payout time for tray and control retrofit options are developed based on energy savings and increased throughput. Calculations for industrial colums suggested that both types of retrofits would frequently have short (,6 months) payout times based on either criterion. Extractive distillation is also discussed, and criteria enabling the estimation of the energy which may be conserved using this technique are developed. Good housekeeping practices and field techniques for checking the energy efficiency of industrial distillations are also discussed.

  11. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion.

  12. Dried saliva spot as a sampling technique for saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rehim, Abbi; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, dried saliva spot (DSS) was used as a sampling technique for saliva samples. In the DSS technique 50 μL of saliva was collected on filter paper and the saliva was then extracted with an organic solvent. The local anesthetic lidocaine was used as a model compound, which was determined in the DSS using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results obtained for the determination of lidocaine in saliva using DSS were compared with those from a previous study using a microextraction by packed sorbent syringe as the sampling method for saliva. This study shows that DSS can be used for the analysis of saliva samples. The method is promising and very easy in terms of sampling and extraction procedures. The results from this study are in good agreement with those from our previous work on the determination of lidocaine in saliva. DSS can open a new dimension in the saliva handling process in terms of sampling, storing and transport. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of feeding pelleted diets without or with distillers dried grains with solubles on fresh belly characteristics, fat quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Wilson, K B; Matulis, R J; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2016-05-01

    One hundred ninety-two pigs were blocked by age and stratified by initial BW (25.7 ± 2.3 kg) into pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts/pen), and within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with main effects of diet form (meal vs. pelleted) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion (0% vs. 30%). Pigs were slaughtered after a 91-d feeding trial, and carcasses were fabricated after a 24-h chilling period. Belly dimensions and flop distance were measured, and an adipose tissue sample from each belly was collected for fatty acid analysis. Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility before being returned to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory for further evaluation. Although bellies from pigs fed pelleted diets were 5.3% heavier ( < 0.01) than bellies from meal-fed pigs, belly weight as a percentage of chilled side weight ( = 0.55) and fresh belly dimensions ( ≥ 0.11) were not affected by diet form. Slab bacon weight and cooked yield were greater ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies from pellet-fed than meal-fed pigs. Despite pellet-fed pigs having a 3.1-unit greater iodine value (IV) than meal-fed pigs, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.16) of diet form on commercial bacon slicing yields. Bacon slabs from pellet-fed pigs produced more ( < 0.01) total bacon slices, but 3.1% fewer ( < 0.01) slices per kilogram than slabs from meal fed pigs. Inclusion of 30% DDGS reduced belly thickness ( < 0.001), flop distance ( < 0.001), and initial belly weight ( = 0.04) by 0.32 cm, 4.97 cm, and 2.85, respectively, and increased ( < 0.001) belly fat IV by 7.1 units compared with bellies from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Feeding 0% DDGS produced more ( < 0.01) total bacon slices than feeding 30% DDGS. Distillers dried grains with solubles inclusion had no effect on slice yields ( ≥ 0.14) or slices per kilogram ( = 0.08). Overall, bellies from pellet-fed pigs were heavier and had greater IV but did not differ in

  14. Dehydration kinetics of salmon and trout fillets using ultrasonic vacuum drying as a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Başlar, Mehmet; Kılıçlı, Mahmut; Yalınkılıç, Barış

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a novel ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying technique was used to shorten the drying time of fish fillets. For this purpose, ultrasonic treatment and vacuum-drying were simultaneously performed to dehydrate salmon and trout fillets at 55°C, 65°C, and 75°C. In addition, the USV technique was compared with vacuum-drying and oven-drying techniques. The dehydration kinetics of the fillets was successfully described by seven thin-layer drying models with R(2) range between 0.944 and 1.000. Depending on drying temperatures and fish species, the drying times could be shortened using the USV technique between 7.4% and 27.4% compared with vacuum-drying. The highest effective moisture diffusivity was determined in the fillets dried with the USV technique and they increased with increasing drying temperatures. Ultrasonic treatment accelerated the vacuum drying process for the fillets; therefore, this technique could be used to improve the efficiency of vacuum-drying for the fillets.

  15. Study on the purification of hydrogen bromide gas by fractional distillation technique and its effect on improvement of copper-hydrogen bromide laser performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Ramakanta; Agrawal, Praveen Kumar; Dixit, Sudhir K.; Nakhe, Shankar V.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a purification process of hydrogen bromide (HBr) gas by fractional distillation technique and its use for performance enhancement of copper-HBr laser (Cu-HBrL). The residual impurities in HBr were suppressed by a two-step distillation process at temperatures of -196°C and -20°C. The lowering of the impurities was confirmed by comparing the mass spectrograph of the HBr gas before and after distillation, using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The effect of the purified HBr gas on the performance of Cu-HBrL average output power as well its electrical discharge characteristics were studied. More than 37% improvement in the laser average output power (40 to 55 W) was observed with the use of this distilled HBr gas compared to undistilled gas. The underlying mechanism of the enhancement was analyzed by comparing electrical discharge characteristics in the two cases. The improvement in Cu-HBrL performance with distilled HBr gas was attributed to lowering of bromine and hydrogen concentration, mainly manifested as increased average electrical energy coupling to the discharge. This resulted in increased laser gain as well as gain volume, which were reflected in increases in laser output power and beam diameter.

  16. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  17. Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller's Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller's grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p<0.001) RUP intake (0.90, 0.86, and 0.88 kg/d corresponding to R-SBM, DDGS, and SB-DG) compared to the control (0.61 kg/d). Feeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters.

  18. Effects of increasing level of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in steers fed seventy percent concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S

    2009-09-01

    Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (500 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of increasing level of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in growing diets (70% concentrate) on OM intake, site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of 30% grass hay, 6% concentrated separator by-product, 4% supplement, and 60% dry-rolled corn, sunflower meal, urea, or DDGS (DM basis). Treatments consisted of increasing DDGS at 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60% of diet DM replacing a combination of dry-rolled corn, sunflower meal, and urea. Diets were balanced for growing steers gaining 1.22 kg/d and included 0.25% (DM basis) chromic oxide as a digesta flow marker. Diets were offered to the steers for ad libitum intake each day (10% above the intake of the previous day). Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for collections. Intake of OM responded quadratically (P = 0.004) with greatest intakes at 15% DDGS and least at 60% DDGS. No differences (P >or= 0.14) were observed in CP intake or duodenal flow of OM, CP, and NDF. Apparent and true ruminal OM digestibilities decreased (linear; P or= 0.19). A cubic (P = 0.02) effect was observed for total ruminal fill (as is basis) with the greatest fill at 0% DDGS and the least fill at 45% inclusion. Replacing dry-rolled corn with up to 60% DDGS in 70% concentrate diets resulted in no adverse effects on

  19. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed.

  20. Effect of forage level and replacing canola meal with dry distillers grains with solubles in precision-fed heifer diets: Digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Rico, D E; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-11-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and inclusion rates of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on digestion and rumen fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifer rations. A split-plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as sub-plot was administered in a 4-period (19 d) 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5 ± 0.5 mo of age and 344 ± 15 kg of body weight) housed in individual stalls were allocated to 2 F:C [50:50, low forage, or 75:25 high forage; dry matter (DM) basis] and to a sequence of DDGS inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21%; DM basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (DM basis). Diets were fed to allow for 800 g/d of body weight gain and fed 1×/d. Rumen contents were sampled at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 20 h after feeding for rumen fermentation measures. Low-forage rations had greater DM and organic matter apparent digestibility. We detected a quadratic effect for DM, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber apparent digestibility, with the 14% DDGS inclusion level having the highest values. Nitrogen retention decreased with increasing levels of DDGS. Molar proportions of acetate tended to be greater for HF and decreased as DDGS increased; propionate increased as DDGS increased, resulting in the opposite effect on acetate to propionate ratio. Rumen protozoa count decreased as DDGS increased. Moderate levels (14% of DM) of DDGS appear to enhance nutrient utilization and fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifers fed different F:C diets.

  1. The influence of sorghum grain decortication on bioethanol production and quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles using cold and conventional warm starch processing.

    PubMed

    Nkomba, Edouard Y; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Very high gravity hydrolysis-fermentation of whole and decorticated sorghum grains were compared using conventional and cold hydrolysis methods to assess the extent by which decortication could minimize enzymes dosages and affect the quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). All processing configurations achieved ethanol concentrations between 126 and 132 g/L (16.0-16.7%v/v), although decortication resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Decortication resulted in a decreased volumetric productivity during warm processing from 1.55 to 1.25 g L(-1)h(-1), whereas the required enzyme dosage for cold processing was decreased from 250 to 221 μl/100 gstarch. Cold processing decreased the average acid detergent fibre (ADF) from 35.59% to 29.32% and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 44.04% to 32.28% in the DDGS compared to the conventional (warm) processing. Due to lower enzyme requirements, the use of decorticated grains combined with cold processing presents a favourable process configuration and source of DDGS for non-ruminants.

  2. Bioavailability of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles relative to lutein in corn gluten meal based on lutein retention in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Seong; Kim, Jong Woong; Lee, Dong Gu; Lee, Sanghyun; Kil, Dong Yong

    2016-08-01

    Dietary lutein and its food sources have gained great attention due to its health-promoting effects on humans, especially for certain eye diseases. However, relative bioavailability (RBV) of lutein among lutein-rich feed ingredients that lead to lutein-enriched egg production has not been determined. Thus, the RBV of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared to lutein in corn gluten meal (CGM) was evaluated based on lutein retention in egg yolk. Increasing inclusion levels of DDGS or CGM in diets increased (linear, P < 0.01) Roche colour score and lutein concentrations of egg yolk without affecting laying performance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the bioavailability of lutein in DDGS was less (P < 0.05) than that of lutein in CGM, with the RBV of lutein in DDGS being 61.6% when the bioavailability of lutein in CGM was assumed to be 100% for lutein retention in egg yolk. The results of the present experiment indicate that the DDGS can be a potential ingredient for laying hens to improve egg yolk colour and lutein concentrations of egg yolk although lutein in DDGS is less bioavailable than lutein in CGM. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-12-09

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions.

  4. High-shear, jet-cooking, and alkali treatment of corn distillers' dried grains to obtain products with enhanced protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Inglett, G E; Chen, D; Rose, D J; Berhow, M

    2010-08-01

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) have potential to be a nutritionally important source of protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants. DDG was subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking, with or without alkaline pH adjustment and autoclaving. Soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed for protein, oil and ash. Extracts were analyzed for phenolic acids and antioxidant activity. Protein contents were significantly elevated in the insoluble fractions after treatment and the oil content was drastically increased in the insoluble fraction after high-shear and jet-cooking without pH adjustment. Alkaline pH adjustment resulted in a soluble fraction that was highest in phenolic acids, but not antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the 50% ethanol extract from DDG that had been subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking. These results suggest that high-shear and jet-cooking may be useful processing treatments to increase the value of DDG by producing fractions high in protein, oil and extractable phenolic acids with high antioxidant activity. The DDG fractions and extracts described herein may be useful as food and nutraceutical ingredients, and, if used for these applications, will increase the value of DDG and ease economic burdens on ethanol producers, allowing them to compete in the bio-fuel marketplace.

  5. Preparation of hydrolytic liquid from dried distiller's grains with solubles and fumaric acid fermentation by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Yue, Xuemin; Jin, Yuhan; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    Fumaric acid production from lignocellulosic materials is an alternative chemicals production system. This work investigated the suitable conditions for hydrolysis of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). The hydrolytic liquid was subsequently used for the production of fumaric acid. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, the most suitable concentration of H2SO4 (2%), hydrolysis temperature (120 °C), hydrolysis time (100min) and solid/liquid ratio (1:10) were obtained. The yield of monosaccharides reached 258 mg/g DDGS and 15.88 g/L glucose, 7.53 g/L xylose and 2.35 g/L arabinose were obtained in unprocessed hydrolytic liquid. The furfural inhibitor in the hydrolytic liquid was also detected and the yield of it was reducing progressively in the pretreatment process. The ferment ability of the hydrolytic liquid from DDGS was tested through the process of fumaric acid production by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13. The unprocessed hydrolytic liquid was not appropriate for the fermentation process. The yield of fumaric acid from the concentrated processed hydrolytic liquid reached 18.93 g/L, which was close to the yield of fermenting 80 g/L glucose. This result indicated that the commonly used carbon resource glucose could to some extent be replaced by processed hydrolytic liquid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An applied investigation of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles in the production of natural fiber-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Hugo Eudosio

    The main objective of this research was to examine uses for distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of ethanol production plant, in the fiber-reinforced plastic composites industry. Initially the effort intended to take advantage of the DDGS components, using chemical reactions, to produce coupling agents to improve the physical properties of the composite. Four different chemicals plus water were used to convert proteins into soluble amino acids. The results were not as expected, and appeared to show an early pyrolysis of DDGS components. This may be due to regeneration of proteins when pH of solutions is neutralized. Procedures were then investigated to utilize DDGS for different markets. Considering that oils and proteins of DDGS can thermally decompose, it seemed important to separate the major components and work with DDGS fiber alone. A procedure to extract oil from DDGS using ethanol and then to hydrolyze proteins with ethanol diluted with water, acid and sodium sulfite, was developed. The resulting DDGS fiber or residual material, with a low content of oil and proteins, was used as filler in a propylene matrix with a lubricant and coupling agent to make natural fiber plastic composites (NFPC). Composites containing wood flour (WPC) were prepared simultaneously with those of DDGS fiber to compare tensile properties and fracture surfaces of the specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that DDGS fiber can replace wood fiber as a filler in NFPC.

  7. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers' dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve States in the U.S. In 2011.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Piyum A; McMaster, Nicole J; Musser, Robert; Schmale, David G

    2014-03-26

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g-1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g-1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g-1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g-1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g-1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g-1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g-1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g-1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products.

  8. Performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles-containing diets supplemented with phytase and multi-carbohydrase.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Ige, Dupe V; Akinremi, Oluwole O; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Effect of supplementing wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS)-containing diet with enzymes on nutrient utilization by growing pigs was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 60 pigs weighing ~30 kg were fed five diets that included a corn-based diet (Control), Control with 10% wheat DDGS (DDGS-PC), DDGS-PC without inorganic P source (DDGS-NC), and DDGS-NC plus phytase alone or with multi-carbohydrase for 4 weeks to determine average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). In Experiment 2, 30 barrows weighing 22 kg were fed five diets fed in Experiment 1 to determine nutrient digestibility and retention. Pigs fed DDGS-PC and Control diets had similar ADG and G:F. The ADG and G:F for DDGS-PC diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those for DDGS-NC diet. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, total tract P digestibility and P retention by 6.6, 8.7, 86.0 and 85.5%, respectively. Addition of multi-carbohydrase to phytase-supplemented diet did not affected growth performance, but reduced (P < 0.05) P retention. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% wheat DDGS in growing pig diet may not affect growth performance of growing pigs. Phytase supplementation to wheat DDGS-containing diet can eliminate the need for inorganic P supplement in pig diets.

  9. Ultrasonic inspection and analysis techniques in green and dried lumber

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Schafer; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Roy D. Adams

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of lumber has been under investigation for over 20 years, with little commercial impact. Recently, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) developed ultrasound-based scanning technology to examine both green and dried lumber. In green lumber, the bacterial infection called wetwood (a significant source of degradation in oak at the kiln-drying...

  10. Effects of dietary inclusion and NaOH treatment of dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Murphy, T A; Loerch, S C

    2012-12-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) can decrease rumen pH because of their inherent acidity. Two replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with ruminally fistulated heifers to determine the effects of dietary inclusion and NaOH treatment of DDGS on rumen metabolism. In Exp. 1, dietary treatments were 0%, 20%, 40%, or 60% DDGS on a DM basis. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, 20% vitamin-mineral supplement, and corn (to replace DDGS) on a DM basis. Dry matter intake decreased (linear; P < 0.01) with increasing dietary inclusion of DDGS. Rumen pH was less than 5.3 from 1.5 to 12 h after feeding regardless of dietary DDGS inclusion, and mean rumen pH tended to decrease (linear; P = 0.08) with increasing DDGS. Rumen fluid S(2-) and rumen H(2)S gas concentrations increased (P < 0.01) with increasing DDGS inclusion at all time points postfeeding. At 3 h after feeding, ruminal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and total VFA increased linearly (P < 0.04) with increasing dietary inclusion of DDGS. Acetate to propionate ratio (A:P) ranged from 0.97 to 1.25 and was not affected (P = 0.88) by diet over time. In Exp. 2, dietary treatments were 1) 25% DDGS inclusion, untreated, 2) 60% DDGS inclusion, untreated, 3) 25% DDGS inclusion, treated with 2% NaOH, and 4) 60% DDGS inclusion, treated with 2% NaOH. Dry matter intake decreased (P < 0.01) when 60% DDGS was included in the diet regardless of NaOH treatment. Mean rumen pH was greater (P < 0.01) when NaOH-treated DDGS was fed regardless of dietary inclusion level. There were interactions (P ≤ 0.06) of NaOH treatment by DDGS inclusion by time for mean H(2)S and S(2-) concentrations. These interactions occurred because the magnitude of the response to NaOH treatment was greater for the 60% DDGS diets than for the 25% DDGS diets only from 1.5 to 9 h postfeeding. There were no interactions (P > 0.05) of NaOH treatment by DDGS inclusion on VFA concentrations. Acetate concentration decreased

  11. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  12. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Herrera, E; Ruiz, O; Reyes, O; Carrete, F O; Gutierrez, H

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  13. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Pérez, B. I.; Garzón-Proaño, J. S.; López-Soto, M. A.; Barreras, A.; González, V. M.; Plascencia, A.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Ríos-Rincón, F. G.; Zinn, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg) with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis) in substitution for dry-rolled (DR) corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE) of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01), but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM) digestion (linear effect, p<0.01). Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02) duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN) or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N) were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04) as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06) and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08). However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg), reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs. PMID:25049896

  14. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  15. Fat and starch as additive risk factors for milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the additive effects of starch and fat as risk factors associated with milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles. In experiment 1, 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows, averaging 114±14 d in milk and 662±52 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 4×4 Latin square to determine the effect of these risk factors on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. In each 21-d period, cows were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a control diet (CON; ether extract 5.2%, starch 19%); CON with added oil (OL; ether extract 6.4%, starch 18%); CON with added starch (STR; ether extract 5.5%, starch 22%); and CON with added oil and starch (COMBO; ether extract 6.5%, starch 23%). After completion of experiment 1, milk production response was evaluated in a second experiment with a similar approach to diet formulation. Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, averaging 117±17 d in milk and 641±82 kg, were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Results from experiment 1 showed that ruminal pH was not affected by treatment averaging 5.87±0.08. Molar proportion of propionate in rumen fluid was greatest on the COMBO diet, followed by OL and STR, and lowest for CON. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat increased with the COMBO diet. Adding oil, starch, or a combination of both resulted in lower concentration and yield of fatty acids<16 carbons. Compared with the control, OL and STR resulted in 13% lower concentration, whereas the COMBO diet resulted in a 27% reduction; similarly yield was reduced by 24% with the OL and STR treatments and 54% with the COMBO diet. In experiment 2, milk yield, milk protein percentage, and milk protein yield were similar across treatments, averaging 26.6±1.01 kg/d, 3.2±0.05%, and 0.84±0.03 kg/d, respectively. Fat-corrected milk was greatest for CON, 26

  16. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: II. Fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L; Bass, B E

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics of growing-finishing swine fed dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15); 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15); 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345); 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45); 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45); or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). All dietary treatments were formulated with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the first 3 phases, 15% DDGS in the fourth phase, and no DDGS during the last phase. Fresh belly quality data were collected on the left-side bellies, whereas bacon from the right-side bellies was prepared under commercial processing conditions. Additionally, USDA-certified No. 1 slices were collected for cooking characteristics and sensory panel evaluations. Bellies from the YG15-fed pigs were softer (P ≤ 0.05) than bellies from BT15-fed pigs; however, instrumentally measured belly firmness was not (P ≥ 0.06) different among treatments. Concentrations of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, as well as all SFA and all MUFA, were greater (P < 0.01) in bellies from BT15- than YG15-fed pigs. In contrast, proportions of linoleic acid, all PUFA, and iodine value were greater (P < 0

  17. The effect of vitamin E on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Licong; Shan, Anshan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on laying performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and several biochemical parameters of laying hens fed corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during the laying period (40 to 63 wk of age). A total of 360 Hy-Line Variety Brown hens were randomly assigned to 6 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 10 hens each. Hens were allocated to diets 1 through 6 in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 levels of DDGS (0, 10, and 20%) and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 and 200 mg/kg). The results indicated that yolk color and eggshell thickness increased with increasing DDGS (P < 0.05). However, increasing DDGS to 20% in laying hen diets significantly reduced feed conversion (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 200 mg/kg of vitamin E significantly improved egg production and yolk percentage (P < 0.05). Increasing the dietary levels of vitamin E caused a decrease in cholesterol and an increase in the α-tocopherol concentration of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with DDGS decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk (P < 0.05). Supplementation with high levels of vitamin E decreased malondialdehyde and increased glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase concentrations of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that DDGS was successfully fed to laying hens at levels up to 10% without adverse effects on laying performance. Additionally, vitamin E supplementation improved egg production and egg quality and provided health benefits to laying hens.

  18. The efficacy of using exogenous enzymes cocktail on production, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites of laying hens fed distiller's dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Chaudhry, M T; Mahrose, K M; Noreldin, A; Emam, M; Alagawany, M

    2017-10-08

    An experiment was performed using 120 Hisex Brown laying hens for evaluating the effects of different inclusion levels of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with or without enzyme cocktail on performance, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites in laying hens through 22-42 weeks of age. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was performed including four substitution levels of DDGS (0, 250, 500 and 750 g/kg respectively) and two enzyme cocktail levels (0 and 250 mg/kg diet). The used enzyme in this study "Gallazyme" composed of xylanase, Trichoderma longibrachiatum (600 units/g), protease, Bacillus subtilis (8,000 units/g) and amylase and Bacillus amyloliquofaciens (800 units/g). The control diet showed the best feed efficiency followed by the intermediate levels of DDGS. The lowest value of feed efficiency was found in the group fed the highest level of DDGS. Enzyme addition improved feed efficiency and decreased laying rate. Increasing DDGS levels was associated with albumin and shell thickness increases. Dietary DDGS depressed all egg components except the organic matter which maximised in enzyme-treated groups. Increasing DDGS level was accompanied by increase in yolk cholesterol and total lipids. No significant impacts were detected with enzymes supplementation on yolk lipids profile. Excepting serum calcium and phosphorous, all serum constituents increased with increasing level of DDGS. Using enzyme markedly depressed serum ammonia by 15.02% and increased calcium by 6.44% compared with enzyme-free diets. Interaction between DDGS and enzyme was significant on most of studied parameters. It could be concluded that using enzyme cocktail in DDGS-based diets may improve feed efficiency and egg quality, in addition to lowering blood ammonia and increasing blood calcium. It is recommended to substitute SBM by DDGS up to 500 g/kg diet. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  20. Effect of dietary adipic acid and corn dried distillers grains with solubles on laying hen performance and nitrogen loss from stored excreta with or without sodium bisulfate.

    PubMed

    Romero, C; Abdallh, M E; Powers, W; Angel, R; Applegate, T J

    2012-05-01

    Effects of dietary adipic acid (0 vs. 1%) and corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 20%) were evaluated on hen performance and egg characteristics from 26 to 34 wk of age. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were randomly assigned to blocks of 6 consecutive cages (36 cages per diet; 2 hens per cage). On wk 2 and 7 of the experiment, excreta were collected by cage block, mixed, and equally split into 2 containers. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) was spread (8.8 kg/100 m(2)) on the top surface of half of the containers. All containers were stored uncovered for 14 d at room temperature. Excreta pH, DM, and N content were measured on d 0, 7, and 14 of storage. Feed intake (112 g/d per hen), egg production (96.1%), and egg specific gravity (1.079 g/g) were not affected by diet. On excreta collection day, a synergy (P = 0.014) between dietary adipic acid and DDGS was detected, as the lowest excreta pH was obtained with the diet including both adipic acid and DDGS. On d 7 of storage, excreta pH was still reduced by dietary adipic acid (P = 0.046) and DDGS (P < 0.001), but a week later, only dietary DDGS decreased excreta pH (8.91 vs. 9.21; P < 0.001). Whereas dietary adipic acid had no influence on excreta N loss, excreta from hens fed 20% DDGS lost 19.7% more N (P = 0.039) during storage than hens not eating DDGS. Surface amendment of excreta with SBS increased excreta DM content, with the effect being even more marked on d 14 of storage (increase of 6.7 percentage units; P < 0.001), consistently decreased excreta pH during storage (P < 0.001) and reduced N loss by 26.1% for the 14 d of storage period.

  1. Effect of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles or sugar beet pulp on prevalence of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomson, L W; Pieper, R; Marshall, J K; Van Kessel, A G

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is of concern in the swine industry with relevance for animal health and consumer safety. Nutritional strategies might help to reduce ST infection and transmission. This study examined the potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) to alter intestinal microbial communities and ST shedding using a Trojan model. Weaned pigs (n = 105; 28.5 ± 3.5 d of age) were separated into 3 treatment groups (7 pigs/pen) and fed a wheat-based control diet or the control diet formulated with 15% wheat DDGS or 6% SBP inclusion. Following 12 d of diet adaptation, 2 pigs/pen were inoculated with 2 x 10(9) cfu ST, resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid. Fecal swabs were taken from infected pigs and pen-mates (contact pigs) for 9 d following challenge, enriched in nutrient broth for 24 h, and plated on selective media to determine prevalence of ST. The ranges of prevalence of ST in feces were from 90 to 100% in challenged pigs and 74 to 78% in contact pigs. No influence of treatment on rectal temperature and prevalence of ST in contact pigs were observed. Fifteen contact pigs were euthanized per treatment group on 9 and 10 d postchallenge to enumerate in intestinal contents (ileum, cecum, and proximal colon), Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridium clusters I, VI, and XVIa by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and to determine ST prevalence by selective culture. No significant effects of diet were observed with respect to ST prevalence in feces, ileum, cecum, colon, and lymph nodes of contact pigs. Compared with the control diet, DGGS and SBP diets showed a trend towards increased (P < 0.1) number of Lactobacillus species in the cecum and colon. Although both wheat DGGS and SBP tended to increase the Lactobacillus spp. neither of the feed ingredients affected ST prevalence.

  2. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminal or fecal contents incubated with corn or wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Yang, H E; Yang, W Z; McKinnon, J J; Alexander, T W; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A

    2010-11-01

    Dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS) is a by-product of ethanol production, and its use as cattle feed has increased as a result of the expansion of the fuel ethanol industry. However, the inclusion of corn DDGS into feedlot diets may increase the shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This study investigated whether corn or wheat DDGS at 2 concentrations (20% or 40% vs. 100% barley grain) affected the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in incubations of ruminal digesta and feces. Neither the type nor the level of DDGS had any effect on fermentation or the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in ruminal digesta. However, there was a time by DDGS interaction (p < 0.05), where the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in feces did not differ after 4 or 12 h of incubation but were greater after 24 h in both 40% wheat and 40% corn DDGS as compared with other treatments. Additionally, after 24 h, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were greater in fecal incubations with corn DDGS than with wheat DDGS (p < 0.05). The differences in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were not attributable to changes in pH or in concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the media. These results suggest that the inclusion of high levels of corn or wheat DDGS in feedlot diets of cattle may encourage the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces.

  3. Evaluation of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies in grow-finish swine diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Patience, J F; Myers, A J; Ensley, S; Jacobs, B M; Madson, D

    2014-02-01

    A total of 1,040 growing pigs (initially, 22.9 ± 4.3 kg) were used in a 115-d study to evaluate the effects of 2 mycotoxin mitigation strategies, a preservative blend (PB) and a yeast product (YP), on the growth performance of swine fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON). The PB consists of preservatives, antioxidants, AA, and direct-fed microbials and is included in diets to help pigs cope with the toxic effects of ingested mycotoxins. The YP works as an adsorbent to bind and prevent the absorption of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs were allotted to pens by initial BW and sex; pens were then assigned to treatments in a randomized block design with initial BW and sex serving as the blocking factors. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments consisting of a positive control (PC) containing <1 mg kg(-1) DON, a negative control (NC) formulated to contain 4 mg kg(-1) DON, NC with PB, and NC with YP. From d 0 to 42 and 42 to 84, no effect of diets containing PB or YP were observed for any of the growth criteria evaluated. From d 84 to 115, pigs fed PC or diets containing PB had improved (P < 0.05) ADG compared to pigs fed NC or diets containing YP, whereas pigs fed YP had improved (P < 0.05) ADG compared to those fed NC. Pigs fed diets containing PB or YP had improved (P < 0.05) ADFI and G:F compared to pigs fed NC. Overall (d 0 to 115), pigs fed diets containing PB had improved (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared to pigs fed NC. These results indicate that PB may be a suitable mycotoxin mitigation strategy in growing swine fed diets naturally contaminated with DON.

  4. Effects of particle size distribution, compositional and color properties of ground corn on quality of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2009-10-01

    Oftentimes, corn processors believe that ground corn (raw material) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are interrelated in certain quality parameters. Yet, previous studies, although rather limited, have not established this relationship. In this study, six ground corn samples and their resulting DDGS were analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), using a series of six selected US standard sieves: Nos. 8, 12, 18, 35, 60, and 100, and a pan. The original sample and sieve sized fractions were measured for contents of moisture, protein, oil, ash and starch, and surface color. Total carbohydrate (CHO) and total non-starch CHO were also calculated. Results show that the geometric mean diameter (d(gw)) of particles varied with individual corn and DDGS samples, and that d(gw) of DDGS was larger than that of corn (0.696 vs. 0.479 mm, average values), indicating that during conversion of corn to DDGS, certain particles became enlarged. For d(gw) and mass frequency of individual particle size classes, the relationship between ground corn and DDGS varied, but PSD of the whole sample was well correlated between them (r=0.807). Upon conversion from corn to DDGS, on an average, protein was concentrated 3.59 times; oil, 3.40 times; ash, 3.32 times; and total non-starch CHO, 2.89 times. There were some positive correlations in contents of protein and non-starch CHO and in L value between corn and DDGS. Yet, variations in nutrients and color attributes were larger in DDGS than in corn. For either corn or DDGS, these variations were larger in sieved fractions than in the whole fraction. Raw material, processing method and addition of yeasts are among major factors considered for causing larger variations in these attributes among DDGS. The study partially supports the common belief by processors that quality attributes of corn affect those of DDGS.

