Science.gov

Sample records for dry ice blasting

  1. Dry ice blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  2. Cleaning By Blasting With Pellets Of Dry Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fody, Jody

    1993-01-01

    Dry process strips protective surface coats from parts to be cleaned, without manual scrubbing. Does not involve use of flammable or toxic solvents. Used to remove coats from variety of materials, including plastics, ceramics, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and composites. Adds no chemical-pollution problem to problem of disposal of residue of coating material. Process consists of blasting solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) pellets at surface to be cleaned. Pellets sublime on impact and pass into atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. Size, harness, velocity, and quantity of pellets adjusted to suit coating material and substrate.

  3. Improvement in the properties of plasma-sprayed metallic, alloy and ceramic coatings using dry-ice blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Dry-ice blasting, as an environmental-friendly method, was introduced into atmospheric plasma spraying for improving properties of metallic, alloy and ceramic coatings. The deposited coatings were then compared with coatings plasma-sprayed using conventional air cooling in terms of microstructure, temperature, oxidation, porosity, residual stress and adhesion. It was found that a denser steel or CoNiCrAlY alloy coating with a lower content of oxide can be achieved with the application of dry-ice blasting during the plasma spraying. In addition, the adhesive strength of Al 2O 3 coating deposited with dry-ice blasting exceeded 60 MPa, which was nearly increased by 30% compared with that of the coating deposited with conventional air cooling. The improvement in properties of plasma-sprayed metallic, alloy and ceramic coatings caused by dry-ice blasting was attributed to the decrease of annulus-ringed disk like splats, the better cooling efficiency of dry-ice pellets and even the mechanical effect of dry-ice impact.

  4. Efficacy of dry-ice blasting in preventive maintenance of auto robotic assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluch, Nazim; Mohtar, Shahimi; Abdullah, Che Sobry

    2016-08-01

    Welding robots are extensively applied in the automotive assemblies and `Spot Welding' is the most common welding application found in the auto stamping assembly manufacturing. Every manufacturing process is subject to variations - with resistance welding, these include; part fit up, part thickness variations, misaligned electrodes, variations in coating materials or thickness, sealers, weld force variations, shunting, machine tooling degradation; and slag and spatter damage. All welding gun tips undergo wear; an elemental part of the process. Though adaptive resistance welding control automatically compensates to keep production and quality up to the levels needed as gun tips undergo wear so that the welds remain reliable; the system cannot compensate for deterioration caused by the slag and spatter on the part holding fixtures, sensors, and gun tips. To cleanse welding robots of slag and spatter, dry-ice blasting has proven to be an effective remedy. This paper describes Spot welding process, analyses the slag and spatter formation during robotic welding of stamping assemblies, and concludes that the dry ice blasting process's utility in cleansing of welding robots in auto stamping plant operations is paramount and exigent.

  5. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  6. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface.

    The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  7. Dry Ice Moves on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-11

    Serina Diniega, JPL Systems Engineer, describes the discovery that Martian gullies that end in pits rather than fan deltas are likely caused by block of frozen carbon dioxide (dry ice) sliding down slopes on a cushion of carbon dioxide gas. The pits are formed as the "dry ice" sublimates away.

  8. Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Domergue, L.; Hadjadj, A.; Haas, J.-F.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of experiments and numerical modeling on the mitigation of blast waves using dry aqueous foams. The multiphase formalism is used to model the dry aqueous foam as a dense non-equilibrium two-phase medium as well as its interaction with the high explosion detonation products. New experiments have been performed to study the mass scaling effects. The experimental as well as the numerical results, which are in good agreement, show that more than an order of magnitude reduction in the peak overpressure ratio can be achieved. The positive impulse reduction is less marked than the overpressures. The Hopkinson scaling is also found to hold particularly at larger scales for these two blast parameters. Furthermore, momentum and heat transfers, which have the main dominant role in the mitigation process, are shown to modify significantly the classical blast wave profile and thereafter to disperse the energy from the peak overpressure due to the induced relaxation zone. In addition, the velocity of the fireball, which acts as a piston on its environment, is smaller than in air. Moreover, the greater inertia of the liquid phase tends to project the aqueous foam far from the fireball. The created gap tempers the amplitude of the transmitted shock wave to the aqueous foam. As a consequence, this results in a lowering of blast wave parameters of the two-phase spherical decaying shock wave.

  9. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... marked on two sides “WARNING CO2 SOLID (DRY ICE).” (2) Other packagings containing solid carbon dioxide...

  10. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... marked on two sides “WARNING CO2 SOLID (DRY ICE).” (2) Other packagings containing solid carbon dioxide...

  11. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... marked on two sides “WARNING CO2 SOLID (DRY ICE).” (2) Other packagings containing solid carbon dioxide...

  12. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... marked on two sides “WARNING CO2 SOLID (DRY ICE).” (2) Other packagings containing solid carbon dioxide...

  13. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... marked on two sides “WARNING CO2 SOLID (DRY ICE).” (2) Other packagings containing solid carbon dioxide...

  14. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag.

    PubMed

    Kura, Bhaskar; Kambham, Kalpalatha; Sangameswaran, Sivaramakrishnan; Potana, Sandhya

    2006-08-01

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions.

  15. Optimization for blast furnace slag dry cooling granulation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dazhan, Sheng; Yali, Wang; Ruiyun, Wang; Suping, Cui; Xiaoyu, Ma

    2017-03-01

    Since the large accumulation amount of blast furnace slag (BFS) with recycling value, it has become a hot topic for recovery utilization. Compared with the existing various BFS granulation process, the dry granulation process can promote the use of blast furnace granulated slag as cement substitute and concrete admixtures. Our research group developed a novel dry cooling granulation experiment device to treat BFS. However, there are still some problems to be solved. The purpose of this research is to improve the cooling and granulation efficiency of the existing dry type cooling equipment. This topic uses the FLUENT simulation software to study the impact of the number of air inlet on the cooling effect of the device. The simulation result is that the device possessing eight air inlets can increase the number of hot and cold gas exchanged, resulting in a better cooling effect. According to the power consumption, LCA analysis was carried out on the cooling granulation process. The results show that the device equipped eight air inlets not only improved the original equipment cooling granulation effect, but also increased resource utilization ratio, realized energy-saving and emission reduction.

  16. Pitting from Sublimation of Underlying Dry-Ice Layer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-21

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter took these images of an area near Mars south pole where coalescing or elongated pits are interpreted as signs of an underlying deposit of frozen carbon dioxide, or dry ice.

  17. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when... operator must ensure that the ground staff is informed that the dry ice is being loaded or is on board the...

  18. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when... operator must ensure that the ground staff is informed that the dry ice is being loaded or is on board the...

  19. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when... operator must ensure that the ground staff is informed that the dry ice is being loaded or is on board the...

  20. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when... operator must ensure that the ground staff is informed that the dry ice is being loaded or is on board the...

  1. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (dry ice). 175.900 Section 175.900 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when... operator must ensure that the ground staff is informed that the dry ice is being loaded or is on board the...

  2. Reduced pressure ice fog technique for controlled ice nucleation during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Bhugra, Chandan; Pikal, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    A method to achieve controlled ice nucleation during the freeze-drying process using an ice fog technique was demonstrated in an earlier report. However, the time required for nucleation was about 5 min, even though only one shelf was used, which resulted in Ostwald ripening (annealing) in some of the vials that nucleated earlier than the others. As a result, the ice structure was not optimally uniform in all the vials. The objective of the present study is to introduce a simple variation of the ice fog method whereby a reduced pressure in the chamber is utilized to allow more rapid and uniform freezing which is also potentially easier to scale up. Experiments were conducted on a lab scale freeze dryer with sucrose as model compound at different concentration, product load, and fill volume. Product resistance during primary drying was measured using manometric temperature measurement. Specific surface area of the freeze-dried cake was also determined. No difference was observed either in average product resistance or specific surface area for the different experimental conditions studied, indicating that with use of the reduced pressure ice fog technique, the solutions nucleated at very nearly the same temperature (-10 degrees C). The striking feature of the "Reduced Pressure Ice Fog Technique" is the rapid ice nucleation (less than a minute) under conditions where the earlier procedure required about 5 min; hence, effects of variable Ostwald ripening were not an issue.

  3. Prediction of dry ice mass for firefighting robot actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajala, M. T.; Khan, Md R.; Shafie, A. A.; Salami, MJE; Mohamad Nor, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The limitation in the performance of electric actuated firefighting robots in high-temperature fire environment has led to research on the alternative propulsion system for the mobility of firefighting robots in such environment. Capitalizing on the limitations of these electric actuators we suggested a gas-actuated propulsion system in our earlier study. The propulsion system is made up of a pneumatic motor as the actuator (for the robot) and carbon dioxide gas (self-generated from dry ice) as the power source. To satisfy the consumption requirement (9cfm) of the motor for efficient actuation of the robot in the fire environment, the volume of carbon dioxide gas, as well as the corresponding mass of the dry ice that will produce the required volume for powering and actuation of the robot, must be determined. This article, therefore, presents the computational analysis to predict the volumetric requirement and the dry ice mass sufficient to power a carbon dioxide gas propelled autonomous firefighting robot in a high-temperature environment. The governing equation of the sublimation of dry ice to carbon dioxide is established. An operating time of 2105.53s and operating pressure ranges from 137.9kPa to 482.65kPa were achieved following the consumption rate of the motor. Thus, 8.85m3 is computed as the volume requirement of the CAFFR while the corresponding dry ice mass for the CAFFR actuation ranges from 21.67kg to 75.83kg depending on the operating pressure.

  4. Use of a Tea Infuser to Submerge Low-Density Dry Ice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fictorie, Carl P.; Vitz, Ed

    2004-01-01

    A simple tea infuser is obtained and been used as a container for the dry ice to simulate the effect from high-density dry ice. The tea infuser is a simple, low cost device to allow instructors with access to dry ice makers to effectively use the interesting demonstration.

  5. Application of ozonated dry ice (ALIGAL™ Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Fratamico, Pina M; Juneja, Vijay; Annous, Bassam A; Rasanayagam, Vasuhi; Sundar, M; Braithwaite, David; Fisher, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation. ALIGAL™ Blue Ice (ABI), which combines the antimicrobial effect of ozone (O(3)) along with the high cooling capacity of dry ice, was investigated for its effect on bacterial reduction in air, in liquid, and on food and glass surfaces. Through proprietary means, O(3) was introduced to produce dry ice pellets to a concentration of 20 parts per million (ppm) by total weight. The ABI sublimation rate was similar to that of dry ice pellets under identical conditions, and ABI was able to hold the O(3) concentration throughout the normal shelf life of the product. Challenge studies were performed using different microorganisms, including E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria, that are critical to food safety. ABI showed significant (P < 0.05) microbial reduction during bioaerosol contamination (up to 5-log reduction of E. coli and Listeria), on chicken breast (approximately 1.3-log reduction of C. jejuni), on contact surfaces (approximately 3.9 log reduction of C. jejuni), and in liquid (2-log reduction of C. jejuni). Considering the stability of O(3), ease of use, and antimicrobial efficacy against foodborne pathogens, our results suggest that ABI is a better alternative, especially for meat and poultry processors, as compared to dry ice. Further, ABI can potentially serve as an additional processing hurdle to guard against pathogens during processing, transportation, distribution, and/or storage. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Controlled ice nucleation in the field of freeze-drying: fundamentals and technology review.

    PubMed

    Geidobler, R; Winter, G

    2013-10-01

    In the scientific community as well as in commercial freeze-drying, controlled ice nucleation has received a lot of attention because increasing the ice nucleation temperature can significantly reduce primary drying duration. Furthermore, controlled ice nucleation enables to reduce the randomness of the ice nucleation temperature, which can be a serious scale-up issue during process development. In this review, fundamentals of ice nucleation in the field of freeze-drying are presented. Furthermore, the impact of controlled ice nucleation on product qualities is discussed, and methods to achieve controlled ice nucleation are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of air-blast drying process for manufacturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast as industrial wine starters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Choi, Won-Seok; Jo, Hyun-Jung; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8) and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum S6 and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774) were studied using air-blast drying instead of the conventional drying methods (such as freeze and spray drying). Skim milk-a widely used protective agent-was used and in all strains, the highest viabilities following air-blast drying were obtained using 10% skim milk. Four excipients (wheat flour, nuruk, artichoke powder, and lactomil) were evaluated as protective agents for yeast strains during air-blast drying. Our results showed that 7 g lactomil was the best excipient in terms of drying time, powder form, and the survival rate of the yeast in the final product. Finally, 7 types of sugars were investigated to improve the survival rate of air-blast dried yeast cells: 10% trehalose, 10% sucrose, and 10% glucose had the highest survival rate of 97.54, 92.59, and 79.49% for S. cerevisiae D8, H. uvarum S6, and I. orientalis KMBL5774, respectively. After 3 months of storage, S. cerevisiae D8 and H. uvarum S6 demonstrated good survival rates (making them suitable for use as starters), whereas the survival rate of I. orientalis KMBL5774 decreased considerably compared to the other strains. Air-blast dried S. cerevisiae D8 and H. uvarum S6 showed metabolic activities similar to those of non-dried yeast cells, regardless of the storage period. Air-blast dried I. orientalis KMBL5774 showed a noticeable decrease in its ability to decompose malic acid after 3 months of storage at 4 °C.

  8. Impact of Ice Morphology on Design Space of Pharmaceutical Freeze-Drying.

    PubMed

    Goshima, Hiroshika; Do, Gabsoo; Nakagawa, Kyuya

    2016-06-01

    It has been known that the sublimation kinetics of a freeze-drying product is affected by its internal ice crystal microstructures. This article demonstrates the impact of the ice morphologies of a frozen formulation in a vial on the design space for the primary drying of a pharmaceutical freeze-drying process. Cross-sectional images of frozen sucrose-bovine serum albumin aqueous solutions were optically observed and digital pictures were acquired. Binary images were obtained from the optical data to extract the geometrical parameters (i.e., ice crystal size and tortuosity) that relate to the mass-transfer resistance of water vapor during the primary drying step. A mathematical model was used to simulate the primary drying kinetics and provided the design space for the process. The simulation results predicted that the geometrical parameters of frozen solutions significantly affect the design space, with large and less tortuous ice morphologies resulting in wide design spaces and vice versa. The optimal applicable drying conditions are influenced by the ice morphologies. Therefore, owing to the spatial distributions of the geometrical parameters of a product, the boundary curves of the design space are variable and could be tuned by controlling the ice morphologies. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measured performance of the heat exchanger in the NASA icing research tunnel under severe icing and dry-air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Vanfossen, J.; Nussle, R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of the pressure drop and thermal perfomance of the unique refrigeration heat exchanger in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) under severe icing and frosting conditions and also with dry air. This data will be useful to those planning to use or extend the capability of the IRT and other icing facilities (e.g., the Altitude Wind Tunnel-AWT). The IRT heat exchanger and refrigeration system is able to cool air passing through the test section down to at least a total temperature of -30 C (well below icing requirements), and usually up to -2 C. The system maintains a uniform temperature across the test section at all airspeeds, which is more difficult and time consuming at low airspeeds, at high temperatures, and on hot, humid days when the cooling towers are less efficient. The very small surfaces of the heat exchanger prevent any icing cloud droplets from passing through it and going through the tests section again. The IRT heat exchanger was originally designed not to be adversely affected by severe icing. During a worst-case icing test the heat exchanger iced up enough so that the temperature uniformaity was no worse than about +/- 1 deg C. The conclusion is that the heat exchanger design performs well.

  10. Microbiological quality of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) fillets stored in dry and wet ice.

    PubMed

    Jeyasekaran, G; Jeya Shakila, R; Sukumar, D

    2012-10-01

    Microbiological quality of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) fillets stored in three different ice conditions was studied. Fillets stored in wet ice at a ratio of 1:1 (package III) were sensorially acceptable for only 18 h, while that stored in dry ice at 1:1 (package I) and combination of dry ice and wet ice at 1:0.2:0.5 (package II) were in acceptable condition up to 24 h without re-icing and thus there was an extension of shelf life by about 33%. Total bacterial load was 7 log₁₀ cfu/g at the end of the storage period. Total psychrophilic population increased from zero to 7 log₁₀ cfu/g while total lactic acid bacteria from zero to 5 log₁₀ cfu/g. H₂S producers were detected only at 18 h, with a count of 1 log₁₀ cfu/g. Sulphite-reducing Clostridia increased gradually from zero to 110 most probable number count/g. Fresh cuttlefish fillets carried a bacterial flora of Micrococcus, Planococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, Proteus and Aeromonas. Pseudomonas was dominant in wet ice pack, while Aeromonas was dominant in both the dry ice and combination pack. Immediately after packing, the temperatures recorded in packages I, II and III were 10.5, 1.2 and 3.0 °C, respectively, which drastically decreased in 1 h and then maintained and finally increased gradually. The results indicate that use of combination of dry ice and wet ice is economical and very much useful to seafood industries, as this package considerably reduced the cost of air freight, as well as improved the quality and shelf life of cuttlefish.

  11. The effects of storing and transporting cryopreserved semen samples on dry ice.

    PubMed

    Til, David; Amaral, Vera L L; Salvador, Rafael A; Senn, Alfred; Paula, Thais S de

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to test the effects on sperm viability of transporting cryopreserved semen samples on dry ice. Twenty normozoospermic semen samples were cryopreserved and divided into five groups. The samples in Group 1 were immersed in liquid nitrogen throughout the experiment in cryogenic storage tanks; the cryopreserved straws in Group 2 were placed in a Styrofoam box containing dry ice and kept under these conditions for 48 hours; the samples in Group 3 were kept for 48 hours on dry ice under the same conditions as the Group 2 samples, and were then moved to a storage tank filled with liquid nitrogen; Group 4 samples were also kept for 48 hours in dry ice storage, and the Styrofoam box containing the samples was shipped by plane to assess the effects of shipping; the samples in Group 5 were shipped together with the Group 4 samples and were placed in a storage tank with liquid nitrogen after spending 48 hours stored on dry ice. After thawing, sperm parameters were analyzed for viability, vitality, and motility; spermatozoa were also tested for mitochondrial activity. Significant decreases in motility recovery rates (P=0.01) and vitality (P=0.001) were observed in all groups when compared to the control group. Mitochondrial activity was significantly decreased only in Group 5 (P=0.04), as evidenced by greater numbers of sperm cells not stained by reagent 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. Transportation did not affect the quality of cryopreserved semen samples, but dry ice as a means to preserve the samples during transportation had detrimental effects upon the sperm parameters assessed in this study.

  12. The effects of storing and transporting cryopreserved semen samples on dry ice

    PubMed Central

    Til, David; Amaral, Vera L L; Salvador, Rafael A; Senn, Alfred; de Paula, Thais S

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to test the effects on sperm viability of transporting cryopreserved semen samples on dry ice. Methods Twenty normozoospermic semen samples were cryopreserved and divided into five groups. The samples in Group 1 were immersed in liquid nitrogen throughout the experiment in cryogenic storage tanks; the cryopreserved straws in Group 2 were placed in a Styrofoam box containing dry ice and kept under these conditions for 48 hours; the samples in Group 3 were kept for 48 hours on dry ice under the same conditions as the Group 2 samples, and were then moved to a storage tank filled with liquid nitrogen; Group 4 samples were also kept for 48 hours in dry ice storage, and the Styrofoam box containing the samples was shipped by plane to assess the effects of shipping; the samples in Group 5 were shipped together with the Group 4 samples and were placed in a storage tank with liquid nitrogen after spending 48 hours stored on dry ice. After thawing, sperm parameters were analyzed for viability, vitality, and motility; spermatozoa were also tested for mitochondrial activity. Results Significant decreases in motility recovery rates (P=0.01) and vitality (P=0.001) were observed in all groups when compared to the control group. Mitochondrial activity was significantly decreased only in Group 5 (P=0.04), as evidenced by greater numbers of sperm cells not stained by reagent 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. Conclusions Transportation did not affect the quality of cryopreserved semen samples, but dry ice as a means to preserve the samples during transportation had detrimental effects upon the sperm parameters assessed in this study. PMID:28050956

  13. Neptune's Triton: A moon rich in dry ice and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, A. J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The encounter of the spacecraft Voyager 2 with Neptune and its large satellite Triton in August 1989 will provide a crucial test of ideas regarding the origin and chemical composition of the outer solar system. In this pre-encounter publication, the possibility is quantified that Titron is a captured moon which, like Pluto and Charon, originally condensed as a major planetesimal within the gas ring that was shed by the contracting protosolar cloud at Neptune's orbit. Ideas of supersonic convective turbulence are used to compute the gas pressure, temperature and rat of catalytic synthesis of CH4, CO2, and C(s) within the protosolar cloud, assuming that all C is initially present as CO. The calculations lead to a unique composition for Triton, Pluto, Charon: each body consists of, by mass, 18 1/2 percent solid CO2 ice, 4 percent graphite, 1/2 percent CH4 ice, 29 percent methanated water ice and 48 percent of anhydrous rock. This mix has a density consistent with that of the Pluto-Charon system and yields a predicted mean density for Triton of 2.20 + or - 0.5 g/cu cm, for satellite radius equal to 1,750 km.

  14. A Molecular Explanation of How the Fog Is Produced When Dry Ice Is Placed in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Ford, Nathan; No, Jin-Hwan; Ott, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Everyone enjoys seeing the cloudy white fog generated when solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is placed in water. Have you ever wondered what physical and chemical processes occur to produce this fog? When asked this question, many chemical educators suggest that the fog is produced when atmospheric water vapor condenses on cold carbon dioxide gas…

  15. Ice nucleation temperature influences recovery of activity of a model protein after freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Teresa; Nail, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between ice nucleation temperature and recovery of activity of a model protein, lactate dehydrogenase, after freeze drying. Aqueous buffer systems containing 50 microg/mL of protein were frozen in vials with externally mounted thermocouples on the shelf of a freeze dryer, then freeze dried. Various methods were used to establish a wide range of ice nucleation temperatures. An inverse relationship was found between the extent of supercooling during freezing and recovery of activity in the reconstituted solution. The data are consistent with a mechanism of inactivation resulting from adsorption of protein at the ice/freeze-concentrate interface during the freezing process.