  5. Nitrogen-corrected True Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility of Chinese Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Liu, Y.; Yin, R. Q.; Yang, X. J.; Yao, J. H.; Sun, F. F.; Li, G. J.; Liu, Y. R.; Sun, Y. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) and true amino acids digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced in China. Twenty five sources of corn DDGS was collected from 8 provinces of China. A precision-fed rooster assay was used to determine TMEn and amino acids digestibility with 35 adult cecectomized roosters, in which each DDGS sample was tube fed (30 g). The average content of ash, crude protein, total amino acid, ether extract, crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were 4.81, 27.91, 22.51, 15.22, 6.35 and 37.58%, respectively. TMEn of DDGS ranged from 1,779 to 3,071 kcal/kg and averaged 2,517 kcal/kg. Coefficient of variation for non-amino acid crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and TMEn were 55.0, 15.7, 15.9 and 17.1%, respectively. The average true amino acid digestibility was 77.32%. Stepwise regression analysis obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = −2,995.6+0.88×gross energy+49.63×a* (BIC = 248.8; RMSE = 190.8; p<0.01). Removing gross energy from the model obtained the following equation: TMEn, kcal/kg = 57.88×ether extracts+87.62×a* (BIC = 254.3, RMSE = 223.5; p<0.01). No correlation was found between color scores and lysine true digestibility (p>0.05). These results suggest that corn DDGS produced in China has a large variation in chemical composition, and gross energy and a* value can be used to generate TMEn predict equation. PMID:25049858

  6. The net energy values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles and wheat bran for laying hens using indirect calorimetry method.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Yuan, J M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  7. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  8. The Net Energy Values of Corn, Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Wheat Bran for Laying Hens Using Indirect Calorimetry Method

    PubMed Central

    Ning, D.; Yuan, J. M.; Wang, Y. W.; Peng, Y. Z.; Guo, Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis. PMID:25049945

  9. Comparative study of two drying techniques used in radioactive source preparation: freeze-drying and evaporation using hot dry nitrogen jets.

    PubMed

    Branger, T; Bobin, C; Iroulart, M-G; Lépy, M-C; Le Garrères, I; Morelli, S; Lacour, D; Plagnard, J

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative solid sources are used widely in the field of radionuclide metrology. With the aim to improve the detection efficiency for electrons and x-rays, a comparative study between two source drying techniques has been undertaken at LNE-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB, France). In this paper, freeze-drying using commercial equipment is compared with a system of drying using hot jets of nitrogen developed at Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Belgium). In order to characterize the influence of self-absorption, the detection efficiencies for (51)Cr sources have been measured by coincidence counting and photon spectrometry.

  10. Supplementation of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage: I. Altered intake behavior, body condition, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, V C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation to cows fed corn stover and silage during late gestation, 27 multiparous beef cows (674 ± 17 kg; BCS, 5.6 ± 0.1) were divided randomly into 2 pens equipped with electronic feeders. For 10 wk, both groups were fed the basal diet for ad libitum intake while 1 group was supplemented (SUP; = 12) with DDGS at 0.3% of BW (DM basis). Following parturition, all cows received the same diet for an additional 8 wk. During gestation, SUP cows gained BW ( < 0.01), and there was no change in BCS ( 0.79). Nonsupplemented (CON) cows tended to lose BW ( 0.06) and lost BCS ( < 0.01) during gestation. Supplemented cows consumed more forage ( 0.01) and total feed than CON cows. An interaction of treatment and day was observed for time spent consuming forage ( < 0.01); SUP cows consumed forage faster than CON cows ( ≤ 0.01) early in gestation. Control cows ate more meals than SUP cows ( = 0.06) from d 201 to 218 of gestation. Supplemented cows tended ( = 0.09) to consume larger meals than CON cows and spent more ( < 0.01) time eating than CON cows around d 240 of gestation. Calves born to SUP cows tended ( = 0.06) to be heavier than calves born to CON cows. During lactation, both groups gained ( < 0.01) BW. Body condition score was less ( < 0.05) in CON cows than it was in SUP cows at the end of the study. Dry matter intake during lactation increased ( < 0.01) over time but was not influenced ( = 0.44) by treatment. Supplemented cows spent more time ( < 0.01) eating than CON cows after wk 4 of lactation, and they ate faster than CON cows until wk 3 of lactation whereas CON cows ate faster than SUP cows after wk 6 of lactation ( 0.01). The number of meals increased with advancing lactation ( < 0.01) and CON cows averaged more meals daily than SUP cows ( = 0.01). Conversely, meal size decreased as lactation advanced ( < 0.01), and SUP cows consumed larger meals than CON cows ( = 0

  11. Evaluation of nutrient equivalency of microbial phytase in hens in late lay given maize-soybean or distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets.

    PubMed

    Deniz, G; Gezen, S S; Kara, C; Gencoglu, H; Meral, Y; Baser, E

    2013-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 360 Lohmann LSL-Classic White Leghorn layers (64 weeks old) to evaluate the effects of supplementation of microbial phytase on production, egg quality, bone, selected manure parameters and feed costs. 2. Experimental diets were formulated as follows: (1) maize-soybean (CS), (2) CS+300 units of phytase (FTU)/kg diet which was formulated to recoup only calcium and available phosphorus equivalency for phytase (CS+PHYCa+P), (3) CS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup total nutrient equivalency for phytase (CS+PHYtotal), (4) CS+100 g/kg distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), (5) DDGS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup only calcium and available phosphorus equivalency for phytase (DDGS+PHYCa+P), or (6) DDGS+300 FTU/kg diet which was formulated to recoup total nutrient equivalency for phytase (DDGS+PHYtotal). 3. Each dietary treatment was assigned to 4 replicate groups with 3 cages and 5 hens per cage. The hens were provided with feed and water ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. 4. CS+PHYCa+P, CS+PHYtotal, DDGS+PHYCa+P and DDGS+PHYtotal diets supplemented with phytase provided similar percentage egg production, egg weight, egg mass, exterior egg quality, initial and final body weight compared with phytase-free diets. 5. However, supplementation of phytase to the experimental diets and calculation of the total nutrient equivalency for enzyme caused increased feed intake and decreased feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. 6. No differences in manure dry matter, crude ash, total nitrogen, tibia crude ash, calcium and phosphorus contents were found among the experimental diets. On the other hand, manure total phosphorus content was significantly decreased in the DDGS diet and diets supplemented with phytase in comparison to the CS diet. 7. It was concluded that the addition of microbial phytase to the CS-based diets or diets with DDGS of hens in late lay and using Ca and available P equivalency of

  12. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  13. Determination of energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed corn distillers' dried grains with solubles containing different lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ping; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Dong, Bing; Zang, Jianjun; Gong, Limin

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to estimate the digestibility of energy, nitrogen and amino acids (AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing one of five corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), including three normal oil DDGS (NO-DDGS) and two low oil DDGS (LO-DDGS) samples. Exp. 1 was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content. Six growing barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 35.1 +/- 2.2 kg) were allotted to a 6 x 6 Latin square design, with six periods and six diets. One diet was a corn soybean meal basal diet and the other five diets were based on corn, soybean meal and 28.8% DDGS. The average DE and ME values for the three NO-DDGS samples were 16.0 and 14.9 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). These values were 9 and 13% greater than the LO-DDGS values of 14.7 and 13.2 MJ/kg DM respectively. Exp. 2 was conducted to determine and compare apparent (AID) and standardised (SID) ileal digestibility for crude protein and AA in the five DDGS samples. Six growing barrows (initial BW, 32.2 +/- 1.9 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula were allotted to a 6 x 6 Latin square design with six periods and six diets. Five of the diets were based on the five DDGS samples, and the remaining one diet was nitrogen-free diet based on cornstarch and sucrose. Titanium dioxide (0.1%) was used as inert marker. The results of the experiment showed the largest variation among the different samples in AID and SID for lysine (from 41.8 to 65.8% and 53.8 to 73.9% respectively) and threonine (from 54.3 to 73.8% and 65.2 to 79.5% respectively). Also, among the indispensable AA, the SID values for arginine, histidine, threonine and tryptophan observed in LO-DDGS were not different from the values derived from NO-DDGS. In conclusion, LO-DDGS may have decreased energy compared with NO-DDGS because of its lower fat content. However, oil removal during the production of DDGS may not affect amino acid digestibility.

  14. Effects of increasing levels of dried corn distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of yearling heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Coleman, C M; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Three hundred forty-seven crossbred heifers (330 +/- 11 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block study to identify the optimal level of dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DGS) in flaked corn finishing diets. Fifty-four pens were used, with 9 pens per treatment and 6 to 7 heifers per pen. Finishing diets were steam-flaked corn-based and were fed once daily for 148 d. Dietary treatments consisted of 6 levels of DGS (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75%, DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, and final BW responded quadratically (P < or = 0.03) to increasing levels of DGS and were maximized at 15% DGS. However, G:F decreased linearly (P = 0.01) as level of DGS increased. Longissimus muscle areas were not different (P > or = 0.27), whereas 12th-rib fat thicknesses decreased linearly (P = 0.05) for heifers fed increasing levels of DGS. Marbling score and USDA yield grades were not different (P > or = 0.06) for heifers fed different levels of DGS. Number of carcasses grading USDA Prime or Choice were not different (P > or = 0.07), whereas number of carcasses grading USDA Select increased (P = 0.02; linear) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Myofibrillar and overall tenderness increased linearly (P = 0.01) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Juiciness, off-flavor intensity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not different (P > or = 0.16) among treatments. Redness of steaks (i.e., a*) was not different (P > or = 0.13) for steaks collected from heifers fed different levels of DGS as evidenced by similar instrumental color measurements after d 0, 3, and 5 of display. However, on d 7, steak color was less red (P = 0.04) and had more metmyoglobin. Concentration of linoleic acid (18:2n-6cis), total n-6 fatty acids, and total PUFA linearly increased (P = 0.01) with increasing levels of DGS.

  15. Evaluation of feeding dried distiller's grains with solubles and dry-rolled corn on the fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Drouillard, James S; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G

    2009-03-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are foodborne pathogens that reside in the gut of cattle and are shed in the feces. Previous work indicated a positive association between feeding cattle distiller's grains (DG) and an increase in E. coli O157:H7 prevalence. Feeding processed grains also has been shown to affect fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding DG and dry-rolled corn (DRC), alone or in combination, on fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in finishing cattle. Cattle were allotted to pens (n = 28), and fed dietary treatments (n = 150 days) structured in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement; the factors were 0% or 25% dried corn DG with solubles (DDGS) and 0% or 25% DRC in steam-flaked corn-based high-grain diets. Fecal samples were collected from each pen floor before initiating dietary treatments and at least once every 2 weeks after final diets began. Overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in fecal samples was 5.1%. There were no significant effects of DDGS, DRC, or sampling time on E. coli O157:H7 prevalence (p > 0.20). Overall prevalence of Salmonella in pen floor fecal samples was 23.7%, and sampling week affected prevalence (p < 0.01), ranging from < 1% (week 1) to 77.5% (week 17). Salmonella prevalence was not affected by cattle diet, and no work had previously reported an association between either DG or DRC and Salmonella prevalence. Lack of an association between E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and feeding DG or DRC is contrary to previous observations. Further research is needed to understand inconsistencies between studies of E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and potential associations with DG and grain-processing methods.

  16. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P < 0.01) in IC when compared to PC. Bellies were thicker (P < 0.01) and tended to have greater belly flop distances (P = 0.07) in PC compared to IC, however iodine values (IV) were not altered (P = 0.84). Carcass traits (P ≥ 0.10), cutting yields (P ≥ 0.43), and fresh belly characteristics (P ≥ 0.08) were minimally affected by DDGS feeding strategy. Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 6.10% units less (P < 0.01) in IC compared with PC. At 7 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 1.57% units greater (P = 0.03) in IC compared with PC. Distiller's grains feeding strategy had no effect (P ≥ 0.83) on boneless carcass cutting yields in IC; while in PC, these yields were 2.32% units less (P < 0.02) in control-fed barrows when compared to other feeding strategies (castration method × feeding strategy; P = 0.03). Bellies from PC tended to be thicker (P = 0.07) and have similar flop distances (P = 0.44) and IV (P = 0.54) when compared with IC. Iodine value

  17. Effects of dried distiller's grains and lasalocid inclusion on feedlot lamb growth, carcass traits, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fluid volatile fatty acid concentrations, and ruminal hydrogen sulfide concentration.

    PubMed

    Crane, A R; Redden, R R; Swanson, K C; Howard, B M; Frick, T J; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Schauer, C S

    2017-07-01

    Our hypothesis was that increasing the inclusion level of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) to feedlot lambs would increase growth and the inclusion of lasalocid (LAS; Bovatec, Alpharma, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ) would increase ADG and G:F, while not affecting digestibility, ruminal VFA concentration, and ruminal pH. Furthermore, we hypothesized that rations containing LAS and higher levels of DDGS would cause increased ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (HS) concentrations. Two hundred forty crossbred (Suffolk × Rambouillet) lambs (31.9 ± 5.87 kg BW; approximately 90 d of age) were allocated to 6 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Lambs were placed into 24 feedlot pens (4 pens/treatment; 10 lambs/pen) for a 111 d finishing study. Main effects included concentration of DDGS (0, 15, or 30% DM basis) and inclusion of LAS (0 or 22.05 g/metric ton LAS) resulting in treatments of: 1) 0% DDGS without LAS (0DDGS-NL), 2) 0% DDGS with LAS (0DDGS-L), 3) 15% DDGS without LAS (15DDGS-NL), 4) 15% DDGS with LAS (15DDGS-L), 5) 30% DDGS without LAS (30DDGS-NL), and 6) 30% DDGS with LAS (30DDGS-L). Two-day weights were taken at the beginning and end of the experiment. Two-hundred-eighteen lambs (64.8 ± 7.99 kg BW) were slaughtered on d 112 at a commercial abattoir and carcass data collected. The inclusion of LAS increased ( ≤ 0.02) final BW, ADG, G:F, and HCW. As DDGS in the ration increased to 30%, DMI decreased linearly ( = 0.03) while G:F increased linearly ( = 0.03). A second study was conducted utilizing the same treatments to evaluate N and S balance, ruminal VFA and H2S concentration, and ruminal pH in 24 crossbred wethers (Suffolk × Rambouillet; 41.2 ± 12.23 kg BW). Daily urinary sulfur excretion and ruminal H2S concentration were linearly increased ( < 0.001) as DDGS increased in the ration. Total ruminal VFA concentration linearly decreased ( = 0.002) as DDGS increased in the ration. The inclusion of

  18. Live production and carcass characteristics of broilers fed a blend of poultry fat and corn oil derived from distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Davis, J D; Loar, R E; Karges, K

    2013-10-01

    Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are now being further processed to remove corn oil, which may be used as a dietary energy source for poultry. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a poultry fat (PF) and a new DDGS-derived corn oil blend (CO) on live performance and carcass characteristics of 49-d-old broilers. Four corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated with differing blends of PF and CO. All diets contained the same percentage of total fat, but differed in the fat source. One diet had the sole source of fat as PF (100:0% PF:CO) and was then replaced with 25% CO, 75% CO, and a 100% replacement of CO. Each of the diets was fed in a 3-phase feeding program to 6 replicate pens. At day of hatch, Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly allocated to 24 pens composed of 42 birds of equal sex. On d 49, 10 birds from each pen were processed, and carcass, abdominal fat pad, and breast muscle components were determined. There were no significant differences in live performance for the starter phase (0-18 d). For the grower phase (19-35 d), birds fed 75:25% PF:CO significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased BW, BW gain, and decreased feed conversion compared with the control (100:0% PF:CO). Birds fed 0:100% PF:CO also observed similar improvements in BW, BW gain, and feed conversion during the grower phase. There were no significant differences for the finisher phase (36-48 d). On d 49, live weights for birds fed the 0:100% PF:CO diets were significantly lower compared with other treatments. A trend for lower carcass and breast weights and increased abdominal fat was also observed for birds fed the 0:100% PF:CO. The addition of CO led to significant improvements in pellet durability for grower and finisher pellets. The results of this study indicate that DDGS-derived CO can be used to partially replace PF in broiler diets without any detrimental effects.

  19. Impact of tylosin phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tylosin phosphate (TP) on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based diets. Eighteen barrows (initial BW = 32.6 ± 1.2 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a Youden square design with 6 diets and 3 replicate periods. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: TP (0 vs. 44 mg/kg) and DDGS (0 vs. 25%). Two N-free dietary treatments (0 vs. 44 mg/kg TP) were also included for determining basal ileal endogenous AA losses (IAAend) and the effect of TP on basal IAAend. Replicate periods included 4 d of adaptation to treatments and 2 sampling periods. Fecal collection occurred on d 5 and 6 and ileal digesta collection occurred on d 7 and 8 for sampling period 1 whereas sampling period 2 included fecal collection on d 11 and 12 and ileal digesta collection on d 13 and 14. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were calculated for DM, energy, and NDF. The AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were calculated. Inclusion of DDGS reduced AID (68.0 vs. 72.8%; P < 0.001) and ATTD (79.9 vs. 85.0%; P < 0.001) of energy. There were no effects of TP on energy digestibility. The DDGS inclusion increased the amount of GE (1.47 vs. 1.18 Mcal/kg DMI; P < 0.001) and NDF (94 vs. 60 g/kg DMI; P < 0.001) remaining at the terminal ileum; however, hindgut disappearance of energy (0.55 vs. 0.53 Mcal/kg DMI) and NDF (13 vs. 15 g/kg DMI) was similar between the corn-soybean meal-DDGS and corn-soybean meal based diets. There were no effects of TP on basal IAAend; therefore, SID AA values were calculated using means of the 2 N-free diets. The SID of Lys (79.6 vs. 84.1%; P < 0.001) and all other indispensible AA, except Leu, was lower in the DDGS diets. Inclusion of TP did not influence SID of AA

  20. Effects of selected feed additives on the performance of laying hens given a diet rich in maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Świątkiewicz, S; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Krawczyk, J; Puchała, M; Józefiak, D

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 192 ISA Brown hens were given diets containing a high concentration of maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and egg quality was determined. 2. Birds were allocated to 8 treatment groups with 12 replicates (cages) of two hens and were given, from week 26 to 55, iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets with or without a high concentration of DDGS (200 g/kg). The diet containing DDGS was not supplemented or supplemented with enzymes (xylanase and phytase), sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius) and a mixture of herbal extracts (Taraxaci siccum, Urticae siccum and Salviae siccum), inulin or chitosan. 3. The inclusion of DDGS in the diet had no effect on number of eggs produced, total egg mass, mean egg weight, feed intake or feed conversion ratio. Egg and eggshell quality parameters were also unaffected by dietary DDGS. The yolk colour score (points in Roche scale) was significantly increased by DDGS inclusion. DDGS in the diet caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were rather unfavourable from a dietary perspective (an increase of cholesterol content, and PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio). 4. During the experimental period (26-55 weeks of age) supplementation of the diet containing a high concentration of DDGS with enzymes, inulin as well as chitosan, increased number of eggs produced and daily egg mass. In older hens (50 weeks of age) inulin positively affected eggshell quality parameters, i.e. shell percentage, thickness and density. Diet supplementation with herb extracts, inulin or chitosan, decreased the content of cholesterol in yolks. 5. The results of this study suggest that DDGS may be incorporated up to a concentration of 200 g/kg in the diet of laying hens without any negative effects on egg performance. Moreover, supplementation of xylanase and phytase, as well as inulin and chitosan, can positively affect the performance of

  1. Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 μm. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 ± 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 μm improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 μm DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 μm had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 μm DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 μm. Compared with a 595 or 818 μm DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 μm reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of

  2. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    PubMed

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (P<0.01). Protein was decreased (P=0.01) and fat was increased (P=0.01) in milk from DDGS compared with CON cows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (P<0.01) and increased long chain FA (P<0.01) at both time points. Saturated FA content of milk was decreased (P<0.01) at both time-points in DDGS compared with CON cows, which resulted in an increase (P<0.01) in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, including cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Daily gain of the DDGS calves was increased (P=0.01) compared with CON calves, resulting in heavier BW on day 129 (P=0.01). Heavier BW of DDGS calves was maintained through weaning (P=0.01). Timed-artificial insemination (TAI) rates were greater for cows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (P<0.02), but dietary treatment had no effect on overall pregnancy rates (P=0.64). In summary, feeding DDGS to lactating beef cows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male

  3. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.

    PubMed

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction

  4. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  5. Xylanase increased the ileal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides and concentration of low molecular weight nondigestible carbohydrates in pigs fed high levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M B; Yu, S; Arent, S; Dalsgaard, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Lærke, H N

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS-a control diet or 1 of 3 diets with CAX, EX, or EXP-in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 7 d; adaptation lasted 4 d, and the ileal digesta were collected for 8 h on d 5 and 7, when spot samples of feces were also collected. Digesta samples were analyzed for NDC, total and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), low molecular weight (LMW) NDC, OM, CP, fat, starch, and marker. Compared with the control diet, addition of CAX, EX, and EXP increased the AID of arabinoxylan by 32 (P < 0.001), 28 (P = 0.001), and 24% (P = 0.004), respectively. In addition, EXP increased the AID of noncellulosic polysaccharide glucose by 21% compared with the control (P = 0.005). Compared with the control, addition of EX, EXP, and CAX decreased the concentration of soluble arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P < 0.0001), 40 (P < 0.0001), and 21% (P = 0.022), respectively. Furthermore, addition of CAX, EXP, and EX increased the concentration of LMW arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P = 0.0001), 36 (P = 0.0006), and 24% (P = 0.023), respectively, compared with the control. Addition of EX and EXP decreased the concentration of soluble NSP of ileal digesta by 25 (P = 0.001) and 26% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the control diet. Addition of CAX (P < 0.0001) and EXP (P = 0.013) increased the arabinose-to-xylose ratio in the insoluble arabinoxylan fraction in ileal digesta compared with

  6. Evaluation of high dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles and supplementation of protease and xylanase in the diets of broiler chickens under necrotic enteritis challenge.

    PubMed

    Barekatain, M R; Antipatis, C; Rodgers, N; Walkden-Brown, S W; Iji, P A; Choct, M

    2013-06-01

    A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a high level of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20%), with or without a combination of protease and xylanase in broiler chickens, under a necrotic enteritis disease challenge. A total of 576 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times, with 12 birds per replicate for 35 d. Oral inoculation of the challenged group with Eimeria spp. occurred on d 9, followed by 3 consecutive inoculations of Clostridium perfringens from d 14 through 16. The disease challenge and DDGS inclusion significantly (P < 0.01) interacted, depressing BW gain and feed conversion ratio only in wk 3. Disease challenge adversely influenced (P < 0.01) BW gain and feed conversion ratio of the birds in the third week and across the 35-d study. Over the last 2 wk and across the 35-d trial, the interaction between DDGS and enzyme supplementation showed a tendency (P = 0.09) to gain more BW in birds regardless of the disease challenge. Inclusion of 20% DDGS markedly (P < 0.01) interacted with disease challenge, accelerating the proliferation of C. perfringens in the ceca at d 17. Inoculation of birds with C. perfringens resulted in higher (P < 0.01) counts of C. perfringens in both ileal and cecal contents. The necrotic enteritis-related lesions (d 17) were more severe (P < 0.05) in the intestine of infected birds fed DDGS diets than in birds fed the control diet. Incorporation of DDGS to the diets improved (P < 0.01) the IgA and IgG titer at d 13 but interacted with the disease challenge, reducing the concentration of IgA at d 21 and IgM at d 35 in the infected birds. In conclusion, incorporating a high level of DDGS in the diet of broiler chickens may increase susceptibility to necrotic enteritis. Supplementation of enzymes did not reveal significant mitigation effect in infected birds but helped the birds fed DDGS to maintain feed intake and BW gain.

  7. Effects of dietary roughage and sulfur in diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles on hydrogen sulfide production and fermentation by rumen microbes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Binversie, E Y; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Carpenter, A J; Heins, B J; Crawford, G I; DiCostanzo, A; Stern, M D

    2016-09-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) have been used in production animal diets; however, overuse of DDGS can cause toxic concentrations of ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (HS), resulting in polioencephalomalacia, a deleterious brain disease. Because HS gas requires an acidic rumen environment and diet can influence ruminal pH, it has been postulated that dietary manipulation could help mitigate HS production. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary roughage and sulfur concentrations on HS production and rumen fermentation. In Exp. 1, 7 dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in 4 consecutive 9-d periods consisting of 6 d of adaptation followed by 3 d of sampling. At the conclusion of each 9-d continuous culture period, adapted rumen fluid was used for inoculation of 24-h batch culture incubations for Exp. 2. For both experiments, 6 dietary treatments were formulated to consist of 0.3%, 0.4%, or 0.5% dietary sulfur (LS, MS, and HS, respectively) and 3% or 9% dietary roughage (LR and MR, respectively), using grass hay as the roughage source. A corn-based diet without DDGS was used as a control diet. Headspace gas was sampled to determine HS production and concentration. In Exp. 1, greater dietary roughage had no effect ( = 0.14) on HS production but did create a less acidic environment because of an increase ( < 0.01) in the in vitro pH. In Exp. 2, an increase in dietary sulfur caused an increase ( = 0.04) in ruminal HS production, but there was no direct effect ( = 0.25) of dietary roughage on HS production. Greater dietary roughage resulted in a less ( = 0.01) acidic final batch culture pH but a lower ( < 0.01) total VFA concentration. Further investigation is needed to determine a more effective way to mitigate ruminal HS production using dietary manipulation, which could include greater inclusion of dietary roughage or the use of different roughage sources.

  8. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  9. Effect of corn dry distiller grains plus solubles supplementation level on performance and digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during forage growing season.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, M F; Calderón-Mendoza, D; Islas, A; Encinias, A M; Loya-Olguín, F; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of corn dry distiller grains plus condensed solubles (DDGS) supplementation level on performance digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during the forage growing season. In the performance study, 72 (206 ± 23.6 kg; 2008) and 60 (230 ± 11.3 kg; 2009) English crossbred steer calves were used in a randomized complete block design replicated over 2 yr. The grazing periods lasted 56 and 58 d and started on August 11 and 18 for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Each year, steers were blocked by BW (light, medium, and heavy), stratified by BW within blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 grazing groups. Each grazing group (6 steers in 2008 and 5 in 2009) was assigned to a DDGS supplementation levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW). Grazing group served as the experimental unit with 12 groups per year receiving 1 of 4 treatments for 2 yr (n = 6). In the metabolism study, 16 English crossbred steers (360 ± 28.9 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas grazing native range during the summer growing season were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate treatment effects on forage intake and digestion. The experiment was conducted during the first and second weeks of October 2008. Steers were randomly assigned to supplement level (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW; n = 4) and grazed a single native range pasture with supplements offered individually once daily at 0700 h. In the performance study, ADG (0.64, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.86 ± 0.03 kg/d for 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW, respectively) increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. In the metabolism study, forage OM, NDF, CP, and ether extract (EE) intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Total CP and EE intake increased (P ≤ 0.002) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Digestibility of OM, NDF, and EE increased (linear; P ≤ 0.008) whereas the soluble CP fraction of forage masticate sample

  10. Metabolizable energy content of wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles supplemented with or without a mixture of carbohydrases and protease for broilers and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, A O; Olukosi, O A

    2015-06-01

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to determine the AME and AMEn of wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) without or with supplementation of an enzyme mixture containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) in broilers and turkeys. One hundred twenty-six male Ross 308 broilers (Experiment 1) or 126 male BUT 10 turkeys (Experiment 2) were offered a nutrient-adequate diet from d 1 to 14. On d 14, birds in each experiment were allocated to 6 treatments consisting of 3 levels of wheat-DDGS (0, 300, or 600 g/kg) and 2 levels of XAP (0 or 250 mg/kg diet) in a randomized complete block design. The AME or AMEn content of wheat-DDGS was determined from the slope of regression of wheat-DDGS-associated energy intake (kilocalories) against wheat-DDGS intake (kilograms). In Experiment 1, wheat-DDGS inclusion in the diets linearly decreased (P<0.05) DM retention, AME, and AMEn, irrespective of XAP supplementation. The AME of wheat-DDGS without or with XAP for broilers was 3,587 or 3,700 kcal/kg DM, respectively, and AMEn was 3,356 and 3,459 kcal/kg DM for wheat-DDGS without and with XAP, respectively. In Experiment 2, wheat-DDGS inclusion in the diet linearly decreased (P<0.05) DM retention irrespective of XAP supplementation. Diet AME and AMEn linearly decreased (P<0.05) as the level of wheat-DDGS increased in the diets without added XAP, whereas there was no effect of increasing wheat-DDGS level on dietary AME or AMEn in the XAP-supplemented diets. The AME of wheat-DDGS without and with supplemental XAP for turkeys were 3,355 and 3,558 kcal/kg DM, respectively, and AMEn was 3,109 and 3,294 kcal/kg DM, respectively, for wheat-DDGS without and with XAP. Supplemental XAP increased (P>0.05) the AME and AMEn of wheat-DDGS for broilers and turkeys by up to 6%. It was concluded that wheat-DDGS is a valuable source of AME for broilers and turkeys.

  11. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( < 0.01), NDF ( = 0.04), and ADF ( = 0.03). Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased CP digestibility without affecting the digestibility of other nutrients. There were no effects of DDGS inclusion or FE on ruminal pH or VFA concentration except that propionate was greater ( = 0.04) with the WDG. In situ ruminal DM and NDF disappearance of barley silage was greater ( < 0.04) in heifers fed the WDG than in heifers fed the CON after 24 h of incubation. Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased in situ NDF disappearance of barley silage after 24 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 120 weaned steers (initial BW of 289 ± 11.0 kg) were fed diets similar to those in Exp. 1. The steers fed the WDG had greater ( < 0.01) final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with steers fed the CON. Increasing FE did not alter ADG or G:F but tended ( < 0.07) to linearly decrease DMI. There were interactions ( < 0.02) between DDGS and FE on eating rate and the time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( < 0.01) time at the bunk and increased ( < 0.01) eating rate for steers fed the WDG but not for steers fed the CON. Eating rate ( < 0.01) and meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed

  12. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health.