  16. Controlled ice nucleation using freeze-dried Pseudomonas syringae encapsulated in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lindong; Tessier, Shannon N; Swei, Anisa; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    The control of ice nucleation is of fundamental significance in many process technologies related to food and pharmaceutical science and cryobiology. Mechanical perturbation, electromagnetic fields and ice-nucleating agents (INAs) have been known to induce ice nucleation in a controlled manner. But these ice-nucleating methods may suffer from cumbersome manual operations, safety concerns of external fields, and biocompatibility and recovery issues of INA particles, especially when used in living systems. Given the automatic ice-seeding nature of INAs, a promising solution to overcome some of the above limitations is to engineer a biocomposite that accommodates the INA particles but minimizes their interactions with biologics, as well as enabling the recovery of used particles. In this study, freeze-dried Pseudomonas syringae, a model ice-nucleating agent, was encapsulated into microliter-sized alginate beads. We evaluated the performance of the bacterial hydrogel beads to initiate ice nucleation in water and aqueous glycerol solution by investigating factors including the size and number of the beads and the local concentration of INA particles. In the aqueous sample of a fixed volume, the total mass of the INA particles (m) was found to be the governing parameter that is solely responsible for determining the ice nucleation performance of the bacterial hydrogel beads. The freezing temperature has a strong positive linear correlation with log 10 m. The findings in this study provide an effective, predictable approach to control ice nucleation, which can improve the outcome and standardization of many ice-assisted process technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Controlled Ice Nucleation on Stability of Lactate Dehydrogenase During Freeze-Drying.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mudhivarthi, Vamsi; Bogner, Robin H; Pikal, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Several controlled ice nucleation techniques have been developed to increase the efficiency of the freeze-drying process as well as to improve the quality of pharmaceutical products. Owing to the reduction in ice surface area, these techniques have the potential to reduce the degradation of proteins labile during freezing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice nucleation temperature on the in-process stability of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH in potassium phosphate buffer was nucleated at -4°C, -8°C, and -12°C using ControLyo™ or allowed to nucleate spontaneously. Both the enzymatic activity and tetramer recovery after freeze-thawing linearly correlated with product ice nucleation temperature (n = 24). Controlled nucleation also significantly improved batch homogeneity as reflected by reduced inter-vial variation in activity and tetramer recovery. With the correlation established in the laboratory, the degradation of protein in manufacturing arising from ice nucleation temperature differences can be quantitatively predicted. The results show that controlled nucleation reduced the degradation of LDH during the freezing process, but this does not necessarily translate to vastly superior stability during the entire freeze-drying process. The capability of improving batch homogeneity provides potential advantages in scaling-up from lab to manufacturing scale. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxytocin Levels in Community-Collected Saliva Samples Transported by Dry Versus Wet Ice.

    PubMed

    Howland, Lois C; Pickler, Rita H; Sullenbarger, Brent A; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2018-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide produced primarily in the hypothalamus, is associated with both critical physiological and psychological processes, particularly stress and feelings of affiliation. Increasingly, researchers are seeking ways to reliably incorporate OT as an outcome biomarker in clinical research. Previously, OT levels were measured in plasma or urine. Recently, researchers have measured this biomarker in saliva, particularly when conducting research in clinical and community settings. In spite of increased interest in the use of salivary OT in clinical research, procedures for handling, transport, and analysis of specimens vary. It is not known if significant OT protein degradation occurs if samples are initially transported on wet ice before being frozen. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of transport media (wet vs. dry ice) on OT levels derived from saliva collected from 12 postpartum women residing in the community. Saliva collected from each participant was divided between two microcentrifuge tubes (MIDSCI, Valley Park, MO), one placed on wet ice and one on dry ice for transport from the participant's home to the laboratory freezer. Time from collection to storage freezer was recorded. Laboratory personnel, blinded to method of transport, batch processed the samples. No significant differences in OT levels were found by transport method. Despite large interperson variations in OT levels, there were negligible intraperson variations. Although further research is required to identify factors (including transport time) related to interperson variation, this study supports the use of wet ice as a means of transporting salivary OT specimens in community-based research.

  19. Albedo Drop on the Greenland Ice Sheet: Relative Impacts of Wet and Dry Snow Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Polashenski, C.

    2014-12-01

    The energy balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is strongly impacted by changes in snow albedo. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations indicate that the GIS albedo has dropped since the early part of this century. We analyze data from the MODIS products MOD10A1 for broadband snow albedo and MOD09A1 for surface spectral reflectance since 2001 to better explain the physical mechanisms driving these changes. The MODIS products are filtered, and the data is masked using microwave-derived surface melt maps to isolate albedo changes due to dry snow processes from those driven by melt impacts. Results show that the majority of recent changes in the GIS albedo - even at high elevations - are driven by snow wetting rather than dry snow processes such as grain metamorphosis and aerosol impurity deposition. The spectral signature of the smaller changes occurring within dry snow areas suggests that grain metamorphosis dominates the albedo decline in these regions.

  20. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency.

  1. Observed large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles during TWP-ICE

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Shaocheng; Hume, Timothy; Jakob, Christian; ...

    2010-01-01

    This study documents the characteristics of the large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles observed during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), which was conducted in January–February 2006 in Darwin during the northern Australian monsoon season. The examined profiles exhibit significant variations between four distinct synoptic regimes that were observed during the experiment. The active monsoon period is characterized by strong upward motion and large advective cooling and moistening throughout the entire troposphere, while the suppressed and clear periods are dominated by moderate midlevel subsidence and significant low- to midlevel drying through horizontal advection. The midlevel subsidence andmore » horizontal dry advection are largely responsible for the dry midtroposphere observed during the suppressed period and limit the growth of clouds to low levels. During the break period, upward motion and advective cooling and moistening located primarily at midlevels dominate together with weak advective warming and drying (mainly from horizontal advection) at low levels. The variations of the diabatic heating and drying profiles with the different regimes are closely associated with differences in the large-scale structures, cloud types, and rainfall rates between the regimes. Strong diabatic heating and drying are seen throughout the troposphere during the active monsoon period while they are moderate and only occur above 700 hPa during the break period. The diabatic heating and drying tend to have their maxima at low levels during the suppressed periods. Furthermore, the diurnal variations of these structures between monsoon systems, continental/coastal, and tropical inland-initiated convective systems are also examined.« less

  2. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H.; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-01-01

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  3. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-12-17

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  4. Experimental determination of surface heat transfer coefficient in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath using a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    BACKGROUND: Dry ice-ethanol bath (-78 degree C) have been widely used in low temperature biological research to attain rapid cooling of samples below freezing temperature. The prediction of cooling rates of biological samples immersed in dry ice-ethanol bath is of practical interest in cryopreservation. The cooling rate can be obtained using mathematical models representing the heat conduction equation in transient state. Additionally, at the solid cryogenic-fluid interface, the knowledge of the surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is necessary for the convective boundary condition in order to correctly establish the mathematical problem. The study was to apply numerical modeling to obtain the surface heat transfer coefficient of a dry ice-ethanol bath. A numerical finite element solution of heat conduction equation was used to obtain surface heat transfer coefficients from measured temperatures at the center of polytetrafluoroethylene and polymethylmetacrylate cylinders immersed in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath. The numerical model considered the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties of plastic materials used. A negative linear relationship is observed between cylinder diameter and heat transfer coefficient in the liquid bath, the calculated h values were 308, 135 and 62.5 W/(m 2 K) for PMMA 1.3, PTFE 2.59 and 3.14 cm in diameter, respectively. The calculated heat transfer coefficients were consistent among several replicates; h in dry ice-ethanol showed an inverse relationship with cylinder diameter.

  5. [Growth inhibition of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood by tabletop dry ice cooler].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yumi; Kimura, Bon; Fujii, Tateo; Tokunaga, Yoshinori; Matsubayashi, Megumi; Aikawa, Yasushi

    2005-10-01

    Tabletop dry ice coolers (three types; dome model, cap model and tripod model), which are used in kitchens and hotel banquet halls to refrigerate fresh seafood, were investigated to determine whether growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was inhibited by their use. On TSA plates containing 1.8% NaCl and fresh seafood (fillets of squid, pink shrimp and yellowtail), V. parahaemolyticus (O3:K6, TDH+) inoculated at 4 to 5 log CFU/sample and left at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) grew by 1.0 to 2.8 orders in 4 hours. In contrast, with tabletop coolers no significant increase in viable count occurred in 3 to 4 hours, confirming that tabletop coolers inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. The temperature in each tabletop cooler was kept below 10 degrees C for 80 to 135 min, though the CO2 gas concentration in them remained high for only a short time (0 to 75 min). It was presumed that the refrigeration function mainly contributed to growth inhibition. Our results indicate that tabletop dry ice coolers are helpful for prevention of food-borne disease due to V. parahaemolyticus in food-service locations, such as kitchens and banquet halls.

  6. The ice nucleation temperature determines the primary drying rate of lyophilization for samples frozen on a temperature-controlled shelf.

    PubMed

    Searles, J A; Carpenter, J F; Randolph, T W

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of ice nucleation temperature on the primary drying rate during lyophilization for samples in vials that were frozen on a lyophilizer shelf. Aqueous solutions of 10% (w/v) hydroxyethyl starch were frozen in vials with externally mounted thermocouples and then partially lyophilized to determine the primary drying rate. Low- and high-particulate-containing samples, ice-nucleating additives silver iodide and Pseudomonas syringae, and other methods were used to obtain a wide range of nucleation temperatures. In cases where the supercooling exceeded 5 degrees C, freezing took place in the following three steps: (1) primary nucleation, (2) secondary nucleation encompassing the entire liquid volume, and (3) final solidification. The primary drying rate was dependent on the ice nucleation temperature, which is stochastic in nature but is affected by particulate content and the presence of ice nucleators. Sample cooling rates of 0.05 to 1 degrees C/min had no effect on nucleation temperatures and drying rate. We found that the ice nucleation temperature is the primary determinant of the primary drying rate. However, the nucleation temperature is not under direct control, and its stochastic nature and sensitivity to difficult-to-control parameters result in drying rate heterogeneity. Nucleation temperature heterogeneity may also result in variation in other morphology-related parameters such as surface area and secondary drying rate. Overall, these results document that factors such as particulate content and vial condition, which influence ice nucleation temperature, must be carefully controlled to avoid, for example, lot-to-lot variability during cGMP production. In addition, if these factors are not controlled and/or are inadvertently changed during process development and scaleup, a lyophilization cycle that was successful on the research scale may fail during large-scale production.

  7. Sliding-surface-liquefaction of sand-dry ice mixture and submarine landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.; Tsukui, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the historic records of off-shore mega-earthquakes along the subduction zone offshore Japan, there are a lot of witnesses about large-scale burning of flammable gas possibly ejected from sea floor. This gas was supposed to be the dissolved methane hydrates (MH), which have been found in the soundings of IODP and other oceanology projects. Since the vast distribution of the BSR in the continental margins, a lot of papers have been published which pointed out the possibilities of that gasification of those hydrates could have triggered gigantic submarine landslides. Global warming or large earthquake or magma intrusion may trigger extremely deep gigantic landslides in continental margins that which could cause catastrophic tsunami. However, recent triaxial compression tests on artificially prepared sand-MH-mixture samples revealed that the they have slightly higher strength than the ones of only sands and MH’s endothermal characteristics may resist against accelerating shear and large-displacement landslides as well. While, the stress-controlled undrained ring shear apparatuses have been developed by Sassa and Fukuoka at Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University to reproduce subaerial landslides induced by earthquakes and rainfalls. Using the apparatuses, they found localized liquefaction phenomenon along the deep saturated potential sliding surface due to excess pore pressure generation during the grain crushing induced bulk volume change. This phenomenon was named as “sliding surface liquefaction.” Similar sudden large pore pressure generation was observed in pore pressure control test simulating rain-induced landslides. In this paper, authors examined the shear behavior of the dry sand-dry ice mixture under constant normal stress and shear speed control tests using the latest ring shear apparatus. Sample was mixture of silica sands and dry-ice pellets (frozen carbon-dioxide). Those mixtures are often used for studying the mechanism of the

  8. Nuclear thermal source transfer unit, post-blast soil sample drying system

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ralph S.; Valencia, Matthew J

    Los Alamos National Laboratory states that its mission is “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” The Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) programs exists to engage undergraduate students in STEM work by providing opportunity to work at DOE facilities. As an undergraduate mechanical engineering intern under the SULI program at Los Alamos during the fall semester of 2016, I had the opportunity to contribute to the mission of the Laboratory while developing skills in a STEM discipline. I worked with Technology Applications, an engineering group that supports non-proliferation, counter terrorism, and emergency response missions. This group specializes in toolmore » design, weapons engineering, rapid prototyping, and mission training. I assisted with two major projects during my appointment Los Alamos. The first was a thermal source transportation unit, intended to safely contain a nuclear thermal source during transit. The second was a soil drying unit for use in nuclear postblast field sample collection. These projects have given me invaluable experience working alongside a team of professional engineers. Skills developed include modeling, simulation, group design, product and system design, and product testing.« less

  9. TEMPORARY STORAGE OF BOVINE SEMEN CRYOPRESERVED IN LIQUID NITROGEN ON DRY ICE AND REFREEZING OF FROZEN-THAWED SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Abdussamad, A M; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to investigate whether viability of bovine semen stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) will be adversely affected by temporary exposure to dry ice (-79°C). It was convincingly shown that post thaw-motility was not affected, regardless whether semen was thawed immediately or after being returned to liquid nitrogen. Shipping or temporary storage on dry ice, thus, is a viable option. In Experiment 2, refreezing of frozen-thawed semen was attempted. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was reduced by a factor of ten to between 6.0 % and 7.4 %, regardless whether thawing occurred directly after removal from liquid nitrogen or after an interim period on dry ice. When semen was refrozen on dry ice before being returned to liquid nitrogen, motility rates were significantly improved (13.0 % to 17.0 %, P<0.05). In both experiments sperm cells that remained motile displayed vigorous forward movement and normal morphological appearance.

  10. Small-Scale Production of High-Density Dry Ice: A Variant Combination of Two Classic Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Easily recoverable, thumb-sized pieces of high-density dry ice are conveniently produced by deposition of carbon dioxide within a test tube submerged in liquid nitrogen. A carbon dioxide-filled balloon sealed over the mouth of the test tube serves as a gas reservoir, and further permits a dramatic demonstration of both the gas-to-solid phase…

  11. Comparison of Dry Medium Culture Plates for Mesophilic Aerobic Bacteria in Milk, Ice Cream, Ham, and Codfish Fillet Products

    PubMed Central

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products. PMID:24551829

  12. Heating the Ice-Covered Lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica - Decadal Trends in Heat Content, Ice Thickness, and Heat Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooseff, M. N.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.; Chiuchiolo, A.; Obryk, M.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes integrate landscape processes and climate conditions. Most of the permanently ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are closed basin, receiving glacial melt water from streams for 10-12 weeks per year. Lake levels rise during the austral summer are balanced by sublimation of ice covers (year-round) and evaporation of open water moats (summer only). Vertical profiles of water temperature have been measured in three lakes in Taylor Valley since 1988. Up to 2002, lake levels were dropping, ice covers were thickening, and total heat contents were decreasing. These lakes have been gaining heat since the mid-2000s, at rates as high as 19.5x1014 cal/decade). Since 2002, lake levels have risen substantially (as much as 2.5 m), and ice covers have thinned (1.5 m on average). Analyses of lake ice thickness, meteorological conditions, and stream water heat loads indicate that the main source of heat to these lakes is from latent heat released when ice-covers form during the winter. An aditional source of heat to the lakes is water inflows from streams and direct glacieal melt. Mean lake temperatures in the past few years have stabilized or cooled, despite increases in lake level and total heat content, suggesting increased direct inflow of meltwater from glaciers. These results indicate that McMurdo Dry Valley lakes are sensitive indicators of climate processes in this polar desert landscape and demonstrate the importance of long-term data sets when addressing the effects of climate on ecosystem processes.

  13. Physical and thermal properties of blood storage bags: implications for shipping frozen components on dry ice.

    PubMed

    Hmel, Peter J; Kennedy, Anthony; Quiles, John G; Gorogias, Martha; Seelbaugh, Joseph P; Morrissette, Craig R; Van Ness, Kenneth; Reid, T J

    2002-07-01

    Frozen blood components are shipped on dry ice. The lower temperature (-70 degrees C in contrast to usual storage at -30 degrees C) and shipping conditions may cause a rent in the storage bag, breaking sterility and rendering the unit useless. The rate of loss can reach 50 to 80 percent. To identify those bags with lower probability of breaking during shipment, the thermal and physical properties of blood storage bags were examined. Blood storage bags were obtained from several manufacturers and were of the following compositions: PVC with citrate, di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), or tri-2-ethylhexyl-tri-mellitate (TEHTM) plasticizer; polyolefin (PO); poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA); or fluorinated polyethylene propylene (FEP). The glass transition temperature (Tg) of each storage bag was determined. Bag thickness and measures of material strength (tensile modulus [MT] and time to achieve 0.5 percent strain [T0.5%]) were evaluated. M(T) and T0.5% measurements were made at 25 and -70 degrees C. Response to applied force at -70 degrees C was measured using an impact testing device and a drop test. The Tg of the bags fell into two groups: 70 to 105 degrees C (PO, FEP) and -50 to -17 degrees C (PVC with plasticizer, EVA). Bag thickness ranged from 0.14 to 0.41 mm. Compared to other materials, the ratios of M(T) and T0.5% for PVC bags were increased (p < or = 0.001) indicating that structural changes for PVC were more pronounced upon cooling from 25 to -70 degrees C. Bags containing EVA were more shock resistant, resulting in the lowest rate of breakage (10% breakage) when compared with PO (60% breakage, p = 0.0573) or PVC (100% breakage, p = 0.0001). Blood storage bags made of EVA appear better suited for shipping frozen blood components on dry ice and are cost-effective replacements for PVC bags. For the identification of blood storage bags meeting specific storage requirements, physical and thermal analyses of blood storage bags may be useful and remove

  14. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to

  15. Sulfur dioxide reactions on ice surfaces: Implications for dry deposition to snow

    Treesearch

    Martha H. Conklin; Richard A. Sommerfeld; S. Kay Laird; John E. Villinski

    1993-01-01

    Controlled exposure of ice to a reactive gas, SO2, demonstrated the importance of the chemical composition of the ice surface on the accumulation of acidity in snow. In a series of bench-scale continuous-flow column experiments run at four temperatures (-1, -8, -30 and -60°C), SO2 was shown to dissolve and to react with other species in the ice-air interfacial region...

  16. Niche specialization of bacteria in permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Miye; Kim, Mincheol; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Lee, Jaejin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Sang Jong; Priscu, John C; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2017-06-01

    Perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are chemically stratified with depth and have distinct biological gradients. Despite long-term research on these unique environments, data on the structure of the microbial communities in the water columns of these lakes are scarce. Here, we examined bacterial diversity in five ice-covered Antarctic lakes by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Distinct communities were present in each lake, reflecting the unique biogeochemical characteristics of these environments. Further, certain bacterial lineages were confined exclusively to specific depths within each lake. For example, candidate division WM88 occurred solely at a depth of 15 m in Lake Fryxell, whereas unknown lineages of Chlorobi were found only at a depth of 18 m in Lake Miers, and two distinct classes of Firmicutes inhabited East and West Lobe Bonney at depths of 30 m. Redundancy analysis revealed that community variation of bacterioplankton could be explained by the distinct conditions of each lake and depth; in particular, assemblages from layers beneath the chemocline had biogeochemical associations that differed from those in the upper layers. These patterns of community composition may represent bacterial adaptations to the extreme and unique biogeochemical gradients of ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 2016 SUMMER BLAST PICNIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-09

    MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER DIRECTOR TODD MAY CASTS HIS BALLOT IN THE HOMEMADE ICE CREAM CONTEST DURING THE GREAT EXCHANGE SUMMER BLAST SOCIAL, PRESENTED JUNE 9 BY THE MARSHALL EXCHANGE. THE EXCHANGE IS A NON-APPROPRIATED-FUND ACTIVITY THAT AIMS TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE WELFARE, EFFICIENCY AND MORALE OF MARSHALL TEAM MEMBERS, OTHER GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL, RETIRED NASA EMPLOYEES AND THEIR FAMILIES.