  13. Evaluation of inclusion level of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles with and without protease or β-mannanase on performance and water intake of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Opoku, E Y; Classen, H L; Scott, T A

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming a common practice to use higher levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS) in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of level of inclusion of wDDGS with or without enzyme (E-, i.e., wDDGSE-) supplementation on performance and water consumption of turkey hens (0 to 72 d). Two diets (0 or 30% wDDGS) were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Hybrid Converter turkeys. Diets (0 or 30% wDDGS; starter, grower, and finisher) were then blended to obtain a different level of inclusion (15%) of wDDGS. The 30% wDDGS diet was divided into 3 fractions and 2 fractions supplemented with either protease (P+, i.e., wDDGSP+; 0.126 g/kg) or β-mannanase (M+, i.e., wDDGSM+; 0.05 g/kg). All 5 diets were fed ad libitum as mash. The 700 0-d turkey hens were randomly allocated into groups of 35 birds per replicate with 4 replicate floor pens per treatment, in a completely randomized design. Water consumption per pen was recorded beginning at 7 d. There was no effect of dietary treatment on feed intake. BW of turkey hens (52 d; grower) was significantly higher for 30% wDDGSP+ as compared to 0% wDDGSE- or 15% wDDGSE- diets; but was not different from 30% wDDGSE- or 30% wDDGSM+ diets. FCR (P < 0.01; 28 to 52 d), and total FCR (P < 0.05; 0 to 72 d) was significantly improved for birds fed 15 or 30% wDDGS regardless of enzyme treatment compared to 0% wDDGSE-. Water intake (WI, in mL per bird per day) tended to be higher (P = 0.08) between 7 and 28 d for 30% wDDGSP+ diets compared to other treatments. Similarly, WI of birds fed 30% wDDGSP+ was higher (P < 0.05; 28 to 52 and 52 to 72 d) and total WI (P = 0.07; 7 to 72 d) tended to be higher than other treatments. This study is the first to report the impact of wDDGS on WI. As high as 30% wDDGS can be substituted in turkey hen diets. No effect of P+ or M+ at the inclusion level tested was found on performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Effect of dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles, canola meal, and chloride on electrolyte balance, growth performance, and litter moisture of growing turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farahat, M H; Hassanein, E I; Abdel-Razik, W M; Noll, S L

    2013-05-01

    A study determined if dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), canola meal (CM), or chloride (Cl) could adversely affect the performance and litter moisture of turkeys. A total of 1,089 Nicholas toms were used in a study during 2 to 14 wk of age. The poults were randomized into 99 pens (11 poults/pen) with number reduced to 10/pen at 8 wk. The factorial arrangement consisted of 3 diet sets [corn-soy (CS), CS + 20% DDGS, CS + 20% DDGS + 10% canola meal] and 3 Cl levels (0.22, 0.32, 0.42%), making 9 treatments distributed in 11 replicate blocks. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric with similar levels of digestible amino acids for each of 4 feeding phases. The dietary electrolyte balance varied with diet set and age period and ranged from 351 to 181 mEq/kg of diet (Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-)) or 184 to -29 mEq/kg (Na(+) + K(+)) - (Cl(-) + S(2-)). Individual BW and pen feed residues were measured at each phase. Samples of litter were collected at 11 and 14 wk for measuring moisture. During 2 to 14 wk, no differences were observed in BW and ADG attributable to diet (P < 0.05). Birds fed diets containing DDGS or with CM consumed 6.0% more ADFI (P > 0.05). No differences were found for Cl or diet × Cl interaction for BW, ADG, or ADFI. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher (P > 0.05) for birds fed diets containing DDGS or CM. A diet × Cl interaction was found for FCR during 8 to 14 wk; increasing Cl over 0.22% significantly increased the FCR by 3.0% only in diets containing DDGS with CM. Litter moisture was increased in diets containing DDGS or with CM, and by increased Cl. Including S in dietary electrolyte balance resulted in a better albeit weak correlation with ADG during 2 to 5 wk (-0.51 vs. -0.36) and FCR during 11 to 14 wk (-0.36 vs. -0.21). Due to the detrimental effect on FCR, high Cl should be avoided with DDGS and CM in turkey grower diets.

  15. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  16. Determination of the energy value of corn distillers dried grains with solubles containing different oil levels when fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-C; Li, P; Liu, D-W; Li, D-F; Wang, F-L; Su, Y-B; Zhu, Z-P; Piao, X-S

    2017-04-01

    This experiment used indirect calorimetry to determine the net energy (NE) content of five corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn DDGS) containing different oil levels and to compare the NE obtained using indirect calorimetry with that calculated using previously published prediction equations. There were two samples of high-oil DDGS, one sample of medium-oil DDGS and two samples of low-oil DDGS. Twelve barrows (initial BW of 32.8 ± 2.0 kg) were used in a repeated 3 × 6 Youden square design with three periods and six diets. The diets were comprised of a corn-soybean meal basal diet and five diets containing 29.25% of one of the corn DDGS added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, the pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 16 days which included 7 days for adaption to feed and environmental conditions. On day 8, the pigs were transferred to respiration chambers and fed one of the six diets at 2300 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6) /day. Faeces and urine were collected from day 9 to 13 and heat production (HP) was also measured. From day 14 to 15, the pigs were fed 893 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6) /day to allow them to adapt from the fed to the fasted state. On the last day of each period (day 16), the pigs were fasted and fasting HP was measured. The digestible energy value was 16.0, 17.1 and 15.3 MJ/kg DM, the metabolizable energy value was 14.6, 15.5 and 13.7 MJ/kg DM and the NE value was 10.7, 11.0 and 9.4 MJ/kg DM, for the high-oil, medium-oil and low-oil corn DDGS, respectively. The NE obtained with indirect calorimetry in the present study did not differ from values calculated using previously published prediction equations.

  17. Lactation responses and amino acid utilization of dairy cows fed low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles with or without rumen-protected lysine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Paz, H A; Kononoff, P J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different amounts of low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without supplementation of rumen-protected Lys (RPL) on lactation responses and AA utilization. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 188 ± 13 DIM were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) 15% low-fat DDGS, (2) 15% low-fat DDGS plus RPL, (3) 30% low-fat DDGS, and (4) 30% low-fat DDGS plus RPL. Periods lasted 21 d, with the last 3 d for data collection. Basal diets (without RPL) were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model [Cornell University (Ithaca, NY), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and the W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute (Chazy, NY)] to be isonitrogenous (16.9% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.63 Mcal/kg) and inclusion of low-fat DDGS increased at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Inclusion rate of low-fat DDGS and RPL supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake and milk yield, averaging 25.3 ± 0.97 kg/d and 26.9 ± 1.94 kg/d, respectively (means ± standard error of the means). Milk fat and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatments but milk protein concentration decreased in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS compared with those fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS (3.49 vs. 3.40 ± 0.12%). Updated predictions from the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model showed a decrease of 25 g of metabolizable protein Lys in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS. Compared with cows fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS, cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS had a marked increase in extraction efficiency (49.4 vs. 61.4 ± 2.51%) and a tendency to increase milk protein concentration (3.41 vs. 3.48 ± 0.12%) with RPL supplementation, which supported that Lys supply was inadequate. Despite differences observed in milk protein concentration, milk protein

  18. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on growing and finishing steer intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and steak color and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S; Maddock, R J

    2009-12-01

    Seventy-two crossbred and purebred beef steers (296 +/- 9 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design to determine effects of 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 29.2% CP, 9.7% fat, DM basis) inclusion during the growing or finishing period on DMI, performance, carcass, and meat quality traits. The resulting treatments were 0:0, 30:0, 0:30, and 30:30 (diet DDGS percentage fed during growing and finishing periods, respectively). Steers were individually fed a growing diet (65% concentrate) for 57 d, then acclimated to and fed a finishing diet (90% concentrate) for 80 or 145 d. Dietary ingredients included dry-rolled corn, corn silage, grass hay, concentrated separator by-product, and supplement. Diets included 27.5 mg/kg of monensin and 11 mg/kg of tylosin and were formulated to contain a minimum of 12.5% CP, 0.70% Ca, and 0.30% P. During the growing period, DMI was not different (P >or= 0.63; 10.22 +/- 0.23 kg/d; 2.42 +/- 0.06% of BW). Steer performance, including ADG (1.75 +/- 0.05 kg/d) and G:F (174.1 +/- 6.8 g/kg), was not affected (P >or= 0.14) by treatment during the growing period, and final BW at the end of the growing period was not different (425 +/- 7 kg; P = 0.99). During the finishing period, DMI was not different (P >or= 0.54; 8.47 +/- 0.66 kg/d; 1.57 +/- 0.09% BW). During the finishing period, no differences (P >or= 0.22) were observed for ADG (1.54 +/- 0.07 kg/d) or G:F (202.4 +/- 28.3 g/kg). As a result, final BW was not different (P >or= 0.28; 551 +/- 15 kg). Longissimus muscle area (77.8 +/- 3.3 cm(2)), 12th-rib fat thickness (1.26 +/- 0.10 cm), and KPH (2.48 +/- 0.16%) were not different (P >or= 0.16). There were no differences (P >or= 0.35) in yield grade (3.33 +/- 0.17) or marbling (431 +/- 21; Small(0) = 400). Results from the trained panel indicated no differences (P >or= 0.16) in tenderness, which averaged 6.03 +/- 0.16 (8-point hedonic scale); however, steaks from steers fed 0:30 or 30:30 tended (P = 0.10) to be

  19. Evaluation of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles as a substitute for barley grain and barley silage in feedlot finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, K T; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Chaves, A V; Okine, E K; Beauchemin, K A; Oba, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for barley silage in addition to a portion of the dry-rolled barley (DRB) in a grain-based feedlot finishing diet. The trial used 160 crossbred yearling steers: 144 noncannulated (478 +/- 84 kg) in a complete randomized design, and 16 ruminally cannulated (494 +/- 50 kg) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The noncannulated steers were assigned to 8 standard pens (10 per pen) and 8 pens equipped with the GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada; 8 per pen). The cannulated steers were placed (2 per pen) in the 8 GrowSafe pens and moved between pens at 28-d intervals. Each of 4 experimental diets was fed in 2 standard and 2 GrowSafe pens. The diets contained (DM basis) 1) 85% DRB and 10% barley silage (CON); 2) 65% DRB, 20% triticale DDGS, and 10% barley silage (D-10S), 3) 65% DRB, 25% triticale DDGS, and 5% barley silage, and 4) 65% DRB, 30% triticale DDGS, and no barley silage. Supplement (5% of dietary DM) was included in all diets. Ruminal pH was measured over four 7-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS linearly decreased mean ruminal pH (P = 0.006), linearly increased duration (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01) and area under the curve (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05) below pH 5.5 and 5.2, and linearly increased the frequency of subacute (P = 0.005) and acute (P = 0.05) bouts of ruminal acidosis. Variation in mean ruminal pH decreased (P = 0.008) in steers fed D-10S compared with CON. Similarly, variation in DMI was less for steers fed triticale DDGS compared with CON. Steers fed D-10S tended to have greater DMI (P = 0.08) but similar ADG and G:F compared with CON steers. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS tended to linearly decrease DMI (P = 0.10) and increase (P = 0.06) G:F. Compared with CON, steers fed D-10S tended to have greater backfat thickness (P = 0.10) and

  20. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  1. Effects of dry-rolled or steam-flaked corn finishing diets with or without twenty-five percent dried distillers grains on ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestion.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Reinhardt, C D; Murray, L; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-11-01

    A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestibilities of cattle finishing diets. Holstein steers (n = 16, 351 kg of BW) with ruminal cannulas were fed diets consisting of 0 or 25% dried corn distillers grains (DDG), using dry-rolled corn (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) as the principal energy source (2 x 2 factorial arrangement). The study was conducted in 2 periods, with 4 steers per treatment in each period. Periods consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase and a 3-d collection phase. Compared with DRC, feeding SFC decreased intakes of DM, OM, starch, NDF, and ether extract (P < 0.01), and steers fed SFC excreted less DM, OM, starch, NDF, and ether extract (P < 0.01). Compared with SFC, feeding DRC decreased ruminal concentrations of acetate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, and decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio (P < 0.01). Compared with SFC, DRC decreased ruminal propionate, valerate, and lactate concentrations (P < 0.01). When compared with cattle fed SFC, ruminal pH of cattle fed DRC was less at 0 h and greater at 6 h postfeeding (P < 0.01). Ruminal ammonia concentrations were greater for DRC vs. SFC at h 0, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 postfeeding (P < 0.05). Feeding DDG decreased consumption of starch and ether extract, but increased NDF intake (P < 0.01). Fecal excretion of ether extract was increased by adding DDG compared with diets without DDG (P < 0.05), resulting in less apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract for cattle fed DDG (P < 0.01). Ruminal lactate concentrations were increased with addition of DDG compared with diets without DDG (P = 0.01). Ruminal ammonia concentrations were less for steers fed 25 vs. 0% DDG at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h postfeeding (P < 0.05). We conclude, based on these results, that ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestibility of DDG are affected by grain processing.

  2. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  3. Freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Lutz; Vidlářová, Lucie; Kostka, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-01-01

    In vitro testing of drugs with excised human skin is a valuable prerequisite for clinical studies. However, the analysis of excised human skin presents several obstacles. Ongoing drug diffusion, microbial growth and changes in hydration state influence the results of drug penetration studies. In this work, we evaluate freeze-drying as a preserving preparation method for skin samples to overcome these obstacles. We analyse excised human skin before and after freeze-drying and compare these results with human skin in vivo. Based on comprehensive thermal and spectroscopic analysis, we demonstrate comparability to in vivo conditions and exclude significant changes within the skin samples due to freeze-drying. Furthermore, we show that freeze-drying after skin incubation with drugs prevents growth of drug crystals on the skin surface due to drying effects. In conclusion, we introduce freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Determination and prediction of energy values in corn distillers dried grains with solubles sources with varying oil content for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, D F; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z C; Zhao, P F; Zeng, Z K; Xu, X; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the DE and ME content of 25 samples of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. The 25 samples included 15 full-oil (no oil extracted; ether extract [EE] > 8%) DDGS and 10 reduced-oil (oil extracted; EE < 8%) DDGS collected from 17 ethanol plants in China. A corn–soybean meal diet constituted the basal diet and the other 25 diets replaced a portion of the corn, soybean meal, and lysine of the basal diet with 28.8% of 1 of the 25 corn DDGS sources. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 42.6 ± 6.2 kg) were used in the experiment conducted over 2 consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomized design. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolism cages for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following a 7-d adaptation to the diets. Among the 25 corn DDGS samples, EE, NDF, DE, and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 2.8 to 14.2%, 31.0 to 46.6%, 3,255 to 4,103 kcal/kg, and 2,955 to 3,899 kcal/kg, respectively. Using a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were developed not only among all 25 DDGS but also only within 15 full-oil DDGS and 10 reduced-oil DDGS samples. The best fit equations of DE (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 2,064 – (38.51 × % NDF) + (0.64 × % GE) – (39.70 × % ash), –(87.53 × % ADF) + (1.02 × % GE) – (22.99 × % hemicellulose), and 3,491 – (40.25 × % NDF) + (46.95 × % CP), respectively. The best fit equations for ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 1,554 – (44.11 × % NDF) + (0.77 × % GE) – (68.51 × % ash), 7,898 – (42.08 × % NDF) – (136.17 × % ash) + (101.19 × % EE) (103.83 × % CP), and 4,066 – (46.30 × % NDF) + (45.80 × % CP) – (106.19 × % ash), respectively. Using the sum of squared

  5. Effects of wheat or corn distillers dried grains with solubles on feedlot performance, fecal shedding, and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Hallewell, J; McAllister, T A; Thomas, J; Booker, C W; Hannon, S; Jim, G K; Burciaga-Robles, L O; May, M L; Peterson, R E; Flaig, C; Hussey, E M; Stanford, K

    2012-08-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a coproduct of the ethanol industry and are often used as a replacement for grain in livestock production. Feeding corn DDGS to cattle has been linked to increased fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7, although in Canada, DDGS are often produced from wheat. This study assessed the effects of including 22.5% wheat or corn DDGS (DM basis) into barley-based diets on performance, carcass characteristics, animal health, and fecal E. coli O157:H7 shedding of commercial feedlot cattle. Cattle (n = 6,817) were randomly allocated to 10 pens per treatment group: WDDGS (diets including 22.5% wheat DDGS), CDDGS (diets including 22.5% corn DDGS), or CTRL (barley substituted for DDGS). Freshly voided fecal pats (n = 588) were collected and pooled monthly for fecal pH measurement and screened for naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and direct plating (DP). Hide swabs (n = 367) were collected from randomly selected cattle from each pen before slaughter. Pen-floor fecal samples (n = 18) were collected from treatment groups at entry to the feedlot (<14 d on the finishing diet) and after adapting to the finishing diet for ≥ 14 d, inoculated (10(9) cfu of a 5 strain naldixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 mixture), incubated (20°C) and evaluated weekly (IMS and DP) to assess fecal E. coli O157:H7 persistence. The WDDGS group had 3.0% poorer ADG (P = 0.007), 5.3% poorer G:F (P < 0.001), and a decreased proportion of Canada Quality Grade AAA carcasses (P = 0.022) compared with CTRL cattle. The CDDGS group had a similar ADG (P = 0.06), a decreased proportion of Canada Yield Grade (YG) 1 (P < 0.001), and greater proportions of Canada YG 2 (P = 0.003) and YG 3 (P < 0.001) carcasses compared with the CTRL group. There were no differences among groups in any of the animal health parameters assessed. Inclusion of DDGS in cattle finishing diets had no effect on fecal shedding (P = 0.650) or persistence

  6. Enzymes enhance degradation of the fiber-starch-protein matrix of distillers dried grains with solubles as revealed by a porcine in vitro fermentation model and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jha, R; Woyengo, T A; Li, J; Bedford, M R; Vasanthan, T; Zijlstra, R T

    2015-03-01

    Effects of treating corn and wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with a multicarbohydrase alone or in combination with a protease on porcine in vitro fermentation characteristics and the matrix structure of the DGGS before and after the fermentation were studied. Three DDGS samples (wheat DDGS sample 1 [wDDGS1], wheat DDGS sample 2 [wDDGS2], and corn DDGS [cDDGS]) were predigested with pepsin and pancreatin. Residues were then subjected to in vitro fermentation using buffered mineral solution inoculated with fresh pig feces without or with a multicarbohydrase alone or in combination with protease in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Accumulated gas production was measured for up to 72 h. Concentration of VFA was measured in fermented solutions. The matrix of native DDGS and their residues after fermentation was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine internal and external structures, respectively. On a DM basis, wDDGS1, wDDGS2, and cDDGS contained 35.5, 43.4, and 29.0% CP; 2.23, 0.51, and 6.40% starch; 0.82, 0.80, and 0.89% available Lys; and 24.8, 22.5, and 23.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides, respectively. The in vitro digestibility of DM for wDDGS1, wDDGS2, and cDDGS was 67.7, 72.1, and 59.6%, respectively. The cDDGS had greater ( < 0.05) total gas and VFA production than both wheat DDGS. The wDDGS2 had lower ( < 0.05) total gas production than wDDGS1. Multicarbohydrase increased ( < 0.05) total gas production for cDDGS and total VFA production for wDGGS1 but did not increase gas or VFA production for wDDGS2. Addition of protease with multicarbohydrase to DDGS reduced ( < 0.05) total gas and VFA productions and increased ( < 0.05) branched-chain VFA regardless of DDGS type. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that DDGS were mainly aggregates of resistant and nonfermentable starchy and nonstarchy complexes formed during DDGS production. After in vitro

  7. Effects of alternate-day feeding of dried distiller's grain plus solubles to forage-fed beef cows in mid- to late gestation.

    PubMed

    Klein, S I; Steichen, P L; Islas, A; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Dahlen, C R

    2014-06-01

    Forty-six nonlactating beef cows were used to examine effects of dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DG) supplementation strategies to cows fed grass hay during mid- to late gestation on BW, ultrasound body composition characteristics, concentrations of serum NEFA and urea, feeding behavior, and calf birth weight. Cows were assigned to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) control, where hay was fed each day of the week (CON), 2) both hay and DG fed daily during the week (DG7), 3) hay fed daily but DG fed 3 d of the week (DG3), and 4) hay fed 4 d of the week alternating with DG fed on the remaining 3 d (DGA). Hay was offered ad libitum on days it was fed. The DG were fed at 0.40% of BW when offered daily and 0.93% of BW when offered 3 d per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday). Feed intake was monitored continuously over the 84-d feeding period. Hay intake and total DMI were reduced (P < 0.05) in DGA compared with DG7 and DG3. Gain and G:F were decreased (P < 0.05) for CON compared with other treatments. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed among treatments for change in BCS, intramuscular fat, rib fat, or rump fat from d 1 to 84. On a day when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG (Friday), DGA had reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of urea compared with DG3 and DG7. On a day when only DG7 received DG (Saturday), urea was greater (P < 0.01) for DG3 and DGA compared with DG7, and concentrations of NEFA were greater (P < 0.01) in CON and DGA compared with DG7. On the second consecutive day when only DG7 received DG (Sunday), concentrations of NEFA were less (P < 0.001) for DG7 compared with other treatments. On days when all cows received hay, DGA spent more time eating (P < 0.05) compared with DG7 and DG3. Cows fed DGA had greater (P < 0.05) hay intake per meal and time per meal compared with other treatments. On days when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG, cows in the DG3 and DGA treatments had greater (P < 0.05) number of DG meals, time spent

  8. Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles in lamb feedlot diets: growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Muir, J P; Adams, R P; Stewart, W C

    2014-03-01

    Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed 5 isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper or DDGS-based diets in which 0 (0JUN), 33 (33JUN), 66 (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI and ADG and tended to have greater (P < 0.10) G:F than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P < 0.008) as juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03), and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P < 0.05) and serum Ca and P and fecal P were similar (P > 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth per kilogram of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves

  9. Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Mahan, D C; Hill, G M; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Inclusion of up to 0.38% S in diets that contain 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has no negative effect on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs, but there is no information about the effects of dietary S on accumulation of S in tissues in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of S in diets containing DDGS affects carcass characteristics, loin quality, or tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 10 replicate pens and 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. At the conclusion of the experiment, the pig in each pen with the BW closest to the pen average was slaughtered. The control diet was based on corn and soybean meal and the finisher diet contained 0.14% S, 0.19 mg/kg Se, and 15.3 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS diet was formulated with corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS and the finisher diet with DDGS contained 0.16% S, 0.32 mg/kg Se, and 14.0 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS plus S (DDGS-S) diet was similar to the DDGS diet, except that 1.10% CaSO4 (16.2% S) was included in this diet, and the finisher diet with DDGS-S contained 0.37% S, 0.35 mg/kg Se, and 13.8 mg/kg Cu. Results indicated that organ weights and loin quality, 24-h pH, drip loss, loin subjective color, marbling, and firmness did not differ among treatments, but loin a* was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the control diet than for pigs fed the DDGS-S diet. Concentrations of S in hair, liver, heart, loin, and all other tissues did not differ among treatments, but urinary S concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the DDGS-S diet than for pigs fed the other diets. Pigs fed the DDGS diet or the DDGS-S diet had greater (P < 0.01) concentrations of Se in hair, liver, heart, and loin than pigs fed the control diet, but liver concentrations of Cu did not differ among

  10. The effects of medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-02-01

    A total of 288 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 68.9 kg BW) were used in a 67-d study to determine the effects of increasing medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 7.63% ether extract, 30.1% CP, 19.53% ADF, 36.47% NDF, and 4.53% ash; as-fed basis) on growth performance and carcass traits in finishing pigs. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet or the control diet with 15, 30, or 45% medium-oil DDGS. Diets were fed over 2 phases (69 to 100 and 100 to 126 kg) and were not balanced for energy. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed the AA, vitamin, and mineral requirements and contained constant standardized ileal digestible lysine levels within phase. Increasing medium-oil DDGS decreased (linear, P < 0.02) ADG and G:F. Average daily gain decreased approximately 2.3% for every 15% added medium-oil DDGS whereas G:F decreased approximately 1.3% with every 15% added DDGS. In addition, final BW, HCW, carcass yield, and loin-eye depth decreased (linear, P < 0.03) and jowl iodine value (IV) increased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing medium-oil DDGS. Nutrient digestibility of the DDGS source was determined using pigs (initially 25.6 kg BW) that were fed either a corn-based basal diet (96.6% corn and 3.4% vitamins and minerals) or a DDGS diet, which was a 50:50 blend of the basal diet and medium-oil DDGS. There were 12 replications for each diet consisting of a 5-d adaptation period followed by 2 d of total fecal collection on a timed basis. Feces were analyzed for GE, DM, CP, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, and ether extract. On an as-fed basis, corn was analyzed to contain 3,871 and 3,515 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively. Medium-oil DDGS was analyzed to contain 4,585 and 3,356 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively (as-fed basis). Digestibility coefficients of the medium-oil DDGS were 70.3% DM, 82.9% CP, 61.4% ether extract, 77.4% ADF, 67.5% NDF, and 67.2% crude fiber. Caloric efficiency (ADFI × kcal energy intake/kg BW gain) was not

  11. Effects of dietary fat and crude protein on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers fed differing levels of dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Weaver, A D; Lemenager, R P; Gerrard, D E; Claeys, M C; Lake, S L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary protein and fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing steers. Angus-cross steers (n = 105; 443 +/- 20 kg of BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) corn-based diet with DDGS included at 25% of DM (CON), 2) CON with DDGS included at twice the amount of CON (50% of DM; 50DDGS), 3) CON with added corn protein to equal the CP in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CP), 4) CON with added vegetable oil to equal the fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+VO), and 5) CON with protein and fat added to equal the CP and fat in the 50DDGS diet (CON+CPVO). Steers were fed to a common 12th-rib fat depth endpoint (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm; 68 to 125 d on trial). Loins and rounds were collected from 44 carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), ether extract, and case-life analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Contrasts between 1) CON vs. elevated CP diets (50DDGS, CON+CP, and CON+CPVO; EP), 2) CON vs. elevated fat diets (50DDGS, CON+VO, and CON+CPVO; EF) and 3) CON vs. diets with elevated CP and fat (50DDGS and CON+CPVO; EPF) were analyzed. There were no differences in days on feed or DMI among treatments. Steers fed CON had greater ADG (P or= 0.06). Steers fed the CON diet had greater marbling scores (P or= 0.44). However, CON steers had greater (P = 0.02) L* values than

  12. Effects of increasing levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles and monensin on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in beef heifers fed high-barley grain diets.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Jin, Y; He, M L; Li, C; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing corn-based dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in high-barley grain diets reduces the merit of using higher levels of monensin by assessing intake, digestibility, and ruminal pH and fermentation in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 599±36 kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square with a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (CON, 10% barley silage, 90% barley-based concentrate, and 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets substituting 20% (LDG) or 40% (HDG) DDGS for barley grain with 28 mg (ML) or 48 mg (MH) monensin/kg diet DM: 1) CONML, 2) LDGML, 3) HDGML, 4) LDGMH, and 5) HDGMH. Contrasts compared LDG vs. HDG, ML vs. MH, interactions between DDGS and monensin, and the effect of increasing DDGS in the diet. Increasing DDGS quadratically (P<0.01) increased DMI. There was no interaction for DMI between the dietary inclusion rate of DDGS and the dose of monensin; however, DMI was reduced (P<0.05) for heifers fed MH vs. ML. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and starch linearly decreased (P<0.01), but intestinal digestibility linearly increased (P<0.01) with increasing DDGS, resulting in no differences in total tract digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM was greater (P<0.04) in heifers fed MH than ML; however, the total tract digestibility of OM was not affected. Intake of N, flows of total N, nonammonia N, and dietary N were linearly (P<0.02) increased, and the efficiency of ruminal microbial synthesis linearly (P<0.04) improved with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS inclusion linearly decreased (P<0.04) the acetate to propionate ratio. Inclusion of MH decreased (P<0.04) acetate and increased (P<0.05) NH3-N compared to ML, but high monensin did not affect mean ruminal pH, the duration of pH<5.8, 5.5, 5.2, or the area below the curve at pH 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, indicating that there was no evidence that it modulated ruminal pH. These

  13. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P < 0.01) and intake of starch was less (P < 0.01) for the 25DDGS compared with the CON diet. The digestibilities of CP, NDF, ADF, and EE in the total digestive tract were greater (P < 0.05) for 25DDGS vs. CON. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.05) intakes of DM and other nutrients without altering (P=0.40) CP intake. In contrast, digestibilities of DM and other nutrients in the total digestive tract linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing wheat DDGS except for that of EE. Additionally, with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS, mean ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH <5.5 and <5.2, and greater (P=0.01) curve area under pH <5.8 and <5.5 without altering (P > 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively

  14. Interactive effects of distillers dried grains with solubles and housing system on reproductive performance and longevity of sows over three reproductive cycles.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Baidoo, S K; Li, Y Z; Shurson, G C; Johnston, L J

    2014-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in sow diets and housing systems on reproductive performance and longevity. Sows (311 for parity 0 and 90 for parity 1) were assigned randomly within parity to 1 of 4 treatments and maintained on these treatments for up to 3 reproductive cycles. Sows were fed either fortified corn-soybean meal control diets (CON) during gestation and lactation or diets containing 40% DDGS in gestation and 20% DDGS in lactation and were housed either in individual stalls or group pens with electronic sow feeders during gestation. Sows fed DDGS had smaller (P < 0.05) litter size (born alive, 11.0 vs. 11.6; weaning, 9.8 vs. 10.2) and had more (P < 0.05) stillborns (0.9 vs. 0.7) than sows fed CON. Litters nursing sows fed DDGS gained less weight (P < 0.01) than litters nursing sows fed CON (47.8 vs. 49.8 kg, respectively). Group-housed sows tended to farrow smaller litters (born alive, 11.0 vs. 11.5; P < 0.10) and had fewer pigs at weaning (9.9 vs. 10.2; P < 0.05) compared with stall-housed sows. Litters from group-housed sows tended (P < 0.10) to gain less weight while suckling than those from stall-housed sows (48.3 vs. 49.4 kg, respectively). Diet did not affect the percentage of sows that completed each successive reproductive cycle. Stall housing tended to increase (P = 0.06) the completion rate of sows at the second reproductive cycle (80.0 vs. 68.2%) and increased (P < 0.05) the completion rate of sows in the third reproductive cycle (68.9 vs. 55.8%) compared with group housing. Sows fed DDGS produced fewer (P < 0.05) live-born pigs (26.2 vs. 27.4) and tended (P < 0.10) to have fewer pigs weaned (23.7 vs. 24.5) over 3 reproductive cycles compared with sows fed CON. Stall-housed sows farrowed more (P < 0.05) total pigs (30.1 vs. 26.7) and live pigs (28.4 vs. 25.2) and had more weaned pigs (25.2 vs. 23.1) compared with group-housed sows over 3 reproductive cycles

  15. Pork fat quality of pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles with variable oil content and evaluation of iodine value prediction equations.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C

    2016-03-01

    Back, belly, and jowl fat samples of pigs fed control corn-soybean meal-based diets and diets containing 4 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were used to determine the impact of feeding DDGS with variable oil content on pork fat quality and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of published iodine value (IV) prediction equations. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 corn-soybean meal diets containing 40% DDGS from different sources with 10.7, 5.6, 14.2, or 16.0% ether extract (EE; as-fed) content. Diets did not contain any other supplemental lipid sources. Regardless of fat depot, SFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 5.6% EE DDGS (35.4) was greater ( < 0.05) than that of pigs fed 14.2 or 16.0% EE DDGS sources (34.4 and 30.2, respectively) and tended to be greater ( < 0.10) than that of pigs fed 10.7% EE DDGS (34.6). Pigs fed 10.7 and 14.2% EE DDGS had greater ( < 0.01) SFA concentration than pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS. Regardless of fat depot, MUFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources were similar (43.7, 43.1, and 43.0, respectively) but were greater ( < 0.01) than that of pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS (40.0). A dietary treatment × fat depot interaction was observed for PUFA ( < 0.05) and IV ( = 0.079). Pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources had reduced ( < 0.01) PUFA concentration and IV compared with pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS, but the magnitude of responses in PUFA and IV to the variable oil content of DDGS was greater in backfat than in belly and jowl fat. Carcass fat IV data were used to evaluate prediction error (PE) and bias of published carcass fat IV prediction equations. Equations using dietary C18:2 content or IV product as a single predictor resulted in highly variable PE (g/100 g) ranging from 3.43 to 8.36 and bias (g/100 g) ranging from -5.05 to 5.66. Using equations that included additional diet composition information and pig growth performance factors decreased PE (3.27 to 4.73) and bias (-3.37 to 1.73) of

  16. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  17. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing 30% distillers dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J

    2015-01-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 315) were blocked by initial BW (6.8 ± 1.1 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of tallow and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig growth, carcass traits, and pork fat quality. Diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet (CON) and another 3 corn-soybean meal diets containing 5% tallow (T), 30% DDGS (D), or 5% tallow plus 30% DDGS (TD) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain similar levels of available P and standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME among treatments. Pigs were housed in 40 pens, with 7 to 8 pigs per pen, to provide 10 replicates per treatment. Overall ADG did not differ among treatments. Compared with CON (2.76 kg/d) and T (2.59 kg/d), feeding 30% DDGS reduced the ADFI (interaction, P > 0.05) of pigs when fed with 5% tallow (2.45 kg/d for TD) but not when fed alone (2.76 kg/d for D). There was no effect of DDGS on overall G:F, but pigs fed diets with tallow had greater (P < 0.01) G:F (0.4) than pigs fed no tallow (0.37). Feeding tallow increased (P < 0.01) HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth of pigs independent of DDGS. Feeding DDGS reduced (P < 0.01) belly firmness, as measured by belly flop angle, independent of tallow (D = 71.8° and TD = 57.7° vs. CON = 134.0° and T = 113.4°) and tallow also tended to reduce belly firmness (P < 0.10). Feeding DDGS and tallow reduced the concentration of SFA in belly fat, while the concentration of MUFA were increased (P < 0.01) by feeding tallow but not DDGS. Conversely, feeding DDGS increased (P < 0.01) the concentration of PUFA in belly fat but there was no effect of tallow. An interaction (P = 0.03) between DDGS and tallow for iodine value (IV) of belly fat was observed, in which addition of tallow or DDGS increased the IV of belly fat (64.22 for T and 71.22 for D vs. 59.01 for CON) but addition of both reduced IV (67.88 for TD). The IV of belly fat and

  18. Effect of calcium oxide inclusion in beef feedlot diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, A J C; Felix, T L; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary CaO on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed 60% dried distillers grains with solubles ( DDGS: ). In Exp. 1, 120 steers were allotted by weight (355 ± 7.9 kg) to 1 of 4 treatments containing 60% DDGS, 20% corn silage, 13.5 to 14.4% ground corn, 4% supplement, and 0 to 2.5% limestone on DM basis to determine the effects of CaO on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4% CaO inclusion in the diet (DM basis), with CaO replacing limestone. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of approximately 641 kg. In Exp. 2, 4 steers (initial BW = 288 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to the same diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (14-d periods) to determine the effects of CaO on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Inclusion of CaO at 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% increased ADG by 5.0, 3.9, and 0%, respectively, compared to 0% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.03). Intake was linearly decreased (P = 0.04) and G:F was linearly increased (P = 0.02) by CaO inclusion. Dressing percentage increased as CaO increased from 0 to 1.6% and then decreased for 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, steers fed 0% CaO had the greatest prefeeding ruminal pH, steers fed 0 and 0.8% CaO exhibited the most rapid postfeeding decline in ruminal pH, and steers fed 2.4% CaO exhibited a relatively stable ruminal pH throughout the 24-h period (treatment × time; P ≤ 0.01). Acetate, butyrate, and total VFA concentrations increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding with increasing CaO. Propionate at 3 h postfeeding increased from 0 to 1.6% CaO and decreased from 1.6 to 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.10). Urine pH increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) while urine output and urine ammonia decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as CaO inclusion increased

  19. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  20. Comparison of two diet types in the determination of metabolizable energy content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Ileleji, K E

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 2 diet types, practical and semi-purified, in the determination of ME and ME(n) contents of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (CDDGS) for broiler chickens by the regression method. Two hundred eighty-eight 14-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 6 diets consisting of 2 factors in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement: diet type (practical corn-soybean meal or semi-purified nitrogen-free diet) and CDDGS (0, 300, or 600 g/kg). The birds were fed for 7 d, and there were 6 birds per cage and 8 replicate cages per diet in a randomized complete block design. The CDDGS sample used in the present experiment contained (by analysis) 895 g/kg of DM, 4.811 kcal/g of gross energy, 265.7 g/ kg of CP, 107.6 g/kg of crude fat, 61.3 g/kg of crude fiber, and 41.8 g/kg of ash. There was the expected interaction (P < 0.001) between diet type and CDDGS level in nitrogen retention response of the birds with a decrease as CDDGS level in the practical diet increased but an increase in the semi-purified diet. There were interactions (P < 0.001) between diet type and CD-DGS level in energy retention response, ME, and ME(n). Energy retention linearly decreased (P < 0.0001) from 78.6 to 58.6% as CDDGS increased from 0 to 600 g/kg in the practical diets, whereas the decrease was from 86.8 to 75.4% in the semi-purified diet. The ME and ME(n) (kcal/g) contents of the diets linearly decreased (P < 0.0001) from 3.615 and 3.414 to 2.753 and 2.642, respectively, as CDDGS increased from 0 to 600 g/kg in the practical diets. Corresponding linear decrease (P < 0.0001) values for semi-purified diets were 3.210 and 3.227 to 2.732 and 2.697, respectively. Regression of CDDGS-associated ME intake in kilocalories against grams of CDDGS intake generated the following equations for practical and semi-purified diets respectively: Y = 2.904X + 52, r(2) = 0.987 and Y = 3.013X + 67, r(2) = 0.983. The regression equations for CDDGS-associated ME(n) intake in

  1. The effects of deoxynivalenol-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles in nursery pig diets and potential for mitigation by commercially available feed additives.

    PubMed

    Frobose, H L; Fruge, E D; Tokach, M D; Hansen, E L; DeRouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and the efficacy of feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (10.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) Positive Control (PC; < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Negative Control (NC; 4 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.10% Biofix (Biomin Inc., Herzogenburg, Austria), 4) NC + 0.15% Cel-can (VAST Inc., Mason City, IA) and 0.50% bentonite clay, and 5) NC + 0.25% Defusion Plus (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Pigs fed the NC diet had poorer ( < 0.01) ADG than those fed the PC. Pigs fed Defusion Plus had improved ( < 0.03) ADG over those fed NC, whereas pigs fed Biofix or Cel-can with bentonite clay had reduced ADG ( < 0.01) compared with those fed PC. In Exp. 2, 340 pigs (11.7 ± 0.1 kg BW) were fed 1 of 8 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) Low NC (1.5 mg/kg DON), 3) Low NC + 0.15% Biofix, 4) Low NC + 0.30% Biofix, 5) High NC (3.0 mg/kg DON), 6) High NC + 0.30% Biofix, 7) High NC + 0.45% Biofix, and 8) Diet 7 with 5% added water. Increasing the DON level reduced (linear; < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and pig BW, and Biofix did not improve performance. In Exp. 3, 1,008 pigs (12.5 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 6 treatments for 24 d. Diets were 1) PC ( < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion, 4) NC + 0.50% Defusion, 5) Diet 3 with supplemental nutrients, and 6) Diet 5, pelleted. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, but adding Defusion improved (linear; < 0.04) ADG and ADFI over pigs fed NC. Pelleting improved ( < 0.01) both ADG and G:F, resulting in ADG above PC pigs. In Exp. 4, 980 pigs (12.0 ± 0.3 kg BW) were fed 1 of 7 diets in a 28-d trial in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement. The 7 treatments were based on 3 diets fed in meal or pellet form: 1) PC (< 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) NC (3 mg/kg DON), and 3) NC + 0.25% Defusion. Treatment 7 was Diet 3 with

  2. Production of inhalation phage powders using spray freeze drying and spray drying techniques for treatment of respiratory infections

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Sharon S.Y.; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Gao, Fiona G.; Carrigy, Nicholas B.; Vehring, Reinhard; Finlay, Warren H.; Morales, Sandra; Britton, Warwick J; Kutter, Elizabeth; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The potential of aerosol phage therapy for treating lung infections has been demonstrated in animal models and clinical studies. This work compared the performance of two dry powder formation techniques, spray freeze drying (SFD) and spray drying (SD), in producing inhalable phage powders. Method A Pseudomonas podoviridae phage, PEV2, was incorporated into multi-component formulation systems consisting of trehalose, mannitol and L-leucine (F1 = 60:20:20 and F2 = 40:40:20). The phage titer loss after the SFD and SD processes and in vitro aerosol performance of the produced powders were assessed. Results A significant titer loss (~ 2 log) was noted for droplet generation using an ultrasonic nozzle employed in the SFD method, but the conventional two-fluid nozzle used in the SD method was less destructive for the phage (~0.75 log loss). The phage were more vulnerable during the evaporative drying process (~0.75 log further loss) compared with the freeze drying step, which caused negligible phage loss. In vitro aerosol performance showed that the SFD powders (~80% phage recovery) provided better phage protection than the SD powders (~20% phage recovery) during the aerosolization process. Despite this, higher total lung doses were obtained for the SD formulations (SD-F1 = 13.1 ± 1.7 × 104 pfu and SD-F2 = 11.0 ± 1.4 × 104 pfu) than from their counterpart SFD formulations (SFD-F1 = 8.3 ± 1.8 × 104 pfu and SFD-F2 = 2.1 ± 0.3 × 104 pfu). Conclusion Overall, the SD method caused less phage reduction during the powder formation process and the resulted powders achieved better aerosol performance for PEV2. PMID:26928668

  3. Drying techniques for the visualisation of agarose-based chromatography media by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nweke, Mauryn C; Turmaine, Mark; McCartney, R Graham; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2017-03-01

    The drying of chromatography resins prior to scanning electron microscopy is critical to image resolution and hence understanding of the bead structure at sub-micron level. Achieving suitable drying conditions is especially important with agarose-based chromatography resins, as over-drying may cause artefact formation, bead damage and alterations to ultrastructural properties; and under-drying does not provide sufficient resolution for visualization under SEM. This paper compares and contrasts the effects of two drying techniques, critical point drying and freeze drying, on the morphology of two agarose based resins (MabSelect™/dw ≈85 µm and Capto™ Adhere/dw ≈75 µm) and provides a complete method for both. The results show that critical point drying provides better drying and subsequently clearer ultrastructural visualization of both resins under SEM. Under this protocol both the polymer fibers (thickness ≈20 nm) and the pore sizes (diameter ≈100 nm) are clearly visible. Freeze drying is shown to cause bead damage to both resins, but to different extents. MabSelect resin encounters extensive bead fragmentation, whilst Capto Adhere resin undergoes partial bead disintegration, corresponding with the greater extent of agarose crosslinking and strength of this resin. While freeze drying appears to be the less favorable option for ultrastructural visualization of chromatography resin, it should be noted that the extent of fracturing caused by the freeze drying process may provide some insight into the mechanical properties of agarose-based chromatography media. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Comparison of oil recovered from tea tree leaf by ethanol extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Baker, G R; Lowe, R F; Southwell, I A

    2000-09-01

    Two methods for the determination of oil and oil major components from tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaf are quantitatively compared. A microwave assisted ethanol extraction and a 2-h hydrodistillation technique were used on both dry and fresh leaf from a low and a high oil concentration tree. There was no significant difference between dry and fresh leaf. The distillation technique recovered 88% and 82% of the extractable oil for the low and high concentration material, respectively. For both samples this distilled oil was composed of lower absolute amounts of sesquiterpenoids and marginally lower amounts of monoterpenoids. Extending the distillation to 6 h increased the sesquiterpenoid recovery but this resulted in a reduction in both the absolute and relative amounts of the oxygenated monoterpenoids, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole.

  5. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  6. Spray freeze drying as an alternative technique for lyophilization of polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Lamprecht, Alf

    2017-01-10

    The use of nanoparticles for drug delivery is still restricted by their limited stability when stored in an aqueous medium. Freeze drying is the standard method for long-term storage of colloidal nanoparticles; however the method needs to be elaborated for each formulation. Spray freeze drying (SFD) is proposed here as a promising alternative for lyophilizing colloidal nanoparticles. Different types of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. Afterwards, samples were spray freeze dried by spraying into a column of cold air with a constant concentration of different cryoprotectants, and the frozen spherules were collected for further freeze drying. Similar samples were prepared using the commonly used technique, freeze drying, as controls. Using SFD, fast-dissolving, spherical and porous nanocomposite microparticles with remarkably high flowability (CI≤10) were produced. On the contrary to similar samples prepared using the freeze drying technique, the investigated polymeric and lipid nanoparticles were completely reconstituted (Sf/Si ratio <1.5) after SFD. SFD proved to be an effective platform for improving the long-term stability of colloidal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of three-dimensional printing and vacuum freeze-dried techniques for fabricating composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Li, Ruixin; Jiang, Wenxue; Sun, Yufu; Li, Hui

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young's modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher than those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Drying techniques of probiotic bacteria as an important step towards the development of novel pharmabiotics.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Géraldine; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Claes, Ingmar J J; Lebeer, Sarah; Kiekens, Filip

    2016-05-30

    The increasing knowledge about the human microbiome leads to the awareness of how important probiotics can be for our health. Although further substantiation is required, it appears that several pathologies could be treated or prevented by the administration of pharmaceutical formulations containing such live health-beneficial bacteria. These pharmabiotics need to provide their effects until the end of shelf life, which can be optimally achieved by drying them before further formulation. However, drying processes, including spray-, freeze-, vacuum- and fluidized bed drying, induce stress on probiotics, thus decreasing their viability. Several protection strategies can be envisaged to enhance their viability, including addition of protective agents, controlling the process parameters and prestressing the probiotics prior to drying. Moreover, probiotic viability needs to be maintained during long-term storage. Overall, lower storage temperature and low moisture content result in good survival rates. Attention should also be given to the rehydration conditions of the dried probiotics, as this can exert an important effect on their revival. By describing not only the characteristics, but also the viability results obtained by the most relevant drying techniques in the probiotic industry, we hope to facilitate the deliberate choice of drying process and protection strategy for specific probiotic and pharmabiotic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  10. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  11. Gelatin microparticles containing propolis obtained by spray-drying technique: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, M L; Cardoso, M L C; Lucchesi, M B; Gremião, M P D

    2003-10-02

    Gelatin microparticles containing propolis extractive solution (PES) were prepared by spray-drying technique. The optimization of the spray-drying operating conditions and the proportions of gelatin and mannitol were investigated. Regular particle morphology was obtained when mannitol was used, whereas mannitol absence produced a substantial number of coalesced and agglomerated microparticles. Microparticles had a mean diameter of 2.70 microm without mannitol and 2.50 microm with mannitol. The entrapment efficiency for propolis of the microparticles was upto 41% without mannitol and 39% with mannitol. The microencapsulation by spray-drying technique maintained the activity of propolis against Staphylococcus aureus. These gelatin microparticles containing propolis would be useful for developing intermediary or eventual propolis dosage form without the PES' strong and unpleasant taste, aromatic odour, and presence of ethanol.

  12. Measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of spent nuclear fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, D. L.; Hong, J.-S.; Kim, H.-D.; Persiani, P. J.; Wolf, S. F.

    1999-07-21

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detection, {alpha}-spectrometry ({alpha}-S), and {gamma}-spectrometry ({gamma}-S) were used for the determination of nuclide content in five samples excised from a high-burnup fuel rod taken from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The samples were prepared for analysis by dissolution of dry-powdered samples. The measurement techniques required no separation of the plutonium, uranium, and fission products. The sample preparation and analysis techniques showed promise for in-line analysis of highly-irradiated spent fuels in a dry-powdered process. The analytical results allowed the determination of fuel burnup based on {sup 148}Nd, Pu, and U content. A goal of this effort is to develop the HPLC-ICPMS method for direct fissile material accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent nuclear fuel.

  13. Application of dry-polishing techniques to water-soluble glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, J.T.; McAllaster, M.E.

    1981-04-01

    A dry polishing technique is presented for the preparation of glass ceramics for microstructural characterization. The technique is shown to be applicable to water soluble phosphate based glass ceramics and also to a non-water soluble zinc silicate glass ceramic. Microstructural characterization is performed primarily with composition backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscopy. Some relief is observed on the polished surface utilizing topographical backscattered electron imaging.

  14. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  15. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  16. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  17. Influence of feeding various quantities of wet and dry distillers grains to finishing steers on carcass characteristics, meat quality, retail-case life of ground beef, and fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Koger, T J; Wulf, D M; Weaver, A D; Wright, C L; Tjardes, K E; Mateo, K S; Engle, T E; Maddock, R J; Smart, A J

    2010-10-01

    Two hundred forty Angus crossbred steers were used to determine the influence of feeding various quantities of wet and dry distillers grains to finishing steers on carcass characteristics, meat quality, retail-case life of ground beef, and fatty acid profile of LM. Three replications of 5 dietary treatments were randomly applied to 15 pens in each of 2 yr. A finishing diet containing dry-rolled corn, soybean meal, and alfalfa hay was fed as the control diet. Wet distillers grains with solubles (DGS) or dry DGS was added to the finishing diets at either 20.0 or 40.0% of the dietary DM to replace all soybean meal and part of the cracked corn in treatment diets. Carcasses of steers fed DGS had greater (P < 0.05) fat thickness (1.47 vs. 1.28 cm), greater (P < 0.05) USDA yield grades (3.23 vs. 2.94), and smaller (P < 0.05) percentage of yield grades 1 and 2 (41.1 vs. 60.4%) than carcasses of steers fed the control diet. Longissimus muscle from steers fed dry DGS had greater (P < 0.05) ultimate pH values (5.52 vs. 5.49) than LM from steers fed wet DGS. Ground beef from steers fed DGS had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of α-tocopherol (1.77 vs. 1.43 μg/g) than ground beef from steers fed the control diet. Ground beef from steers fed 40% DGS had greater (P < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (2.84 vs. 2.13 mg/kg) on d 2 of retail display than ground beef from steers fed 20% DGS. Longissimus muscle of steers fed DGS had less (P < 0.05) C17:0 and more (P < 0.05) C18:0, C18:1t, C16:1c9, C18:2c9c12 (where t is trans and c is cis), and total PUFA than LM of steers fed the control diet. Feedlot steers fed DGS may need to be marketed earlier than normal to avoid excess external fat and carcasses with a greater numerical yield grade. These data suggest feeding DGS to finishing steers will have no adverse or beneficial effects on glycolytic variables (dark cutters), retail display life of ground beef, or meat tenderness. However, beef from cattle finished on diets

  18. Growth Performance and Resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge. Five diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and ...

  19. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  20. Effects of adding saturated fat to diets with sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 112 barrows (avg BW of 72 kg) was used in a 65-day growth assay to determine the effects of adding a source of saturated fat (beef tallow) into diets with sorghum-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The pigs were sorted by ancestry and blocked by BW with seven pigs/pen an...

  1. A simplified clinical technique for a routine indirect restoration impression on a challenging patient using a dry field illuminator.

    PubMed

    Santucci, N M; Santucci, E T; Geissberger, M

    2014-01-01

    Detailed and accurate impressions are made when the oral environment is dry during the impression process. Maintaining a dry field on medically, physically, or emotionally compromised patients can be very challenging. If not achieved, it may compromise dental care and accurate outcomes. This article describes a technique that can be used to make a final impression for an indirect restoration in a protected, isolated, and dry environment, using a dry field illuminator.

  2. Comparison of three-dimensional printing and vacuum freeze-dried techniques for fabricating composite scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Kai; Li, Ruixin; Jiang, Wenxue; Sun, Yufu; Li, Hui

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young’s modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher than those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/collagen was fabricated using 3D printing. • Physical characterization and Cell compatibility were compared. • 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance.

  3. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  4. Study of Photosensitive Dry Films Absorption for Printed Circuit Boards by Photoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, R.; Zaragoza, J. A. Barrientos; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Orea, A. Cruz; Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the study of photosensitive dry-type films by photoacoustic technique is proposed. The dry film photoresist is resistant to chemical etching for printed circuit boards such as ferric chloride, sodium persulfate or ammonium, hydrochloric acid. It is capable of faithfully reproducing circuit pattern exposed to ultraviolet light (UV) through a negative. Once recorded, the uncured portion is removed with alkaline solution. It is possible to obtain good results in surface mount circuits with tracks of 5 mm. Furthermore, the solid resin films are formed by three layers, two protective layers and a UV-sensitive optical absorption layer in the range of 325 nm to 405 nm. By means of optical absorption of UV-visible rays emitted by a low-power Xe lamp, the films transform this energy into thermal waves generated by the absorption of optical radiation and subsequently no-radiative de-excitation occurs. The photoacoustic spectroscopy is a useful technique to measure the transmittance and absorption directly. In this study, the optical absorption spectra of the three layers of photosensitive dry-type films were obtained as a function of the wavelength, in order to have a knowledge of the absorber layer and the protective layers. These analyses will give us the physical properties of the photosensitive film, which are very important in curing the dry film for applications in printed circuit boards.

  5. Negative Emissions: Distilling the Hope From the Hype - An Overview of Preposed Techniques to Remove Greenhouse Gases from the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Paris Agreement seeks to restrain the rise in global mean temperature to between 1.5ºC and 2ºC above the pre-Industrial level. Achieving that objective will require not only an acceleration in the amount of mitigation undertaken, but also the large-scale deployment of negative emissions - proposed techniques to remove carbon dioxide and potentially other greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. But are such approaches feasible? This talk will provide an introduction and overview of the negative emissions landscape, assessing the potential and limitations associated with a wide range of proposed techniques. It will also touch upon the barriers to deploying negative emissions at a material scale and the task of devising a pathway to navigate past those barriers.

  6. Reduced pressure ice fog technique for controlled ice nucleation during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Bhugra, Chandan; Pikal, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    A method to achieve controlled ice nucleation during the freeze-drying process using an ice fog technique was demonstrated in an earlier report. However, the time required for nucleation was about 5 min, even though only one shelf was used, which resulted in Ostwald ripening (annealing) in some of the vials that nucleated earlier than the others. As a result, the ice structure was not optimally uniform in all the vials. The objective of the present study is to introduce a simple variation of the ice fog method whereby a reduced pressure in the chamber is utilized to allow more rapid and uniform freezing which is also potentially easier to scale up. Experiments were conducted on a lab scale freeze dryer with sucrose as model compound at different concentration, product load, and fill volume. Product resistance during primary drying was measured using manometric temperature measurement. Specific surface area of the freeze-dried cake was also determined. No difference was observed either in average product resistance or specific surface area for the different experimental conditions studied, indicating that with use of the reduced pressure ice fog technique, the solutions nucleated at very nearly the same temperature (-10 degrees C). The striking feature of the "Reduced Pressure Ice Fog Technique" is the rapid ice nucleation (less than a minute) under conditions where the earlier procedure required about 5 min; hence, effects of variable Ostwald ripening were not an issue.

  7. Utilization of spray drying technique for improvement of dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of Meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.

  8. Evaluation of different drying techniques on the nutritional and biofunctional properties of a traditional fermented sheep milk product.

    PubMed

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Al-Ismail, Khaild; Althnaibat, Rami M; Kubow, Stan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of solar and freeze drying techniques on the physicochemical, nutritional and biofunctional properties of salted or unsalted Jameed from fermented sheep milk product. The highest yield of Jameed was obtained via the salted-solar drying process. As measured by colorimetry, salted freeze-dried Jameed showed improved consumer characteristics in terms of increased lightness and decreased red and yellow color components. When unsalted Jameed was prepared by solar or freeze drying, additional major peptide bands were detected by SDS-PAGE treatments as compared to the solar or freeze drying of the salted Jameed. Use of salt in the preparation of solar dried Jameed also led to the highest ACE inhibitory activities whereas antioxidant activity was lowest in unsalted solar dried Jameed. The study findings indicate that both greater yield and better overall nutritional and biofunctional properties were associated with solar dried salted Jameed.

  9. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  10. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  11. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  12. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin. PMID:24729702

  14. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.

  15. The effect of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles, ractopamine, and conjugated linoleic acid on the carcass performance, meat quality, and shelf-life characteristics of fresh pork following three different storage methods.

    PubMed

    Rickard, J W; Wiegand, B R; Pompeu, D; Hinson, R B; Gerlemann, G D; Disselhorst, R; Briscoe, M E; Evans, H L; Allee, G L

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance, carcass and fat quality, and shelf-life of fresh pork from finishing pigs. Barrows (n=72) were fed one of eight treatments consisting of two diet sources (corn-soy and corn-soy+20% DDGS), two levels of RAC (0 and 7.4ppm), and two levels of CLA (0 and 0.6%) for 28days. Loins were portioned (n=3) into one of three storage conditions (fresh, cold, frozen); each followed with seven days of retail display. Feeding RAC improved ADG and G:F (P<0.05), whereas DDGS decreased belly fat firmness (P<0.05). Dietary DDGS increased total polyunsaturated fatty acids in jowl and belly samples and increased Iodine Value (IV) (P<0.05), but addition of CLA decreased IV. Dietary DDGS, RAC, or CLA had minimal impact on pork quality following varied storage methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Johannes; Zimmer, Ulrike; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2007-12-26

    The suitability of the homoarginine reaction for determining the reactive lysine in soy products and corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was tested. For this purpose, some batches were subjected to deliberate heat damage for up to 30 min in an autoclave with 135 degrees C hot steam, and the samples were analyzed for total lysine and reactive lysine. In addition, 84 samples of common soy and 80 samples of corn DDGS were tested for their content of total and reactive lysine, and the contents were compared with those of the autoclave tests. For soy products conclusive results were obtained. In the case of heat treatment, both total lysine and reactive lysine decrease, but the latter is clearly a more sensitive indicator of lysine damage. Most normal products are quite similar, with toasting-induced damage to reactive lysine of ca. 15% compared to untoasted beans. The cause of the constantly occurring residual lysine after guanidination and the poorer reaction balance in the case of damage were explained. For common DDGS samples, however, less favorable results were obtained. Reactive and total lysine decreased almost in parallel due to heat damage, showing a great gap between them. Results showed indeed that variation of total and reactive lysine in DDGS is high, proving that its production conditions are not yet optimal for a feed ingredient.

  17. Studies on gas transport through dry cellulose acetate membranes prepared by solvent exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.; Talbot, F.D.F.; Sourirajan, S.; Fouda, A.; Matsuura, T.

    1988-10-01

    The mechanism of gas transport through pores on the surface of dry cellulose acetate membranes under pressure was identified for membranes prepared by the solvent exchange technique using pure gas permeation rate data. The pure gases were helium, methane and carbon dioxide. The variables involved in the membrane preparation variables involved in the membrane preparation are the shrinkage temperature, the first solvent, the second solvent and the combinations thereof. Different conditions of membrane preparation produce different pore sizes. Depending on this pore size, one of the following mechanisms becomes dominant: Knudsen, surface and size exclusion.

  18. An Improved Technique for dry Soil Moisture Release Curves to Determine Soil Mineralogical and Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, G. S.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Soil moisture release curves (MRC) or moisture sorption isotherms, which relate the amount of water in soil to its water potential or water activity, have many applications in soil physics and geotechnical engineering including determining soil water flow, specific surface area, swelling potential, and clay mineralogy and activity. Although research showing MRC for various soils dates back more than 50 years, limitations with the measurement technique have made developing MRC time consuming and inaccurate, especially in dry soils. Recently, an instrument was developed to create moisture sorption isotherms for various food and pharmaceutical products. The objective of this research was to investigate its use in soils for obtaining MRC in dry soils simply and accurately. Several different soil types were tested in the instrument from pure sand to bentonite and smectite clays. From the MRC of these soils, we were able to develop good correlations between actual and derived clay activity, surface area, and swelling potential. In addition, we were able to see hysteresis in dry soil water uptake for all soils, including sand. According to our tests, this new instrument will provide a powerful tool to investigate several soil physical properties simply and accurately.

  19. Comparison of particle sizing techniques in the case of inhalation dry powders.

    PubMed

    Bosquillon, C; Lombry, C; Preat, V; Vanbever, R

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) to validate electrical zone sensing and laser diffraction for the analysis of primary particle size in the case of inhalation dry powders and (ii) to study the influence of the aggregation state of the powder on the sizing techniques. Free-flowing dry powders were prepared by spray-drying with a combination of albumin, lactose, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. The replacement of lactose by mannitol, the removal of albumin, and the atomization at high relative humidity all increased powder cohesion. Automated measurements were compared with primary particle sizes collected by light and electron microscopy. The mass mode obtained by electrical zone sensing and the mass median diameter measured by laser diffraction following dispersion with compressed air at a pressure of 3 bar or following suspension in water and ultrasonic dispersion at a power of 60 W for 30 s each provided primary particle sizes close to microscopy measurements. However, these conditions only applied in the case of slightly to moderately aggregated powders. For strongly agglomerated powders, an exact measurement of the size was only collected by laser diffraction in the wet state combined with ultrasonic dispersion. Our study underlies how measurement of primary particle size highly depends on both powder material and proper particle dispersion.

  20. Hydrophobicity control by a supercritical drying technique in a sol–gel process with hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Hongbo; Qiao, Zemin; Liu, Xiao; Cui, Xudong

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Sol–gel route is combined with polymerization without using modifier. • Supercritical drying control is the key to obtain super-hydrophobic surfaces. • The whole fabrication is technologically controllable and with low costs. • The production rate is higher than 90%. • The method provides a cost-effective way for industry applications. - Abstract: We successfully synthesized one type of cheap super-hydrophobic hybrid porous materials in a sol–gel process. In this route, hydrophilic polymers and TEOS-base sol are used as precursors, the ultraviolet ray-initiated polymerization and supercritical fluid drying techniques are combined together to fulfill this task. All fabricated samples exhibit lotus-leaf-like surface structures with super-hydrophobicity. The underlying mechanisms are carefully investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that a well-controlled drying process is crucial to the formation of such super-hydrophobic surfaces. As high as 90% production rate is obtained in our route and thus, it might provide a cost-effective way to produce super-hydrophobic hybrid materials for industry applications.