  18. DRI Technical Program: Emerging Dynamics of the Marginal Ice Zone Ice, Ocean and Atmosphere Interactions in the Arctic Marginal Ice Zone. Year 3 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Institution The Scottish Association for Marine Science tmaksym@whoi.edu Phil.Hwang@sams.ac.uk LONG-TERM GOALS This DRI TECHNICAL PROGRAM (Emerging...jpw28@bas.ac.uk tmaksym@whoi.edu Co-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Byongjun (Phil) Hwang The Scottish Association for Marine Science Phil.Hwang@sams.ac.uk 2

  19. Macroporous Calcium Phosphate/Chitosan Composites Prepared via Unidirectional Ice Segregation and Subsequent Freeze-Drying

    PubMed Central

    Aranaz, Inmaculada; Martínez-Campos, Enrique; Moreno-Vicente, Carolina; Civantos, Ana; García-Arguelles, Sara; del Monte, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites have gained much interest in recent years for biomedical purposes. In this paper, three-dimensional calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites with different mineral contents were produced using a green method called ice segregation induced self-assembly (ISISA). In this methodology, ice crystals were used as a template to produce porous structures from an aqueous solution of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyapatite (Hap) also containing acetic acid (pH = 4.5). For better characterization of the nature of the inorganic matter entrapped within the resulting composite, we performed either oxygen plasma or calcination processes to remove the organic matter. The nature of the phosphate salts was studied by XRD and NMR studies. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was identified as the mineral phase in the composites submitted to oxygen plasma, whereas crystalline Hap was obtained after calcination. SEM microscopy revealed the formation of porous structures (porosity around 80–85%) in the original composites, as well as in the inorganic matrices obtained after calcination, with porous channels of up to 50 µm in diameter in the former case and of up to 20 µm in the latter. The biocompatibility of the composites was assessed using two different cell lines: C2C12GFP premyoblastic cells and MC3T3 preosteoblastic cells. PMID:28772874

  20. Life Detection and Characterization of Subsurface Ice and Brine in the McMurdo Dry Valleys Using an Ultrasonic Gopher: A NASA ASTEP Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, P. T.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Fritsen, C.; Kenig, F.; McKay, C. P.; Murray, A.; Sherrit, S.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of ice and fluids near the surface of Mars in both the distant and recent past is growing with each new mission to the Planet. One explanation for fluids forming springlike features on Mars is the discharge of subsurface brines. Brines offer potential refugia for extant Martian life, and near surface ice could preserve a record of past life on the planet. Proven techniques to get underground to sample these environments, and get below the disruptive influence of the surface oxidant and radiation regime, will be critical for future astrobiology missions to Mars. Our Astrobiology for Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) project has the goal to develop and test a novel ultrasonic corer in a Mars analog environment, the McMurdo Dry valleys, Antarctica, and to detect and describe life in a previously unstudied extreme ecosystem; Lake Vida (Fig. 1), an ice-sealed lake.

  1. Accumulation Rates in the Dry Snow Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet Inferred from L-band InSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. C.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet contains about 2.9 million km3 of ice and would raise global sea levels by about 7.1 m if it melted completely. Two unusually large iceberg calving events at Petermann Glacier in the past several years, along with the unusually large extent of ice sheet melt this summer point to the relevance of understanding the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. In this study, we use data from the PALSAR instrument aboard the ALOS satellite to form L-band (23-centimeter carrier wavelength) InSAR images of the dry snow zone of the Greenland ice sheet. We form geocoded differential interferograms, using the ice sheet elevation model produced by Howat et.al. [1]. By applying phase and radiometric calibration, we can examine interferograms formed between any pair of transmit and receive polarization channels. In co-polarized interferograms, the InSAR correlation ranges from about 0.35 at the summit (38.7 deg W, 73.0 deg N) where accumulation is about 20 cm w.e./yr to about 0.70 at the north-eastern part of the dry snow zone (35.1 deg W, 77.1 deg N), where accumulation is about 11.7 cm w.e./yr. Cross-polarized interferograms show similar geographic variation with overall lower correlation. We compare our InSAR data with in-situ measurements published by Bales et.al. [2]. We examine the applicability of dense-medium radiative transfer electromagnetic scattering models for estimating accumulation rates from L-band InSAR data. The large number and broad coverage of ALOS scenes acquired between 2007 and 2009 with good InSAR coherence at 46-day repeat times and 21.5 degree incidence angles gives us the opportunity to examine the empirical relationship between in-situ accumulation rate observations and the polarimetric InSAR correlation and radar brightness at this particular imaging geometry. This helps us quantify the accuracy of accumulation rates estimated from InSAR data. In some regions, 46-day interferograms acquired in the winters of several consecutive

  2. Dry calving processes at the ice cliff of an antarctic local glacier: the study case of Strandline Glacier (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiraglia, C.; Motta, M.; Vassena, G.; Diolaiuti, G.

    2003-04-01

    In Antartic coastal area, where the ice sheet and the large outlet glaciers do not reach the sea and where some rugged mountain chains are often present, many small glaciers can be found. They are the so called local or alpine type glaciers, which have their terminus ground-based such as the real alpine glaciers and rarely reach the main valley floors. They are practically isolated and independent from the supply flowing down from the plateau and their mass balance is mainly controlled by sublimation and aeolic erosion and accumulation. The glaciers closer to the coast are submitted to the melting as well, and when the terminus is cliff-shaped they are also affected by dry calving. The most known and studied Antarctic local glaciers are placed in the Dry Valleys region (Chinn, 1985), but this kind of glaciers is also diffused all along the Northern Victoria Land coastal region (Chinn and others, 1989). Since the first Italian Antarctic expedition (1985), many studies have been carried out on this type of glaciers, which can be usefull for detailed mass balance evaluations and for obtaining information about the effects of the present climatic dynamics on the Antarctic coastal environment (Baroni and Orombelli, 1987; Baroni and others, 1995; Meneghel, 1999; Vassena and others., 2001). The Strandline Glacier (74 41 S; 164 07 E), in particular is a small alpine glacier (0,79 kmq) on the coast of Terra Nova Bay, Northern Victoria Land; it is a cold glacier where accumulation and ablation basins are mainly controlled by wind processes. Its terminus forms in the central part a grounded ice cliff about 30 m high, about 130 m far from the sea. On that glacier mass balance, surface velocity and calving rate were measured. During the southern summer season 2000-2001 many topographycal profiles of the ice cliff were surveyed by using both classical topographical and glaciological methods (total station and stakes) and GPS technique. It was so possible to detect the short term

  3. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    During cruise CU-B UAF UW Airborne expendable Ice Buoy (AXIB) Ahead, at and inside ice edge Surface meteorology T, SLP ~1 year CU-B UW...Balance (IMB) buoys Inside ice edge w/ >50cm thickness Ice mass balance T in snow-ice-ocean, T, SLP at surface ~1 year WHOI CRREL (SeaState DRI

  4. Blasting CME

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This LASCO C2 image, taken 8 January 2002, shows a widely spreading coronal mass ejection (CME) as it blasts more than a billion tons of matter out into space at millions of kilometers per hour. The C2 image was turned 90 degrees so that the blast seems to be pointing down. An EIT 304 Angstrom image from a different day was enlarged and superimposed on the C2 image so that it filled the occulting disk for effect. Credit: NASA/GSFC/SOHO/ESA To learn more go to the SOHO website: sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/home.html To learn more about NASA's Sun Earth Day go here: sunearthday.nasa.gov/2010/index.php

  5. Blast Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Development Generic Hull Testing Airbag and Sensor Technology Development Blast Data Recorder Specifications and Fielding Numerical Model Improvement...seat designs, airbag and restraint systems, and energy absorbing flooring solutions  Vehicle event data recorders for collecting highly accurate...treatments.  Airbag or comparable technologies such as bolsters.  Sensors that can detect and deploy/trigger interior treatments within the timeframe of a

  6. Bloodmeal Host Congregation and Landscape Structure Impact the Estimation of Female Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Using Dry Ice-Baited Traps

    PubMed Central

    THIEMANN, TARA; NELMS, BRITTANY; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency. PMID:21661310

  7. Draft genome sequence of Paenisporosarcina sp. strain TG-14, a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from sediment-laden stratified basal ice from Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hye Yeon; Lee, Sung Gu; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Doyle, Shawn; Christner, Brent C; Kim, Hak Jun

    2012-12-01

    The psychrophilic bacterium Paenisporosarcina sp. TG-14 was isolated from sediment-laden stratified basal ice from Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide useful information on the cold adaptation mechanism in extremely variable environments.

  8. Characterizing Microbial Mat Morphology with Structure from Motion Techniques in Ice-Covered Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, T. J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Allen, B.; Hawes, I.; Lawrence, J.; Jungblut, A. D.; Krusor, M.; Coleman, L.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Structure from Motion (SFM) techniques can provide quantitative morphological documentation of otherwise inaccessible benthic ecosystems such as microbial mats in Lake Joyce, a perennially ice-covered lake of the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). Microbial mats are a key ecosystem of MDV lakes, and diverse mat morphologies like pinnacles emerge from interactions among microbial behavior, mineralization, and environmental conditions. Environmental gradients can be isolated to test mat growth models, but assessment of mat morphology along these gradients is complicated by their inaccessibility: the Lake Joyce ice cover is 4-5 m thick, water depths containing diverse pinnacle morphologies are 9-14 m, and relevant mat features are cm-scale. In order to map mat pinnacle morphology in different sedimentary settings, we deployed drop cameras (SeaViewer and GoPro) through 29 GPS referenced drill holes clustered into six stations along a transect spanning 880 m. Once under the ice cover, a boom containing a second GoPro camera was unfurled and rotated to collect oblique images of the benthic mats within dm of the mat-water interface. This setup allowed imaging from all sides over a ~1.5 m diameter area of the lake bottom. Underwater lens parameters were determined for each camera in Agisoft Lens; images were reconstructed and oriented in space with the SFM software Agisoft Photoscan, using the drop camera axis of rotation as up. The reconstructions were compared to downward facing images to assess accuracy, and similar images of an object with known geometry provided a test for expected error in reconstructions. Downward facing images identify decreasing pinnacle abundance in higher sedimentation settings, and quantitative measurements of 3D reconstructions in KeckCAVES LidarViewer supplement these mat morphological facies with measurements of pinnacle height and orientation. Reconstructions also help isolate confounding variables for mat facies trends with measurements

  9. Effect of controlled ice nucleation on primary drying stage and protein recovery in vials cooled in a modified freeze-dryer.

    PubMed

    Passot, Stéphanie; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Marin, Michèle; Galan, Miquel; Morris, G John; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2009-07-01

    The freezing step influences lyophilization efficiency and protein stability. The main objective of this work was to investigate the impact on the primary drying stage of an ultrasound controlled ice nucleation technology, compared with usual freezing protocols. Lyophilization cycles involving different freezing protocols (applying a constant shelf cooling rate of 1 degrees C/min or 0.2 degrees C/min, putting vials on a precooled shelf, and controlling nucleation by ultrasounds or by addition of a nucleating agent) were performed in a prototype freeze-dryer. Three protective media including sucrose or maltodextrin and differing by their thermal properties and their ability to preserve a model protein (catalase) were used. The visual aspect of the lyophilized cake, residual water content, and enzymatic activity recovery of catalase were assessed after each lyophilization cycle and after 1 month of storage of the lyophilized product at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The freezing protocols allowing increasing nucleation temperature (precooled shelf and controlled nucleation by using ultrasounds or a nucleating agent) induced a faster sublimation step and higher sublimation rate homogeneity. Whatever the composition of the protective medium, applying the ultrasound technology made it possible to decrease the sublimation time by 14%, compared with the freezing method involving a constant shelf cooling rate of 1 degrees C/min. Concerning the enzyme activity recovery, the impact of the freezing protocol was observed only for the protective medium involving maltodextrin, a less effective protective agent than sucrose. Higher activity recovery results were obtained after storage when the ultrasound technology or the precooled shelf method was applied. Controlling ice nucleation during the freezing step of the lyophilization process improved the homogeneity of the sublimation rates, which will, in turn, reduce the intervial heterogeneity. The freeze-dryer prototype including

  10. Blasting and Blast Effects in Cold Regions. Part 3. Explosions in Ground Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    121- York, Ontario: Technical Marketing Services- 123. Explosives, Canadian Industries, 6th edition. Gaffney, E.S. (1984b) Hugoniot of water ice. In...Mines, blasting. U.S. Bureau of Nlines , Report of Insesti- Report of lnsestigations RI 7751. gations 8507. Piekutoiski. A.J. (1974) I.aborator,, scale

  11. Cosmic Blasting Zone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-06

    Saturn's impact-pummeled Hyperion stares back at Cassini in this six-image mosaic taken during the spacecraft’s close approach on Sept. 26, 2005. This up-close view shows a low density body blasted by impacts over the eons. Scientists originally believed that the spongy appearance of Hyperion is caused by a phenomenon called thermal erosion, in which dark materials accumulating on crater floors are warmed by sunlight and melt deeper into the surface, allowing surrounding ice to vaporize away. Cassini scientists now think that Hyperion’s unusual appearance can be attributed to the fact that it has an unusually low density for such a large object, giving it weak surface gravity and high porosity. These characteristics help preserve the original shapes of Hyperion’s craters by limiting the amount of impact ejecta coating the moon’s surface. Impactors tend to make craters by compressing the surface material, rather than blasting it out. Further, Hyperion’s weak gravity, and correspondingly low escape velocity, means that what little ejecta is produced has a good chance of escaping the moon altogether. At 280 kilometers, (174 miles) across, Hyperion’s impact-shaped morphology makes it the largest of Saturn's irregularly-shaped moons. Six, clear-filter images were combined to create this mosaic. Images were taken by the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera at a mean distance of about 33,000 kilometers (20,500 miles) from Hyperion and at a sun-Hyperion-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 51 degrees. Image scale is 197 meters per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07761

  12. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  13. Variation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry-wet condition since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.-J.; Yuan, D.-X.; Li, H.-C.; Cheng, H.; Li, T.-Y.; Edwards, R. L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Qin, J.-M.; Tang, W.; Zhao, Z.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    Highlight: this paper focuses on the climate variability in central China since 1300 AD, involving: 1. A well-dated, 1.5 year resolution stalagmite δ18O record from Lianhua Cave, central China; 2. Links of the δ18O record with regional dry-wet condition, monsoon intensity, and temperature over eastern China; 3. Correlations among drought events in the Lianhua record, solar irradiation, and ENSO index. We present a highly precisely 230Th/U dated, 1.5 year resolution δ18O record of an aragonite stalagmite (LHD1) collected from Lianhua Cave in Wuling mountain area of central China. The comparison of the δ18O record with the local instrumental record and historical documents exhibits at least 15 drought events in the Wuling mountain and adjacent areas during the Little Ice Age, in which some of them were corresponding to megadrought events in the broad Asian monsoonal region of China. Thus, the stalagmite δ18O record reveals variations in the summer monsoon precipitation and dry-wet condition in Wuling mountain area. The eastern China temperature varied with the solar activity, showing higher temperature under stronger solar irradiation which produces stronger summer monsoon. During Maunder, Dalton and 1900 sunspot minima, more severe drought events occurred, indicating weakening of the summer monsoon when solar activity decreased on decadal time scales. On interannual time scale, dry conditions in the studying area were prevailing under El Niño condition, which is also supported by the spectrum analysis. Hence, our record illustrates the linkage of Asian summer monsoon precipitation to solar irradiation and ENSO: wetter condition under stronger summer monsoon during warm periods and vice versa; During cold periods, the Walker circulation will shift toward central Pacific under El Niño condition, resulting further weakening of Asian summer monsoon. However, the δ18O of LHD1 record is positively correlated with temperature after ~1940 AD which is opposite to the

  14. Unique Blasting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The Sun blasted out five coronal mass ejections (CMEs) over about two days (Feb. 26-28, 2013) and each one had quite a different shape and structure, seen here in a video bit.ly/Za8Aso. The most interesting one (seen above) blew out to the right with a bright, elongated center, likely part of a solar filament, that maintained its curly-Q shape as it expanded out of view. The images were taken by SOHO LASCO C2 coronagraph. The Sun is represented by the white circle and the red disk blocks out the Sun and part of the corona. Credit: NASA/Goddard/SOHO NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging: Searching for Organics from the Dry Valleys of Queen Maud Land Antarctica to the Regolith and Ices of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Sattler, B.; Muller, J.-P.; Fisk, M.; Cousins, C.; Dartnell, L.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging using excitation in ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths has been proposed as a nondestructive astrobiological rapid survey tool to search for amino and nucleic acids [1], microbial life [2], and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deep in the Mars regolith [3, 4]. However, the technique is easily adapted to search for complex biomolecular targets using longer wavelength sources [5]. Of particular interest is the ability of excitation at 532 nm to detect photosynthetic pigments in cyanobacteria-dominated microbial communities populating the ice of alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic lakes, glaciers, and ice sheets [6-8]. During the months of November and December 2008 we tested the technique as part of an extended international, interdisciplinary field campaign in the Dry Valleys of Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. In this paper we review our recent laboratory experiments on the use of UV excitation for detection of PAHs doped on Mars analogue soils [9] and chasmo- and epilithic lichen communities within basaltic Iceland lavas. We present for the first time the results of our field experiments conducted during the Tawani 2008 International Antarctic Expedition for in situ detection and quantification of photosynthetic biomass in the ice caps of annual and perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes. We discuss the advantages of using a nondestructive rapid survey photonic tools such as laser induced fluorescence imaging that can be easily implemented from lander, rover, airborne, or orbital platforms. The techniques presented can be utilized to monitor the microbial potential of large, critical ecosystems on Earth, or to facilitate the remote or manned search for organics and photosynthetic life on any terrestrial planet. References 1. Storrie-Lombardi, M.C., Hug, W.F., McDonald, G.D., Tsapin, A.I., and Nealson, K.H. 2001. Hollow cathode ion lasers for deep ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

  16. The application of dual-electrode through vial impedance spectroscopy for the determination of ice interface temperatures, primary drying rate and vial heat transfer coefficient in lyophilization process development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoff; Jeeraruangrattana, Yowwares; Ermolina, Irina

    2018-06-22

    Through vial impedance spectroscopy (TVIS) is a product non-invasive process analytical technology which exploits the frequency dependence of the complex impedance spectrum of a composite object (i.e. the freeze-drying vial and its contents) in order to track the progression of the freeze-drying cycle. This work demonstrates the use of a dual electrode system, attached to the external surface of a type I glass tubing vial (nominal capacity 10 mL) in the prediction of (i) the ice interface temperatures at the sublimation front and at the base of the vial, and (ii) the primary drying rate. A value for the heat transfer coefficient (for a chamber pressure of 270 µbar) was then calculated from these parameters and shown to be comparable to that published by Tchessalov[1]. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effects on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porous Concrete for Plant Growth of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber, and Styrene Butadiene Latex Using a Dry Mixing Manufacturing Process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwang-Hee; Kim, Chun-Soo; Jeon, Ji-Hong; Park, Chan-Gi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of industrial by-products materials on the performance of porous concrete for plant growth, this study investigated the physical, strength, and freeze/thaw resistances of porous concrete for plant growth, prepared by replacing cement with blast furnace slag powder at 60% by weight, and replacing natural stone aggregates with coarse blast furnace slag aggregates at rates of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 100% by weight. In addition, the effects of adding natural jute fiber and styrene butadiene (SB) latex to these concrete mixtures were evaluated. The void ratio, compressive strength, and freeze/thaw resistance of the samples were measured. With increasing replacement rate of blast furnace aggregates, addition of latex, and mixing of natural jute fiber the void ratio of the concrete was increased. Compressive strength decreased as the replacement rate of blast-furnace slag aggregates increased. The compressive strength decreased after 100 freeze/thaw cycles, regardless of the replacement rate of blast furnace slag aggregates or of the addition of natural jute fiber and latex. The addition of natural jute fiber and latex decreased the compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The test results indicate that the control mixture satisfied the target compressive strength of 10 MPa and the target void ratio of 25% at replacement rates of 0% and 20% for blast furnace aggregates, and that the mixtures containing latex satisfied the criteria up to an aggregate replacement rate of 60%. However, the mixtures containing natural jute fiber did not satisfy these criteria. The relationship between void ratio and residual compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles indicates that the control mixture and the mixtures containing jute fiber at aggregate replacement rates of 20% and 40% satisfied the target void ratio of 25% and the target residual compressive strength of over 80% after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The mixtures containing latex and aggregate

  18. Effects on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porous Concrete for Plant Growth of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber, and Styrene Butadiene Latex Using a Dry Mixing Manufacturing Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwang-Hee; Kim, Chun-Soo; Jeon, Ji-Hong; Park, Chan-Gi

    2016-01-29

    To evaluate the effects of industrial by-products materials on the performance of porous concrete for plant growth, this study investigated the physical, strength, and freeze/thaw resistances of porous concrete for plant growth, prepared by replacing cement with blast furnace slag powder at 60% by weight, and replacing natural stone aggregates with coarse blast furnace slag aggregates at rates of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 100% by weight. In addition, the effects of adding natural jute fiber and styrene butadiene ( SB) latex to these concrete mixtures were evaluated. The void ratio, compressive strength, and freeze/thaw resistance of the samples were measured. With increasing replacement rate of blast furnace aggregates, addition of latex, and mixing of natural jute fiber the void ratio of the concrete was increased. Compressive strength decreased as the replacement rate of blast-furnace slag aggregates increased. The compressive strength decreased after 100 freeze/thaw cycles, regardless of the replacement rate of blast furnace slag aggregates or of the addition of natural jute fiber and latex. The addition of natural jute fiber and latex decreased the compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The test results indicate that the control mixture satisfied the target compressive strength of 10 MPa and the target void ratio of 25% at replacement rates of 0% and 20% for blast furnace aggregates, and that the mixtures containing latex satisfied the criteria up to an aggregate replacement rate of 60%. However, the mixtures containing natural jute fiber did not satisfy these criteria. The relationship between void ratio and residual compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles indicates that the control mixture and the mixtures containing jute fiber at aggregate replacement rates of 20% and 40% satisfied the target void ratio of 25% and the target residual compressive strength of over 80% after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The mixtures containing latex and aggregate

  19. Blast injury research models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

    2011-01-01

    Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

  20. Computational Analysis of Mine Blast on a Commercial Vehicle Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF MINE BLAST ON A COMMERCIAL VEHICLE STRUCTURE M. Grujicic 1∗ , B. Pandurangan 1 , I. Haque 1 , B. A. Cheeseman 2 , W. N. Roy 2 and R. R. Skaggs...buried in (either dry or saturated sand) underneath the vehicle’s front right wheel is analyzed computationally. The computational analysis included the...A frequency analysis of the pressure versus time signals and visual observation clearly show the differences in the blast loads resulting from the

  1. Control technology for crystalline silica exposures in construction: wet abrasive blasting.

    PubMed

    Golla, Vijay; Heitbrink, William

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to document the effect that wet abrasive blasting has on reducing worker exposure to crystalline silica, which has been associated with silicosis and premature death. In this study, worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica was monitored during wet abrasive blasting on the exterior walls of a parking garage to remove surface concrete and expose the underlying aggregate. In this process a wet sand mix comprised of 80% dry sand and 20% water was used. Sampling and analysis revealed that the geometric mean respirable quartz concentration was 0.2 mg/m(3) for workers conducting abrasive blasting and 0.06 mg/m(3) for helpers. When abrasive blasting was conducted in areas that apparently had reduced natural ventilation, dust exposures appeared to increase. When compared with other published data, this case study suggests that wet abrasive blasting causes less exposure to crystalline silica than dry abrasive blasting.

  2. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  3. Lightweight blast shield

    DOEpatents

    Mixon, Larry C.; Snyder, George W.; Hill, Scott D.; Johnson, Gregory L.; Wlodarski, J. Frank; von Spakovsky, Alexis P.; Emerson, John D.; Cole, James M.; Tipton, John P.

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  4. Ice Accretions and Icing Effects for Modern Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Icing tests were conducted to document ice shapes formed on three different two-dimensional airfoils and to study the effects of the accreted ice on aerodynamic performance. The models tested were representative of airfoil designs in current use for each of the commercial transport, business jet, and general aviation categories of aircraft. The models were subjected to a range of icing conditions in an icing wind tunnel. The conditions were selected primarily from the Federal Aviation Administration's Federal Aviation Regulations 25 Appendix C atmospheric icing conditions. A few large droplet icing conditions were included. To verify the aerodynamic performance measurements, molds were made of selected ice shapes formed in the icing tunnel. Castings of the ice were made from the molds and placed on a model in a dry, low-turbulence wind tunnel where precision aerodynamic performance measurements were made. Documentation of all the ice shapes and the aerodynamic performance measurements made during the icing tunnel tests is included in this report. Results from the dry, low-turbulence wind tunnel tests are also presented.

  5. Blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sasser, Scott M; Sattin, Richard W; Hunt, Richard C; Krohmer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Current trends in global terrorism mandate that emergency medical services, emergency medicine and other acute care clinicians have a basic understanding of the physics of explosions, the types of injuries that can result from an explosion, and current management for patients injured by explosions. High-order explosive detonations result in near instantaneous transformation of the explosive material into a highly pressurized gas, releasing energy at supersonic speeds. This results in the formation of a blast wave that travels out from the epicenter of the blast. Primary blast injuries are characterized by anatomical and physiological changes from the force generated by the blast wave impacting the body's surface, and affect primarily gas-containing structures (lungs, gastrointestinal tract, ears). "Blast lung" is a clinical diagnosis and is characterized as respiratory difficulty and hypoxia without obvious external injury to the chest. It may be complicated by pneumothoraces and air emboli and may be associated with multiple other injuries. Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, including dyspnea, chest pain, cough, and hemoptysis. Physical examination may reveal tachypnea, hypoxia, cyanosis, and decreased breath sounds. Chest radiography, computerized tomography, and arterial blood gases may assist with diagnosis and management; however, they should not delay diagnosis and emergency interventions in the patient exposed to a blast. High flow oxygen, airway management, tube thoracostomy in the setting of pneumothoraces, mechanical ventilation (when required) with permissive hypercapnia, and judicious fluid administration are essential components in the management of blast lung injury.

  6. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  7. Subsurface ice and brine sampling using an ultrasonic/sonic gopher for life detection and characterization in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sherrit, S.; Chang, Z.; Wessel, L.; Bao, X.; Doran, P. T.; Fritsen, C. H.; Kenig, F.; McKay, C. P.; Murray, A.; hide

    2004-01-01

    There is growing evidence for ice and fluids near the surface of Mars with potential discharge of brines, which may preserve a record of past life on the planet. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for such records.

  8. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  9. An experimental and theoretical study of the ice accretion process during artificial and natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Mark S.; Hansman, R. John

    1988-01-01

    Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. This technique allows ice thickness to be measured with an accuracy of + or - 0.5 mm; in addition, the ultrasonic signal characteristics may be used to detect the presence of liquid on the ice surface and hence discern wet and dry ice growth behavior. Ice growth was measured on the stagnation line of a cylinder exposed to artificial icing conditions in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), and similarly for a cylinder exposed in flight to natural icing conditions. Ice thickness was observed to increase approximately linearly with exposure time during the initial icing period. The ice accretion rate was found to vary with cloud temperature during wet ice growth, and liquid runback from the stagnation region was inferred. A steady-state energy balance model for the icing surface was used to compare heat transfer characteristics for IRT and natural icing conditions. Ultrasonic measurements of wet and dry ice growth observed in the IRT and in flight were compared with icing regimes predicted by a series of heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer magnitude was generally inferred to be higher for the IRT than for the natural icing conditions encountered in flight. An apparent variation in the heat transfer magnitude was also observed for flights conducted through different natural icing-cloud formations.

  10. Nuclear Air Blast Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    AD-All? 43 SCIENCE APPLICATZOhu INC NCLAA VA F/6 19/4I NUICLEAR AIR BLAST IFPCTS(U) JUR " PRY UNCLASSIFID SAI-63-636-VA NLOOI I-C lit? I. 1174~ 132...SiCuftIt, CLASSFICA?1lOw OF fl.IS PAQ-C( fhbl Dal. Lnt.,.d, REPORT DOCUMENTATION4 PAGE apoI ct~ NUCLEAR AIR BLAST EFFECTS FINAL REPORT SAI-83-836-WA...TUCSON a WASHINGTON NUCLEAR AIR BLAST EFFECTS FINAL REPORT SAI-83-836-WA Submitted to: Laboratory for Computational Physics Naval Research Laboratory

  11. Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevizci, Halim

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

  12. Diatoms in sediments of perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare, and implications for interpreting lake history in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spaulding, S.A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Stoermer, E.F.; Doran, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Diatom assemblages in surficial sediments, sediment cores, sediment traps, and inflowing streams of perennially ice-covered Lake Hore, South Victorialand, Antarctica were examined to determine the distribution of diatom taxa, and to ascertain if diatom species composition has changed over time. Lake Hoare is a closed-basin lake with an area of 1.8 km2, maximum depth of 34 m, and mean depth of 14 m, although lake level has been rising at a rate of 0.09 m yr-1 in recent decades. The lake has an unusual regime of sediment deposition: coarse grained sediments accumulate on the ice surface and are deposited episodically on the lake bottom. Benthic microbial mats are covered in situ by the coarse episodic deposits, and the new surfaces are recolonized. Ice cover prevents wind-induced mixing, creating the unique depositional environment in which sediment cores record the history of a particular site, rather than a lake=wide integration. Shallow-water (<1 m) diatom assemblages (Stauroneis anceps, Navicula molesta, Diadesmis contenta var. parallela, Navicula peraustralis) were distinct from mid-depth (4-16 m) assemblages (Diadesmis contenta, Luticola muticopsis fo. reducta, Stauroneis anceps, Diadesmis contenta var. parallela, Luticola murrayi) and deep-water (2-31 m) assemblages (Luticola murrayi, Luticola muticopsis fo. reducta, Navicula molesta. Analysis of a sediment core (30 cm long, from 11 m water depth) from Lake Hoare revealed two abrupt changes in diatom assemblages. The upper section of the sediment core contained the greatest biomass of benthic microbial mat, as well as the greatest total abundance and diversity of diatoms. Relative abundances of diatoms in this section are similar to the surficial samples from mid-depths. An intermediate zone contained less organic material and lower densities of diatoms. The bottom section of core contained the least amount of microbial mat and organic material, and the lowest density of diatoms. The dominant process

  13. Grit blasting nozzle fabricated from mild tool steel proves satisfactory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Farland, J. E.; Turbitt, B.

    1966-01-01

    Dry blasting with glass beads through a nozzle assembly descales both the outside and inside surfaces of tubes of Inconel 718 used for the distribution of gaseous oxygen. The inside of the nozzle is coated with polyurethane and the deflector with a commercially available liquid urethane rubber.

  14. Primary blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Y Y

    1986-12-01

    Injury from explosion may be due to the direct cussive effect of the blast wave (primary), being struck by material propelled by the blast (secondary), to whole-body displacement and impact (tertiary), or to miscellaneous effects from burns, toxic acids, and so on. Severe primary blast injury is most likely to be seen in military operations but can occur in civilian industrial accidents or terrorist actions. Damage is seen almost exclusively in air-containing organs--the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, and the auditory system. Pulmonary injury is characterized by pneumothorax, parenchymal hemorrhage, and alveolar rupture. The last is responsible for the arterial air embolism that is the principle cause of early mortality. Treatment for blast injury is similar to that for blunt trauma. The sequalae of air embolization to the cerebral or coronary circulation may be altered by immediate hyperbaric therapy. Use of positive pressure ventilatory systems should be closely monitored as they may increase the risk of air embolism in pneumothorax. Morbidity and mortality may be increased by strenuous exertion after injury and by the wearing of a cloth ballistic vest at the time of the blast.

  15. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second

  16. Cerebrovascular Injury in Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    TITLE: Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kenneth L. Monson, PhD...SUBTITLE Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and pH control. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Blast brain injury; cerebrovascular injury and dysfunction; shock tube 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  17. Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-02

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of valleys west of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. They are so named because of their extremely low humidity and lack of snow and ice cover. This image was acquired December 8, 2002 by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  18. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  3. Ice Bridge Antarctic Sea Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-21

    Sea ice is seen out the window of NASA's DC-8 research aircraft as it flies 2,000 feet above the Bellingshausen Sea in West Antarctica on Wednesday, Oct., 21, 2009. This was the fourth science flight of NASA’s Operation Ice Bridge airborne Earth science mission to study Antarctic ice sheets, sea ice, and ice shelves. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jane Peterson)

  4. Blast Effects on Fires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Film Records..........................33 Discussion and Interpretation..................34 CRIB FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT BY BLAST ................... 36...48 Phototransistor Records ................... 53 Film Records and Visual Observation. ............ 54 v Discussion and Interpretation...deflection by the barrier and a region of reverse flow behind the barrier; film coverage (with fires) indicates that fuel reignition occurs in the large

  5. Community response to blasting.

    PubMed

    Fidell, S; Horonjeff, R; Schultz, T; Teffeteller, S

    1983-09-01

    Annoyance due to chronic exposure to blast noise and vibration was assessed in residential areas near two surface mines and a quarry. It was found possible to base useful prediction of the prevalence of high annoyance on a metric of outdoor ground vibration related to high centiles of the long term distribution of exposure levels.

  6. Variation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry-wet conditions since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.-J.; Yuan, D.-X.; Li, H.-C.; Cheng, H.; Li, T.-Y.; Edwards, R. L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Qin, J.-M.; Tang, W.; Zhao, Z.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on the climate variability in central China since AD 1300, involving: (1) a well-dated, 1.5-year resolution stalagmite δ18O record from Lianhua Cave, central China (2) links of the δ18O record with regional dry-wet conditions, monsoon intensity, and temperature over eastern China (3) correlations among drought events in the Lianhua record, solar irradiation, and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) variation. We present a highly precise, 230Th / U-dated, 1.5-year resolution δ18O record of an aragonite stalagmite (LHD1) collected from Lianhua Cave in the Wuling Mountain area of central China. The comparison of the δ18O record with the local instrumental record and historical documents indicates that (1) the stalagmite δ18O record reveals variations in the summer monsoon intensity and dry-wet conditions in the Wuling Mountain area. (2) A stronger East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) enhances the tropical monsoon trough controlled by ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), which produces higher spring quarter rainfall and isotopically light monsoonal moisture in the central China. (3) The summer quarter/spring quarter rainfall ratio in central China can be a potential indicator of the EASM strength: a lower ratio corresponds to stronger EASM and higher spring rainfall. The ratio changed from <1 to >1 after 1950, reflecting that the summer quarter rainfall of the study area became dominant under stronger influence of the Northwestern Pacific High. Eastern China temperatures varied with the solar activity, showing higher temperatures under stronger solar irradiation, which produced stronger summer monsoons. During Maunder, Dalton and 1900 sunspot minima, more severe drought events occurred, indicating a weakening of the summer monsoon when solar activity decreased on decadal timescales. On an interannual timescale, dry conditions in the study area prevailed under El Niño conditions, which is also supported by the spectrum analysis. Hence, our record

  7. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  8. Re-analysis of martian gully orientation and slope for comparison with climate model predictions of freeze-thaw and dry-ice sublimation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Susan; Harrison, Tanya; Lewis, Stephen; Balme, Matthew; Soare, Richard; Britton, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    during which the surface temperature was below the CO2 condensation point of 149K. We use these data as a proxy for where CO2sublimation processes can be active. (ii) The number of sols for which the daily minimum is below 273K and the daily maximum is above 273K. We use these data as a proxy for where ice could be stable and then melt during freeze-thaw cycles. Our results reveal that neither of these simple modelling cases exactly fits the observational data, therefore we conclude that it is likely that a mixture of CO2 and water related processes are responsible for forming martian gullies. We aim to perform a number of tests to assess both the applicability of these simple proxies and to test a wider range of substrate properties (buried ice) and orbital parameters (perihelion and increased atmospheric pressure at high obliquity) to see if they give better fits to our observations.

  9. Ice Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Ice Stars - August 4th, 2002 Description: Like distant galaxies amid clouds of interstellar dust, chunks of sea ice drift through graceful swirls of grease ice in the frigid waters of Foxe Basin near Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Sea ice often begins as grease ice, a soupy slick of tiny ice crystals on the ocean's surface. As the temperature drops, grease ice thickens and coalesces into slabs of more solid ice. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  10. Army Blast Claims Evaluation Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY ARL-MR-131 Army Blast Claims Evaluation Procedures William P. Wright APPROVED FOR PUBUC RELEASE; DISTRIBtmON IS...NUMBERS Anny Blast Claims Evaluation Procedures 4G061-304-U2 6. AUTHOR(S) William P. Wrisht 1. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...of the technical review process which bas been instituted to develop an opinion as to Army responsibility. 14. SUBJECT TERMS blast effects. muzzle

  11. Blast injury from explosive munitions.

    PubMed

    Cernak, I; Savic, J; Ignjatovic, D; Jevtic, M

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of blast in common war injuries. One thousand three hundred and three patients injured by explosive munitions and demonstrating extremity wounds without other penetrating injuries were admitted to the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade between 1991 and 1994. Of these, 665 patients (51%) had symptoms and physical signs that were compatible with the clinical diagnosis of primary blast injury, whereas the remaining 658 patients did not. Random sampling of 65 patients in the blast group during the early posttraumatic period showed statistically significant elevations in blood thromboxane A2 (TxA2), prostacyclin (PGI2), and sulfidopeptide leukotrienes compared with the random sample of 62 patients in the nonblast group. This difference could not be accounted for by differing injury severity between the groups, because the severity of wounds as measured by both the Injury Severity Score and the Red Cross Wound Classification was similar in both groups. Amongst blast patients, 200 patients (30%) had long-term (1 year) symptoms and signs reflecting central nervous system disorders. These symptoms and signs were only sporadically found in 4% of the nonblast patients. These findings indicate that primary blast injury is more common in war injuries than previously thought and that of those affected by blast, a surprisingly high proportion retain long-term neurologic disability. The elevation in eicosanoids could be used to confirm and monitor blast injury. In relation to the immediate management of patients injured by explosive weapons, it follows that particular attention should be paid to the presence and/or development of blast injury. Our findings indicate that blast is more common in war injuries than previously thought. Eicosanoid changes after blast injury suggest that blast injury causes a major physiologic stress. A variety of effects on the central nervous system suggest that blast injury could be responsible for some aspects of what is now

  12. BLAST BIOLOGY. Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.S.; Richmond, D.R.

    1959-09-18

    Experimental data regarding the biologic consequences of exposure to several environmental variations associated with actual and simulated explosive detonations were reviewed. Blast biology is discussed relative to primary, secondary, tentiary, and miscellaneous blast effects as those attributable, respectively, to variations in environmental pressure, trauma from blast-produced missiles (both penetrating and nonpenetrating), the consequences of physical displacement of biological targets by blast-produced winds, and hazards due to ground shock, dust, and thermal phenomena not caused by thermal radiation per se. Primary blast effects were considered, noting physical-biophysical factors contributing to the observed pathophysiology. A simple hydrostatic model was utilized diagrammatically inmore » pointing out possible etiologic mechanisms. The gross biologic response to single. "fast"-rising overpressures were described as was the tolerance of mice, rats, guinea pigs. and rabbits to "long"-duration pressure pulses rising "rapidly" in single and double steps. Data regarding biological response to "slowly" rising over-pressures of "long" duration are discussed. Attention was called to the similarities under certain circumstances between thoracic trauma from nonpenetrating missiles and that noted from air blast. The association between air emboli, increase in lung weight (hemorrhage and edema), and mortality was discussed. Data relevant to the clinical symptoms and therapy of blast injury are presented. The relation of blast hazards to nuclear explosions was assessed and one approach to predicting the maximal potential casualties from blast phenomena is presented making use of arbitrary and tentative criteria. (auth)« less

  13. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  14. Ice Bridge Antarctic Sea Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-21

    An iceberg is seen out the window of NASA's DC-8 research aircraft as it flies 2,000 feet above the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica on Wednesday, Oct., 21, 2009. This was the fourth science flight of NASA’s Operation Ice Bridge airborne Earth science mission to study Antarctic ice sheets, sea ice, and ice shelves. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jane Peterson)

  15. Broken ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    An area of broken glacier ice seen from the IceBridge DC-8 on Oct. 22, 2012. Credit: NASA / George Hale NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell, Steven T.; Gingras, Michel J. P.; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.

    2013-03-01

    Pauling's model of hydrogen disorder in water ice represents the prototype of a frustrated system. Over the years it has spawned several analogous models, including Anderson's model antiferromagnet and the statistical "vertex" models. Spin Ice is a sixteen vertex model of "ferromagnetic frustration" that is approximated by real materials, most notably the rare earth pyrochlores Ho2Ti2O7, Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Sn2O7. These "spin ice materials" have the Pauling zero point entropy and in all respects represent almost ideal realisations of Pauling's model. They provide experimentalists with unprecedented access to a wide variety of novel magnetic states and phase transitions that are located in different regions of the field-temperature phase diagram. They afford theoreticians the opportunity to explore many new features of the magnetic interactions and statistical mechanics of frustrated systems. This chapter is a comprehensive review of the physics -- both experimental and theoretical -- of spin ice. It starts with a discussion of the historic problem of water ice and its relation to spin ice and other frustrated magnets. The properties of spin ice are then discussed in three sections that deal with the zero field spin ice state, the numerous field-induced states (including the recently identified "kagomé ice") and the magnetic dynamics. Some materials related to spin ice are briefly described and the chapter is concluded with a short summary of spin ice physics.

  17. NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; VanZante, Judith Foss; Riley, James T.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of tailplane icing were investigated in a four-year NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing, Program (TIP). This research program was developed to improve the understanding, of iced tailplane aeroperformance and aircraft aerodynamics, and to develop design and training aides to help reduce the number of incidents and accidents caused by tailplane icing. To do this, the TIP was constructed with elements that included icing, wind tunnel testing, dry-air aerodynamic wind tunnel testing, flight tests, and analytical code development. This paper provides an overview of the entire program demonstrating the interconnectivity of the program elements and reports on current accomplishments.

  18. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  19. Passive infrared ice detection for helicopter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam L.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A technique is proposed to remotely detect rotor icing on helicopters by using passive IR thermometry to detect the warming caused by latent heat release as supercooled water freezes. During icing, the ice accretion region will be warmer than the uniced trailing edge, resulting in a characteristic chordwise temperature profile. Preliminary tests were conducted on a static model in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for a variety of wet (glaze) and dry (rime) ice conditions. The chordwise temperature profiles were confirmed by observation with an IR thermal video system and thermocouple observations. The IR observations were consistent with predictions of the LEWICE ice accretion code, which was used to extrapolate the observations to rotor icing conditions. Based on the static observations, the passive IR ice detection technique appears promising; however, further testing or rotating blades is required.

  20. Thickness of ice on perennially frozen lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, C.P.; Clow, G.D.; Wharton, R.A.; Squyres, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    The dry valleys of southern Victoria Land, constituting the largest ice-free expanse in the Antarctic, contain numerous lakes whose perennial ice cover is the cause of some unique physical and biological properties 1-3. Although the depth, temperature and salinity of the liquid water varies considerably from lake to lake, the thickness of the ice cover is remarkably consistent1, ranging from 3.5 to 6m, which is determined primarily by the balance between conduction of energy out of the ice and the release of latent heat at the ice-water interface and is also affected by the transmission and absorption of sunlight. In the steady state, the release of latent heat at the ice bottom is controlled by ablation from the ice surface. Here we present a simple energy-balance model, using the measured ablation rate of 30 cm yr-1, which can explain the observed ice thickness. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Preventing Ice Before it Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1990s, a team of engineers at Ames Research Center invented an anti-icing fluid to keep ice from building up on airplane wings. Ice on wings can be a serious safety hazard, especially during takeoff, when a sheet of ice the thickness of a compact disc can reduce lift by 25 percent or more. The typical approach to clearing off the ice is to use a deicing solution once the ice has built up. The fluid created by the Ames team, though, when applied to a dry surface, prevents the ice from even forming a surface bond, which saves deicing time and money, while also preventing excessive use of chemical solvents. If, however, the solution is not applied before ice forms, it also serves as a traditional deicing formula. The formula contains propylene glycol, which has a very low freezing point, and a thickener, which helps the fluid adhere to the surface. Ice gathers on top of the formula, and then it can be wiped off with little effort. This thickening agent, a pseudo-plastic, sprays on as a liquid, like lemonade, gels like a lemon sherbet, turns back to a liquid when wiped, and then gels again into its sherbet consistency when left to solidify. The sherbet-gel stage is especially important when the formula is sprayed onto a vertical or steeped surface, as it clings better than a liquid would.