  1. Incorporation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes into High Temperature Resin Using Dry Mixing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Connell, John W.

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop multifunctional advanced composites, blends of PETI330 and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared and characterized. Dry mixing techniques were employed and the maximum loading level of the MWNT chosen was based primarily on its effect on melt viscosity. The PETI330/ MWNT mixtures were prepared at concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 wt %. The resulting powders were characterized for homogeneity, thermal and rheological properties and extrudability as continuous fibers. Based on the characterization results, samples containing 10, 15 and 20 wt % MWNTs were chosen for more comprehensive evaluation. Samples were also prepared using in situ polymerization and solution mixing techniques and their properties were compared with the ball-mill prepared samples. The preparation and characterization of PETI330/ MWNT nanocomposites are discussed herein.

  2. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  3. Comparison of preparation techniques of mixed samples (fungi-helminth eggs) for scanning electron microscopy by critical point drying.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, P L; Ciarmela, María L; Sánchez Thevenet, P; Minvielle, M C; Basualdo, J A

    2006-09-01

    We compared three preparation techniques for critical point drying of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson with Toxocara canis (Werner) Johnston and Taenia hydatigena Linneo eggs by scanning electron microscopy. We evaluated filtration (first), centrifugation (second), and phytoplankton network (third) in critical point drying methods. The first and third methods were advantageous for T. canis eggs because they preserved the quantity and quality of samples to obtain better images definition. The best technique for T. hydatigena eggs was the addition of phytoplankton network in critical point drying which preserved these helminth eggs.

  4. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  5. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  6. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  7. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  8. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows.

    PubMed

    Chibisa, G E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of including either wheat-based (W-DDGS) or corn-wheat blend (B-DDGS) dried distillers grains with solubles as the major protein source in low- or high-crude protein (CP) diets fed to dairy cows on ruminal function, microbial protein synthesis, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and milk production. Eight lactating Holstein cows (768.5 ± 57.7 kg of body weight; 109.5 ± 40.0 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18d of dietary adaptation and 10d of measurements) and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in one Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, urea-N recycling kinetics, and omasal nutrient flow. The treatment factors were type of distillers co-product (W-DDGS vs. B-DDGS) and dietary CP content [15.2 vs. 17.3%; dry matter (DM) basis]. The B-DDGS was produced from a mixture of 15% wheat and 85% corn grain. All diets were formulated to contain 10% W-DDGS or B-DDGS on a DM basis. No diet effect was observed on DM intake. Yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose, and plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations were lower in cows fed the low-CP compared with those fed the high-CP diet. Although feeding B-DDGS tended to reduce ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration compared with feeding W-DDGS (9.3 vs. 10.5mg/dL), no differences were observed in plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations. Additionally, dietary inclusion of B-DDGS compared with W-DDGS did not affect rumen-degradable protein supply, omasal flows of total N, microbial nonammonia N (NAN), rumen-undegradable protein, and total NAN, or urea-N recycling kinetics and milk production. However, cows fed the low-CP diet had lower N intake, rumen-degradable protein supply, ruminal NH3-N concentration, and omasal flows of N, microbial NAN, and total NAN compared with those fed the high-CP diet

  9. TNT RDX and HMX Explosives in Soils and Sediments. Analysis Techniques and Drying Losses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    sample collection and pretreatment . Since soil and sediment samples soil, sediment and sludge samples. contain varying amounts of water, a common pre...sediment for the Louisiana lagoon sludge , microwave oven and soil samples were near 1000%6 for TNT but on- drying and infrared lamp drying were not used... microwave oven drying, and drying under b infrared lamps, all resulted in greater losses" with TNT and RDX recoveries ranging from 76 to 90%. Drying

  10. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P < 0.01), hunter a* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), and b* values (linear, P < 0.05) with a decrease in hunter L* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks also were increased (linear, P < 0.01) by increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS. In conclusion, feeding diets containing 20% DDGS to laying hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Investigation of the Impact of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber through the Feeding of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) on the Incidence and Severity of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wilberts, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Kinyon, Joann M.; Frana, Tim S.; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R.; Madson, Darin M.; Patience, John F.; Burrough, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or “B. hampsonii”) and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the “B. hampsonii” groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery. PMID:25485776

  12. The effects of coarse ground corn, whole sorghum, and a prebiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microbial populations in broilers fed diets with and without corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, China; Parsons, Carl M

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 21 d of age and evaluated diets containing combinations of fine or coarse ground corn (557 or 1,387 μm, respectively), whole sorghum, 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a prebiotic-type product containing yeast cell wall, lactose, citric acid, and other fermentable carbohydrates. In experiment 1, feed efficiency was decreased (P < 0.001) after the first week of age for broilers fed diets containing whole sorghum, whereas broilers receiving diets with 15% DDGS had increased feed efficiency (P < 0.03) compared with those receiving no DDGS. In the second experiment, BW gain was increased (P < 0.03) after the first week of age for broilers fed diets containing the prebiotic and DDGS compared with their respective controls. In experiment 1, the diet containing sorghum yielded the highest AMEn value (P < 0.03). In experiment 2, diets containing the combination of the prebiotic + DDGS yielded higher AMEn values (P < 0.004) at 7 and 21 d compared with diets containing no combination. The effects of diet on amino acid digestibility were generally small and inconsistent in both experiments. In experiment 1, broilers fed the coarse corn or whole sorghum diets had increased (P < 0.0001) relative gizzard weights compared with broilers fed the fine corn diet. Also, diets containing DDGS yielded increased relative gizzard weights (P < 0.05) compared with diets containing no DDGS. In experiment 2, there was a decrease (P < 0.03) in cecal Escherichia coli when the combination of the coarse ground corn, prebiotic, and DDGS was fed in comparison with broilers receiving no prebiotic or DDGS. These results indicate that diets containing coarsely ground corn or whole sorghum in combination with DDGS can be fed to broilers with no long-term adverse effects on growth performance and nutrient digestibility and that these ingredients can have beneficial effects on AMEn, gizzard size, and cecal microflora in some instances.

  13. Development of raloxifene-solid dispersion with improved oral bioavailability via spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan Hiep; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Marasini, Nirmal; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a raloxifene-loaded solid dispersion with enhanced dissolution rate and bioavailability via spray-drying technique. Solid dispersions of raloxifene (RXF) were prepared with PVP K30 at weight ratios of 1:4, 1:6 and 1:8 using a spray-drying method, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubility and dissolution tests. The bioavailability of the solid dispersion in rats was also evaluated compared to those of RXF powder and commercial product. Results showed that the RXF-loaded solid dispersion was in amorphous form with increased solubility and dissolution rate. The absorption of RXF from solid dispersion resulted in approximately 2.6-fold enhanced bioavailability compared to pure drug. Moreover, RXF-loaded solid dispersion gave similar AUC, C(max) and T(max) values to the commercial product, suggesting that it was bioequivalent to the commercial product in rats. These findings suggest that an amorphous solid dispersion of RXF could be a viable option for enhancing the oral bioavailability of RXF.

  14. EVALUATION OF ALGINATE MICROSPHERES WITH METRONIDAZOLE OBTAINED BY THE SPRAY DRYING TECHNIQUE.

    PubMed

    Szekalska, Marta; Winnicka, Katarzyna; Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Amelian, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, nine formulations (F1-F9) of alginate microspheres with metronidazole were prepared by the spray drying technique with using different drug:polymer ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) and different sodium alginate concentration (1, 2, 3%). The obtained microspheres were characterized for size, morphology, drug loading, (potential and swelling degree. Mucoadhesive properties were examined using texture analyzer and three different models of adhesive layers--gelatin discs, mucin gel and porcine vaginal mucosa. In vitro drug release, mathematical release profile and physical state of microspheres were also evaluated. The obtained results indicate that sodium alginate is a suitable polymer for developing mucoadhesive dosage forms of metronidazole. The optimal formulation F3 (drug:polymer ratio 1:2 and 1% alginate solution) was characterized by the highest metronidazole loading and sustained drug release. The results of this study indicate promising potential of ALG microspheres as alternative dosage forms for metronidazole delivery.

  15. SEM studies on BSCCO superconducting ceramic produced by spray frozen, freeze drying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunescu, M.-C.; Aldica, G.; Badica, P.; Vasiliu, F.; Nita, P.; Mandache, S.

    1997-02-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) have been used to evidence the occurrence, morphology and microcomposition of the superconducting phases (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10 + δ (2223) and (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8 + δ (2212), and of other non-superconducting phases, in the sintered pellets obtained from nitrate solution by spray frozen, freeze drying technique. For decomposition of the nitrate powder four different heat treatments were used. Superconducting and structure properties of the pellets have been tested by AC susceptibility measurments (610 Hz, 0.5 Oe) and X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. A correlation between the SEM and EDS observations and the superconducting properties has been established.

  16. Depositing nanoparticles on a silicon substrate using a freeze drying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigehuzi, Tomoo

    2017-08-01

    For the microscopic observation of nanoparticles, an adequate sample preparation is an essential part of this task. Much research has been performed for usable preparation methods that will yield aggregate-free samples. A freeze drying technique, which only requires a -80 °C freezer and a freeze dryer, is shown to provide an on-substrate dispersion of mostly isolated nanoparticles. The particle density could be made sufficiently high for efficient observations using atomic force microscopy. Since this sandwich method is purely physical, it could be applied to deposit various nanoparticles independent of their surface chemical properties. Suspension film thickness, or the dimensionality of the suspension film, was shown to be crucial for the isolation of the particles. Silica nanoparticles were dispersed on a silicon substrate using this method and the sample properties were examined using atomic force microscopy.

  17. Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

    2014-08-01

    Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar

  18. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  19. Synthesis of nanostructured magnetic photocatalyst by colloidal approach and spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Costa, A L; Ballarin, B; Spegni, A; Casoli, F; Gardini, D

    2012-12-15

    Nanostructured particles with a magnetic core and a photocatalytic shell are very interesting systems for their properties to be magnetically separable (and so reusable) in photocatalytic water depuration implant. Here, a robust, low time-consuming, easily scale up method to produce Fe(3)O(4)/SiO(2)/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures starting from commercial precursors (i.e. Fe(3)O(4), SiO(2)) by employing a colloidal approach (i.e. heterocoagulation) coupled with the spray-drying technique is presented. In particular, a self-assembled layer-by-layer methodology based on the coagulation of dissimilar colloidal particles was applied. First, a passive layer of silica (SiO(2), amorphous) was created on magnetite in order to avoid detrimental phenomena arising from the direct contact between magnetite and titania, then the deposition of titania onto silica-coated-magnetite was promoted. TiO(2), SiO(2) and Fe(3)O(4) nanosols were characterized in terms of zeta potential, optimized and a self-assembled layer-by-layer approach was followed in order to promote the heterocoagulation of silica onto magnetite surface and of titania onto silica coated magnetite. Once optimized the colloidal route, the mixture was then spray-dried to obtain a granulated powder with nano-scale reactivity, easier to handle and re-disperse in comparison to starting nanopowders with the same surface properties. The nanostructured particles have been characterized by different techniques such as SEM, TEM, XDR and their magnetic properties have been investigated. Moreover, preliminary photocatalytic texts have been performed.

  20. Dried urine spots - A novel sampling technique for comprehensive LC-MS(n) drug screening.

    PubMed

    Michely, Julian A; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2017-08-22

    Dried matrix spot (DMS) technique as alternative sampling strategy, especially dried urine spots (DUS), might be an alternative for drug screening. So far only particular drugs or drug classes were covered in DMS screenings. Therefore, workup of DUS for a broad comprehensive library-based LC-MS(n) screening was developed. It consisted of enzymatic on-spot deconjugation followed by liquid extraction and LC-MS(n) analysis. This workup was compared to established urine precipitation (UP) and validated according to international guidelines for qualitative approaches, using exemplary compounds of several drug classes (antidepressants, benzodiazepines, cardiovascular drugs, neuroleptics, opioids, stimulants, etc.) with a broad range of (physico-)chemical properties and chromatographic behaviors. On-spot conjugate cleavage and liquid extraction was sufficient for most compounds and the validation results comparable to those obtained after simple UP. For demonstrating the applicability, 103 authentic urine samples, six rat urine samples after low dose substance administrations, and two proficiency tests for systematic toxicological urinalysis were worked up with the new DUS approach or by UP without or with conjugate cleavage. In the authentic urine samples, 112 different drugs out of 43 categories plus metabolites were identified via the used LC-MS(n) library. With the new DUS approach, 5% less positive hits could be found compared to the UP approach and 15% less than the latter after conjugate cleavage. The differences should be caused mainly by smaller urine volumes used for DUS. In the two proficiency tests, all 15 drugs could be detected. Unfortunately, all three approaches were not able to detect very low-dosed substances in rat urine samples. However, they could be detected using a more sensitive LC-high resolution-MS/MS approach showing that the DUS workup was also suitable for those. In conclusion, DUS might be an alternative sampling technique for comprehensive

  1. Low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique for delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Borsaru, M

    2007-06-01

    A low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique is proposed in this paper as a sensitive tool for the delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes. The advantages and superiority of this technique over traditional micro-density non-spectrometric gamma-ray tools are demonstrated.

  2. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  3. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  4. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  5. Dry etching techniques for active devices based on hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Grenadier, Samuel; Li, Jing; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing

    2013-11-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has emerged as a fundamentally and technologically important material system owing to its unique physical properties including layered structure, wide energy bandgap, large optical absorption, and neutron capture cross section. As for any materials under development, it is necessary to establish device processing techniques to realize active devices based on hBN. The authors report on the advancements in dry etching techniques for active devices based on hBN epilayers via inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The effect of ICP radio frequency (RF) power on the etch rate and vertical side wall profile was studied. The etching depth and angle with respect to the surface were measured using atomic force microscopy showing that an etching rate ∼1.25 μm/min and etching angles >80° were obtained. Profilometer data and scanning electron microscope images confirmed these results. This work demonstrates that SF{sub 6} is very suitable for etching hBN epilayers in RF plasma environments and can serve as a guide for future hBN device processing.

  6. Production of submicrometre fused silica gratings using laser-induced backside dry etching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Vass, Cs; Smausz, T.; Bor, Zs

    2006-11-01

    Laser micromachining of transparent materials is a promising technique for producing micro-optical elements. Several types of both direct (e.g. ablation) and indirect (e.g. laser-induced backside wet etching: LIBWE) procedures have already been developed and presented in the last two decades. Here we present a new method (laser-induced backside dry etching (LIBDE)) in the analogy of LIBWE for the micro and nanoprocessing of transparent materials. In our experiments 1 mm thick fused silica plates were used as transparent work pieces. The plates were covered with 100 nm thick silver layers. The metal absorbing films were irradiated through the fused silica by a KrF excimer laser beam (λ = 248 nm, FWHM = 30 ns). The illuminated area was 1.05 mm2 and the fluence on the silver-quartz interface varied in the range 0-1800 mJ cm-2. We have provided evidence that LIBDE is more effective and simple than LIBWE, its etch rate being much higher at a given laser fluence. Our interference experiments proved that the LIBDE etching technique is suitable to fabricate gratings displaying submicrometre periods in transparent materials. On the basis of all these, it is suggested that this method may be useful to produce other nano and microoptical elements, too.

  7. Ultrasonic atomization for spray drying: a versatile technique for the preparation of protein loaded biodegradable microspheres.

    PubMed

    Bittner, B; Kissel, T

    1999-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BDA) loaded microspheres with a spherical shape and smooth surface structure were successfully prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) using an ultrasonic nozzle installed in a Niro laboratory spray dryer. Process and formulation parameters were investigated with respect to their influence on microsphere characteristics, such as particle size, loading capacity, and release properties. Preparation of microspheres in yields of more than 50% was achieved using an ultrasonic atomizer connected to a stream of carrier air. Microsphere characteristics could be modified by changing several technological parameters. An increased polymer concentration of the feed generated larger particles with a significantly reduced initial release of the protein. Moreover, microspheres with a smooth surface structure were obtained from the organic polymer solution with the highest viscosity. Microparticles with a low BSA loading showed a large central cavity surrounded by a thin polymer layer in scanning electron microspheres. A high protein loading led to an enlargement of the shell layer, or even to dense particles without any cavities. A continuous in vitro release pattern of BSA was obtained from the particles with low protein loading. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the microspheres before and after lyophilization did not differ from those of the BSA loaded particles prepared by spray drying with a rotary atomizer. Analysis of the polymer by gel permeation chromatography indicated that ultrasonication had no effect on polymer molecular weight. Molecular weight and polydispersity of the pure polymer, placebo microspheres prepared by spray drying, and placebo microspheres prepared using the ultrasonic nozzle were in the same range. In conclusion, ultrasonic atomization represents a versatile and reliable technique for the production of protein loaded biodegradable microspheres without inducing a degradation of the polymer matrix. Particle characteristics

  8. Short communication: Substituting dry distillers grains with solubles and rumen-protected amino acids for soybean meal in late-lactation cows' diets based on corn silage or ryegrass silage.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Zeringue, L K; Leonardi, C; Jenny, B F; Williams, C C; McCormick, M E; Moreira, V R

    2015-11-01

    Excess protein in dairy cattle diets increases production costs and contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplemented with rumen-protected Lys and Met in place of solvent-extracted soybean meal on the performance of late-lactation cows. Two experiments were carried out, with each using 24 late-lactating dairy cows distributed among 4 pens. In trial 1, corn silage was the main forage source. Control (HP1) total mixed ration (TMR) contained 16.3% crude protein (CP) with soybean meal as the main protein source. Treatment TMR (LP1) had 13.7% CP when soybean meal was replaced with DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Forage in trial 2 was ryegrass silage; control TMR (HP2; 15.4% CP) contained soybean meal and rumen-protected Met, whereas treatment TMR (LP2; 13.8% CP) contained DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Trials were analyzed as crossover design using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC) with cow as sampling unit and pen as the experimental unit. Treatments were similar in dry matter intake (21.0 and 20.4 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) and milk yield (20.7 and 20.5 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) during trial 1. Milk composition was similar between treatments, averaging 4.22, 3.73, 4.54, and 9.15, respectively, for fat, protein, lactose, and solids nonfat. Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 17.2 mg/dL for HP1 to 9.93 mg/dL for LP1. In trial 2, no significant differences were observed for dry matter intake (21.4 and 20.9 kg/cow per day for HP2 and LP2, respectively), milk yield (28.1 and 26.6 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), fat yield (0.99 vs. 0.92 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), protein yield (0.94 vs. 0.86 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively) and lactose yield (1.37 vs. 1.28 for HP2 and LP2, respectively). Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 9.88 mg/dL with HP2 to 6.39 mg/dL with the LP2

  9. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  10. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  11. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  12. Concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacer and dry powder inhalers by asthmatic children adversely affect proper inhalation technique

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Saad; Hassan, Walid M; Alhashimi, Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease of children. A good control of symptoms will improve quality of patient life. Inhalation technique is an important aspect in the management of asthma. The better the inhalation technique the better the lung deposition of asthma therapy especially inhaled corticosteroids. This will lead to better control of symptoms and improve adherence to treatment. In the following study the inhalation technique of asthma devices were compared using inhalation technique score system. The asthma devices studied were metered dose inhalers (pressurized MDI) without spacers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The hypothesis studied was that the inhalation technique score of dry powder inhalers will be adversely affected with concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacers. PMID:21760757

  13. Concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacer and dry powder inhalers by asthmatic children adversely affect proper inhalation technique.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Saad; Hassan, Walid M; Alhashimi, Hashim

    2011-06-14

    Asthma is a common chronic disease of children. A good control of symptoms will improve quality of patient life. Inhalation technique is an important aspect in the management of asthma. The better the inhalation technique the better the lung deposition of asthma therapy especially inhaled corticosteroids. This will lead to better control of symptoms and improve adherence to treatment. In the following study the inhalation technique of asthma devices were compared using inhalation technique score system. The asthma devices studied were metered dose inhalers (pressurized MDI) without spacers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The hypothesis studied was that the inhalation technique score of dry powder inhalers will be adversely affected with concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacers.

  14. Effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bingdong; Nie, Shaoping; Meng, Qingwei; Qu, Zhe; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring. The experiment was designed as a 2×2 factorial with two dietary treatments (soyabean meal v. DDGS) and two l-carnitine levels (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Sows (Landrace×Large White) with an average parity of 4·2 with similar body weight were randomly assigned to four groups of thirty each. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the total superoxide dismutase activity but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde of the jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets and weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets and decreased the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and l-carnitine on the bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in weaning piglets on day 21 were significantly increased by l-carnitine only in soyabean meal diet, but there was no significant effect of l-carnitine in DDGS-based diet. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the bacterial numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria spp. in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine in sows affected the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin 1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in the jejunal mucosa of their offspring by increasing the expression of ZO-1 mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets, and by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. In conclusion, dietary

  15. Use of corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles as a replacement for soybean meal and corn for supplementation in a corn silage-based stocker system.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L

    2013-02-01

    Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease

  16. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, gut morphology, and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of yeast-derived products and distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and innate immune response in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Nine replicates of 5 birds each were assigned to dietary treatments consisting of a control diet without antibiotic (C), and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus, 0.025% of nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On d 21, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and approximately 5-cm long duodenum, jejunum, and ileum segments were collected for intestinal morphology measurements. Cecal tonsils and spleen were collected to measure the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10, and IL-4. No significant difference was observed for growth performance parameters. However, diets containing 0.05% of nucleotides and YCW significantly increased (P < 0.05) villus height in the jejunum. Furthermore, the number of the goblet cells per unit area in the ileum was increased (P < 0.05) in diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. The expression of TLR2b in the spleen was down-regulated for diets supplemented with nucleotides and antibiotic. In addition, lower expression of TLR21 and MMR was observed in the spleen of birds receiving yeast-derived products and antibiotic. However, expression of TLR4 in the spleen was up-regulated in diets supplemented with YCW and nucleotides. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 was down-regulated in the spleen of birds fed diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. In addition, inclusion of YCW, Maxi-Gen Plus, or 0.05% of nucleotides down-regulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-4 in the cecal tonsils. In conclusion, down-regulation of receptors and cytokines in spleen and cecal tonsils of

  17. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  18. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P < 0.01) N flow to the small intestine. The undegradable intake protein (UIP) value of DDGS was 35%. Postruminal digestion of OM (linear effect, P = 0.04) and fatty acids (linear effect, P = 0.03) and total tract digestion of OM and GE decreased (linear effect, P < 0.03) with increasing level of DDGS substitution. Substitution with DDGS did not affect (P = 0.80) ruminal pH but increased (linear effect, P = 0.01) acetate:propionate molar ratio. In Exp.2, 144 Holsteins steer (112 ± 6 kg) were used in a 305-d trial to evaluate treatment effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. During the initial 126 d, DDGS substitution increased ADG (linear effect, P = 0.03), G:F (quadratic effect, P = 0.03), and dietary NE (quadratic effect, P = 0.02), maximal for both at 20% DDGS inclusion rate. Based on estimated indispensable AA supply to the small intestine as a percentage of requirements during the initial 126-d period, histidine was first limiting followed by methionine. During the final 179-d period and overall (305-d feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf

  19. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Cole, N A; Jenkins, K H; Meyer, B E; McCollum, F T; Preece, S L M; Auvermann, B W; Heflin, K R; MacDonald, J C

    2012-12-01

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial BW = 354 kg ± 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn (SFC)- and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 20% WDGS (0SFC, 20SFC, 0DRC, and 20DRC, respectively). Heifers averaged 154 d on feed and were marketed in 3 groups. There were no interactions between corn processing method and WDGS detected (P ≥ 0.29) for any performance or carcass response variables. Heifers fed diets containing WDGS tended to have greater final BW (P = 0.10) and increased G:F (P = 0.08) compared with heifers fed diets without WDGS. Heifers fed SFC-based diets consumed 7% less feed (P < 0.01) and were 9% more efficient (P < 0.01) than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Carcass characteristics were not affected by corn processing method or WDGS inclusion (P ≥ 0.16). Intakes of OM, N, P, and K were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for heifers fed DRC-based diets than those fed SFC-based diets, which resulted in greater net accumulation of the nutrients in the manure (P ≤ 0.04). Heifers fed diets containing WDGS had greater (P < 0.01) intakes of N, P, and K than heifers fed diets without WDGS. As a result, a greater net accumulation of P and K (P ≤ 0.03) and N (P = 0.10) were present in the manure from cattle fed diets containing WDGS compared with those fed diets without WDGS. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.16) between corn processing and WDGS on N volatilization losses. Nitrogen volatilization losses from manure (expressed as a percentage of intake and g·heifer(-1)·d(-1)) were greater (P < 0.01) for heifers fed SFC-based diets than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Feeding DRC-based finishing diets to heifers

  20. Supplementation of corn dried distillers' grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage: II. Impacts on uterine blood flow, circulating estradiol-17β and progesterone, and hepatic steroid metabolizing enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, V C; Mordhorst, B R; Gaspers, J J; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Lemley, C O; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS) during late gestation on uterine blood flow (BF), circulating steroid hormones and hepatic steroid metabolizing enzymes, and calf and placental weights. Multiparous beef cows were randomly divided into a control group (CON; = 15) consuming a diet containing 90% corn stover and 10% corn silage (DM basis) for ad libitum intake and a treatment group (SUP; = 12) consuming the same diet and DDGS (0.3% of BW). Corn silage inclusion was increased to 30% as gestation progressed to meet increasing caloric requirements. Ipsilateral and contralateral uterine BF and cross-sectional area (CSA) of each uterine artery were measured by Doppler ultrasonography on d 180, 216, and 246 of pregnancy. Contralateral BF and CSA increased ( < 0.01) as gestation advanced. Ipsilateral BF and CSA was affected by a treatment × day of gestation interaction ( < 0.05). A main effect of treatment ( = 0.02) and day ( < 0.01) was observed for total BF; BF increased over time and SUP cows had greater BF than CON cows. Circulating concentrations of both progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2) were affected by an interaction of treatment and day ( < 0.01). Concentrations of circulating E2 steadily increased throughout the study and were greater in CON cows than in SUP cows by d 242. Concentrations of P4 also increased over time; P4 of CON cows was greater than that of SUP cows by d 242. Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity increased with advancing gestation ( < 0.01). There was greater UGT activity ( < 0.05) and a trend for greater CYP1A activity ( = 0.06) in SUP cows than in CON cows. Activity of cytochrome P450 3A was greater ( < 0.01) in SUP cows and decreased ( < 0.05) with advancing gestation. Supplementing DDGS to cows fed low-quality forage during late gestation increased uterine BF but decreased circulating E2 and P4

  1. Evaluating percentage of roughage in lamb finishing diets containing 40% dried distillers grains: growth, serum urea nitrogen, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin growth factor-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J

    2010-09-01

    Effects of percentage of roughage on growth, serum urea N, NEFA, and IGF-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid (FA) characteristics were investigated in Rambouillet wether lambs (n = 33). Lambs were individually fed ad libitum pelleted diets for 98 d containing 40% dried distillers grains and other ingredients, with 10% (CSH10), 20% (CSH20), or 30% (CSH30) cottonseed hulls replacing an increasing amount of ground sorghum grain. Results indicated no interaction between diet and day for lamb BW, ADG, or G:F. Percentage of roughage did not affect lamb BW, even though ADG linearly increased (P = 0.005) as cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Increasing percentage of cottonseed hulls in the diet linearly increased (P < 0.001) daily DMI, which resulted in a linear increase (P = 0.001) in degradable protein intake. All lambs had similar G:F: 0.200, 0.181, and 0.190 for lambs fed CSH10, CSH20, and CSH30 diets, respectively. Diet x day interactions were not observed (P > 0.45) for serum urea N, NEFA, or IGF-1 concentrations. Serum urea N linearly increased (P = 0.005) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. All lambs had similar NEFA concentrations, but serum IGF-1 linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Lambs had similar wool fiber characteristics except that average fiber curvature and SD of fiber curvature linearly increased (P = 0.03) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were not affected (P > 0.19) by diet, except for body wall thickness (quadratic, P = 0.03) and a linear decrease in sustained tenderness (P = 0.02) as the percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. As cottonseed hulls increased in the diet, percentages of myristic and palmitoleic (linear, P < 0.05) and arachidic SFA (quadratic, P = 0.03) decreased and cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased (linear, P = 0.007). When sorghum grain and cottonseed hull prices

  2. Processes, Techniques, and Successes in Welding the Dry Shielded Canisters of the TMI-2 Reactor Core Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Rankin, R.A.; Ferrell, L.J.

    2002-01-29

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is operated by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho LLC (BBWI), which recently completed a very successful $100 million Three-Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) program for the Department of Energy (DOE). This complex and challenging program used an integrated multidisciplinary team approach that loaded, welded, and transported an unprecedented 25 dry shielded canisters (DSC) in seven months, and did so ahead of schedule. The program moved over 340 canisters of TMI-2 core debris that had been in wet storage into a dry storage facility at the INEEL. The main thrust of this paper is relating the innovations, techniques, approaches, and lessons learned associated to welding of the DSC's. This paper shows the synergism of elements to meet program success and shares these lessons learned that will facilitate success with welding of dry shielded canisters in other DOE complex dry storage programs.

  3. Process, Techniques, and Successes in Welding the Dry Shielded Canister Welds of the TMI-2 Reactor Core Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, Laurence R; Rankin, Richard Allen; Ferrell, Larry Joseph

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is operated by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho LLC (BBWI), which recently completed a very successful $100 million Three-Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) program for the Department of Energy (DOE). This complex and challenging program used an integrated multidisciplinary team approach that loaded, welded, and transported an unprecedented 25 dry shielded canisters (DSC) in seven months, and did so ahead of schedule. The program moved over 340 canisters of TMI-2 core debris that had been in wet storage into a dry storage facility at the INEEL. The main thrust of this paper is relating the innovations, techniques, approaches, and lessons learned associated to welding of the DSC's. This paper shows the synergism of elements to meet program success and shares these lessons learned that will facilitate success with welding of dry shielded canisters in other DOE complex dry storage programs.

  4. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  5. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  6. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  7. Formulation design and optimization of mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide using vacuum drying technique.

    PubMed

    Gohel, Mukesh; Patel, Madhabhai; Amin, Avani; Agrawal, Ruchi; Dave, Rikita; Bariya, Nehal

    2004-04-26

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide. Granules containing nimesulide, camphor, crospovidone, and lactose were prepared by wet granulation technique. Camphor was sublimed from the dried granules by exposure to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability, wetting time, and disintegration time. In the investigation, a 32 full factorial design was used to investigate the joint influence of 2 formulation variables: amount of camphor and crospovidone. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining a rapidly disintegrating dosage form, tablets should be prepared using an optimum concentration of camphor and a higher percentage of crospovidone. A contour plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the disintegration time and percentage friability. A checkpoint batch was also prepared to prove the validity of the evolved mathematical model. Sublimation of camphor from tablets resulted in superior tablets as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The systematic formulation approach helped in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables.