  2. [Confined blasting in microexplosion cystolithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Uchida, M

    1989-03-01

    This paper is the 12th report in a series of studies on the application of microexplosion to medicine and biology. Microexplosion lithotripsy is a newly developed technique in our clinic to crush urinary stones with small quantities of explosives. A systematic research project has been performed since the first report of microexplosion lithotripsy in 1977. As a result, microexplosion was successfully applied to the destruction of bladder stones in 130 cases from 1981 to 1988. In blasting to crush rocks in industrial works, two kinds of blasting are available: external charge blasting and confined blasting. The detonation power of the latter is 10 to 50 times larger than that of the former. A detruction test using several kinds of spherical form model calculus and lead azide explosive was performed. The formula to calculate the suitable explosive dose was determined experimentally as shown below. (formula; see text) Thus the theory in general industrial blasting with massive explosives was proved to be effective also in microexplosion with small explosives. An original electric drill system was developed to make a hole in stones for confined blasting. 60 cases, including 2 cases of giant bladder stones over 100 g in weight, were successfully treated by confined blasting using this system without any complication. We consider that any bladder stones, however big or however many, can be treated by microexplosion lithotripsy with confined blasting.

  3. NCBI BLAST+ integrated into Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Cock, Peter J A; Chilton, John M; Grüning, Björn; Johnson, James E; Soranzo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The NCBI BLAST suite has become ubiquitous in modern molecular biology and is used for small tasks such as checking capillary sequencing results of single PCR products, genome annotation or even larger scale pan-genome analyses. For early adopters of the Galaxy web-based biomedical data analysis platform, integrating BLAST into Galaxy was a natural step for sequence comparison workflows. The command line NCBI BLAST+ tool suite was wrapped for use within Galaxy. Appropriate datatypes were defined as needed. The integration of the BLAST+ tool suite into Galaxy has the goal of making common BLAST tasks easy and advanced tasks possible. This project is an informal international collaborative effort, and is deployed and used on Galaxy servers worldwide. Several examples of applications are described here.

  4. Thickness of tropical ice and photosynthesis on a snowball Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    On a completely ice-covered "snowball" Earth the thickness of ice in the tropical regions would be limited by the sunlight penetrating into the ice cover and by the latent heat flux generated by freezing at the ice bottom--the freezing rate would balance the sublimation rate from the top of the ice cover. Heat transfer models of the perennially ice-covered Antarctic dry valley lakes applied to the snowball Earth indicate that the tropical ice cover would have a thickness of 10 m or less with a corresponding transmissivity of > 0.1%. This light level is adequate for photosynthesis and could explain the survival of the eukaryotic algae.

  5. Thickness of tropical ice and photosynthesis on a snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P

    2000-07-15

    On a completely ice-covered "snowball" Earth the thickness of ice in the tropical regions would be limited by the sunlight penetrating into the ice cover and by the latent heat flux generated by freezing at the ice bottom--the freezing rate would balance the sublimation rate from the top of the ice cover. Heat transfer models of the perennially ice-covered Antarctic dry valley lakes applied to the snowball Earth indicate that the tropical ice cover would have a thickness of 10 m or less with a corresponding transmissivity of > 0.1%. This light level is adequate for photosynthesis and could explain the survival of the eukaryotic algae.

  6. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  7. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  8. Blast from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Forget dynamite or hydraulic and mechanical drills. Industrial and federal researchers have started boring holes with rocket fuel. In a cooperative arrangement between Sandia National Laboratory, Global Environmental Solutions, and Universal Tech Corp., scientists and engineers extracted fuel from 200 rocket motors and used it as a mining explosive. In a demonstration completed last fall, researchers used 4950 kg of solid rocket propellant to move more than 22,500 metric tons of rock from the Lone Star Quarry in Prairie, Oklahoma. They found that the fuel improved blast energy and detonation velocity over traditional explosives, and it required fewer drill holes.

  9. Astrophysical blast wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Nathan; Geissel, Matthias; Lewis, Sean M

    2015-03-01

    The data described in this document consist of image files of shadowgraphs of astrophysically relevant laser driven blast waves. Supporting files include Mathematica notebooks containing design calculations, tabulated experimental data and notes, and relevant publications from the open research literature. The data was obtained on the Z-Beamlet laser from July to September 2014. Selected images and calculations will be published as part of a PhD dissertation and in associated publications in the open research literature, with Sandia credited as appropriate. The authors are not aware of any restrictions that could affect the release of the data.

  10. Depth, ice thickness, and ice-out timing cause divergent hydrologic responses among Arctic lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Welker, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are prevalent in the Arctic and thus play a key role in regional hydrology. Since many Arctic lakes are shallow and ice grows thick (historically 2-m or greater), seasonal ice commonly freezes to the lake bed (bedfast ice) by winter's end. Bedfast ice fundamentally alters lake energy balance and melt-out processes compared to deeper lakes that exceed the maximum ice thickness (floating ice) and maintain perennial liquid water below floating ice. Our analysis of lakes in northern Alaska indicated that ice-out of bedfast ice lakes occurred on average 17 days earlier (22-June) than ice-out on adjacent floating ice lakes (9-July). Earlier ice-free conditions in bedfast ice lakes caused higher open-water evaporation, 28% on average, relative to floating ice lakes and this divergence increased in lakes closer to the coast and in cooler summers. Water isotopes (18O and 2H) indicated similar differences in evaporation between these lake types. Our analysis suggests that ice regimes created by the combination of lake depth relative to ice thickness and associated ice-out timing currently cause a strong hydrologic divergence among Arctic lakes. Thus understanding the distribution and dynamics of lakes by ice regime is essential for predicting regional hydrology. An observed regime shift in lakes to floating ice conditions due to thinner ice growth may initially offset lake drying because of lower evaporative loss from this lake type. This potential negative feedback caused by winter processes occurs in spite of an overall projected increase in evapotranspiration as the Arctic climate warms.

  11. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  12. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R.; Kleine, T.H.; Forsyth, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing;more » evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.« less

  13. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air due to the climate Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( hypoparathyroidism ) Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Other hormone abnormalities

  14. Shock tubes and blast injury modeling.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ya-Lei; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Explosive blast injury has become the most prevalent injury in recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks. The magnitude of this kind of polytrauma is complex due to the basic physics of blast and the surrounding environments. Therefore, development of stable, reproducible and controllable animal model using an ideal blast simulation device is the key of blast injury research. The present review addresses the modeling of blast injury and applications of shock tubes.

  15. Neurological Effects of Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Ramona R.; Fertig, Stephanie J.; Desrocher, Rebecca E.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Pancrazio, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, thousands of soldiers and an even greater number of civilians have suffered traumatic injuries due to blast exposure, largely attributed to improvised explosive devices in terrorist and insurgent activities. The use of body armor is allowing soldiers to survive blasts that would otherwise be fatal due to systemic damage. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to a blast can produce neurological consequences in the brain, but much remains unknown. To elucidate the current scientific basis for understanding blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), the NIH convened a workshop in April, 2008. A multidisciplinary group of neuroscientists, engineers, and clinicians were invited to share insights on bTBI, specifically pertaining to: physics of blast explosions, acute clinical observations and treatments, preclinical and computational models, and lessons from the international community on civilian exposures. This report provides an overview of the state of scientific knowledge of bTBI, drawing from the published literature, as well as presentations, discussions, and recommendations from the workshop. One of the major recommendations from the workshop was the need to characterize the effects of blast exposure on clinical neuropathology. Clearer understanding of the human neuropathology would enable validation of preclinical and computational models, which are attempting to simulate blast wave interactions with the central nervous system. Furthermore, the civilian experience with bTBI suggests that polytrauma models incorporating both brain and lung injuries may be more relevant to the study of civilian countermeasures than considering models with a neurological focus alone. PMID:20453776

  16. Ice Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-05

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, I h . Despite its prevalence, I h remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  17. Ice detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An ice detector is provided for the determination of the thickness of ice on the outer surface on an object (e.g., aircraft) independently of temperature or the composition of the ice. First capacitive gauge, second capacitive gauge, and temperature gauge are embedded in embedding material located within a hollowed out portion of the outer surface. This embedding material is flush with the outer surface to prevent undesirable drag. The first capacitive gauge, second capacitive gauge, and the temperature gauge are respectively connected to first capacitive measuring circuit, second capacitive measuring circuit, and temperature measuring circuit. The geometry of the first and second capacitive gauges is such that the ratio of the voltage outputs of the first and second capacitance measuring circuits is proportional to the thickness of ice, regardless of ice temperature or composition. This ratio is determined by offset and dividing circuit.

  18. Heavy Metal Presence in Two Different Types of Ice Cream: Artisanal Ice Cream (Italian Gelato) and Industrial Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Conficoni, D; Alberghini, L; Bissacco, E; Ferioli, M; Giaccone, V

    2017-03-01

    Ice cream, a popular product worldwide, is usually a milk-based product with other types of ingredients (fruit, eggs, cocoa, dried fruit, additives, and others). Different materials are used to obtain the desired taste, texture, consistency, and appearance of the final product. This study surveyed ice cream products available in Italy for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin, and arsenic). The differences between artisanal and industrial ice cream were also investigated because of the importance in the Italian diet and the diffusion of this ready-to-eat food. Ice cream sampling was performed between October 2010 and February 2011 in the northeast of Italy. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from different sources: 50 industrial samples produced by 19 different brands were collected in coffee bars and supermarkets; 50 artisanal ice cream samples were gathered at nine different artisanal ice cream shops. Ten wooden sticks of industrial ice cream were analyzed in parallel to the ice cream. All samples were negative for arsenic and mercury. None of the artisanal ice cream samples were positive for lead and tin; 18% of the industrial ice cream samples were positive. All positive lead samples were higher than the legal limit stated for milk (0.02 mg/kg). All industrial ice cream samples were negative for cadmium, but cadmium was present in 10% of the artisanal ice cream samples. Chromium was found in 26% of the artisanal and in 58% of the industrial ice cream samples. The heavy metals found in the wooden sticks were different from the corresponding ice cream, pointing out the lack of cross-contamination between the products. Considering the results and the amount of ice cream consumed during the year, contamination through ice cream is a low risk for the Italian population, even though there is need for further analysis.

  19. Ice particle collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampara, Naresh; Turnbull, Barbara; Hill, Richard; Swift, Michael

    2017-04-01

    becomes more likely when the particles are new and rough, but also after they have been through many collisions. Experiment 2: To create an even higher collision density and to understand the collective behaviour of these ice particles, a sample of them were placed to cover the tray of an electromagnetic shaker, mounted in an environment controlled chamber at -2°C. Continuous shaking of this system permitted observation of a spontaneous transition from dry granular behaviour to that of wetted granules. Vibrating with a fixed acceleration, image sequences were recorded every 10 min to show that at early stage (<15min) the particles adopted the dry granular flow (particles are free to bounce on the vibrating plate). After circa 40 min 90% particles became spontaneously immobile in an approximately hexagonally packed 2 dimensional sheet.

  20. Modular Simulation of HEI Fragments and Blast Pressure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    TEU04D MODULAR SIMULATION OF Accesion For HEI FRAGMENTS AND BLAST PRESSURE NTIS CRAMI DTIC TAB 1] THESIS U.a:’ ouIced Jusification Gordon Galloway C... sustained by a component due to disturbances cre- ated in the medium surrounding the component when no fragment im- pacts are possible. In general, a...component will sustain a maximum kill if located within a minimum range from the burst point [RB(MAX)], and will sustain no damage if it is located beyond a

  1. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler,; Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  2. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W [Livermore, CA; Hollaway, Rocky [Modesto, CA; Henning, Carl D [Livermore, CA; Deteresa, Steve [Livermore, CA; Grundler, Walter [Hayward, CA; Hagler, Lisle B [Berkeley, CA; Kokko, Edwin [Dublin, CA; Switzer, Vernon A [Livermore, CA

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  3. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W [Livermore, CA; Hollaway, Rocky [Modesto, CA; Henning, Carl D [Livermore, CA; Deteresa, Steve [Livermore, CA; Grundler, Walter [Hayward, CA; Hagler, Lisle B [Berkeley, CA; Kokko, Edwin [Dublin, CA; Switzer, Vernon A [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  4. Comparing the Use of Dynamic Response Index (DRI) and Lumbar Load as Relevant Spinal Injury Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-09

    reproducible results in greater detail under controlled testing conditions • Biofidelic enhancements to the Hybrid III design were made which support...occupants 4) General discussion on continued use of DRI as a design criterion for spinal injuries given the availability of the more direct Lumbar...load from fully encumbered ATDs in underbody blast testing . 15. SUBJECT TERMS DRI, Lumbar Load, Blast, LSDYNA, MADYMO, occupant, injury, pelvic

  5. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... blasts 5 minutes prior to blast signal. Blast Signal—A series of short blasts 1 minute prior to the shot...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... blasts 5 minutes prior to blast signal. Blast Signal—A series of short blasts 1 minute prior to the shot...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... blasts 5 minutes prior to blast signal. Blast Signal—A series of short blasts 1 minute prior to the shot...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... blasts 5 minutes prior to blast signal. Blast Signal—A series of short blasts 1 minute prior to the shot...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... blasts 5 minutes prior to blast signal. Blast Signal—A series of short blasts 1 minute prior to the shot...

  10. Dry socket

    MedlinePlus

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without... herein on handling and storing explosives. (h) When more than one charge is placed under water, a float...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without... herein on handling and storing explosives. (h) When more than one charge is placed under water, a float...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without... herein on handling and storing explosives. (h) When more than one charge is placed under water, a float...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without... herein on handling and storing explosives. (h) When more than one charge is placed under water, a float...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without... herein on handling and storing explosives. (h) When more than one charge is placed under water, a float...

  16. Innovative Composite Structure Design for Blast Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    2007-01-0483 Innovative Composite Structure Design for Blast Protection Dongying Jiang, Yuanyuan Liu MKP Structural Design Associates, Inc...protect vehicle and occupants against various explosives. The multi-level and multi-scenario blast simulation and design system integrates three major...numerical simulation of a BTR composite under a blast event. The developed blast simulation and design system will enable the prediction, design, and

  17. Combinations of pozzolans and ground, granulated blast-furnace slag for durable hydraulic cement concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-08-01

    Hydraulic cement concretes were produced using pozzolans and ground, granulated, blast-furnace slag to investigate the effect of these materials on durability. The pozzolans used were an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash with a low lime content and a dry, d...

  18. Experimental investigation of passive infrared ice detection for helicopter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is proposed to remotely detect rotor icing on helicopters. Using passive infrared (IR) thermometry, it is possible to detect the warming caused by latent heat released as supercooled water freezes. During icing, the ice accretion region on the blade leading edge will be warmer than the uniced trailing edge, resulting in a chordwise temperature profile characteristic of icing. Preliminary tests were conducted on a static model in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for a variety of wet (glaze) and dry (rime) ice conditions. The characteristic chordwise temperature profiles were observed with an IR thermal video system and confirmed with thermocouple measurements. A prototype detector system was built consisting of a single point IR pyrometer. Experiments were run on a small scale rotor model. Again, the characteristic chordwise temperature profiles were observed during icing, and the IR system was able to remotely detect icing. Based on the static and subscale rotor tests, the passive IR technique is promising for rotor ice detection.

  19. Blast-wave density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzel, D. V.

    Applications of a densitometer to obtain time-resolved data on the total density in blast-wave flows are described. A beta-source (promethium-147) is separated by a gap from a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Attenuation of the radiation beam by the passing blast wave is due to the total density in the gap volume during the wave passage. Signal conditioning and filtering methods permit the system to output linearized data. Results are provided from use of the system to monitor blast waves emitted by detonation of a 10.7 m diameter fiberglass sphere containing 609 tons of ammonium nitrate/fuel oil at a 50.6 m height. Blast wave density data are provided for peak overpressure levels of 245, 172 and 70 kPa and distances of 183, 201 and 314 m from ground zero. Data resolution was of high enough quality to encourage efforts to discriminate dust and gasdynamic phenomena within passing blast waves.

  20. 7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture... Items § 3201.78 Blast media. (a) Definition. Abrasive particles sprayed forcefully to clean, remove... qualifying biobased blast media. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture... Items § 3201.78 Blast media. (a) Definition. Abrasive particles sprayed forcefully to clean, remove... qualifying biobased blast media. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  2. Ice Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Ice Waves - May 21st, 2001 Description: Along the southeastern coast of Greenland, an intricate network of fjords funnels glacial ice to the Atlantic Ocean. During the summer melting season, newly calved icebergs join slabs of sea ice and older, weathered bergs in an offshore slurry that the southward-flowing East Greenland Current sometimes swirls into stunning shapes. Exposed rock of mountain peaks, tinted red in this image, hints at a hidden landscape. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  3. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Breakup of Pack Ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf (53.5S, 3.0E) produced this mosaic of ice floes off the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with strong katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filamets of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. 53.5S, 3.0E

  4. Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, S.; Preece, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters tomore » be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.« less

  5. Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, S.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters tomore » be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.« less

  6. Porcine head response to blast.

    PubMed

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  7. Gun muzzle blast and flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberg, Guenter; Heimerl, Joseph M.

    A repository of fundamental experimental and analytical data concerning the complex phenomena associated with gun-muzzle blast and flash effects is presented, proceeding from gun muzzle signatures to modern gun-propulsion concepts, interior and transitional ballistics, and characterizations of blast-wave research and muzzle flash. Data are presented in support of a novel hypothesis which explains the ignition of secondary flash and elucidates the means for its suppression. Both chemical and mechanical (often competing) methods of flash suppression are treated. The historical work of Kesslau and Ladenburg is noted, together with French, British, Japanese and American research efforts and current techniques of experimental characterization for gun muzzle phenomena.

  8. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  9. Blast optimization for improved dragline productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.; Baldwin, G.

    1994-12-31

    A project aimed at blast optimization for large open pit coal mines is utilizing blast monitoring and analysis techniques, advanced dragline monitoring equipment, and blast simulation software, to assess the major controlling factors affecting both blast performance and subsequent dragline productivity. This has involved collaborative work between the explosives supplier, mine operator, monitoring equipment manufacturer, and a mining research organization. The results from trial blasts and subsequently monitored dragline production have yielded promising results and continuing studies are being conducted as part of a blast optimization program. It should be stressed that the optimization of blasting practices for improved draglinemore » productivity is a site specific task, achieved through controlled and closely monitored procedures. The benefits achieved at one location can not be simply transferred to another minesite unless similar improvement strategies are first implemented.« less

  10. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mellon, M.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Titus, Joshua T.N.; Bandfield, L.; Putzig, N.E.; Sizemore, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  12. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef. PMID:26761797

  13. NOBLAST and JAMBLAST: New Options for BLAST and a Java Application Manager for BLAST results.

    PubMed

    Lagnel, Jacques; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-03-15

    NOBLAST (New Options for BLAST) is an open source program that provides a new user-friendly tabular output format for various NCBI BLAST programs (Blastn, Blastp, Blastx, Tblastn, Tblastx, Mega BLAST and Psi BLAST) without any use of a parser and provides E-value correction in case of use of segmented BLAST database. JAMBLAST using the NOBLAST output allows the user to manage, view and filter the BLAST hits using a number of selection criteria. A distribution package of NOBLAST and JAMBLAST including detailed installation procedure is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/JAMBLAST/ and http://sourceforge.net/projects/NOBLAST. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Rock blasting and overbreak control

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-01-01

    This handbook is specifically designed as a guide to highway engineers and blasting practitioners working with highway applications. It was used as a handbook for the FHWA course of the above title. The handbook is a basic review of explosives and th...

  15. Blast Fragmentation Modeling and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-31

    weapons device containing a multiphase blast explosive (MBX). 1. INTRODUCTION The ARL Survivability Lethality and Analysis Directorate (SLAD) is...velocity. In order to simulate the highly complex phenomenon, the exploding cylinder is modeled with the hydrodynamics code ALE3D , an arbitrary...Lagrangian-Eulerian multiphysics code, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ALE3D includes physical properties, constitutive models for

  16. Exposed by Rocket Engine Blasts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-12

    This color image from NASA Curiosity rover shows an area excavated by the blast of the Mars Science Laboratory descent stage rocket engines. This is part of a larger, high-resolution color mosaic made from images obtained by Curiosity Mast Camera.

  17. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Meibomian glands. Autoimmune disorders such as Sjögren’s syndrome, lupus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis and other disorders such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, and Vitamin A deficiency are associated with dry eye. Women are more likely to develop dry eye. ...

  18. Impact of aerosols on ice crystal size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Gu, Yu; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Li, Qinbin; Fu, Rong; Huang, Lei; Liu, Xiaohong; Shi, Xiangjun; Su, Hui; He, Cenlin

    2018-01-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. In particular, the impact of aerosols on ice crystal effective radius (Rei), which is a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, is highly uncertain due to limited and conflicting observational evidence. Here we investigate the effects of aerosols on Rei under different meteorological conditions using 9-year satellite observations. We find that the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters. While there is a significant negative correlation between Rei and aerosol loading in moist conditions, consistent with the "Twomey effect" for liquid clouds, a strong positive correlation between the two occurs in dry conditions. Simulations based on a cloud parcel model suggest that water vapor modulates the relative importance of different ice nucleation modes, leading to the opposite aerosol impacts between moist and dry conditions. When ice clouds are decomposed into those generated from deep convection and formed in situ, the water vapor modulation remains in effect for both ice cloud types, although the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols differ noticeably between them due to distinct formation mechanisms. The water vapor modulation can largely explain the difference in the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings in various seasons. A proper representation of the water vapor modulation is essential for an accurate estimate of aerosol-cloud radiative forcing produced by ice clouds.

  19. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact between...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact between...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact between...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact between...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact between...

  4. Effect of Human and Sheep Lung Orientation on Primary Blast Injury Induced by Single Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    may be injured by m ore than one of these mechanisms in any given event. Primary blast in juries ( PBI ) are exclusively caused by the blast...overpressure. A PBI usually affects air-containing organs such as t he lung, ears and gastrointestinal tract. Secon dary blast injuries are caused by...orientation on blast injuries predicted in human and sheep models. From th is study, it is predicted that the greatest reduction in lung PBI may be

  5. Heterogeneous ice nucleation of α-pinene SOA particles before and after ice cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert; Höhler, Kristina; Huang, Wei; Kiselev, Alexei; Möhler, Ottmar; Mohr, Claudia; Pajunoja, Aki; Saathoff, Harald; Schiebel, Thea; Shen, Xiaoli; Virtanen, Annele

    2017-05-01

    The ice nucleation ability of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles was investigated at temperatures between 253 and 205 K in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere cloud simulation chamber. Pristine SOA particles were nucleated and grown from pure gas precursors and then subjected to repeated expansion cooling cycles to compare their intrinsic ice nucleation ability during the first nucleation event with that observed after ice cloud processing. The unprocessed α-pinene SOA particles were found to be inefficient ice-nucleating particles at cirrus temperatures, with nucleation onsets (for an activated fraction of 0.1%) as high as for the homogeneous freezing of aqueous solution droplets. Ice cloud processing at temperatures below 235 K only marginally improved the particles' ice nucleation ability and did not significantly alter their morphology. In contrast, the particles' morphology and ice nucleation ability was substantially modified upon ice cloud processing in a simulated convective cloud system, where the α-pinene SOA particles were first activated to supercooled cloud droplets and then froze homogeneously at about 235 K. As evidenced by electron microscopy, the α-pinene SOA particles adopted a highly porous morphology during such a freeze-drying cycle. When probing the freeze-dried particles in succeeding expansion cooling runs in the mixed-phase cloud regime up to 253 K, the increase in relative humidity led to a collapse of the porous structure. Heterogeneous ice formation was observed after the droplet activation of the collapsed, freeze-dried SOA particles, presumably caused by ice remnants in the highly viscous material or the larger surface area of the particles.

  6. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... A sticky, dry feeling in the mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in ... avoiding drinks with caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol, and chewing sugarless gum or sucking on sugarless hard candy. ...

  7. CrocoBLAST: Running BLAST efficiently in the age of next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tristão Ramos, Ravi José; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cézar; da Silva Delgado, Gabrielle; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Silva, Rosane; Koca, Jaroslav

    2017-11-15

    CrocoBLAST is a tool for dramatically speeding up BLAST+ execution on any computer. Alignments that would take days or weeks with NCBI BLAST+ can be run overnight with CrocoBLAST. Additionally, CrocoBLAST provides features critical for NGS data analysis, including: results identical to those of BLAST+; compatibility with any BLAST+ version; real-time information regarding calculation progress and remaining run time; access to partial alignment results; queueing, pausing, and resuming BLAST+ calculations without information loss. CrocoBLAST is freely available online, with ample documentation (webchem.ncbr.muni.cz/Platform/App/CrocoBLAST). No installation or user registration is required. CrocoBLAST is implemented in C, while the graphical user interface is implemented in Java. CrocoBLAST is supported under Linux and Windows, and can be run under Mac OS X in a Linux virtual machine. jkoca@ceitec.cz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. miBLAST: scalable evaluation of a batch of nucleotide sequence queries with BLAST

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You Jung; Boyd, Andrew; Athey, Brian D.; Patel, Jignesh M.

    2005-01-01

    A common task in many modern bioinformatics applications is to match a set of nucleotide query sequences against a large sequence dataset. Exis-ting tools, such as BLAST, are designed to evaluate a single query at a time and can be unacceptably slow when the number of sequences in the query set is large. In this paper, we present a new algorithm, called miBLAST, that evaluates such batch workloads efficiently. At the core, miBLAST employs a q-gram filtering and an index join for efficiently detecting similarity between the query sequences and database sequences. This set-oriented technique, which indexes both the query and the database sets, results in substantial performance improvements over existing methods. Our results show that miBLAST is significantly faster than BLAST in many cases. For example, miBLAST aligned 247 965 oligonucleotide sequences in the Affymetrix probe set against the Human UniGene in 1.26 days, compared with 27.27 days with BLAST (an improvement by a factor of 22). The relative performance of miBLAST increases for larger word sizes; however, it decreases for longer queries. miBLAST employs the familiar BLAST statistical model and output format, guaranteeing the same accuracy as BLAST and facilitating a seamless transition for existing BLAST users. PMID:16061938

  9. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    PubMed Central

    Lance, Rachel M.; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  10. Study of consumer fireworks post-blast residues by ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Zapata, Félix; Carrascosa, Héctor; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando E; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Specific analytical procedures are requested for the forensic analysis of pre- and post-blast consumer firework samples, which present significant challenges. Up to date, vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have not been tested for the analysis of post-blast residues in spite of their interesting strengths for the forensic field. Therefore, this work proposes a simple and fast procedure for the sampling and analysis of consumer firework post-blast residues by a portable FTIR instrument with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) accessory. In addition, the post-blast residues spectra of several consumer fireworks were studied in order to achieve the identification of their original chemical compositions. Hence, this work analysed 22 standard reagents usually employed to make consumer fireworks, or because they are related to their combustion products. Then, 5 different consumer fireworks were exploded, and their residues were sampled with dry cotton swabs and directly analysed by ATR-FTIR. In addition, their pre-blast fuses and charges were also analysed in order to stablish a proper comparison. As a result, the identification of the original chemical compositions of the post-blast samples was obtained. Some of the compounds found were potassium chlorate, barium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate or charcoal. An additional study involving chemometric tools found that the results might greatly depend on the swab head type used for the sampling, and its sampling efficiency. The proposed procedure could be used as a complementary technique for the analysis of consumer fireworks post-blast residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. IceCube

    Science.gov Websites

    Press and Public Interest IceCube Acronym Dictionary Articles about IceCube "Inside Story the End of the Earth" LBNL CRD Report Education/ Public Interest A New Window on the Universe Ice

  12. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. ... names for meth are: Crank Ice Crystal Glass Chalk In This Section Signs of Meth Use and ...

  13. Wound ballistics and blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Prat, N J; Daban, J-L; Voiglio, E J; Rongieras, F

    2017-12-01

    Wounds due to gunshot and explosions, while usually observed during battlefield combat, are no longer an exceptional occurrence in civilian practice in France. The principles of wound ballistics are based on the interaction between the projectile and the human body as well as the transfer of energy from the projectile to tissues. The treatment of ballistic wounds relies on several principles: extremity wound debridement and absence of initial closure, complementary medical treatment, routine immobilization, revision surgery and secondary closure. Victims of explosions usually present with a complex clinical picture since injuries are directly or indirectly related to the shock wave (blast) originating from the explosion. These injuries depend on the type of explosive device, the environment and the situation of the victim at the time of the explosion, and are classed as primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary. Secondary injuries due to flying debris and bomb fragments are generally the predominant presenting symptoms while isolated primary injuries (blast) are rare. The resulting complexity of the clinical picture explains why triage of these victims is particularly difficult. Certain myths, such as inevitable necrosis of the soft tissues that are displaced by the formation of the temporary cavitation by the projectile, or sterilization of the wounds by heat generated by the projectile should be forgotten. Ballistic-protective body armor and helmets are not infallible, even when they are not perforated, and can even be at the origin of injuries, either due to missile impact, or to the blast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Astrobiology of Antarctic ice Covered Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, P. T.; Fritsen, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Antarctica contains a number of permanently ice-covered lakes which have often been used as analogs of purported lakes on Mars in the past. Antarctic subglacial lakes, such as Lake Vostok, have also been viewed as excellent analogs for an ice covered ocean on the Jovian moon Europa, and to a lesser extend on Mars. Lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica have ice covers that range from 3 to 20 meters thick. Water salinities range from fresh to hypersaline. The thinner ice-covered lakes have a well-documented ecology that relies on the limited available nutrients and the small amount of light energy that penetrates the ice covers. The thickest ice-covered lake (Lake Vida in Victoria Valley) has a brine beneath 20 m of ice that is 7 times sea water and maintains a temperature below -10 degrees Celsius. This lake is vastly different from the thinner ice-covered lakes in that there is no communication with the atmosphere. The permanent ice cover is so thick, that summer melt waters can not access the sub-ice brine and so the ice grows from the top up, as well as from the bottom down. Brine trapped beneath the ice is believed to be ancient, stranded thousands of years ago when the ice grew thick enough to isolate it from the surface. We view Lake Vida as an excellent analog for the last aquatic ecosystem to have existed on Mars under a planetary cooling. If, as evidence is now increasingly supporting, standing bodies of water existed on Mars in the past, their fate under a cooling would be to go through a stage of permanent ice cover establishment, followed by a thickening of that ice cover until the final stage just prior to a cold extinction would be a Lake Vida-like lake. If dust storms or mass movements covered these ancient lakes, remnants may well be in existence in the subsurface today. A NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) project will drill the Lake Vida ice cover and access the brine and sediments beneath in

  15. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  16. Precision Blasting Techniques For Avalanche Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Kevin M.

    Experimental firings sponsored by the Center For Snow Science at Alta, Utah have demonstrated the potential of a unique prototype shaped charge device designed to stimulate snow pack and ice. These studies, conducted against stable snow pack, demonstrated a fourfold increase in crater volume yield and introduced a novel application of Shock Tube technology to facilitate position control, detonation and dud recovery of manually deployed charges. The extraordinary penetration capability of the shaped charge mechanism has been exploited in many non-military applications to meet a wide range of rapidpiercing and/or cutting requirements. The broader exploitation of the potential of the shaped charge mechanism has nevertheless remained confined to defence based applications. In the studies reported in this paper, the inimitable ability of the shaped charge mechanism to project shock energy, or a liner material, into a highly focussed energetic stream has been applied uniquely to the stimulation of snow pack. Recent research and development work, conducted within the UK, has resulted in the integration of shaped charge technology into a common Avalauncher and hand charge device. The potential of the common charge configuration and spooled Shock Tube fire and control system to improve the safety and cost effectiveness of explosives used in avalanche control operations was successfully demonstrated at Alta in March 2001. Future programmes of study will include focussed shock/blast mechanisms for suspended wire traverse techniques, application of the shaped charge mechanism to helibombing, and the desig n and development of non-fragmenting shaped charge ammunition formilitary artillery gun systems.

  17. Simple Cloud Chambers Using a Freezing Mixture of Ice and Cooking Salt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga, Kyohei; Kubota, Miki; Kamata, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We have developed much simpler cloud chambers that use only ice and cooking salt instead of the dry ice or ice gel pack needed for the cloud chambers produced in our previous work. The observed alpha-ray particle tracks are as clear as those observed using our previous cloud chambers. The tracks can be observed continuously for about 20?min, and…

  18. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ∼ 515 kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15 sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction.

  19. Concussive brain injury from explosive blast

    PubMed Central

    de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Hamid, Hamada; Kulas, Joseph; Pan, Jullie W; Czlapinski, Rebecca; Rinaldi, Anthony; Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris A; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. Methods The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla. Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were administered to characterize the neuropsychiatric deficits and compare with findings from MRSI. Results Significant reductions in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to choline (NAA/Ch) and N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) (P < 0.05) were found in the anterior portions of the hippocampus with explosive blast mTBI in comparison to control subjects and were more pronounced in the right hippocampus, which was 15% smaller in volume (P < 0.05). Decreased NAA/Ch and NAA/Cr were not influenced by comorbidities – PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Subjects with PTSD without blast had lesser injury, which tended to be in the posterior hippocampus. Explosive blast mTBI subjects had a reduction in visual memory compared to PTSD without blast. Interpretation The region of the hippocampus injured differentiates explosive blast mTBI from PTSD. MRSI is quite sensitive in detecting and localizing regions of neuronal injury from explosive blast associated with memory impairment. PMID:25493283

  20. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Plain Awful is an imaginary valley on the Andes populated by a highly-imitative, cubical people for which the most criminal offence is to exhibit round objects. The duck family (Scrooge, Donald and nephews) are teaming against Scrooge's worst enemy, Flintheart Glomgold, trying to buy the famous Plain Awful square eggs. Inadvertently, Scrooge violates the taboo, showing his Number One Dime, and is imprisoned in the stone quarries. He can be released only after the presentation of an ice cream soda to the President of Plain Awful. Donald and his nephews fly with Flintheart to deliver it, but Scrooge's enemy, of course, betrays the previous agreement after getting the ice cream, forcing the ducks into making an emergence replacement on the spot. Using dried milk, sugar and chocolate from their ration packs, plus some snow and salt for cooling they are able make the ice cream, and after dressing it with the carbonated water from a fire extinguisher they finally manage to produce the desired dessert. This comic may serve as an introduction to the "mysterious" phenomenon that added salt melts the ice and, even more surprising, does it by lowering the temperature of the mixture.

  1. Microbiota within the perennial ice cover of Lake Vida, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Annika C; Murray, Alison E; Fritsen, Christian H

    2007-02-01

    Lake Vida, located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, is an 'ice-sealed' lake with approximately 19 m of ice covering a highly saline water column (approximately 245 ppt). The lower portions of the ice cover and the lake beneath have been isolated from the atmosphere and land for circa 2800 years. Analysis of microbial assemblages within the perennial ice cover of the lake revealed a diverse array of bacteria and eukarya. Bacterial and eukaryal denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis phylotype profile similarities were low (<59%) between all of the depths compared (five depths spanning 11 m of the ice cover), with the greatest differences occurring between surface and deep ice. The majority of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in the surface ice were related to Actinobacteria (42%) while Gammaproteobacteria (52%) dominated the deep ice community. Comparisons of assemblage composition suggest differences in ice habitability and organismal origin in the upper and lower portions of ice cover. Specifically, the upper ice cover microbiota likely reflect the modern day transport and colonization of biota from the terrestrial landscape, whereas assemblages in the deeper ice are more likely to be persistent remnant biota that originated from the ancient liquid water column of the lake that froze.

  2. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion system's core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  3. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion systems core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  4. Ice Front at Venable Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    This photo, taken onboard the Chilean Navy P3 aircraft, shows the ice front of Venable Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, in October 2008. It is an example of a small-size ice shelf that is a large melt water producer.

  5. Scrambled Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This complex area on the side of Europa which faces away from Jupiter shows several types of features which are formed by disruptions of Europa's icy crust. North is to the top of the image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The prominent wide, dark bands are up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide and over 50 kilometers (30 miles) long. They are believed to have formed when Europa's icy crust fractured, separated and filled in with darker, 'dirtier' ice or slush from below. A relatively rare type of feature on Europa is the 15-kilometer-diameter (9.3-mile) impact crater in the lower left corner. The small number of impact craters on Europa's surface is an indication of its relatively young age. A region of chaotic terrain south of this impact crater contains crustal plates which have broken apart and rafted into new positions. Some of these 'ice rafts' are nearly 1 kilometer (about half a mile) across. Other regions of chaotic terrain are visible and indicate heating and disruption of Europa's icy crust from below. The youngest features in this scene are the long, narrow cracks in the ice which cut across all other features. One of these cracks is about 30 kilometers (18 miles) to the right of the impact crater and extends for hundreds of miles from the top to the bottom of the image.

    The image, centered near 23 degrees south latitude and 179 degrees longitude, covers an area about 240 by 215 kilometers (150 by 130 miles) across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 460 meters (500 yards) across. The image was taken as Galileo flew by Europa on March 29, 1998. The image was taken by the onboard solid state imaging system camera from an altitude of 23,000 kilometers (14,000 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  6. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  7. Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, D. Kacy; Xu, Yongan; Reneer, Dexter V.; Browne, Kevin D.; Geddes, James W.; Yang, Shu; Smith, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the “signature wound” of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, with no objective information of relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and are at risk of being returned to the battlefield. Accordingly, we have created a colorimetric blast injury dosimeter (BID) that exploits material failure of photonic crystals to detect blast exposure. Appearing like a colored sticker, the BID is fabricated in photosensitive polymers via multi-beam interference lithography. Although very stable in the presence of heat, cold or physical impact, sculpted micro- and nano-structures of the BID are physically altered in a precise manner by blast exposure, resulting in color changes that correspond with blast intensity. This approach offers a lightweight, power-free sensor that can be readily interpreted by the naked eye. Importantly, with future refinement this technology may be deployed to identify soldiers exposed to blast at levels suggested to be supra-threshold for non-impact blast-induced mild TBI. PMID:21040795

  8. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by...) Each wire connection in a blasting circuit shall be— (1) Properly spliced; and (2) Separated from other connections in the circuit to prevent accidental contact and arcing. (h) Uninsulated connections in each...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by...) Each wire connection in a blasting circuit shall be— (1) Properly spliced; and (2) Separated from other connections in the circuit to prevent accidental contact and arcing. (h) Uninsulated connections in each...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from...

  12. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  13. Modern Airfoil Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Sheldon, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from the first icing tests performed in the Modem Airfoils program. Two airfoils have been subjected to icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both airfoils were two dimensional airfoils; one was representative of a commercial transport airfoil while the other was representative of a business jet airfoil. The icing test conditions were selected from the FAR Appendix C envelopes. Effects on aerodynamic performance are presented including the effects of varying amounts of glaze ice as well as the effects of approximately the same amounts of glaze, mixed, and rime ice. Actual ice shapes obtained in these tests are also presented for these cases. In addition, comparisons are shown between ice shapes from the tests and ice shapes predicted by the computer code, LEWICE for similar conditions. Significant results from the tests are that relatively small amounts of ice can have nearly as much effect on airfoil lift coefficient as much greater amounts of ice and that glaze ice usually has a more detrimental effect than either rime or mixed ice. LEWICE predictions of ice shapes, in general, compared reasonably well with ice shapes obtained in the IRT, although differences in details of the ice shapes were observed.

  14. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13 Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting; general. 77.1910... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1910 Explosives and blasting; general. (a) Light and power circuits shall be disconnected or removed from the blasting area before charging and blasting. (b) All...

  16. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  17. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  18. Anorectal injury in pelvic blast.

    PubMed

    Brogden, Tom G; Garner, J P

    2013-03-01

    The signature injury of the Afghanistan campaign has, amongst other things, included an increased incidence of destructive anorectal injury. There is no significant body of evidence about this type of injury on which to base management strategies. This review examines the historical military data, later civilian reports, many of which have challenged the military dogmas of Vietnam, and the spartan contemporaneous military data which does not particularly address pelviperineal blast injury. There is no evidence to support a move away from the doctrine of the four D's (diversion, distal washout, drainage and direct repair), but sound surgical judgement remains the mainstay of managing these challenging and highly morbid injuries.

  19. Blast Wave Experiments at Z

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    radiation flows upward, it passes though a 1.7-mm high, tapered, 25-μm thick gold wall cone that is filled 20 ± 3 mg/cm3 silica aerogel (SiO2). Above...this cone is a 20 ± 3 mg/cm3 silica aerogel filled, 1-mm high, 2.4-mm inner diameter, 25-μm thick gold wall cylinder. On the cylinder rests a 4-mm...diameter gold platform that supports a higher density (40-60 mg/cm3) silica aerogel . This aerogel is the region where the blast wave forms after

  20. Wilkins Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-20

    The Wilkins Ice Shelf, as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft, on the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula, experienced multiple disintegration events in 2008. By the beginning of 2009, a narrow ice bridge was all that remained to connect the ice shelf to ice fragments fringing nearby Charcot Island. That bridge gave way in early April 2009. Days after the ice bridge rupture, on April 12, 2009, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the southern base of the ice bridge, where it connected with the remnant ice shelf. Although the ice bridge has played a role in stabilizing the ice fragments in the region, its rupture doesn't guarantee the ice will immediately move away. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11991

  1. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  2. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory.

  3. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  4. Ice sheet radar altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, J.

    1988-01-01

    The surface topography of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets between 72 degrees north and south was mapped using radar altimetry data from the U.S. Navy GEOSAT. The glaciological objectives of this activity were to study the dynamics of the ice flow, changes in the position of floating ice-shelf fronts, and ultimately to measure temporal changes in ice surface elevation indicative of ice sheet mass balance.

  5. Ice on waterfowl markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Bair, W.C.

    1974-01-01

    Wild and captive giant Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima) and captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) accumulated ice on neck collars and/or nasal saddles during winter storm periods in 1971 and 1972. Weather conditions associated with icing were documented, and characteristics of icing are discussed. Severe marker icing occurred during subfreezing weather when the windchill reached approximately -37 deg.C. Birds appeared able to de-ice nasal saddles in most instances.

  6. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate...

  7. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate...

  8. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate...

  9. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate...

  10. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate...

  11. Brain Vulnerability to Repeated Blast Overpressure and Polytrauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    characterization of the mouse model of repeated blast also found no cumula- tive effect of repeated blast on cortical levels of reactive oxygen species [39]. C...overpressure in rats to investigate the cumulative effects of multiple blast exposures on neurologic status, neurobehavioral function, and brain...preclinical model of blast overpressure in rats to investigate the cumulative effects of multiple blast exposures using neurological, neurochemical

  12. Ice Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Heavy water ice clouds almost completely obscure the surface in Vastitas Borealis.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 69.5, Longitude 283.6 East (76.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  13. Melting ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Elmo

    2018-01-01

    In this brief frontline, we want to describe the well-known fact that, when freshwater ice melts, the freshwater liquid level does not change. In the Italian Ministerial programs, fluid statics is introduced in the three years of middle school (students of 11-13 years) and during the first two years of high school (14-15 years). The Italian textbooks do not clearly explain why the abovementioned phenomenon occurs. The explanations are qualitative and they may lead to misinterpretation. I have noted that the students are very curious about this phenomenon. They sought a demonstration from books and from the web; and when they do not find it they asked me. Moreover, they have allowed me to observe that there are contradictory statements about the melting of icebergs. Some authors claim that they would not raise the sea-level, others say the opposite. Honestly speaking, I had never thought about this phenomenon and in classroom I tried to give them proof, expressing my opinion about the melting of icebergs.