  8. Optimization of polyphenols extraction from dried chokeberry using maceration as traditional technique.

    PubMed

    Ćujić, Nada; Šavikin, Katarina; Janković, Teodora; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Zdunić, Gordana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-03-01

    Traditional maceration method was used for the extraction of polyphenols from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) dried fruit, and the effects of several extraction parameters on the total phenolics and anthocyanins contents were studied. Various solvents, particle size, solid-solvent ratio and extraction time have been investigated as independent variables in two level factorial design. Among examined variables, time was not statistically important factor for the extraction of polyphenols. The optimal extraction conditions were maceration of 0.75mm size berries by 50% ethanol, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20, and predicted values were 27.7mgGAE/g for total phenolics and 0.27% for total anthocyanins. Under selected conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 27.8mgGAE/g, and total anthocyanins were 0.27%, which is in agreement with the predicted values. In addition, a complementary quantitative analysis of individual phenolic compounds was performed using HPLC method. The study indicated that maceration was effective and simple technique for the extraction of bioactive compounds from chokeberry fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  10. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Jaderborg, J P; Crawford, G I; DiCostanzo, A; Spiehs, M J; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2015-10-01

    The effects of feeding a dry-rolled corn-based diet (DRCB) or a combination of a high-moisture corn-based diet (HMCB) with dry-rolled corn (DRC; 2:1 ratio of high-moisture corn [HMC] and DRC) with 25 and 45% wet distillers' grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, the WDGS × diet type interaction, and period and the random effects of square and steer within square were also included. Treatments consisted of a DRCB with 25% WDGS, a DRCB with 45% WDGS, a combination of HMCB and DRC with 25% WDGS, and a combination of HMCB and DRC with 45% WDGS. Cattle consuming DRCB consumed a greater amount of DM ( < 0.01) and GE intake was also greater when feeding DRCB with 25% WDGS than when feeding DRCB with 45% WDGS ( < 0.01). As a proportion of GE intake, cattle consuming HMCB had a greater fecal energy loss ( = 0.01). Digestible energy loss as a proportion of GE intake was greater when cattle were fed DRCB than when cattle were fed HMCB ( = 0.01) and when WDGS was included at 45% of DM ( = 0.05). As a proportion of GE intake, cattle consuming DRCB and 25% WDGS respired a greater amount of methane (Mcal) than cattle consuming 45% WDGS. As a proportion of GE intake, ME was greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( = 0.01). Within HMCB, 45% WDGS had more megacalories of retained energy than 25% WDGS. Nitrogen excretion (g) was greater in the urine ( < 0.01) and feces ( < 0.05) when 45% WDGS was included. As a proportion of N intake, total N retained was greater when a greater amount of WDGS was included in the diet ( = 0.05). Digestibility was greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( = 0.02). Starch intake, excretion, and digestibility as a proportion of intake were greater in DRCB than in HMCB ( < 0.01) and when WDGS was included at 25% than when WDGS was included at 45% of the diet ( < 0.01). Intake of ether extract was

  11. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    PubMed

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  12. Nanoporous mannitol carrier prepared by non-organic solvent spray drying technique to enhance the aerosolization performance for dry powder inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tingting; Zhang, Xuejuan; Huang, Ying; Zhao, Ziyu; Liao, Qiuying; Xu, Jing; Huang, Zhengwei; Zhang, Jiwen; Wu, Chuan-yu; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    An optimum carrier rugosity is essential to achieve a satisfying drug deposition efficiency for the carrier based dry powder inhalation (DPI). Therefore, a non-organic spray drying technique was firstly used to prepare nanoporous mannitol with small asperities to enhance the DPI aerosolization performance. Ammonium carbonate was used as a pore-forming agent since it decomposed with volatile during preparation. It was found that only the porous structure, and hence the specific surface area and carrier density were changed at different ammonium carbonate concentration. Furthermore, the carrier density was used as an indication of porosity to correlate with drug aerosolization. A good correlation between the carrier density and fine particle fraction (FPF) (r2 = 0.9579) was established, suggesting that the deposition efficiency increased with the decreased carrier density. Nanoporous mannitol with a mean pore size of about 6 nm exhibited 0.24-fold carrier density while 2.16-fold FPF value of the non-porous mannitol. The enhanced deposition efficiency was further confirmed from the pharmacokinetic studies since the nanoporous mannitol exhibited a significantly higher AUC0-8h value than the non-porous mannitol and commercial product Pulmicort. Therefore, surface modification by preparing nanoporous carrier through non-organic spray drying showed to be a facile approach to enhance the DPI aerosolization performance. PMID:28462948

  13. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Marie E; Chemat, Farid; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2004-07-23

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, hydro-distillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from three aromatic herbs: basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), garden mint (Mentha crispa L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The essential oils extracted by SFME for 30min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydro-distillation for 4.5 h. The SFME method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material. SFME is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.

  14. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.

    PubMed

    Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-09-01

    New fractionation and fermentation technologies in the ethanol industry have resulted in the production of different forms of distillers grains (DG). Such products are reduced-fat, high-protein, and "modified" wet feeds. Characterization of protein fractions of these co-products and other commonly used feedstuffs is important for the formulation of dairy cattle diets. In situ and in vitro techniques were conducted to compare crude protein (CP) availability in 4 DG products with commonly used soybean proteins. Soybean protein products included solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM; 44% CP), expeller soybean meal (ESBM), and extruded soybeans (ES). The DG products were conventional distillers dried grains with solubles, reduced-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (RFDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains, and modified wet distillers grains with solubles (MWDGS). Nylon bags containing 5 g of each feed were incubated in the rumen of 3 cannulated lactating cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. The rapidly degradable CP fraction varied from 8.1 to 37.2% for SBM and MWDGS, respectively. The slowly degradable CP fraction was greatest for SBM, ES, and high-protein distillers dried grains (88.0%+/-3.7), followed by ESBM, distillers dried grains with solubles, and RFDGS (76.8+/-4.1%). The MWDGS had the lowest slowly degradable CP fraction (61.1%). The rate of degradation of the slowly degradable CP fraction ranged from 11.8 for SBM to 2.7%/h for RFDGS. Rumen-undegradable protein varied widely (32.3 to 60.4%), with RFDGS having the greatest and SBM the lowest concentrations. Intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (IDP) was estimated by pepsin-pancreatin digestion of ruminally preincubated (16 h) samples. The IDP was greatest for SBM, ESBM, and ES (97.7%+/-0.75), whereas IDP of DG products was 92.4%+/-0.87. Similarly, total digestible protein was greatest (99.0%) for soybean products, whereas DG products had a total digestible protein of 96.0%. Intestinal

  15. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  16. A Dry Membrane Protection Technique to Allow Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor Measurements of Biological Model Membrane Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Reder-Christ, Katrin; Schmitz, Patrick; Bota, Marian; Gerber, Ursula; Falkenstein-Paul, Hildegard; Fuss, Christian; Enachescu, Marius; Bendas, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Model membrane approaches have attracted much attention in biomedical sciences to investigate and simulate biological processes. The application of model membrane systems for biosensor measurements is partly restricted by the fact that the integrity of membranes critically depends on the maintenance of an aqueous surrounding, while various biosensors require a preconditioning of dry sensors. This is for example true for the well-established surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor SAM®5 blue. Here, a simple drying procedure of sensor-supported model membranes is introduced using the protective disaccharide trehalose. Highly reproducible model membranes were prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, transferred to SAW sensors and supplemented with a trehalose solution. Membrane rehydration after dry incorporation into the SAW device becomes immediately evident by phase changes. Reconstituted model membranes maintain their full functionality, as indicated by biotin/avidin binding experiments. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the morphological invariability of dried and rehydrated membranes. Approximating to more physiological recognition phenomena, the site-directed immobilization of the integrin VLA-4 into the reconstituted model membrane and subsequent VCAM-1 ligand binding with nanomolar affinity were illustrated. This simple drying procedure is a novel way to combine the model membrane generation by Langmuir-Blodgett technique with SAW biosensor measurements, which extends the applicability of SAM®5 blue in biomedical sciences. PMID:24064603

  17. A Centrifuge-Based Technique for Dry Extraction of Air for Ice Core Studies of Carbon Dioxide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, A. M.; Brook, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    High resolution CO2 data from the Law Dome ice core document an abrupt ~10 ppm drop in CO2 at about 1600 AD (MacFarling Meure et al., Geophys. Res Lett., v. 33, L14810), which has been attributed to changes in human activities. CO2 measurements in ice cores are difficult, however, making verification of this feature an important task. We are undertaking a high-resolution study of CO2 between 1400 and 1800 AD in the WAIS Divide (Antarctica) ice core with a new dry extraction technique. The need for a dry extraction technique as opposed to a melt-refreeze technique in studies of CO2 from ice cores arises because of the well-documented artifacts in CO2 imposed by the presence of liquid water. Three dry-extraction methods have been employed by previous workers to measure CO2: needle-crushing method, ball-bearings method, and cheese-grater method (B. Stauffer, in: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, p. 1181, Elsevier 2007). Each has limitations, and we propose a simpler dry extraction technique, based on a large-capacity refrigerated centrifuge (the "centrifuge technique"), which eliminates the need to employ cryogenic temperatures to collect extracted gas and is more compatible with high sample throughput. The technique is now being tested on ~25-gram WAIS Divide samples in conjunction with CO2 measurements with a gas chromatograph. The technique employs a Beckman J- 6B centrifuge, in which evacuated stainless steel flask is placed: the flask has a weight inside positioned directly over a tall-standing piece of ice whose cross-section is small compared to that of the flask. Upon acceleration to 3000 rpm the weight moves down and presses the ice sample into a thin tablet covering flask's bottom, yielding the air extraction efficiency of ~80%. Preliminary tests suggest that precision and accuracy can be achieved at the level of ~1 ppm once the system is fine-tuned.

  18. Preparation and characterization of fast dissolving flurbiprofen and esomeprazole solid dispersion using spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Roshan; Tran, Tuan Hiep; Kim, Sung Yub; Woo, Kyu Bong; Choi, Yong Joo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-04-11

    We aimed to develop an immediate-release flurbiprofen (FLU) and esomeprazole (ESO) combination formulation with enhanced gastric aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. Aqueous solubility can be enhanced by formulating solid dispersions (SDs) with a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-K30 hydrophilic carrier, using spray-drying technique. Aqueous and gastric pH dissolution can be achieved by macro-environmental pH modulation using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) as the alkaline buffer. FLU/ESO-loaded SDs (FLU/ESO-SDs) significantly improved aqueous solubility of both drugs, compared to each drug powder. Dissolution studies in gastric pH and water were compared with the microenvironmental pH modulated formulations. The optimized FLU/ESO-SD powder formulation consisted of FLU/ESO/PVP-K30/sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in a weight ratio 1:0.22:1.5:0.3, filled in the inner capsule. The outer capsule consisted of NaHCO3 and Mg(OH)2, which created the macro-environmental pH modulation. Increased aqueous and gastric pH dissolution of FLU and ESO from the SD was attributed to the alkaline buffer effects and most importantly, to drug transformation from crystalline to amorphous SD powder, clearly revealed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thus, the combined FLU and ESO SD powder can be effectively delivered as an immediate-release formulation using the macro-environmental pH modulation concept.

  19. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial body weight = 354 kg +/- 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study w...

  20. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( < 0.001) and ADFI ( < 0.0001). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and GE were lower for the 30% DDGS diets than the 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.0001). Ractopamine improved ADG ( < 0.0001), G:F ( < 0.0001), and N retention ( < 0.001) and tended to increase daily water intake ( < 0.10). Pigs fed RAC had higher N intake and urinary excretion and lower N retention in Period 2 than in Period 1 ( < 0.05), indicating a decline in the response to RAC over time. Tylosin phosphate did not affect ADFI or G:F but did improve ATTD of N ( < 0.05). There was a tendency for a TP × DDGS interaction ( < 0.10) for ADG, where TP tended to increase ADG in pigs fed 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.10) but not in pigs fed 30% DDGS diets ( > 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC

  1. Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Jenkins, K H; Lewis, J B; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Lawrence, T E; McCollum, F T; Pinedo, P J; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-04-01

    Fifty-four individually-fed Hereford-Angus cross steers (initial BW = 308 ± 9 kg) were used in an unbalanced randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine effects of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass and beef characteristics, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn- (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 35% WDGS (DM basis; 0SFC and 35SFC, 0DRC and 35DRC, respectively). Yellow grease was used to equilibrate fat content of diets. Steers were fed 174 d, and were harvested on a single date when the mean ultrasound fat thickness was estimated to be 1.30 cm. No interactions between corn processing and WDGS were observed for performance or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.11). Final BW (556 ± 14 kg) and ADG (1.43 ± 0.06 kg) were not affected (P ≥ 0.25) by dietary treatment. Steers fed SFC-based diets consumed less feed, and were 10.6% more efficient (P < 0.01) than those fed DRC-based diets. Including WDGS in finishing diets improved feed efficiency of steers consuming both SFC- and DRC-based diets (P ≤ 0.04). Dietary treatment did not affect HCW, dressing percentage, fat thickness, or yield grade (P ≥ 0.27). Including WDGS in finishing diets decreased the concentration of 16:1cis-9, 18:1cis-9, and 18:1cis-11 fatty acids, and tended (P ≤ 0.10) to increase total fat concentration of steaks compared with diets without WDGS. A corn processing method by WDGS interaction was detected for 18:1trans-11 where steaks from 0DRC diets had decreased concentrations compared with other diets. There were no dietary effects on palatability attributes (P > 0.20). Livery-organy aromatics (P = 0.03) and sweet basic tastes (P = 0.01) in steaks from the 35SFC treatment were more intense than in other treatments, but were barely detectable. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances tended

  2. Effects of feeding dry-rolled corn-based diets with and without wet distillers grains with solubles and zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and heat stress in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Shackelford, S D; Wells, J E; King, D A; Hayes, M D; Brown-Brandl, T M; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C; Wheeler, T L

    2014-09-01

    Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) has been approved for use since 2006; however, there is no research on any interactions between ZH and coproducts. Additionally, there is no published information on the potential effects of ZH on heat stress in feedlot cattle. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets with and without wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and ZH on performance, carcass characteristics, and heat stress in feedlot cattle. Four hundred thirty-eight steers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in 16 pens with 26 to 28 steers in each pen. Factors consisted of inclusion of 0 or 30% (on a DM basis) WDGS and inclusion of ZH at 0 or 84 mg/steer daily for 21 d at the end of the finishing period. Therefore, cattle were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of the resulting 4 treatment combinations: 1) DRC-based diet with 0% WDGS and 84 mg/steer ZH, 2) DRC-based diet with 0% WDGS and no ZH, 3) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS and 84 mg/steer of ZH, and 4) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS and no ZH. Final live BW, carcass-adjusted BW, ADG, and G:F were greater for cattle fed ZH than non-ZH-fed cattle (P < 0.01). Additionally, cattle fed ZH consumed 7.4% less DM than cattle not fed ZH (P < 0.01). Cattle fed ZH for 21 d also had a 2.9% greater HCW (P < 0.01), a 1.1% greater dressing percentage (P < 0.01), 7.3% greater LM area (P < 0.01), and an 8.4% improvement in yield grade (P < 0.01) than cattle not fed ZH. For the main effect of WDGS inclusion, ADG was greater for cattle fed 0 vs. 30% WDGS (P = 0.04) and G:F also tended to be greater for cattle fed 0 vs. 30% WDGS (P = 0.07) for the 21-d ZH feeding period. However, when evaluated over the entire experiment, cattle fed 30 vs. 0% WDGS had a greater ADG and G:F (P < 0.01). Furthermore, cattle fed 30 vs. 0% WDGS had a greater dressing percentage and tended to have a greater amount of 12th rib

  3. Sulfur concentration in diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles does not affect feed preference or growth performance of weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Zhang, Y; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and dietary S on feed preference and performance of pigs. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 1), 48 barrows (20.1 ± 2.2 kg of BW) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal, a DDGS diet containing 20% DDGS, and a DDGS-sulfur (DDGS-S) diet were prepared. The DDGS-S diet was similar to the DDGS diet with the exception that 0.74% CaSO(4) was added to the diet. Two diets were provided in separate feeders in each pen: 1) the control diet and the DDGS diet, 2) the control diet and the DDGS-S diet, or 3) the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. Preference for the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet vs. the control diet was 35.2 and 32.6%, respectively (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. In Exp. 2, a total of 90 barrows (10.3 ± 1.4 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatments, with 10 replicate pens and 3 pigs per pen, and were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 for 28 d, but only 1 diet was provided per pen. Pigs fed the control diet gained more BW (497 vs. 423 and 416 g/d; P < 0.05) and had greater G:F (0.540 vs. 0.471 and 0.455; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the DDGS or the DDGS-S diet, but no differences between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets were observed. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 3), 30 barrows (49.6 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per group. The experimental procedures were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 30% DDGS was included in the DDGS and DDGS-S diets and 1.10% CaSO(4) was added to the DDGS-S diet. Feed preference for the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets, compared with the control diet, was 29.8 and 32.9%, respectively (P < 0.01), but there was no difference between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were fed grower diets

  4. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of glibenclamide-polyglycolized glycerides solid dispersions with silicon dioxide by spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhaskar; Shimpi, Shyam; Paradkar, Anant

    2005-10-01

    Solid dispersions (SDs) of glibenclamide (GBM); a poorly water-soluble drug and polyglycolized glycerides (Gelucire with the aid of silicon dioxide (Aerosil 200); as an adsorbent, were prepared by spray drying technique. SDs and spray dried GBM in comparison with pure GBM and corresponding physical mixtures (PMs) were initially characterized and then subjected to ageing study up to 3 months. Initial characterization of SDs and spray dried GBM by DSC and XRPD showed that GBM was present in its amorphous form (AGBM). Improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate was observed for all samples. DRIFT spectroscopy revealed presence of hydrogen bonding in SDs. During ageing study, almost no decrease of in vitro drug dissolution was observed, over the period of 3 months as compare with freshly prepared SDs. Slight crystallinity in SDs was observed in the DSC and XRPD studies during ageing. Moreover in vivo study in Swiss Albino mice also justified the improvement in the therapeutic efficacy of amorphous GBM in SDs over pure GBM. Thus, present study demonstrated the high potential of spray drying technique for obtaining stable free flowing SDs of poorly water-soluble drugs using polyglycolized glycerides carriers with the aid of silicon dioxide as an adsorbent.

  6. Distilling entanglement with noisy operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinho; Bae, Joonwoo; Kwon, Younghun

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental task in quantum information processing. It not only extracts entanglement out of corrupted systems but also leads to protecting systems of interest against intervention with environment. In this work, we consider a realistic scenario of entanglement distillation where noisy quantum operations are applied. In particular, the two-way distillation protocol that tolerates the highest error rate is considered. We show that among all types of noise there are only four equivalence classes according to the distillability condition. Since the four classes are connected by local unitary transformations, our results can be used to improve entanglement distillability in practice when entanglement distillation is performed in a realistic setting.

  7. A survey of dental airlines and an examination of tooth-drying techniques.

    PubMed

    Dunne, S M; Millar, B J; Davies, B

    1996-09-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To assess the prevalence and severity of water and oil contamination in 20 dental airlines in clinical use, using a commercial test kit, LP Aerotest. 2. To determine the effect, in vitro, of such contamination on the shear bond strengths to etched bovine enamel, of composite resin and a dedicated bonding agent. The enamel was dried using either an oil-and-water-contaminated 3-in-1 syringe, a warm-air tooth-dryer, silica gel-dried air or blotting paper, prior to bonding. A total of 11 (5 mm diameter) composite discs were bonded in each group. The samples were shear tested 72 hours later at a cross-head speed of 50 mm/min. All airlines had > 100 mg/m3 water and traces of oil (< 0.5 mg/m3) were present in 50% of samples. The mean shear bond strengths (MPa) for the 3-in-1 syringe, tooth-dryer, dried air and blotting paper-dried teeth were 14.5 +/- 3.8, 19.0 +/- 2.6, 19.6 +/- 4.2 and 19.7 +/- 1.9 respectively. The differences between the values for the tooth dryer, dry air and blotting paper were not significant (P > 0.01) but a significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed between these and the 3-in-1 syringe.

  8. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A〉 state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A〉 states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  9. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  10. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  11. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  12. Strip-dried whole milk sampling technique for progesterone detection in cows by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, J V; Osipov, A P; Kondakov, S E

    2017-12-01

    New sampling format of whole cows' milk in strip-dried form was proposed. Few methodological issues of whole milk progesterone ELISA using samples dried on a membrane carrier in a form of strip were investigated and optimized: width of a strip, shape of punched/cut-off part of membrane, sample application method. It was shown that distribution of the hormone along narrow strip was even except the initial part of a strip (the first 0.5 × 0.5cm piece) where recovered concentration of progesterone was higher. Storage stability of progesterone in strip-dried whole cows' milk samples at 4°C, ambient temperature, 37°C and 60°C was investigated. Rising of the detected progesterone concentration over storage period at elevated temperatures was observed predominantly in milk samples with low hormone concentration (from non-pregnant cows). Strip-dried whole milk samples can be used for collection, transportation, storage and ELISA analysis of progesterone level which is correlated with reproductive status of cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RARE Grant- Atmospheric Dry Deposition: Quantification of Mercury and Nutrients using Novel Surrogate Surface Collector Techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will quantify the daily surrogate surface dry deposition of mercury and nutrient species, and evaluate its relative importance to wet deposition at two sites in Florida over a two-year period. It will identify the major sources contributing to the observed mercury and...

  14. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  15. Enhancement of solubility and antidiabetic effects of Repaglinide using spray drying technique in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Minayian, Mohsen; Ahmadi, Mahdieh; Ghassami, Erfaneh

    2016-02-19

    The purpose of the study was to enhance the solubility of the poorly water-soluble drug, Repaglinide using spray drying based solid dispersion technique by different carriers including Eudragit E100, hydroxyl propyl cellulose Mw 80 000 and poly vinyl pyrollidone K30. Optimization of the best formulation was carried out according to drug solubility, release profile, particle size and angle of repose of the solid dispersions. The optimized sample was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The morphology of the dispersions was studied by SEM. The blood glucose lowering effect of spray dried solid dispersions was studied in normal and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. The results showed that Eudragit E100 in 1:3 ratio could enhance drug solubility by 100-fold. DSC studies indicated a marked change in melting point of the drug possibly due to strong hydrogen bonds between the drug and Eudragit, while FT-IR study did not show obvious interactions between them. According to XRPD results Repaglinide converted to an amorphous state in the spray dried dispersions. Spray dried Repaglinide reduced the blood glucose level significantly during the 8 h of obtaining blood samples in comparison with untreated drug (p < 0.05).

  16. Application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques during design phase for dry storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, B.P.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Meale, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Canisters containing the Three Mile Island (TMI) spent fuel and debris are being stored in a storage pool at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In order to store these canisters in dry storage casks, a system is being designed to remove entrained water from the canisters. The conceptual design for this drying process was evaluated in respect to the occurrence of a nuclear criticality. The system design was evaluated to address the mechanical failure of the components. Also, human interfaces with the equipment were assessed. The integration of these two facets resulted in a model that was quantified to calculate the occurrence frequency of a nuclear criticality. Changes to design, administrative guidelines, and procedures were recommended so that an acceptable level of risk based on nuclear criticality occurrence frequency could be achieved. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter...

  18. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  19. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter...

  20. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter...

  1. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  2. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  3. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  4. [Diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborn dried blood spots on Guthrie cards. A promissory technique].

    PubMed

    Distéfano, Angélica L; González, Cecilia A; Pardón, Fabián; Sarubi, María A; Canero Velazco, Cristina

    2008-04-01

    Laboratories play a crucial role in the diagnosis of congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection, considering that other viral infections in newborn infants have similar clinical characteristics. The objectives of this work are to compare the results of the polymerase reaction in blood spots and urine as well as point out the relevance of the result in the Guthrie cards to differentiate congenital from perinatal infection. A total of 148 patients suspicious of CMVH infections were studied in the Congenital Perinatal Infections and Sexual Transmission Laboratory, at the National Institute "Carlos G. Malbrán". The dry blood samples (Guthrie cards) and urine of all patients were studied through the polymerase chain reaction. From the 148 patients, 3 presented other infections, 95 tested negative and 50 positive for cytomegalovirus: 35 had congenital infection and 15 perinatal. In the congenital cases, the polymerase reaction in dry blood was positive (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.9%, VPP 98% and VPN 100%). Four of them with tardive symptoms were studied retrospectively. The urine specimens from the remaining 15 patients that were taken 15 days after birth were analyzed through the same methods, showing a sensitivity of 100%, the retrospective analysis of this dry blood group yielded negative results, so the infection was considered perinatal. Thus, the dry blood polymerase reaction of the newborn infants makes it a reliable assay for diagnosing congenital cytomegalovirus infection and could be used as an alternative method to urine polymerase reaction. In addition, this test is able to reveal whether the infection is congenital or perinatal in those cases of late symptom or other cases of controversial origin.

  5. Cost-optimal design of dry cooling towers through mathematical programming techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Buys, J.D.; Kroeger, D.G. )

    1989-05-01

    The Constrained Variable Metric Algorithm is chosen to minimize the objective function (cost) in the design of a natural draft dry cooling tower. An existing cooling system design that has specific performance characteristics under prescribed operating conditions is selected as a reference unit. By changing design variables, but not exceeding prescribed constraints, a more cost-effective design is achieved. The influence of various parameters, and the sensitivity of the objective function to these parameters, are evaluated.

  6. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets and RBC for Transfusion Lyophilization and Other Dehydration Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-21

    committees in June, 1991, followed by generation of inter-institutional patent sharing agreements and notification of the Office of Naval Research of...the surface receptors necessary for normal agglutination and adhesion of platelets. 2. Chemical labeling of dried and rehydrated platelets. Since we are...human system . Additional work needs to be done to evaluate canine rehydrated platelets which are being used in the animal model. The use of this

  7. Effect of different drying techniques on flowability characteristics and chemical properties of natural carbohydrate-protein Gum from durian fruit seed

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A natural carbohydrate biopolymer was extracted from the agricultural biomass waste (durian seed). Subsequently, the crude biopolymer was purified by using the saturated barium hydroxide to minimize the impurities. Finally, the effect of different drying techniques on the flow characteristics and functional properties of the purified biopolymer was investigated. The present study elucidated the main functional characteristics such as flow characteristics, water- and oil-holding capacity, solubility, and foaming capacity. Results In most cases except for oven drying, the bulk density decreased, thus increasing the porosity. This might be attributed to the increase in the inter-particle voids of smaller sized particles with larger contact surface areas per unit volume. The current study revealed that oven-dried gum and freeze-dried gum had the highest and lowest compressibility index, thus indicating the weakest and strongest flowability among all samples. In the present work, the freeze-dried gum showed the lowest angle of repose, bulk, tapped and true density. This indicates the highest porosity degree of freeze dried gum among dried seed gums. It also exhibited the highest solubility, and foaming capacity thus providing the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics among all drying techniques. Conclusion The present study revealed that freeze drying among all drying techniques provided the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics for durian seed gum. PMID:23289739

  8. THE INTRARENAL DISTRIBUTION OF TRITIATED PARA-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID DETERMINED BY A MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF SECTION FREEZE-DRY RADIOAUTOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Bordier, Betrand; Ornstein, Leonard; Wedeen, Richard P.

    1970-01-01

    Section freeze-dry radioautography has been used to examine the intrarenal distribution of a water-soluble organic acid (para-aminohippuric acid (PAH-3H)) under constant-infusion, steady-state conditions in mouse and rat kidney in vivo. The technique described here has the following advantages: (a) Sectioning and freeze-drying are accomplished in a closed cryostat at temperatures below -40°C; (b) Handling of the section is facilitated by mounting of the section-to-be on adhesive-coated Saran Wrap prior to cutting; (c) Unembedded freeze-dried sections are attached to photographic film at ambient temperature in the dark room; (d) Fixation follows completion of radioautographic exposure and precedes photographic development; (e) Permanent close contact is maintained between tissue and film. Morphologic preservation compared favorably with that obtained by optimal fixation techniques, which, however, permit diffusion. Cellular accumulation of PAH-3H during secretion was demonstrated in the proximal tubule under steady-state conditions in vivo. The cellular concentration of PAH-3H was uniform throughout the length of the proximal tubule in mouse and rat kidney. PMID:4349130

  9. Formulation of inhalable lipid-based salbutamol sulfate microparticles by spray drying technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to develop dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of salbutamol sulfate (SS) by the aid of solid lipid microparticles (SLmPs), composed of biocompatible phospholipids or cholesterol. Methods The SLmPs were prepared by using two different solvent systems (ethanol and water-ethanol) and lipid carriers (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol) with/without L-leucine in the spray drying process. The spray-dried microparticles were physically-mixed with coarse lactose monohydrate in order to make our final DPI formulations and were investigated in terms of physical characteristics as well as in vitro drug release profile and aerosolization behavior. Results We observed significant differences in the sizes, morphologies, and in vitro pulmonary depositions between the formulations. In particular, the SS-containing SLmPs prepared with water-ethanol (30:70 v/v) solution of DPPC and L-leucine which had then been blended with coarse lactose (1:9 w/w) exhibited the highest emitted dose (87.9%) and fine particle fraction (42.7%) among the formulations. In vitro drug release study indicated that despite of having a significant initial burst release for both cholesterol and DPPC-based microparticles, the remained drug released more slowly than the pure drug. Conclusion This study demonstrated the potential of using lipid carriers as well as L-leucine in DPI formulations of SS to improve its aerosolization behavior and retard the release profile of the drug. PMID:24919924

  10. An evaluation of extraction techniques for arsenic species from freeze-dried apple samples.

    PubMed

    Caruso, J A; Heitkemper, D T; B'Hymer, C

    2001-02-01

    The extraction of arsenic from freeze-dried apples and subsequent determination of individual arsenic species by HPLC-ICP-MS is described. Solvent extraction with sonication using various aqueous and aqueous/solvent mixtures was initially evaluated by measuring total arsenic extracted by ICP-MS. A two step procedure using overnight treatment with alpha-amylase enzyme followed by sonication for 6 h with 40:60 acetonitrile-water was found to provide good extraction efficiency. The concentration of arsenic extracted was compared with the concentration of total arsenic in the samples determined using ICP-MS after microwave digestion in order to calculate extraction efficiency. Individual arsenic species in the extracts were measured using HPLC-ICP-MS. The three most abundant arsenic species found were arsenite, arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid. Total arsenic concentrations in the freeze-dried apple samples ranged from 8.2 to 80.9 micrograms kg-1 As, dry mass. By HPLC-ICP-MS, the relative amount of inorganic arsenic in the samples ranged from 73 to 90% of the sum of the arsenic species detected in each sample.