  14. Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

  15. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1)more » calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.« less

  16. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  17. Stochastic ice stream dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution. PMID:27457960

  18. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  19. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-09-18

    STS048-152-007 (12-18 Sept 1991) --- The periphery of the Antarctic ice shelf and the Antarctic Peninsula were photographed by the STS 48 crew members. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with katabatic winds from the interior of the continent, are peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into ribbons of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers into the cold waters of the circum-Antarctic southern ocean.

  20. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. ©RSNA, 2016.

  1. Activity of different proteinaceous ice nucleating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Susann; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Ling, Meilee; Hellner, Lisa; Zapf, Jean-Michel; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Pummer, Bernhard; Boesen, Thomas; Wex, Heike; Finster, Kai; Stratmann, Frank

    2017-04-01

    A variety of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, lichen) from land produce protein structures, which act as a template for ice nucleation [1]. Also marine sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) came in focus in the recent years. The atmospheric spatio-temporal distribution of INPs from microorganisms is still not well known. However, it is often assumed that the observed onset of atmospheric ice nucleation (T>-20°C) is due to the existence of ice-nucleation active biological particles. In this study we compare the ice nucleation activity of different proteinaceous particles produced by bacteria and fungi. For bacteria we investigate (i) cells and fragments of Pseudomonas syringae from commercially available SnomaxTM and (ii) the Pseudomonas syringae INA protein expressed in living Escherichia coli bacteria. We also analyzed freeze-dried leaves [2] where we assume that proteinaceous particles are responsible for the ice nucleation activity. For fungi the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina was investigated which had been extracted from natural soil [3]. Immersion freezing experiments are performed at the cold stage LINA (Leipzig Ice Nucleation Array). We attempt to describe the activity of a single proteinaceous ice nucleating particle [4] in order to achieve direct comparability. Further, the results are compared with complex natural systems e.g. soil dust. The objectives of this study are to clarify potential differences in the ice nucleation potential of proteinaceous particles and to draw conclusions concerning the need to differentiate them for modelling purposes. 1. Szyrmer, W. and I. Zawadzki, Biogenic and anthropogenic sources of ice-forming nuclei: A review, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 1997. 2. Schnell, R.C. and G. Vali, Biogenic ice nucleai .1: Terrestrial and marine sources, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<1554:binpit>2.0.co;2, 1976. 3. Froehlich-Nowoisky, J. et al., Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina, doi: 10

  2. Myeloperoxidase mRNA detection for lineage determination of leukemic blasts: retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Crisan, D; Anstett, M J

    1995-07-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) mRNA is an early myeloid marker; its detection in the morphologically and immunophenotypically primitive blasts of acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) establishes myeloid lineage and allows reclassification as acute myelogenous leukemia with minimal differentiation (AML-MO). We have previously reported a procedure for MPO mRNA detection by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and an adaptation for use of routine hematology smears. This variant procedure allows retrospective analysis of mRNA and is used in the present study to evaluate the lineage of leukemic blasts in seven cases with morphology and cytochemistry consistent with AUL. All hematology smears used in this study were air-dried, unstained or Wright-stained and stored at room temperature for periods varying between 3 days and 2 years. MPO mRNA was detected in six cases, establishing the myeloid lineage of the blasts and the diagnosis of AML-MO. In the remaining case, the blasts were MPO mRNA negative, confirming the diagnosis of AUL. The RT-PCR procedure for retrospective mRNA analysis is useful in the clinical setting, due to its high specificity and sensitivity, speed (less than 24 h), safety (no radioactivity) and convenient use of routine hematology smears; it is particularly attractive in clinical situations when fresh or frozen specimens are no longer available at the time when the need for molecular diagnostics becomes apparent.

  3. On firework blasts and qualitative parameter dependency.

    PubMed

    Zohdi, T I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to qualitatively simulate the progressive time-evolution of a blast from a simple firework. Estimates are made for the blast radius that one can expect for a given amount of detonation energy and pyrotechnic display material. The model balances the released energy from the initial blast pulse with the subsequent kinetic energy and then computes the trajectory of the material under the influence of the drag from the surrounding air, gravity and possible buoyancy. Under certain simplifying assumptions, the model can be solved for analytically. The solution serves as a guide to identifying key parameters that control the evolving blast envelope. Three-dimensional examples are given.

  4. Bomb blast imaging: bringing order to chaos.

    PubMed

    Dick, E A; Ballard, M; Alwan-Walker, H; Kashef, E; Batrick, N; Hettiaratchy, S; Moran, C G

    2018-06-01

    Blast injuries are complex, severe, and outside of our everyday clinical practice, but every radiologist needs to understand them. By their nature, bomb blasts are unpredictable and affect multiple victims, yet require an immediate, coordinated, and whole-hearted response from all members of the clinical team, including all radiology staff. This article will help you gain the requisite expertise in blast imaging including recognising primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. It will also help you understand the fundamental role that imaging plays during mass casualty attacks and how to avoid radiology becoming a bottleneck to the forward flow of severely injured patients as they are triaged and treated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M.

    1997-12-31

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas --more » operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.« less

  6. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  7. On firework blasts and qualitative parameter dependency

    PubMed Central

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to qualitatively simulate the progressive time-evolution of a blast from a simple firework. Estimates are made for the blast radius that one can expect for a given amount of detonation energy and pyrotechnic display material. The model balances the released energy from the initial blast pulse with the subsequent kinetic energy and then computes the trajectory of the material under the influence of the drag from the surrounding air, gravity and possible buoyancy. Under certain simplifying assumptions, the model can be solved for analytically. The solution serves as a guide to identifying key parameters that control the evolving blast envelope. Three-dimensional examples are given. PMID:26997903

  8. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  9. Blast Upgrading of Existing Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    covered with soil, the response is different from triat when subjected to a blast load . Table 2-3 is a summary of the maxi- mum load bearing ... load ) 5 W14 384 El =5 (40) 16 (192)3 394 x 1.85 x 106 x 98.93 6 =0.32 0.53 O.K. Bearing at-Support = 3.5 1.5 = 2 in. 2 l° MIST f L V 533 f 7 psi < 4-s...10 psf dead load (91 psf live load ). Shear fv = 2.03(51.6) = 105 psi, and bearing fc= 2.03 (178) are = 361 psi well within conventional ,safe limits

  10. Hardy Star Survives Supernova Blast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    This composite image contains data from Chandra (purple) that provides evidence for the survival of a companion star from the blast of a supernova explosion. Chandra's X-rays reveal a point-like source in the supernova remnant at the location of a massive star. The data suggest that mass is being pulled away from the massive star towards a neutron star or a black hole companion. If confirmed, this would be only the third binary system containing both a massive star and a neutron star or black hole ever found in the aftermath of a supernova. This supernova remnant is found embedded in clouds of ionized hydrogen, which are shown in optical light (yellow and cyan) from the MCELS survey, along with additional optical data from the DSS (white).

  11. Mine Blast Loading: Experiments and Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    plates by approximately 50%. We investigated the root cause for this discrepancy. The simulations calculate a turbulent-like flow field characterized...Toussaint [19] evaluated two numerical methods, Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics ( SPH ) and Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE), to simulate a mine blast on...That is, the mine blast products were not flowing along the solid plate boundary in the simulations as freely as they should. 6 In particular, the V

  12. Space shuttle holddown post blast shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larracas, F. B.

    1991-01-01

    The original and subsequent designs of the Solid Rocket Booster/Holddown Post blast shield assemblies and their associated hardware are described. It presents the major problems encountered during their early use in the Space Shuttle Program, during the Return-to-Flight Modification Phase, and during their fabrication and validation testing phases. The actions taken to correct the problems are discussed, along with the various concepts now being considered to increase the useful life of the blast shield.

  13. Lightweight Energy Absorbers for Blast Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald L.; Ingram, Thomas M.; Novak, Howard L.; Schricker, Albert F.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic-energy-absorbing liners made of aluminum foam have been developed to replace solid lead liners in blast containers on the aft skirt of the solid rocket booster of the space shuttle. The blast containers are used to safely trap the debris from small explosions that are initiated at liftoff to sever frangible nuts on hold-down studs that secure the spacecraft to a mobile launch platform until liftoff.

  14. Localized coating removal using plastic media blasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Wyckoff, Michael G.; Zook, Lee M.

    1988-01-01

    Steps taken to qualify the use of plastic media blasting for safely and effectively removing paint and other coatings from solid rocket booster aluminum structures are described. As a result of the effort, an improvement was made in the design of surface finishing equipment for processing flight hardware, in addition to a potentially patentable idea on improved plastic media composition. The general arrangement of the blast equipment and the nozzle configuration are presented.

  15. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-14

    pathology of traumatic axonal injury involves distinct injury processes, neurofilament compaction (NFC) and impaired axoplasmic transport (IAT)1. In rat...assessments and may render diagnosis of blast related pathology even more difficult. These neuronal injury changes in the grey matter that appeared...were from blast studies using rodents16,17 and impulse noise18. A putative pathological implication for microglia comes from studies by Kane et al

  16. HiRISE observations of new impact craters exposing Martian ground ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mellon, Michael T.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Saper, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Twenty small new impact craters or clusters have been observed to excavate bright material inferred to be ice at mid and high latitudes on Mars. In the northern hemisphere, the craters are widely distributed geographically and occur at latitudes as low as 39°N. Stability modeling suggests that this ice distribution requires a long-term average atmospheric water vapor content around 25 precipitable microns, more than double the present value, which is consistent with the expected effect of recent orbital variations. Alternatively, near-surface humidity could be higher than expected for current column abundances if water vapor is not well-mixed with atmospheric CO2, or the vapor pressure at the ice table could be lower due to salts. Ice in and around the craters remains visibly bright for months to years, indicating that it is clean ice rather than ice-cemented regolith. Although some clean ice may be produced by the impact process, it is likely that the original ground ice was excess ice (exceeding dry soil pore space) in many cases. Observations of the craters suggest small-scale heterogeneities in this excess ice. The origin of such ice is uncertain. Ice lens formation by migration of thin films of liquid is most consistent with local heterogeneity in ice content and common surface boulders, but in some cases nearby thermokarst landforms suggest large amounts of excess ice that may be best explained by a degraded ice sheet.

  17. A passive infrared ice detection technique for helicopter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam L.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed, and successfully tested, to detect icing remotely on helicopter rotor blades. Using passive infrared (IR) thermometry it is possible to detect the warming caused by latent heat released as supercooled water freezes. During icing, the ice accretion region on the leading edge of the blade is found to be warmer than the uniced trailing edge resulting in a chordwise temperature profile characteristic of icing. Preliminary tests, using an IR Thermal video system, were conducted on a static model in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for a variety of wet (glaze) and dry (rime) ice conditions. A prototype detector system was built consisting of a single point IR pyrometer, and experiments were run on a small scale rotor model. Using this prototype detector, the characteristic chordwise temperature profiles were again observed for a range of icing conditions. Several signal processing methods were investigated, to allow automatic recognition of the icing signature. Additionally, several implementation issues were considered. Based on both the static and subscale rotor tests, where ice was successfully detected, the passive IR technique appears to be promising for rotor ice detection.

  18. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  19. Ice nucleation of bioaerosols - a resumee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Atanasova, Lea; Bauer, Heidi; Bernardi, Johannes; Chazallon, Bertrand; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Grothe, Hinrich

    2013-04-01

    The role of biological particles for ice nucleation (IN) is still debated. Here, we present a summary of investigation and comparison of different ice nuclei. Apart from the bacterial ice nucleation proteins in Snomax, we further investigated a broad spectrum of pollen and fungal spores in the search for ice nucleation activity. Apart from Snomax, only few samples showed vital IN activity, like Fusarium avenaceum spores and Betula pendula pollen. Chemical characterization accentuated the differences between bacterial and pollen ice nuclei. Exposure to natural stresses, like UV and NOx, led to a significant decrease in IN activity. Furthermore, the releasable fraction of the pollen material, which includes the ice nuclei, was extracted with water and dried up. These residues were investigated with Raman spectroscopy and compared with the spectra of whole pollen grains. Measurements clearly demonstrated that the aqueous fraction contained mainly saccharides, lipids and proteins, but no sporopollenin, which is the bulk material of the outer pollen wall. Fungal spores of ecologically, economically or otherwise relevant species were also investigated. Most species showed no significant IN activity at all. A few species showed a slight increase in freezing temperature, but still significantly below the activity of the most active pollen or mineral dusts. Only Fusarium avenaceum showed strong IN activity. Cultivation of Fusarium and Trichoderma (close relatives of Fusarium) at different temperatures showed changes in total protein expression, but no impact on the IN activity.

  20. Dibble Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    This photo, aken onboard a National Science Foundation/NASA chartered Twin Otter aircraft, shows the ice front of Dibble Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, a significant melt water producer from the Wilkes Land region, East Antarctica.

  1. Waves on Ice

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Waves on White: Ice or Clouds?     View Larger ... like a wavy cloud pattern was actually a wavy pattern on the ice surface. One of MISR's cloud classification products, the Angular Signature ...

  2. Looking for Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    This image was targeted for NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft to look at a candidate new crater on a lobate apron. Such aprons are often ice-rich, but the crater shows no bright material that would indicate ice.

  3. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tappingmore » into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.« less

  4. Information modeling system for blast furnace control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirin, N. A.; Gileva, L. Y.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Modern Iron & Steel Works as a rule are equipped with powerful distributed control systems (DCS) and databases. Implementation of DSC system solves the problem of storage, control, protection, entry, editing and retrieving of information as well as generation of required reporting data. The most advanced and promising approach is to use decision support information technologies based on a complex of mathematical models. The model decision support system for control of blast furnace smelting is designed and operated. The basis of the model system is a complex of mathematical models created using the principle of natural mathematical modeling. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. The first level model is a basic state model which makes it possible to assess the vector of system parameters using field data and blast furnace operation results. It is also used to calculate the adjustment (adaptation) coefficients of the predictive block of the system. The second-level model is a predictive model designed to assess the design parameters of the blast furnace process when there are changes in melting conditions relative to its current state. Tasks for which software is developed are described. Characteristics of the main subsystems of the blast furnace process as an object of modeling and control - thermal state of the furnace, blast, gas dynamic and slag conditions of blast furnace smelting - are presented.

  5. Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    1989-01-01

    Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or snow by subglacial eruptions or geothermal activity, (4) ejection of water by eruptions through a crater lake, and (5) deposition of tephra fall. Historical records of volcanic eruptions at snow-clad volcanoes show the following: (1) Flowing pyroclastic debris (pyroclastic flows and surges) and blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris are the most common volcanic events that generate lahars and floods; (2) Surficial lava flows generally cannot melt snow and ice rapidly enough to form large lahars or floods; (3) Heating the base of a glacier or snowpack by subglacial eruptions or by geothermal activity can induce basal melting that may result in ponding of water and lead to sudden outpourings of water or sediment-rich debris flows; (4) Tephra falls usually alter ablation rates of snow and ice but generally produce little meltwater that results in the formation of lahars and floods; (5) Lahars and floods generated by flowing pyroclastic debris, blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, or basal melting of snow and ice commonly have volumes that exceed 105 m3.The glowing lava (pyroclastic flow) which flowed with force over ravines and ridges...gathered in the basin quickly and then forced downwards. As a result, tremendously wide and deep pathways in the ice and snow were made and produced great streams of water (Wolf 1878).

  6. Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Jon J.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    1989-10-01

    Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or snow by subglacial eruptions or geothermal activity, (4) ejection of water by eruptions through a crater lake, and (5) deposition of tephra fall. Historical records of volcanic eruptions at snow-clad volcanoes show the following: (1) Flowing pyroclastic debris (pyroclastic flows and surges) and blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris are the most common volcanic events that generate lahars and floods; (2) Surficial lava flows generally cannot melt snow and ice rapidly enough to form large lahars or floods; (3) Heating the base of a glacier or snowpack by subglacial eruptions or by geothermal activity can induce basal melting that may result in ponding of water and lead to sudden outpourings of water or sediment-rich debris flows; (4) Tephra falls usually alter ablation rates of snow and ice but generally produce little meltwater that results in the formation of lahars and floods; (5) Lahars and floods generated by flowing pyroclastic debris, blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, or basal melting of snow and ice commonly have volumes that exceed 105 m3. The glowing lava (pyroclastic flow) which flowed with force over ravines and ridges...gathered in the basin quickly and then forced downwards. As a result, tremendously wide and deep pathways in the ice and snow were made and produced great streams of water (Wolf 1878).

  7. River Ice Data Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    transmission and storage of data. Fi- nally, recommendations are made for further work in the field of ice data collection. North Atlantic \\N...Missouri River Division (MRD) Kansas City Omaha MRK MRO 7 32 20 11 North Atlantic Division (NAD) Baltimore New York Norfolk Philadelphia... Western 1 r~ T T Ice Thickness U Water Temperature < > Air Temperature i ► Discharge < | Water Stage < [ Ice Areal Coverage a Ice

  8. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  9. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Suciu, Dan F.; Harris, Taryl L.; Ingram, Jani C.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  10. Technology for Ice Rinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Ron Urban's International Ice Shows set up portable ice rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining ice consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating system developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.

  11. Ice Versus Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    During a snow bank exploration, students noticed "ice caves," or pockets, in some of the larger snow banks, usually below darker layers. Most of these caves had many icicles hanging inside. Students offered reasonable explanations of ice cave formation--squirrels, kids, snow blowers--and a few students came close to the true ice cave-formation…

  12. Ice Formation on Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, L

    1939-01-01

    This report makes use of the results obtained in the Gottingen ice tunnel in which the atmospheric conditions are simulated and the process of ice formation photographed. The effect of ice formation is threefold: 1) added weight to the airplane; 2) a change in the lift and drag forces; 3) a change in the stability characteristics.

  13. The Antarctic Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radok, Uwe

    1985-01-01

    The International Antarctic Glaciological Project has collected information on the East Antarctic ice sheet since 1969. Analysis of ice cores revealed climatic history, and radar soundings helped map bedrock of the continent. Computer models of the ice sheet and its changes over time will aid in predicting the future. (DH)

  14. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  15. Drying hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Joseph Denig; Eugene M. Wengert; William T. Simpson

    2000-01-01

    Drying Hardwood Lumber focuses on common methods for drying lumber of different thickness, with minimal drying defects, for high quality applications. This manual also includes predrying treatments that, when part of an overall quality-oriented drying system, reduce defects and improve drying quality, especially of oak lumber. Special attention is given to drying white...

  16. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, C.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Urban, F.E.; Grosse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes cover > 20% of the landscape throughout much of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) with shallow lakes freezing solid (grounded ice) and deeper lakes maintaining perennial liquid water (floating ice). Thus, lake depth relative to maximum ice thickness (1·5–2·0 m) represents an important threshold that impacts permafrost, aquatic habitat, and potentially geomorphic and hydrologic behaviour. We studied coupled hydrogeomorphic processes of 13 lakes representing a depth gradient across this threshold of maximum ice thickness by analysing remotely sensed, water quality, and climatic data over a 35-year period. Shoreline erosion rates due to permafrost degradation ranged from L) with periods of full and nearly dry basins. Shorter-term (2004–2008) specific conductance data indicated a drying pattern across lakes of all depths consistent with the long-term record for only shallow lakes. Our analysis suggests that grounded-ice lakes are ice-free on average 37 days longer than floating-ice lakes resulting in a longer period of evaporative loss and more frequent negative P − EL. These results suggest divergent hydrogeomorphic responses to a changing Arctic climate depending on the threshold created by water depth relative to maximum ice thickness in ACP lakes.

  17. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  18. Alkahest NuclearBLAST : a user-friendly BLAST management and analysis system

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Stephen E; Houfek, Thomas D; Kalat, Sam E; Windham, DE; Burke, Mark; Opperman, Charles; Dean, Ralph A

    2005-01-01

    Background - Sequencing of EST and BAC end datasets is no longer limited to large research groups. Drops in per-base pricing have made high throughput sequencing accessible to individual investigators. However, there are few options available which provide a free and user-friendly solution to the BLAST result storage and data mining needs of biologists. Results - Here we describe NuclearBLAST, a batch BLAST analysis, storage and management system designed for the biologist. It is a wrapper for NCBI BLAST which provides a user-friendly web interface which includes a request wizard and the ability to view and mine the results. All BLAST results are stored in a MySQL database which allows for more advanced data-mining through supplied command-line utilities or direct database access. NuclearBLAST can be installed on a single machine or clustered amongst a number of machines to improve analysis throughput. NuclearBLAST provides a platform which eases data-mining of multiple BLAST results. With the supplied scripts, the program can export data into a spreadsheet-friendly format, automatically assign Gene Ontology terms to sequences and provide bi-directional best hits between two datasets. Users with SQL experience can use the database to ask even more complex questions and extract any subset of data they require. Conclusion - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for requesting, viewing and mining of BLAST results which makes the management and data-mining of large sets of BLAST analyses tractable to biologists. PMID:15958161

  19. NASA: First Map Of Thawed Areas Under Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA researchers have helped produce the first map showing what parts of the bottom of the massive Greenland Ice Sheet are thawed – key information in better predicting how the ice sheet will react to a warming climate. Greenland’s thick ice sheet insulates the bedrock below from the cold temperatures at the surface, so the bottom of the ice is often tens of degrees warmer than at the top, because the ice bottom is slowly warmed by heat coming from the Earth’s depths. Knowing whether Greenland’s ice lies on wet, slippery ground or is anchored to dry, frozen bedrock is essential for predicting how this ice will flow in the future, But scientists have very few direct observations of the thermal conditions beneath the ice sheet, obtained through fewer than two dozen boreholes that have reached the bottom. Now, a new study synthesizes several methods to infer the Greenland Ice Sheet’s basal thermal state –whether the bottom of the ice is melted or not– leading to the first map that identifies frozen and thawed areas across the whole ice sheet. Map caption: This first-of-a-kind map, showing which parts of the bottom of the Greenland Ice Sheet are likely thawed (red), frozen (blue) or still uncertain (gray), will help scientists better predict how the ice will flow in a warming climate. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory/Jesse Allen Read more: go.nasa.gov/2avKgl2 NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. [An experimental study of blast injury].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z G

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of the authors' experimental research on blast injury in the past two years. The main results are as follows: (1) A new designed 39 meter-long shock tube for biological test has been built in the laboratory. Its maximal overpressure values are 215 kPa (in open condition) and 505 kPa (in closed condition). It may meet the need for inflicting blast injuries with various degree of severity. (2) A study of the effect of simulating gun muzzle blast wave on sheep indicated that in the single explosion, the threshold overpressure values inflicting the injury of internal organs were: Lung-37.27 kPa, G-I tract-41.0 kPa; the upper respiratory tract-negative until 73 kPa, while in the multiple (20 times) explosions, they were 23.7, 23.7 and 41.4 kPa, respectively. (3) Using TEM, SEM and some other special techniques, such as morphometry, freeze-fracture technique, labelled lanthanum nitrate technique, etc, it was demonstrated that in the lung with blast injury there were significant pathological changes in pulmonary capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium and their intercellular junctions with apparent increase of permeability. (4) It has been shown that parallel superficial stripelike hemorrhage typical for lung blast injury is "Intercostal marking" instead of "Rib marking". (5) A new type of material (foamy nickel) for protection against blast wave is presented. It was proved that the material can effectively weaken or eliminate the effect of blast wave on human body.