  11. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  12. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  13. Development of a novel ultra cryo-milling technique for a poorly water-soluble drug using dry ice beads and liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shohei; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Yasuo; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-04-15

    A novel ultra cryo-milling micronization technique has been established using dry ice beads and liquid nitrogen (LN2). Drug particles were co-suspended with dry ice beads in LN2 and ground by stirring. Dry ice beads were prepared by storing dry ice pellets in LN2. A poorly water-soluble drug, phenytoin, was micronized more efficiently using either dry ice beads or zirconia beads compared to jet milling. Dry ice beads retained their granular shape without pulverizing and sublimating in LN2 as the milling operation progressed. Longer milling times produced smaller-sized phenytoin particles. The agitation speed for milling was optimized. Analysis of the glass transition temperature revealed that phenytoin particles co-ground with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by dry ice milling were crystalline, whereas a planetary ball-milled mixtures process with zirconia beads contained the amorphous form. The dissolution rate of phenytoin milled with PVP using dry ice beads or zirconia beads was significantly improved compared to jet-milled phenytoin or the physical mixture. Dry ice beads together with LN2 were spontaneously sublimated at ambient condition after milling. Thus, the yield was significantly improved by dry ice beads compared to zirconia beads since the loss arisen from adhering to the surface of dry ice beads could be completely avoided, resulting in about 85-90% of recovery. In addition, compounds milled using dry ice beads are free from abraded contaminating material originating from the beads and internal vessel wall.

  14. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    PubMed

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact.

  15. Land use/ cover mapping of the dry and wet season of Kikuletwa catchment using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msigwa, Anna; vangriensven, Ann; Komakech, Hans; Verbeiren, Boud

    2017-04-01

    Management of water resources has become complicated due to lack of reliable information on the water uses of different sectors. The quantification of water consumption has been concentrated to modified and cultivated areas, but often lacks a correct representation of agricultural water management practices (crop rotations, drip irrigation) while leaving out the water consumption from natural ecosystems (forest, barren land, grazed grassland and shrubland or thickets). A detailed land use map can help water resources scientists and managers to better quantify the water uses by these ecosystems. However, most of the time the hydrological seasons are not considered in developing the land use maps. The objective of this study was to develop a land use maps for the two main seasons (dry and wet season) of the semi-arid Kikuletwa catchment, Tanzania. Three Landsat 8 images of March, August and November 2016 were obtained and cloud masked. Ground truthing points and questionnaire surveys regarding cropping system were collected during the month of August 2016. Unsupervised and supervised techniques in ArcMap and ground truthing point with the aid of cropping calendar was used to classify the three images. About 20 land use/land cover classes were obtained. The dry season images seem to have higher accuracy than the wet season images having Maximum NDVI of 0.6. The results showed a clear difference of how the land is being used in the dry and wet seasons. The image obtained on March representing the wet season showed 74% of the total cultivated land is rainfed with supplemental irrigation while 60% of the cultivated land is irrigated in the dry seasons. Additionally, the results show differences in land size of the natural ecosystems like grazed grassland. The total grazed grassland for the dry month of August was 5.3% of the total catchment area while that of November was 5.1%. The change seen during the dry seasons between the month of August and November is due to

  16. Antigen-Antibody Affinity for Dry Eye Biomarkers by Label Free Biosensing. Comparison with the ELISA Technique

    PubMed Central

    Laguna, Maríafe; Holgado, Miguel; Hernandez, Ana L.; Santamaría, Beatriz; Lavín, Alvaro; Soria, Javier; Suarez, Tatiana; Bardina, Carlota; Jara, Mónica; Sanza, Francisco J.; Casquel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The specificity and affinity of antibody-antigen interactions is a fundamental way to achieve reliable biosensing responses. Different proteins involved with dry eye dysfunction: ANXA1, ANXA11, CST4, PRDX5, PLAA and S100A6; were validated as biomarkers. In this work several antibodies were tested for ANXA1, ANXA11 and PRDX5 to select the best candidates for each biomarker. The results were obtained by using Biophotonic Sensing Cells (BICELLs) as an efficient methodology for label-free biosensing and compared with the Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. PMID:26287192

  17. Antigen-Antibody Affinity for Dry Eye Biomarkers by Label Free Biosensing. Comparison with the ELISA Technique.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Maríafe; Holgado, Miguel; Hernandez, Ana L; Santamaría, Beatriz; Lavín, Alvaro; Soria, Javier; Suarez, Tatiana; Bardina, Carlota; Jara, Mónica; Sanza, Francisco J; Casquel, Rafael

    2015-08-13

    The specificity and affinity of antibody-antigen interactions is a fundamental way to achieve reliable biosensing responses. Different proteins involved with dry eye dysfunction: ANXA1, ANXA11, CST4, PRDX5, PLAA and S100A6; were validated as biomarkers. In this work several antibodies were tested for ANXA1, ANXA11 and PRDX5 to select the best candidates for each biomarker. The results were obtained by using Biophotonic Sensing Cells (BICELLs) as an efficient methodology for label-free biosensing and compared with the Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) technique.

  18. A microhistological technique for analysis of food habits of mycophagous rodents.

    Treesearch

    Patrick W. McIntire; Andrew B. Carey

    1989-01-01

    We present a technique, based on microhistological analysis of fecal pellets, for quantifying the diets of forest rodents. This technique provides for the simultaneous recording of fungal spores and vascular plant material. Fecal samples should be freeze dried, weighed, and rehydrated with distilled water. We recommend a minimum sampling intensity of 50 fields of view...

  19. Dry Flowing Abrasive Decontamination Technique for Pipe Systems with Swirling Air Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    2003-10-15

    A dry abrasive decontamination method was developed for removing radioactive corrosion products from surfaces of coolant pipe systems in decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Erosion behavior of inside surfaces of stainless and carbon steel pipes by a swirling air flow containing alumina or cast-iron grit abrasive was studied. Erosion depths of the test pipes were approximately proportional to an abrasive concentration in air and an exponent of flow rate of airstream. The experimental results indicated that the present method could keep satisfactory erosion ability of abrasives even for a large-size pipe. The present method was successfully applied to {sup 60}Co-contaminated specimens sampled from a pipe of the water cleanup system of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor.

  20. Preparation of sustained-release coated particles by novel microencapsulation method using three-fluid nozzle spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2014-01-23

    We prepared sustained-release microcapsules using a three-fluid nozzle (3N) spray drying technique. The 3N has a unique, three-layered concentric structure composed of inner and outer liquid nozzles, and an outermost gas nozzle. Composite particles were prepared by spraying a drug suspension and an ethylcellulose solution via the inner and outer nozzles, respectively, and mixed at the nozzle tip (3N-PostMix). 3N-PostMix particles exhibited a corrugated surface and similar contact angles as ethylcellulose bulk, thus suggesting encapsulation with ethylcellulose, resulting in the achievement of sustained release. To investigate the microencapsulation process via this approach and its usability, methods through which the suspension and solution were sprayed separately via two of the four-fluid nozzle (4N) (4N-PostMix) and a mixture of the suspension and solution was sprayed via 3N (3N-PreMix) were used as references. It was found that 3N can obtain smaller particles than 4N. The results for contact angle and drug release corresponded, thus suggesting that 3N-PostMix particles are more effectively coated by ethylcellulose, and can achieve higher-level controlled release than 4N-PostMix particles, while 3N-PreMix particles are not encapsulated with pure ethylcellulose, leading to rapid release. This study demonstrated that the 3N spray drying technique is useful as a novel microencapsulation method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique

    PubMed Central

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis. PMID:23737670

  2. The Feasibility of Cask "Fingerprinting" as a Spent-Fuel, Dry-Storage Cask Safeguards Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Vanier, P; Forman, L; Caffrey, G; Wharton, J; Lebrun, A

    2005-07-27

    This report documents a week-long measurement campaign conducted on six, dry-storage, spent-nuclear-fuel storage casks at the Idaho National Laboratory. A gamma-ray imager, a thermal-neutron imager and a germanium spectrometer were used to collect data on the casks. The campaign was conducted to examine the feasibility of using the cask radiation signatures as unique identifiers for individual casks as part of a safeguards regime. The results clearly show different morphologies for the various cask types although the signatures are deemed insufficient to uniquely identify individual casks of the same type. Based on results with the germanium spectrometer and differences between thermal neutron images and neutron-dose meters, this result is thought to be due to the limitations of the extant imagers used, rather than of the basic concept. Results indicate that measurements with improved imagers could contain significantly more information. Follow-on measurements with new imagers either currently available as laboratory prototypes or under development are recommended.

  3. Nanospray Drying as a Novel Technique for the Manufacturing of Inhalable NSAID Powders

    PubMed Central

    Rita Patrizia, Aquino; Mariateresa, Stigliani; Pasquale, Del Gaudio; Teresa, Mencherini; Francesca, Sansone; Paola, Russo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of the nanospray drier as a novel apparatus for the manufacturing of a dry powder for inhalation containing ketoprofen lysinate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to control the inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. We produced several ketoprofen lysinate and leucine powder batches by means of nanospray dryer, studying the influence of process parameters on yield, particle properties (size distribution and morphology), and, mainly, aerodynamic properties of powders. Micronized particles were prepared from different hydroalcoholic solutions (alcohol content from 0 to 30% v/v) using ketoprofen in its lysine salt form and leucine as dispersibility enhancer in different ratios (from 5 to 15% w/w) with a total solid concentration ranging from 1 to 7% w/v. Results indicated that the spray head equipped with a 7 µm nozzle produced powders too big to be inhaled. The reduction of nozzle size from 7 to 4 µm led to smaller particles suitable for inhalation but, at the same time, caused a dramatic increase in process time. The selection of process variables, together with the nozzle pretreatment with a surfactant solution, allowed us to obtain a free flowing powder with satisfying aerosol performance, confirming the usefulness of the nanospray drier in the production of powder for inhalation. PMID:25580462

  4. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis.

  5. An inverse technique to determine volatile organic compounds diffusion and partition coefficients in dry building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Niu, J. L.

    2005-07-01

    A mass transfer theory based model describing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) diffusion in dry building material was presented. Effects of some key parameters on the model output were theoretically studied. An inverse method was developed to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D) and partition coefficient (K) of VOC/material combination by utilizing dynamic chamber emission data. The present inverse parameter estimation problem was solved with Levenberg Marquardt method of minimization of the ordinary least-squares norm. Sensitivity analysis showed the feasibility of simultaneous estimation of D and K. The present inverse method was first validated by a theoretical case. Measurements with different error levels were used to show their effects on the accuracy of the estimates. Results indicate that the present inverse method can be used to accurately estimate both D and K with the additional information of measured VOC concentration in chamber. Then experimental data of styrene/carpet combination obtained from standard field and laboratory emission cell emission test were used to determine D and K using the validated inverse method. Reliable results were obtained.

  6. Preparation of low-fat uptake doughnut by dry particle coating technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-S; Kim, B-K; Kim, K-H; Park, D-J

    2008-04-01

    Soybean hull-wheat flour composites were prepared and used a doughnut formulation in order to decrease fat uptake during deep-fat frying. Soybean hulls were microparticulated by jet milling, and wheat flour was air-classified into coarse and fine fraction by an air classifying system. The coarse fraction of wheat flour was dry-coated with the microparticulated soybean hulls by a hybridization system. To investigate the effect on fat uptake, 4 different types of composites were prepared, which contained 0%, 1%, 5%, and 10% of soybean hulls. Doughnuts containing 1%, 5%, and 10% of microparticulated hulls decreased fat contents of 11.5%, 13.6%, and 35.8%, respectively. As soybean hulls content increased, hardness and crispiness increased. However, sensory evaluations demonstrated that there were no significant differences in appearance, flavor, crispiness, taste, and general liking (P < 0.05). Inner crust structures of doughnut showed slight reductions in cell size and improved cellular integrity with shrinkage in the cell membrane as the content of soybean hulls increased. These results show that microparticulated soybean hulls may form a protective layer during frying process, and this process could be used by the food industry for preparing doughnuts with reduced fat uptake.

  7. A modified serial blood sampling technique and utility of dried-blood spot technique in estimation of blood concentration: application in mouse pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Kurawattimath, Vishwanath; Pocha, Krishna; Mariappan, T Thanga; Trivedi, Ravi Kumar; Mandlekar, Sandhya

    2012-03-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in mice usually require discrete and parallel blood sampling owing to a restriction on the volume of blood that can be withdrawn. This results in dosing large number of animals and generating composite PK profile. To reduce the number of animals and generate individual animal PK profiles, we developed a serial sampling technique via tail vein bleeding in mice, in which only 20-30 μL blood was withdrawn per time point. Due to the small blood volume, a dried-blood spot (DBS) technique was applied for sample processing. The utility of this technique was demonstrated using three test compounds (amodiaquine, chloroquine and chlorthalidone), with varying degrees of blood-to-plasma partition ratios. The PK studies were carried out in male Balb/c mouse weighing 25-30 g. The compounds were administered intravenously via the saphenous vein. Blood was collected by composite (retro-orbital plexus) or serial (tail vein bleeding) sampling techniques at different time points. Blood samples were processed as blood lysate or DBS. Blood or plasma samples were analyzed by sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS methods. The blood concentrations (both from blood lysate and DBS) obtained from serial sampling matched with those from composite sampling. The ratio of blood AUC to plasma AUC correlated well with the in vitro blood-to-plasma partition ratio of the compounds. The systemic clearance and volume of distribution at steady state calculated from blood or plasma AUCs were in proportion to the respective AUCs. Our results indicated that the serial sampling technique would reduce the number of animals and also compound usage, as well as improve the quality of pharmacokinetic data. Also, the serial sampling technique does not require the use of anesthesia and allows estimation of inter-animal variability in PK. A small volume serial sampling is possible due to the availability of the DBS technique.

  8. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  9. Effects of distillers grain on beef carcass quality and tenderness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) during the finishing phase on beef carcass quality and ribeye steak tenderness. Crossbred beef steers (n = 304) received finishing diets including 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a dry-matter basis. Steers...

  10. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  11. Investigation of Appropriate Inhalation Technique for Mometasone Furoate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Haruko; Ito, Kanako; Mihashi, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an appropriate inhalation method with a mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler (MF-DPI). Utilizing a tone-based inhalation training device, we investigated the maximum peak inspiratory flow rate time (Tmax PIFR) and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) to determine whether either had an influence on lung deposition with use of an MF-DPI. A low tone indicated a PIFR of 28 L/min and a high tone that of 40 L/min, while 60 L/min was considered to be the standard. We established an inhalation profile in consideration of a human inhalation pattern, in which Tmax PIFR was set at 0.5 s (Tmax PIFR 0.5 s) and 2.5 s (Tmax PIFR 2.5 s). The reference cut-off value derived with a cascade impactor test was used for evaluation of the rate of delivered dose in the lung, which was the amount of drug from stage 3 to 7 at all PIFRs. We then investigated the relationship of the fine particle fraction (FPF) with the claimed dose at Tmax PIFR of 0.5 s and PIFR. There were no differences among the Tmax PIFR values for the doses emitted from the device or for the rate of delivered doses in stages 3-7. However, FPF for the claimed dose at 40 L/min was significantly lower than that at 60 L/min, which was dependent on PIFR. Our results showed that PIFR but not Tmax PIFR has an effect on lung deposition after inhalation with an MF-DPI.

  12. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Evaluation of dry active waste monitoring instruments and techniques: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Young, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is costly, so most nuclear power stations have found or will find that it is cost-effective to dispose of dry active waste (DAW) with activity levels that are Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) at a sanitary landfill or incinerator. It appears that substantial volumes of DAW can be exempted from disposal as LLRW if the maximum exposure to an individual member of the public from BRC waste does not exceed a few mrem per year effective dose equivalent. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has requested that Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) evaluate instruments and methods that could be used to measure surface contamination (activity per unit area) and radioactivity concentrations (activity per unit mass or volume) in BRC waste. Instrumentation utilized in a DAW BRC monitoring program must be capable of satisfying performance objectives. This instrumentations must measure bulk concentrations of radioactivity in DAW to assure that annual inventory disposal limits are not exceeded at each disposal site; measure radionuclide concentrations in disposal containers (e.g., bags, boxes, etc.) to assure that maximum allowable concentration limits in the DAW are not exceeded; assure that discrete radioactive particles (DRPs), if present in DAW, do not exceed maximum permissible activity limits; and possess detection capability to allow utilities to set operational limits between the detection limit and the disposal limit at their option. Our evaluations indicate that bag monitors and barrel counters have the necessary sensitivity to meet all of these objectives. 20 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Variation in Distillers Grains Quality and Investigation into Its Underlying Causes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major process for making ethanol from grains is the dry-grind method. The major co-product of the process is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which are widely used as a feed for animals and fish. Income from marketing of DDGS is important to the economic viability of the dry grind ind...

  14. Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without lysine supplementation on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptococcus iniae challen...

  15. Dry-plasma-free chemical etch technique for variability reduction in multi-patterning (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kal, Subhadeep; Mohanty, Nihar; Farrell, Richard A.; Franke, Elliott; Raley, Angelique; Thibaut, Sophie; Pereira, Cheryl; Pillai, Karthik; Ko, Akiteru; Mosden, Aelan; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Scaling beyond the 7nm technology node demands significant control over the variability down to a few angstroms, in order to achieve reasonable yield. For example, to meet the current scaling targets it is highly desirable to achieve sub 30nm pitch line/space features at back-end of the line (BEOL) or front end of line (FEOL); uniform and precise contact/hole patterning at middle of line (MOL). One of the quintessential requirements for such precise and possibly self-aligned patterning strategies is superior etch selectivity between the target films while other masks/films are exposed. The need to achieve high etch selectivity becomes more evident for unit process development at MOL and BEOL, as a result of low density films choices (compared to FEOL film choices) due to lower temperature budget. Low etch selectivity with conventional plasma and wet chemical etch techniques, causes significant gouging (un-intended etching of etch stop layer, as shown in Fig 1), high line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness (LWR), non-uniformity, etc. In certain circumstances this may lead to added downstream process stochastics. Furthermore, conventional plasma etches may also have the added disadvantage of plasma VUV damage and corner rounding (Fig. 1). Finally, the above mentioned factors can potentially compromise edge placement error (EPE) and/or yield. Therefore a process flow enabled with extremely high selective etches inherent to film properties and/or etch chemistries is a significant advantage. To improve this etch selectivity for certain etch steps during a process flow, we have to implement alternate highly selective, plasma free techniques in conjunction with conventional plasma etches (Fig 2.). In this article, we will present our plasma free, chemical gas phase etch technique using chemistries that have high selectivity towards a spectrum of films owing to the reaction mechanism ( as shown Fig 1). Gas phase etches also help eliminate plasma damage to the

  16. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    PubMed

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  17. Dried blood spots as a sampling technique for the quantitative determination of guanfacine in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Henion, Jack; Abbott, Richard; Wang, Phillip

    2011-11-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) technology was evaluated for the quantitative determination of guanfacine in human blood in clinical studies. A very sensitive DBS assay has been developed using HPLC coupled with an AB Sciex 5500 QTRAP® (Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, ON, Canada) MS system (LC-MS/MS) with a linear calibration range of 0.05 to 25 ng/ml. High-resolution MS using an Exactive Orbitrap® (ThermoFisher, LLC., CA, USA) was compared with the QTRAP using extracted exact mass ion current profiles for guanfacine and its stable-isotope-incorporated internal standard. The sample preparation employed liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether of 5 mm punched DBS card disks, followed by reversed-phase HPLC separation coupled with either MS/MS or high-resolution MS. Routine experiments were performed to establish the robustness of the DBS assay, including precision, accuracy, linearity, selectivity, sensitivity and long-term stability of up to 76 days. In addition, several factors that potentially affect quantitation were investigated, including blood volume for DBS spotting, punch size and punch location. A sensitive research assay with a LLOQ of 0.05 ng/ml was developed and subjected to several components of a method validation common to a regulated bioanalysis procedure employing DBS. This method development and partial validation study determined that spot volume, punch size or punch location do not affect assay accuracy and precision. The DBS approach was successfully applied to a clinical study (a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to assess the effect of varying multiple oral doses of guanfacine on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, safety, and tolerability profiles in healthy adult subjects). The pharmacokinetic profiles for 12 volunteers generated from the DBS assay and from a previously validated plasma assay were compared and were found to be comparable. DBS incurred samples collected from finger prick blood and

  18. Steam drying of industrial and agricultural products and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, G.B.; Galland, K.V.; Svensson, C.

    1983-03-01

    A new drying technique has been developed by MoDo-Chemetics and Chalmers of Technology in Sweden. Steam drying utilizes the drying capacity of superheated steam to remove moisture from porous material such as pulp or hog fuel. The first commercial dryer based on this technique was installed at Rockhammar Bruk in Sweden, where wood pulp is dried from 60% to 12% moisture content. Two commercial-size units are presently under construction, one for drying of hog fuel from 50% to 35% moisture content for on-the-grate firing in the power boiler and one for drying of sugar-beet pulp from 80% to 10% moisture content. This new technique can be applied in the drying of materials used in the production of waterboard, fiberboard, and hardboard, drying of peat, distillers grain residue, orange and pineapple pulp, grape and apple pomace, and cotton linters, for various end uses including cattlefeed and the use of residues as combustible material in small boilers. The energy-recovery aspects of the steam dryer are very important. Energy recovery in a useful form of more than 85% of the input to the dryer is feasible. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  19. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  20. Isotope Exchange and Fractionation Corrections for Extraction of Tritiated Water in Silica Gel by Freeze-Drying Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, E B; Shen, N C; Bandong, B B

    2001-09-24

    A concentration correction curve was established for measuring the activity concentration of airborne tritiated water collected with dried silica gel and extracted by the LLNL Environmental Monitoring Radiological Laboratory freeze-dry technique. A tracer study using standard tritiated water with silica gel showed that the concentration of tritium in the extracted water is lower than that in the adsorbed water by a fraction proportional to the amount of adsorbed water. The observed decrease in tritium concentration in the extracted water can be accounted for by dilution due to isotopic exchange with both non-tritiated water and hydroxyl groups within the silica gel matrix. For the range of 8-35% adsorbed water, which is typical of samples collected in LLNL monitoring stations, the derived exchangeable water in the silica gel material under investigation was (5.12 {+-} 0.08)%. The contribution of the H{sub 2}O/HTO vapor pressure effect using published empirical data in the literature was also considered in calculating the degree of isotopic exchange.

  1. Remote sensing of submerged habitats in the Dry Tortugas: A comparison of multiple sensors and classification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Donald William

    The advent of high resolution satellite imagery from platforms such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView, as well as host of new suborbital sensors has opened up new possibilities for mapping submerged coral, seagrass and algal communities. The research presented here examined the use of two of these platforms, IKONOS and QuickBird, as well as scanned aerial photographs, to map submerged habitats in the Dry Tortugas. Of the two satellite imagery sources, only QuickBird was tasked and imagery obtained specifically for this research. Upon examination and initial processing of the QuickBird imagery, it was discovered that an image anomaly, that will be referred to in this document as the green band miscalibration, had significant effects on some aspects of the image processing. To date, this anomaly has received no attention in the literature. Based mostly on issues associated with the green band miscalibration and the steps taken in this project to address them, the following document has two major areas of focus. After a brief introduction in Chapter one, Chapter 2 examines the use of the IKONOS and QuickBird imagery to obtain bathymetry information for the study area. Chapter 3 examines the use of the three image processing techniques on IKONOS and QuickBird imagery and manual interpretation of 1:24,000 nominal scale color aerial photography to classify submerged coral, seagrass, and algal habitats in the Dry Tortugas study area.

  2. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  3. Extrafibrillar collagen demineralization-based chelate-and-rinse technique bridges the gap between wet and dry dentin bonding.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sui; Wei, Chin-Chuan; Gu, Li-Sha; Tian, Fu-Cong; Arola, Dwayne D; Chen, Ji-Hua; Jiao, Yang; Pashley, David H; Niu, Li-Na; Tay, Franklin R

    2017-07-15

    Limitations associated with wet-bonding led to the recent development of a selective demineralization strategy in which dentin was etched with a reduced concentration of phosphoric acid to create exclusive extrafibrillar demineralization of the collagen matrix. However, the use of acidic conditioners removes calcium via diffusion of very small hydronium ions into the intrafibrillar collagen water compartments. This defeats the purpose of limiting the conditioner to the extrafibrillar space to create a collagen matrix containing only intrafibrillar minerals to prevent collapse of the collagen matrix. The present work examined the use of polymeric chelators (the sodium salt of polyacrylic acid) of different molecular weights to selectively demineralize extrafibrillar dentin. These polymeric chelators exhibit different affinities for calcium ions (isothermal titration calorimetry), penetrated intrafibrillar dentin collagen to different extents based on their molecular sizes (modified size-exclusion chromatography), and preserve the dynamic mechanical properties of mineralized dentin more favorably compared with completely demineralized phosphoric acid-etched dentin (nanoscopical dynamic mechanical analysis). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy provided evidence for retention of intrafibrillar minerals in dentin surfaces conditioned with polymeric chelators. Microtensile bond strengths to wet-bonded and dry-bonded dentin conditioned with these polymeric chelators showed that the use of sodium salts of polyacrylic acid for chelating dentin prior to bonding did not result in significant decline in resin-dentin bond strength. Taken together, the findings led to the conclusion that a chelate-and-rinse conditioning technique based on extrafibrillar collagen demineralization bridges the gap between wet and dry dentin bonding. The chelate-and-rinse dental adhesive bonding concept differentiates from previous research in that it is based on the size

  4. One step preparation of spherical drug particles by contamination-free dry milling technique with corn starch beads.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Maria; Hayashi, Naoko; Kondo, Keita

    2017-08-07

    The novel dry milling technique has been developed by using a mechanical powder processor for improving the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. It was found that the drug crystals were well pulverized by co-processing with fine particles of corn starch (CS). The morphological observation and particle size evaluation revealed that the processed products formed the composite particles with ordered-mixed structure, having double-layered particles with a core of CS and a coating layer of phenytoin (Phe), as a model drug. This result suggested that the drug crystals were selectively micronized and the resultant miniaturized Phe particles were adhered/fixed on the surface of un-milled CS particles. The mechanical characteristics detected by the indentation test assumed that the brittle Phe crystals sandwiched between elastic CS particles would be successfully crushed down by high shearing stress in the processor. The newly-established dispersion-sedimentation test indicated that the fine Phe particles were immediately detached from the composite particles in aqueous phase, constructing the suspension. The dissolution behavior from the processed particles was found to be improved and strongly dependent on the size and amount of detached Phe particles. Such milling and ordered-mixturization have been also successfully done by using recrystallized larger Phe particles than 100μm. These results would propose the contamination-free dry milling technique without using hard milling balls or beads. The mechanism of the current milling and ordered-mixing phenomena is also provided in this report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A technique for ultrasound-guided blood sampling from a dry and gel-free puncture area.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Sofie; Gopalasingam, Nigopan; Bendtsen, Thomas Fichtner; Knudsen, Lars; Sloth, Erik

    2016-05-07

    Vein punctures are performed daily to sample blood. Ultrasound (US) offers an alternative to the blind landmark technique for difficult vascular access. A challenge for this procedure is the presence of US gel in the puncture area. We present a technique for US-guided puncture from extremity veins not palpable or visible to the human eye, while keeping the puncture area dry and gel-free. Ten healthy volunteers underwent two US-guided vein punctures from veins that were neither palpable nor visible. One was drawn from an antebrachial vein and another from a brachial vein. A sterile barrier drape was made from a commercially available dressing and a piece of transparent sterile plastic. The barrier drape consists of an adhesive part placed on the skin designed for sonography and a free transparent flap constituting the barrier between the unsterile sonographic site and the sterile gel-free puncture site. The success rate for vein puncture was 100% in both locations. A total of 22 skin punctures were performed (11 antebrachial and 11 brachial). Gain output was increased 7% (4-12%), and 8% (4-15%), respectively, to compensate for attenuation of the US signal due to the drape. Alignment of the centre of the transducer with the long-axis of the target vein during the procedure was reported as a challenge. US-guided blood sampling from a brachial and antebrachial vein was possible with a 100% success rate, while ensuring a dry and gel-free venipuncture area on one side and the transducer on the other side of a sterile barrier.

  6. Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol.

  7. Determination of low methylmercury concentrations in peat soil samples by isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS using distillation and solvent extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Heidi; Perämäki, Paavo; Piispanen, Juha; Starr, Mike; Nieminen, Tiina; Kantola, Marjatta; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2015-04-01

    Most often, only total mercury concentrations in soil samples are determined in environmental studies. However, the determination of extremely toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in addition to the total mercury is critical to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in the environment. In this study, N2-assisted distillation and acidic KBr/CuSO4 solvent extraction methods were applied to isolate MeHg from wet peat soil samples collected from boreal forest catchments. Determination of MeHg was performed using a purge and trap GC-ICP-MS technique with a species-specific isotope dilution quantification. Distillation is known to be more prone to artificial MeHg formation compared to solvent extraction which may result in the erroneous MeHg results, especially with samples containing high amounts of inorganic mercury. However, methylation of inorganic mercury during the distillation step had no effect on the reliability of the final MeHg results when natural peat soil samples were distilled. MeHg concentrations determined in peat soil samples after distillation were compared to those determined after the solvent extraction method. MeHg concentrations in peat soil samples varied from 0.8 to 18 μg kg(-1) (dry weight) and the results obtained with the two different methods did not differ significantly (p=0.05). The distillation method with an isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS was shown to be a reliable method for the determination of low MeHg concentrations in unpolluted soil samples. Furthermore, the distillation method is solvent-free and less time-consuming and labor-intensive when compared to the solvent extraction method.

  8. Quantum distillation of bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems present a series of challenges for theory and opportunities for cold atom experiments. I will describe an experiment in which a bundle of initially trapped superfluid 1D Bose lattice gases is quenched to an untrapped, flat lattice potential. This simple experimental situation in the intermediate coupling regime (U/J between 4 and 9.6) leads to interesting dynamics. These include the progressive dissolution of a fraction of the doublons, as well as the quantum distillation and long term confinement of singlons out of and within the central, doublon-dominated region. We measure these processes by combining absorption imaging, photoassociation and 3-body loss to separately reconstruct the spatial distributions of the expectation values of singlons, doublons and triplons. The qualitative dynamics is reproduced by a Gutzwiller mean field model and the essence of the experiment can be understood by considering simple spatial pictures of site occupancies. This work was supported by the NSF and the ARO.

  9. Field-flow fractionation as analytical technique for the characterization of dry yeast: correlation with wine fermentation activity.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ramsés; Galceran, Ma Teresa; Puignou, Lluís

    2003-01-01

    Important oenological properties of wine depend on the winemaking yeast used in the fermentation process. There is considerable controversy about the quality of yeast, and a simple and cheap analytical methodology for quality control of yeast is needed. Gravitational field flow fractionation (GFFF) was used to characterize several commercial active dry wine yeasts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and to assess the quality of the raw material before use. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed using two different S. cerevisiae strains as inocula, and GFFF was used to follow the behavior of yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. The viable/nonviable cell ratio was obtained by flow cytometry (FC) using propidium iodide as fluorescent dye. In each experiment, the amount of dry wine yeast to be used was calculated in order to provide the same quantity of viable cells. Kinetic studies of the fermentation process were performed controlling the density of the must, from 1.071 to 0.989 (20/20 density), and the total residual sugars, from 170 to 3 g/L. During the wine fermentation process, differences in the peak profiles obtained by GFFF between the two types of commercial yeasts that can be related with the unlike cell growth were observed. Moreover, the strains showed different fermentation kinetic profiles that could be correlated with the corresponding fractograms monitored by GFFF. These results allow optimism that sedimentation FFF techniques could be successfully used for quality assessment of the raw material and to predict yeast behavior during yeast-based bioprocesses such as wine production.

  10. Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, Şahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-13

    We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by π/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task.

  11. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  12. Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P.

    2005-07-15

    Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

  13. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  14. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  15. Vacuum distillation of americium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J W; Knighton, J B; Nannie, C A

    1982-01-22

    High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200/sup 0/C and 10/sup -6/ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

  16. Vacuum Drying Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    At Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, General Electric Company's Space Division has a large environmental chamber for simulating the conditions under which an orbiting spacecraft operates. Normally it is used to test company-built space systems, such as NASA's Landsat and Nimbus satellites. It is also being used in a novel spinoff application-restoring water-damaged books and other paper products and textiles.

  17. Highly Attrition Resistant Zinc Oxide-Based Sorbents for H2S Removal by Spray Drying Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, C.K.; Lee, J.B.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.J.; Yi, C.K.

    2002-09-19

    Primary issues for the fluidized-bed/transport reactor process are high attrition resistant sorbent, its high sorption capacity and regenerability, durability, and cost. The overall objective of this project is the development of a superior attrition resistant zinc oxide-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Sorbents applicable to a fluidized-bed hot gas desulfurization process must have a high attrition resistance to withstand the fast solid circulation between a desulfurizer and a regenerator, fast kinetic reactions, and high sulfur sorption capacity. The oxidative regeneration of zinc-based sorbent usually initiated at greater than 600 C with highly exothermic nature causing deactivation of sorbent as well as complication of sulfidation process by side reaction. Focusing on solving the sorbent attrition and regenerability of zinc oxide-based sorbent, we have adapted multi-binder matrices and direct incorporation of regeneration promoter. The sorbent forming was done with a spray drying technique that is easily scalable to commercial quantity.

  18. Extension of 193 nm dry lithography to 45-nm half-pitch node: double exposure and double processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abani M.; Li, Jianliang; Hiserote, Jay A.; Melvin, Lawrence S., III

    2006-10-01

    Immersion lithography and multiple exposure techniques are the most promising methods to extend lithography manufacturing to the 45nm node. Although immersion lithography has attracted much attention recently as a promising optical lithography extension, it will not solve all the problems at the 45-nm node. The 'dry' option, (i.e. double exposure/etch) which can be realized with standard processing practice, will extend 193-nm lithography to the end of the current industry roadmap. Double exposure/etch lithography is expensive in terms of cost, throughput time, and overlay registration accuracy. However, it is less challenging compared to other possible alternatives and has the ability to break through the κ I barrier (0.25). This process, in combination with attenuated PSM (att-PSM) mask, is a good imaging solution that can reach, and most likely go beyond, the 45-nm node. Mask making requirements in a double exposure scheme will be reduced significantly. This can be appreciated by the fact that the separation of tightly-pitched mask into two less demanding pitch patterns will reduce the stringent specifications for each mask. In this study, modeling of double exposure lithography (DEL) with att-PSM masks to target 45-nm node is described. In addition, mask separation and implementation issues of optical proximity corrections (OPC) to improve process window are studied. To understand the impact of OPC on the process window, Fourier analysis of the masks has been carried out as well.

  19. Nano Spray Drying Technique as a Novel Approach To Formulate Stable Econazole Nitrate Nanosuspension Formulations for Ocular Use.

    PubMed

    Maged, Amr; Mahmoud, Azza A; Ghorab, Mahmoud M

    2016-09-06

    The effect of using methyl-β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as carriers for econazole nitrate nanoparticles prepared by nano spray dryer was explored in this work. Stabilizers, namely, poly(ethylene oxide), polyvinylpyrrolidone k30, poloxamer 407, Tween 80, and Cremophor EL, were used. The nano spray dried formulations revealed almost spherical particles with an average particle size values ranging from 121 to 1565 nm and zeta potential values ranging from -0.8 to -2.5 mV. The yield values for the obtained formulations reached 80%. The presence of the drug in the amorphous state within the nanosuspension matrix system significantly improved drug release compared to that for pure drug. Combination of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with Tween 80 achieved an important role for preserving the econazole nanosuspension from aggregation during storage for one year at room temperature as well as improving drug release from the nanosuspension. This selected formulation was suspended in chitosan HCl to increase drug release and bioavailability. The in vivo evaluation on albino rabbit's eyes demonstrated distinctly superior bioavailability of the selected formulation suspended in chitosan compared to its counterpart formulation suspended in buffer and crude drug suspension due to its mucoadhesive properties and nanosize. The nano spray dryer could serve as a one step technique toward formulating stable and effective nanosuspensions.

  20. Use of solid-state NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives of this study are to develop an NMR method for measuring the water in coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during coal drying, to determine what effect water has on retrograde/condensation reactions, and to determine the mechanism by which water may enhance coal reactivity toward liquefaction. Different methods of drying will be investigated to determine if drying can be accomplished without destroying coal reactivity toward liquefaction, thereby making coal drying an attractive and economical method for coal pretreatment. Coal drying methods will include thermal drying under different atmospheres and temperatures, drying with microwave radiation, and low-temperature chemical dehydration. The objective for this quarterly report were (1) to determine the limit of detection of water by NMR, (2) to determine the reproducibility of the NMR integration method using the Lab Cal {sup {trademark}} PC software, (3) to determine the amount of water in standard solutions, and (4) to determine the amount of water in a coal sample. The studies performed this last quarter have shown that the {sup 1}H NMR method for determining water in a coal sample via the reaction with 2,2-dimethoxypropane will be suitable for determining the water content in coals. The method should be most suitable for coals having low moisture content; that is, those coals which have been subjected to other drying techniques. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Use of solid-state NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Quarterly report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    The overall objectives of this study are to develop an NMR method for measuring the water in coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during coal drying, to determine what effect water has on retrograde/condensation reactions, and to determine the mechanism by which water may enhance coal reactivity toward liquefaction. Different methods of drying will be investigated to determine if drying can be accomplished without destroying coal reactivity toward liquefaction, thereby making coal drying an attractive and economical method for coal pretreatment. Coal drying methods will include thermal drying under different atmospheres and temperatures, drying with microwave radiation, and low-temperature chemical dehydration. The objective for this quarterly report were (1) to determine the limit of detection of water by NMR, (2) to determine the reproducibility of the NMR integration method using the Lab Cal {sup {trademark}} PC software, (3) to determine the amount of water in standard solutions, and (4) to determine the amount of water in a coal sample. The studies performed this last quarter have shown that the {sup 1}H NMR method for determining water in a coal sample via the reaction with 2,2-dimethoxypropane will be suitable for determining the water content in coals. The method should be most suitable for coals having low moisture content; that is, those coals which have been subjected to other drying techniques. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Changes in the phenolic acid content during commercial dry-grind processing of corn to ethanol and DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nine fractions (ground corn-1, cooked slurry-2, liquefied slurry-3, fermented mash-4, whole stillage-5, thin stillage-6, condensed distillers soluble (CDS)-7, distillers wet grains (DWG)-8, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-9) were collected from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol ...

  3. Percutaneous interface biopsy in dry-aspiration cases of chronic periprosthetic joint infections: a technique for preoperative isolation of the infecting organism.

    PubMed

    Corona, Pablo; Gil, Emilia; Guerra, Ernesto; Soldado, Francisco; Amat, Carles; Flores, Xavier; Pigrau, Carles

    2012-06-01

    Preoperative identification of the infecting micro-organism is of paramount importance in the treatment protocol for chronic periprosthetic joint infections, as it enables selection of the most appropriate antibiotic treatment. Preoperative joint aspiration, the most commonly used sampling technique, has proven to have a broad range of sensitivity values and the frequency of dry aspirations has not been well assessed. In such dry-tap cases a biopsy sample could be an option. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous interface biopsy (PIB) in isolating the infecting organism in cases of chronic Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) and dry-tap event. The basic technique is to harvest and culture a sample from the periprosthetic interface membrane by a percutaneous technique in the preoperative period. A retrospective study was done involving 24 consecutive patients suspected of PJI and where no fluid was obtained from the joint. Culture results from a percutaneous interface biopsy (PIB) were compared with intraoperative tissue cultures at the time of revision surgery. In all cases, a two-stage replacement was done. The sensitivity was 88.2%; specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value was 100%, while negative predictive value was 77.9%. Accuracy was 91.6%. No technique-related complication was observed. We conclude that PIB is a useful test for preoperative isolation of the infecting organism and could play a role in cases with dry-tap joint aspirations.

  4. Trigger point dry needling versus strain-counterstrain technique for upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Segura-Ortí, E; Prades-Vergara, S; Manzaneda-Piña, L; Valero-Martínez, R; Polo-Traverso, J A

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of active myofascial trigger points includes both invasive and non-invasive techniques. To compare the effects of upper trapezius trigger point dry needling (DN) and strain-counterstrain (SCS) techniques versus sham SCS. Randomised controlled trial. 34 study subjects with active trigger points were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, and received either three sessions of DN (n=12), six sessions of SCS (n=10), or sham SCS (n=12) over a 3-week period. Subjective pain response and subjects' own ratings of perceived disability were measured. The analysis of variance mixed model showed a significant time effect for pain (p<0.001), elicited pain (p<0.001), pain pressure threshold (p<0.01), and neck disability index (p=0.016). Pain at rest decreased in all groups, as follows: DN 18.5 mm (95% CI 4.3 to 32.7 mm); SCS 28.3 mm (95% CI 12.4 to 44.1 mm); sham SCS 21.9 mm (95% CI 3.5 to 40.1 mm). Reductions in disability score (points) were significant in the SCS group (5.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.4) but not in the DN (1.4, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.1) or sham SCS (1.8, 95% CI -6.4 to 2.7) groups. There was no significant group×time interaction effect for any variables studied. There were no differences between the sham SCS, SCS, and DN groups in any of the outcome measures. DN relieved pain after fewer sessions than SCS and sham SCS, and thus may be a more efficient technique. Future studies should include a larger sample size. NCT01290653. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Improvement of Physico-mechanical Properties of Partially Amorphous Acetaminophen Developed from Hydroalcoholic Solution Using Spray Drying Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Torab, Mansour; Khattab, Mostafa; Homayouni, Alireza; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water) of acetaminophen (5% w/v) in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight) was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape) to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties. PMID:24379968

  6. Comparison of the effects of different drying techniques on properties of granules and tablets made on a production scale.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Agota; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2007-02-07

    The aims of this study were to compare the properties of granules prepared in a high-shear granulator and dried by using different methods (fluid-bed and microwave-vacuum drying) and to compare the properties of tablets pressed from such granules. Experiments on a production scale were performed with Collette Ultima Pro 600 single-pot processing equipment and a Glatt WSG 200 fluid-bed granulator and drier. The particles granulated in the traditional high-shear granulator and dried in a vacuum chamber had a higher porosity and higher bulk and tapped densities, as a consequence of the special characteristics of the drying process. They retained their spherical form, in contrast with the particles dried via the fluid-bed technology. The two types of granules required different compressing forces for tabletting.

  7. Efficiency of fermionic quantum distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrych, J.; Feiguin, A. E.; Dagotto, E.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.

    2017-09-01

    We present a time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group investigation of the quantum distillation process within the Fermi-Hubbard model on a quasi-one-dimensional ladder geometry. The term distillation refers to the dynamical, spatial separation of singlons and doublons in the sudden expansion of interacting particles in an optical lattice, i.e., the release of a cloud of atoms from a trapping potential. Remarkably, quantum distillation can lead to a contraction of the doublon cloud, resulting in an increased density of the doublons in the core region compared to the initial state. As a main result, we show that this phenomenon is not limited to chains that were previously studied. Interestingly, there are additional dynamical processes on the two-leg ladder such as density oscillations and self-trapping of defects that lead to a less efficient distillation process. An investigation of the time evolution starting from product states provides an explanation for this behavior. Initial product states are also considered since in optical lattice experiments, such states are often used as the initial setup. We propose configurations that lead to a fast and efficient quantum distillation.

  8. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  9. A Diffusion-Viscous Analysis and Experimental Verification of the Drying Behavior in Nanosilver-Enabled Low-Temperature Joining Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kewei

    The low-temperature joining technique (LTJT) by silver sintering is being implemented by major manufacturers of power electronics devices and modules for bonding power semiconductor chips. A common die-attach material used with LTJT is a silver paste consisting of silver powder (micron- or nano-size particles) mixed in organic solvent and binder formulation. It is believed that the drying of the paste during the bonding process plays a critical role in determining the quality of the sintered bond-line. In this study, a model based on the diffusion of solvent molecules and viscous mechanics of the paste was introduced to determine the stress and strain states of the silver bond-line. A numerical simulation algorithm of the model was developed and coded in the C++ programming language. The numerical simulation allows determination of the time-dependent physical properties of the silver bond-line as the paste is being dried with a heating profile. The properties studied were solvent concentration, weight loss, shrinkage, stress, and strain. The stress is the cause of cracks in the bond-line and bond-line delamination. The simulated results were verified by complementary experiments in which the formation of cracks in bond-line and interface delamination was observed during the pressure-free drying of a die-attach nanosilver paste. Furthermore, the important drying parameters, such as drying pressure, low temperature drying time and temperature ramp rate of nanosilver LTJT process, are experimentally studied and analyzed with the numerical simulation. The simulated results were consistent with the experimental findings that the quality of sintered silver bond-line increases with increasing external drying pressure, with increasing low temperature drying time, and with decreasing temperature ramp rate. The insight offered by this modeling study can be used to optimize the process profile that enable pressure-free, low-temperature sintering of the die-attach material to

  10. The influence of microwave-assisted drying techniques on the rehydration behavior of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Markowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: (a) different drying methods, (b) hot air temperature in a convection oven, and (c) the moisture content of fruits dehydrated by multi-stage drying which involves a transition between different stages of drying, on the rehydration kinetics of dry blueberries. Models describing rehydration kinetics were also studied. Blueberries dehydrated by multi-stage microwave-assisted drying, which involved a hot air pre-drying step at 80 °C until the achievement of a moisture content of 1.95 kg H2O kg(-1)DM, were characterized by significantly higher rates of initial and successive rehydration as well as smaller initial loss of soluble solids in comparison with the samples dried by other methods. The highest initial rehydration rate and the smallest loss of soluble solids after 30 min of soaking were determined at 0.46 min(-1) and 0.29 kg DM kg(-1)DM, respectively. The Peleg model and the first-order-kinetic model fit the experimental data well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of the compositional changes in Orthosiphon stamineus leaves triggered by different drying techniques using (1) H NMR metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Pariyani, Raghunath; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Ahmad Azam, Amalina; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah

    2017-09-01

    Java tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying method. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e. shade, microwave and freeze drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of OS leaves was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools. A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites. Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Solar fermentation and distillation process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.M.

    1984-06-19

    A solar fermentation process and distillation system for the manufacture of ethanol product suitable for blending with motor gasoline or as a substitute fuel for gasoline. Fermentation of starches or sugars is carried out in situ in solar collector tubes. The raw beer product emanating from the solar tubes is purified into a high quality ethanol fuel product by passing the beer product through a series of distillation columns whose internal reboil vapor is generated in whole or in substantial part through direct application of solar heat energy. The use of solar energy as heating source in the fermentation and distillation steps markedly reduces the need for external utilities such as steam and fuel to run the plant thereby greatly reducing the operating costs of the plant.

  13. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  14. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  15. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  16. Dry development rinse (DDR) process and material for ArF/EUV extension technique toward 1Xnm hp and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigaki, Shuhei; Onishi, Ryuji; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2015-03-01

    Since the pattern pitch is getting smaller and smaller, the pattern collapse issue has been getting sever problem in the lithography process. Pattern collapse is one of the main reasons for minimizing of process margin at fine pitch by ArF-immersion or EUV lithography. The possible major cause of pattern collapse is the surface tension of the rinsing liquid and the shrinkage of resist pattern's surface. These surface tension or shrinkage are occurred in the spin drying process of the rinsing liquid. The influence of surface tension against very small pitch pattern is particularly severe. One of the most effective solution for this problem is thinning of the resist film thickness, however this strategy is reaching to its limits in terms of substrate etching process anymore. Recently the tri-layer resist process or hard mask processes have been used, but there is a limit to the thinning of resist film and there is no essential solution for this problem. On the other hand, dry development process such a supercritical drying method or DSA patterning by dry etching have been known as an ultimate way to suppress the pattern collapse issue. However, these processes are not applied to the mass production process right now because these have some problems such a defect issue, requirement of the special equipment and so on. We newly developed the novel process and material which can prevent the pattern collapse issue perfectly without using any special equipment. The process is Dry Development Rinse process (DDR process), and the material used in the process is Dry Development Rinse material (DDR material). DDR material is containing the special polymer which can replace the exposed and developed part. And finally, the resist pattern is developed by dry etching process without any pattern collapse issue. In this paper, we will discuss the approach for preventing the pattern collapse issue in ArF and EUV lithography process, and propose DDR process and DDR material as the

  17. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  18. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  19. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  20. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  1. Low Temperature Distillation for Desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, William

    2013-11-01

    We examine a unique configuration that combines the evaporator and condenser in a low temperature distillation process. The low temperature (pressure) container is designed to use waste heat from a power plant as the hot source and a water reservoir as the cold source. Fresh and saline streams of droplets in close proximity create interesting hydrodynamic challenges for the directional stability of the droplets.

  2. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  3. Prototype of an Interface for Hyphenating Distillation with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ya-Ru; Yang, Hui-Hsien; Urban, Pawel L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of complex matrices—containing hundreds of compounds—is challenging. Two-dimensional separation techniques provide an efficient way to reduce complexity of mixtures analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). For example, gasoline is a mixture of numerous compounds, which can be fractionated by distillation techniques. However, coupling conventional distillation with other separations as well as MS is not straightforward. We have established an automatic system for online coupling of simple microscale distillation with gas chromatography (GC) and electron ionization MS. The developed system incorporates an interface between the distillation condenser and the injector of a fused silica capillary GC column. Development of this multidimensional separation (distillation-GC-MS) was preceded by a series of preliminary off-line experiments. In the developed technique, the components with different boiling points are fractionated and instantly analyzed by GC-MS. The obtained data sets illustrate dynamics of the distillation process. An important advantage of the distillation-GC-MS technique is that raw samples can directly be analyzed without removal of the non-volatile matrix residues that could contaminate the GC injection port and the column. Distilling the samples immediately before the injection to the GC column may reduce possible matrix effects—especially in the early phase of separation, when molecules with different volatilities co-migrate. It can also reduce losses of highly volatile components (during fraction collection and transfer). The two separation steps are partly orthogonal, what can slightly increase selectivity of the entire analysis. PMID:28337400

  4. Prototype of an Interface for Hyphenating Distillation with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya-Ru; Yang, Hui-Hsien; Urban, Pawel L

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of complex matrices-containing hundreds of compounds-is challenging. Two-dimensional separation techniques provide an efficient way to reduce complexity of mixtures analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). For example, gasoline is a mixture of numerous compounds, which can be fractionated by distillation techniques. However, coupling conventional distillation with other separations as well as MS is not straightforward. We have established an automatic system for online coupling of simple microscale distillation with gas chromatography (GC) and electron ionization MS. The developed system incorporates an interface between the distillation condenser and the injector of a fused silica capillary GC column. Development of this multidimensional separation (distillation-GC-MS) was preceded by a series of preliminary off-line experiments. In the developed technique, the components with different boiling points are fractionated and instantly analyzed by GC-MS. The obtained data sets illustrate dynamics of the distillation process. An important advantage of the distillation-GC-MS technique is that raw samples can directly be analyzed without removal of the non-volatile matrix residues that could contaminate the GC injection port and the column. Distilling the samples immediately before the injection to the GC column may reduce possible matrix effects-especially in the early phase of separation, when molecules with different volatilities co-migrate. It can also reduce losses of highly volatile components (during fraction collection and transfer). The two separation steps are partly orthogonal, what can slightly increase selectivity of the entire analysis.

  5. Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

  6. Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

  7. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 U.S.C. 5001 on each proof gallon and a proportionate tax at a like rate on all fractional parts of each proof gallon. All products of distillation, by whatever name known, which contain distilled...

  8. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  9. Effect of freeze-dryer design on drying rate of an amorphous protein-formulation determined with a gravimetric technique.

    PubMed

    Gieseler, Henning; Lee, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A freeze-drying balance was used to determine momentary drying-rate, m(t), of a sucrose/BSA formulation contained in a vial with varying shelf packing density, Ø2. A comparison between two different laboratory-scale freeze-dryers was made. The effects of Ø2 on m(t) differed between the two units, attributed to drying chamber design and its effects on heat transfer. At high Ø2 the differences are annulled because of the shielding effects of surrounding vials. Parallel effects of Ø2 were also found on product temperature, Tb, measured in the balance vial. Tb was used to calculate vial heat transfer coefficient, Kv. Kv was strongly reduced with increasing Ø2, but reached a plateau value at high Ø2.

  10. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  11. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  12. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  13. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  14. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The...

  15. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  16. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  17. PHBV/PLLA-based composite scaffolds fabricated using an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique for bone tissue engineering: surface modification and in vitro biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Naznin; Wang, Min

    2012-03-01

    Tissue engineering combines living cells with biodegradable materials and/or bioactive components. Composite scaffolds containing biodegradable polymers and nanosized osteoconductive bioceramic with suitable properties are promising for bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, based on blending two biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, namely poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with incorporated nano hydroxyapatite (HA), three-dimensional composite scaffolds with controlled microstructures and an interconnected porous structure, together with high porosity, were fabricated using an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique. The influence of various parameters involved in the emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique was studied for the fabrication of good-quality polymer scaffolds based on PHBV polymers. The morphology, mechanical properties and crystallinity of PHBV/PLLA and HA in PHBV/PLLA composite scaffolds and PHBV polymer scaffolds were studied. The scaffolds were coated with collagen in order to improve wettability. During in vitro biological evaluation study, it was observed that SaOS-2 cells had high attachment on collagen-coated scaffolds. Significant improvement in cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity for HA-incorporated composite scaffolds was observed due to the incorporation of HA. After 3 and 7 days of culture on all scaffolds, SaOS-2 cells also had normal morphology and growth. These results indicated that PHBV/PLLA-based scaffolds fabricated via an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique were favorable sites for osteoblastic cells and are promising for the applications of bone tissue engineering.

  18. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  19. Preparation of functional composite particles of salbutamol sulfate using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richer; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi

    2008-03-01

    A previous study on spray-drying demonstrated that it could promote the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs using water-soluble polymers. Here, the preparation of composite particles of salbutamol sulfate (Sb) with water-insoluble polymers, such as Eudragit RS (RS) or Eudragit RL (RL) as a carrier, was examined. Despite the water insolubility of both polymers, the permeability of water was low in the former but high in the latter. We attempted to prepare controlled release composite particles by exploiting the characteristics of these carriers. The composite particles of the three components (Sb, RS, and RL) were prepared using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-dryer, and their physico-chemical and dissolution properties were compared with physical mixtures. Examination of particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the particles from the spray-drying process had atomized to several microns and were spherical. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that diffraction peaks and heat of fusion of Sb in the spray-dried samples decreased, indicating that the drug was amorphous and formed a solid dispersion. FT-IR analysis suggested that the amino group of Sb and a carbonyl group of the polymers formed a hydrogen bond. A dissolution test of Sb-RS-RL particles prepared using the 4-fluid nozzle spray-drying method showed that release rates were depressed significantly compared to the physical mixture at pH 1.2 and 6.8, and the depression was greater when RS was used instead of RL, presumably because of the permeability difference. The compression of these particles into tablets revealed that desirable controlled released dosage forms could be prepared. In addition, Sb was used to simulate an anti-asthmatic drug. For this an Andersen cascade impactor for dry powder inhalers was used to investigate delivery to the lungs.

  20. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, E.; Streltsov, A.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Adesso, G.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  1. Control of a fractional distillation process

    SciTech Connect

    Skraba, F.W.; Tuck, L.

    1983-03-22

    In a fractional distillation process in which a heating fluid and waste heat stream are utilized to supply heat to a fractional distillation column and in which the heat supplied from the waste heat stream is not controllable, control of the liquid level in the fractional distillation column is accomplished by manipulating the flow rate of the heating fluid so as to maintain a desired liquid level until such time as the flow rate of the heating fluid becomes zero at which time the flow rate of the external reflux to the fractional distillation column is manipulated to maintain a desired liquid level in the fractional distillation column. A switching of control of the liquid level provides a means by which an uncontrollable heat input may be provided to the fractional distillation column without losing control of the liquid level in the fractional distillation column.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of solid dispersion of atorvastatin calcium with Soluplus® by spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Ha, Eun-Sol; Baek, In-hwan; Cho, Wonkyung; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Kim, Min-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Soluplus® on the solubility of atorvastatin calcium and to develop a solid dispersion formulation that can improve the oral bioavailability of atorvastatin calcium. We demonstrated that Soluplus® increases the aqueous solubility of atorvastatin calcium. Several solid dispersion formulations of atorvastatin calcium with Soluplus® were prepared at various drug : carrier ratios by spray drying. Physicochemical analysis demonstrated that atorvastatin calcium is amorphous in each solid dispersion, and the 2 : 8 drug : carrier ratio provided the highest degree of sustained atorvastatin supersaturation. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats revealed that the 2 : 8 dispersion significantly improved the oral bioavailability of atorvastatin. This study demonstrates that spray-dried Soluplus® solid dispersions can be an effective method for achieving higher atorvastatin plasma levels.

  3. Do Face-to-Face Training and Telephonic Reminder Improve Dry Powder Inhaler Technique in Patients with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Pawan; Piryani, Rano Mal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Current modes of instruction on inhaler technique are inadequate. We aimed to evaluate the value of face-to-face training and telephonic reminder (FFTTR) for improving Rotahaler technique in experienced patients with COPD. Materials and Methods. A single group pre-/postinterventional study was conducted at Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal. We assessed the Rotahaler technique of thirty consecutive patients using Rotahaler device for more than one year. Patients with incorrect technique (n = 20) were instructed and trained by a pharmacist. Telephonic reminder was used to reinstruct patients on the correct technique on weekly basis for two weeks and technique was reassessed after 4 weeks of their first training. Descriptive statistics including Wilcoxon Signed Rank test were applied. Results. The mean age was 66.06 ± 10.6. Of 30 patients, 10 (33.3%) performed Rotahaler technique correctly at baseline and were excluded from FFTTR intervention. FFTTR corrected the technique in 18 (90%) patients and the median (IQR) score increased from 6 (5-6) to 8 (8-8) (p < 0.001). The most incorrect steps were “breathe out gently but not towards the inhaler mouthpiece” (16, 80%) and “hold breath for about 10 seconds” (18, 90%) at baseline which improved after intervention. Conclusion. FFTTR approach markedly improved Rotahaler technique in patients with COPD. PMID:28386274

  4. Particle design using a 4-fluid-nozzle spray-drying technique for sustained release of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richer; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi

    2006-07-01

    We prepared matrix particles of acetaminophen (Act) with chitosan (Cht) as a carrier using a newly developed 4-fluid-nozzle spray dryer. Cht dissolves in acid solutions and forms a gel, but it does not dissolve in alkaline solutions. Therefore, we tested the preparation of controlled release matrix particles using the characteristics of this carrier. Act and Cht mixtures in prescribed ratios were dissolved in an acid solution. We evaluated the matrix particles by preparing a solid dispersion using a 4-fluid-nozzle spray dryer. Observation of the particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the particles from the spray drying process had atomized to several microns, and that they had become spherical. We investigated the physicochemical properties of the matrix particles by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and dissolution rate analyses with a view to clarifying the effects of crystallinity on the dissolution rate. The powder X-ray diffraction peaks and the heat of the Act fusion in the spray-dried samples decreased with the increase of the carrier content, indicating that the drug was amorphous. These results indicate that the system formed a solid dispersion. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction between the drug and carrier using FT-IR analysis. The FT-IR spectroscopy for the Act solid dispersions suggested that the Act carboxyl group and the Cht amino group formed a hydrogen bond. In addition, the measurement results of the 13C CP/MAS solid-state NMR, indicated that a hydrogen bond had been formed between the Act carbonyl group and the Cht amino group. In the Act-Cht system, the 4-fluid-nozzle spray-dried preparation with a mixing ratio of 1 : 5 obtained a sustained release preparation in all pH test solutions.

  5. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  6. Spray drying as a fast and simple technique for the preparation of extended release dipyridamole (DYP) microparticles in a fixed dose combination (FDC) product with aspirin.

    PubMed

    Hamishehkar, H; Valizadeh, H; Alasty, P; Monajjemzadeh, F

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances have proven that the combinational therapy of extended release dipyridamole (DYP) and fast release aspirin (ASP) can improve clinical indices of heart failure in several vascular disorders. Although pharmaceutical industries always supported fast, simple and cost saving techniques in their productions, there is no simple reported method available for this purpose. The aim of this study was to check the possibility of preparing a FDC product, containing individual dosage units of extended release DYP microparticles and fast release ASP, using the spray-drying technique as a practice compatible with pharmaceutical industries. Solid dispersions of DYP in different polymeric substances (ethyl cellulose, carnauba wax, and Eudragit PO 100), were prepared using the spray-drying method. The physicochemical properties and structure of the prepared microparticles were analyzed using different techniques, such as the particle size analyzer (PSA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), and USP dissolution tester. ASP tablets were prepared individually and tested according to pharmacopeia. Results showed that prepared microparticles measured about 2.3 µm in size. Statistical analysis of the release data revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean release amount of the selected formulation compared to the innovative brand (Aggrenox®). Findings proposed a new formulation (F7) as an alternative to innovative brand and proved spray drying as a practice compatible with pharmaceutical industries and as a successful method for sustaining the DYP release rate from prepared microparticles in a FDC dosage form. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  8. Free Boundary Problems in Distillation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlhuter, Frederick Karl

    Design and scaleup of distillation equipment requires an understanding of the vapor-liquid equilibria as well as an understanding of the column hydraulics. This work focuses on two problems of fluid mechanics i