  1. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  2. Regional traumatic limb hypothermia attenuates distant hepatic and renal injury following blast limb trauma in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongzhi; Ning, Jiaolin; Duan, Jiaxiang; Gu, Jianteng; Yi, Bin; Lu, Kaizhi; Mo, Liwen; Lai, Xinan; Hennah, Lindsay; Ma, Daqing

    2014-09-01

    Blast limb injury was reported to result in distant organ injury including the lungs, which can be attenuated with transient regional hypothermia (RH) to the injured limb. We aimed to further study hepatic and renal injuries following blast limb trauma and also to evaluate the protective effects of regional traumatic limb hypothermia on such injuries in rats. Blast limb trauma (BLT) was created using chartaceous electricity detonators in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BLT rats were randomly allocated to undergo regional traumatic limb hypothermic treatment (RH) for 30 minutes, 60 minutes, or 6 hours immediately after the onset of blast or without RH (n = 8 per group). The severity of hepatic and renal injury was assessed through histologic examination and water content (wet/dry weight) in all animals 6 hours later. The level of plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) together with hepatic and renal MPO, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were measured 6 hours after the blast injury. Following BLT, hepatic injury was evidenced by histopathologic changes, increased water content, as well as plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Renal histopathologic but not functional changes were also found. RH treatment for all durations attenuated this distant renal injury, but only RH treatment for 60 minutes and 6 hours attenuated distant hepatic injury following BLT. RH treatment for all durations decreased plasma TNF-α and interleukin 6, reduced liver and kidney MPO activity and kidney MDA, and elevated superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in both liver and kidneys. RH treatment for 60 minutes is the most effective duration to reduce hepatic MPO activity, plasma TNF-α, and kidney MDA. This study indicates that BLT-induced distant renal and hepatic injury could be attenuated by RH treatment through reduction of

  3. Ground vibration monitoring for construction blasting in urban areas

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-04-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to determine a recommendation for the pre-blast area for surveys, and to obtain actual field vibrations from rock blasting operations, in populated regions within specific geologic units. The area confined wi...

  4. 7. LOOKING EAST AT HOIST HOUSE No. 1 AND BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING EAST AT HOIST HOUSE No. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE No. 1, WITH ORE YARD AND ORE BRIDGES IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading is...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading is...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading is...

  12. Arctic landfast sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  13. Ground Ice on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau, N.; Pollard, W.

    2003-12-01

    On Mars, just like on Earth, water exists in various phases and participates in a broad range of key processes. Even though present surface conditions on Mars, as defined by climate and atmospheric pressure, prevents the occurrence of liquid water on the surface, there is strong evidence suggesting that water was an important land-forming agent in the past (Carr 1996). This naturally raises the question, "where has the water gone?" Surficial water reservoirs that are directly observable on Mars include seasonal water ice deposits and permanent water ice deposits at the polar caps (Kieffer and Zent 1992, Clifford et al. 2000). Due to the existence of permafrost landform systems, such as polygonal ground, rootless cones, and frost mounts, it also has been speculated that much more water may be preserved as ground ice (Lucchitta 1981, Squyres and Carr 1986, Lanagan et al. 2001). Nevertheless, comparison of the likely patterns of ground ice on Mars with terrestrial equivalents has been limited. Fortunately, NASA's 2001 Odyssey data lends support to this hypothesis by identifying significant shallow ice-rich sediments by means of flux characteristics of neutrons, and gamma radiation, and spatial correlations to regions where it has been predicted that subsurface ice is stable (Bell 2002). The ice contents and stratigraphic distribution of the subsurface sediments on Mars, derived by the Odyssey Science Team, is not unlike the upper layers of terrestrial permafrost. Terrestrial polar environments, in particular the more stable permafrost and ground ice features like ice wedges and massive ground ice, may thus provide valuable clues in the search for water and ice on Mars. Of importance is the fact that these features of the earth's surface do not owe their origin to the seasonal freezing and thawing of the active layer. Under the cold, dry polar climates of the Arctic and Antarctic, periglacial and permafrost landforms have evolved, giving rise to distinctive landscapes

  14. Effects of vial packing density on drying rate during freeze-drying of carbohydrates or a model protein measured using a vial-weighing technique.

    PubMed

    Gieseler, Henning; Lee, Geoffrey

    2008-02-01

    To determine the effects of vial packing density in a laboratory freeze dryer on drying rate profiles of crystalline and amorphous formulations. The Christ freeze-drying balance measured cumulative water loss, m(t), and instantaneous drying rate, m(t), of water, mannitol, sucrose and sucrose/BSA formulations in commercial vials. Crystalline mannitol shows drying rate behaviour indicative of a largely homogeneous dried-product layer. The drying rate behaviour of amorphous sucrose indicates structural heterogeneity, postulated to come from shrinkage or microcollapse. Trehalose dries more slowly than sucrose. Addition of BSA to either disaccharide decreases primary drying time. Higher vial packing density greatly reduces drying rate because of effects of radiation heat transfer from chamber walls to test vial. Plots of m(t) versus radical t and m(t) versus layer thickness (either ice or dried-product) allow interpretation of changes in internal cake morphology during drying. Vial packing density greatly influences these profiles.

  15. Modeling of surface roughness effects on glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Yamaguchi, Keiko; Berkowitz, Brian M.; Potapczuk, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A series of experimental investigations focused on studying the cause and effect of roughness on accreting glaze ice surfaces were conducted. Detailed microvideo observations were made of glaze ice accretions on 1 to 4 inch diameter cylinders in three icing wind tunnels (the Data Products of New England six inch test facility, the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel, and the B. F. Goodrich Ice Protection Research Facility). Infrared thermal video recordings were made of accreting ice surfaces in the Goodrich facility. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed; a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film; a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads; a horn zone where roughness elements grow into horn shapes; a runback zone where surface water ran back as rivulets; and a dry zone where rime feathers formed. The location of the transition from the smooth to the rough zone was found to migrate with time towards the stagnation point. The behavior of the transition appeared to be controlled by boundary layer transition and bead formation mechanisms at the interface between the smooth and rough zones. Regions of wet ice growth and enhanced heat transfer were clearly visible in the infrared video recordings of glaze ice surfaces. A simple multi-zone modification to the current glaze ice accretion model was proposed to include spatial variability in surface roughness.

  16. Experimental investigation of passive infrared ice detection for helicopter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is proposed to remotely detect rotor icing on helicopters. Using passive infrared (IR) thermometry it is possible to detect the warming caused by latent heat released as supercooled water freezes. During icing, the ice accretion region on the blade leading edge will be warmer than the uniced trailing edge resulting in a chordwise temperature profile characteristic of icing. Preliminary tests were conducted on a static model in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for a variety of wet (glaze) and dry (rime) ice conditions. The characteristic chordwise temperature profiles were observed with an IR thermal video system and confirmed with thermocouple measurements. A prototype detector system was built consisting of a single point IR pyrometer, and experiments were run on a small scale rotor model. Again the characteristic chordwise temperature profiles were observed during icing, and the IR system was able to remotely detect icing. Based on the static and subscale rotor tests the passive IR technique is promising for rotor ice detection.

  17. Collisions with ice-volatile objects: Geological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, P.; Quinby-Hunt, M. S.; Berry, W. B. N.

    1988-01-01

    The collision of the Earth with extra-terrestrial ice-volatile bodies is proposed as a mechanism to produce rapid changes in the geologic record. These bodies would be analogs of the ice satellites found for the Jovian planets and suspected for comets and certain low density bodies in the Asteroid belt. Five generic end-members are postulated: (1) water ice; (2) dry ice: carbon-carbon dioxide rich, (3) oceanic (chloride) ice; (4) sulfur-rich ice; (5) ammonia hydrate-rich ice; and (6) clathrate: methane-rich ice. Due to the volatile nature of these bodies, evidence for their impact with the Earth would be subtle and probably best reflected geochemically or in the fossil record. Actual boloids impacting the Earth may have a variable composition, generally some admixture with water ice. However for discussion purposes, only the effects of a dominant component will be treated. The general geological effects of such collisions, as a function of the dominant component would be: (1) rapid sea level rise unrelated to deglaciation, (2) decreased oceanic pH and rapid climatic warming or deglaciation; (3) increased paleosalinities; (4) increased acid rain; (5) increased oceanic pH and rapid carbonate deposition; and (6) rapid climatic warming or deglaciation.

  18. Fractionation of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) by Sieving and Winnowing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four commercial samples of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), were subjected to sieving and then winnowing. All sieved fractions except for the pan fraction, constituting about 90% of original mass, were subjected to winnowing with an air blast seed cleaner. Sieving was effective in pro...

  19. Aircraft Icing Handbook. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    an airfoil surface. icenhobig - A surface property exhibiting a reduced adhesion to ice; literally, "ice-hating." light icing - The rate of...power, and are a light weight system of reasonable cost. K. ill I-I1 1.I.2 Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection A Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection System...should be about 5 to 6 seconds. During moderate icing a 60 second cycle is suggested, while for light icing, longer accretion times of 3 to 4 minutes

  20. Blasting response of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlyck, Lachlan; Hayes, Kieran; Caetano, Ryan; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    A finite element model of the Eiffel Tower was constructed using Strand7 software. The model replicates the existing tower, with dimensions justified through the use of original design drawings. A static and dynamic analysis was conducted to determine the actions of the tower under permanent, imposed and wind loadings, as well as under blast pressure loads and earthquake loads due to an explosion. It was observed that the tower utilises the full axial capacity of individual members by acting as a `truss of trusses'. As such, permanent and imposed loads are efficiently transferred to the primary columns through compression, while wind loads induce tensile forces in the windward legs and compressive forces in the leeward. Under blast loading, the tower experienced both ground vibrations and blast pressures. Ground vibrations induced a negligibly small earthquake loading into the structure which was ignored in subsequent analyses. The blast pressure was significant, and a dynamic analysis of this revealed that further research is required into the damping qualities of the structure due to soil and mechanical properties. In the worst case scenario, the blast was assumed to completely destroy several members in the adjacent leg. Despite this weakened condition, it was observed that the tower would still be able to sustain static loads, at least for enough time for occupant evacuation. Further, an optimised design revealed the structure was structurally sound under a 46% reduction of the metal tower's mass.

  1. The quinary pattern of blast injury.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Yoram; Nimrod, Adi; Biderman, Philippe; Mayo, Ami; Sorkin, Patric

    2007-01-01

    Bombing is the primary weapon of global terrorism, and it results in a complicated, multidimensional injury pattern. It induces bodily injuries through the well-documented primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary mechanisms of blast. Their effects dictate special medical concern and timely implementation of diagnostic and management strategies. Our objective is to report on clinical observations of patients admitted to the Tel Aviv Medical Center following a terrorist bombing. The explosion injured 27 patients, and three died. Four survivors who had been in close proximity to the explosion, as indicated by their eardrum perforation and additional blast injuries, were exposed to the blast wave. They exhibited a unique and immediate hyperinflammatory state, two upon admission to the intensive care unit and two during surgery. This hyperinflammatory state manifested as hyperpyrexia, sweating, low central venous pressure, and positive fluid balance. This state did not correlate with the complexity of injuries sustained by any of the 67 patients admitted to the intensive care unit after previous bombings. The patients' hyperinflammatory behavior, unrelated to their injury complexity and severity of trauma, indicates a new injury pattern in explosions, termed the "quinary blast injury pattern." Unconventional materials used in the manufacture of the explosive can partly explain the observed early hyperinflammatory state. Medical personnel caring for blast victims should be aware of this new type of bombing injury.

  2. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin

    2018-04-25

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal Progression of Visual Injury from Blast Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    carprofen one day before the blast for pain management. A baseline of vision functionality is established before the blast using the metrics...returned to the animal facility. While animals do not show signs of pain following the blast exposure, carprofen is administered the next day as a

  4. BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

  5. Computational modeling of human head under blast in confined and open spaces: primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, A; Salimi Jazi, M; Karami, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a computational modeling for biomechanical analysis of primary blast injuries is presented. The responses of the brain in terms of mechanical parameters under different blast spaces including open, semi-confined, and confined environments are studied. In the study, the effect of direct and indirect blast waves from the neighboring walls in the confined environments will be taken into consideration. A 50th percentile finite element head model is exposed to blast waves of different intensities. In the open space, the head experiences a sudden intracranial pressure (ICP) change, which vanishes in a matter of a few milliseconds. The situation is similar in semi-confined space, but in the confined space, the reflections from the walls will create a number of subsequent peaks in ICP with a longer duration. The analysis procedure is based on a simultaneous interaction simulation of the deformable head and its components with the blast wave propagations. It is concluded that compared with the open and semi-confined space settings, the walls in the confined space scenario enhance the risk of primary blast injuries considerably because of indirect blast waves transferring a larger amount of damaging energy to the head. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.; Choo, Yung K.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Pennline, James A.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Slater, John W.; hide

    2004-01-01

    SmaggIce version 1.2 is a computer program for preparing and analyzing iced airfoils. It includes interactive tools for (1) measuring ice-shape characteristics, (2) controlled smoothing of ice shapes, (3) curve discretization, (4) generation of artificial ice shapes, and (5) detection and correction of input errors. Measurements of ice shapes are essential for establishing relationships between characteristics of ice and effects of ice on airfoil performance. The shape-smoothing tool helps prepare ice shapes for use with already available grid-generation and computational-fluid-dynamics software for studying the aerodynamic effects of smoothed ice on airfoils. The artificial ice-shape generation tool supports parametric studies since ice-shape parameters can easily be controlled with the artificial ice. In such studies, artificial shapes generated by this program can supplement simulated ice obtained from icing research tunnels and real ice obtained from flight test under icing weather condition. SmaggIce also automatically detects geometry errors such as tangles or duplicate points in the boundary which may be introduced by digitization and provides tools to correct these. By use of interactive tools included in SmaggIce version 1.2, one can easily characterize ice shapes and prepare iced airfoils for grid generation and flow simulations.

  7. Divide and Conquer (DC) BLAST: fast and easy BLAST execution within HPC environments

    DOE PAGES

    Yim, Won Cheol; Cushman, John C.

    2017-07-22

    Bioinformatics is currently faced with very large-scale data sets that lead to computational jobs, especially sequence similarity searches, that can take absurdly long times to run. For example, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST and BLAST+) suite, which is by far the most widely used tool for rapid similarity searching among nucleic acid or amino acid sequences, is highly central processing unit (CPU) intensive. While the BLAST suite of programs perform searches very rapidly, they have the potential to be accelerated. In recent years, distributed computing environments have become more widely accessible andmore » used due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Therefore, simple solutions for data parallelization are needed to expedite BLAST and other sequence analysis tools. However, existing software for parallel sequence similarity searches often requires extensive computational experience and skill on the part of the user. In order to accelerate BLAST and other sequence analysis tools, Divide and Conquer BLAST (DCBLAST) was developed to perform NCBI BLAST searches within a cluster, grid, or HPC environment by using a query sequence distribution approach. Scaling from one (1) to 256 CPU cores resulted in significant improvements in processing speed. Thus, DCBLAST dramatically accelerates the execution of BLAST searches using a simple, accessible, robust, and parallel approach. DCBLAST works across multiple nodes automatically and it overcomes the speed limitation of single-node BLAST programs. DCBLAST can be used on any HPC system, can take advantage of hundreds of nodes, and has no output limitations. Thus, this freely available tool simplifies distributed computation pipelines to facilitate the rapid discovery of sequence similarities between very large data sets.« less

  8. Divide and Conquer (DC) BLAST: fast and easy BLAST execution within HPC environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Won Cheol; Cushman, John C.

    Bioinformatics is currently faced with very large-scale data sets that lead to computational jobs, especially sequence similarity searches, that can take absurdly long times to run. For example, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST and BLAST+) suite, which is by far the most widely used tool for rapid similarity searching among nucleic acid or amino acid sequences, is highly central processing unit (CPU) intensive. While the BLAST suite of programs perform searches very rapidly, they have the potential to be accelerated. In recent years, distributed computing environments have become more widely accessible andmore » used due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Therefore, simple solutions for data parallelization are needed to expedite BLAST and other sequence analysis tools. However, existing software for parallel sequence similarity searches often requires extensive computational experience and skill on the part of the user. In order to accelerate BLAST and other sequence analysis tools, Divide and Conquer BLAST (DCBLAST) was developed to perform NCBI BLAST searches within a cluster, grid, or HPC environment by using a query sequence distribution approach. Scaling from one (1) to 256 CPU cores resulted in significant improvements in processing speed. Thus, DCBLAST dramatically accelerates the execution of BLAST searches using a simple, accessible, robust, and parallel approach. DCBLAST works across multiple nodes automatically and it overcomes the speed limitation of single-node BLAST programs. DCBLAST can be used on any HPC system, can take advantage of hundreds of nodes, and has no output limitations. Thus, this freely available tool simplifies distributed computation pipelines to facilitate the rapid discovery of sequence similarities between very large data sets.« less

  9. Unusual radar echoes from the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E. J.; Vanzyl, J. J.; Ostro, S. J.; Jezek, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1991, the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic-aperture radar (AIRSAR) instrument collected the first calibrated data set of multifrequency, polarimetric, radar observations of the Greenland ice sheet. At the time of the AIRSAR overflight, ground teams recorded the snow and firn (old snow) stratigraphy, grain size, density, and temperature at ice camps in three of the four snow zones identified by glaciologists to characterize four different degrees of summer melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The four snow zones are: (1) the dry-snow zone, at high elevation, where melting rarely occurs; (2) the percolation zone, where summer melting generates water that percolates down through the cold, porous, dry snow and then refreezes in place to form massive layers and pipes of solid ice; (3) the soaked-snow zone where melting saturates the snow with liquid water and forms standing lakes; and (4) the ablation zone, at the lowest elevations, where melting is vigorous enough to remove the seasonal snow cover and ablate the glacier ice. There is interest in mapping the spatial extent and temporal variability of these different snow zones repeatedly by using remote sensing techniques. The objectives of the 1991 experiment were to study changes in radar scattering properties across the different melting zones of the Greenland ice sheet, and relate the radar properties of the ice sheet to the snow and firn physical properties via relevant scattering mechanisms. Here, we present an analysis of the unusual radar echoes measured from the percolation zone.

  10. Wave-ice interaction, observed and modelled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmrich, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The need for wide-spread, up-to-date sea state predictions and observations in the emerging ice-free Arctic will further increase as the region will open up to marine operations. Wave models for arctic regions have to capture the additional wave physics associated with wave-ice interactions, and different prediction schemes have to be tested against observations. Here we present examples of spatial wave field parameters obtained from TerraSAR-X StripMap swaths in the southern Beaufort Sea taken as part of the "Arctic Sea State and Boundary Layer DRI". Fetch evolution of the significant wave height and length in open waters, and dominant wave lengths and the high frequency cut-off of the wave spectrum in ice are readily extracted from the SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data. A surprising result is that wave evolution in off-ice wind conditions is more rapidly than the fetch evolution in off-land cases, suggesting seeding of the wave field within the ice-covered region.

  11. Update on Simulating Ice-Cliff Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizek, B. R.; Christianson, K. A.; Alley, R. B.; Voytenko, D.; Vankova, I.; Dixon, T. H.; Walker, R. T.; Holland, D.

    2017-12-01

    Using a 2D full-Stokes diagnostic ice-flow model and engineering and glaciological failure criteria, we simulate the limiting physical conditions for rapid structural failure of subaerial ice cliffs. Previously, using a higher-order flowline model, we reported that the threshold height, in crevassed ice and/or under favorable conditions for hydrofracture or crack lubrication, may be only slightly above the 100-m maximum observed today and that under well-drained or low-melt conditions, mechanically-competent ice supports cliff heights up to 220 m (with a likely range of 180-275 m) before ultimately succumbing to tensional and compressive failure along a listric surface. However, proximal to calving fronts, bridging effects lead to variations in vertical normal stress from the background glaciostatic stress state that give rise to the along-flow gradients in vertical shear stress that are included within a full-Stokes momentum balance. When including all flowline stresses within the physics core, diagnostic solutions continue to support our earlier findings that slumping failure ultimately limits the upper bound for cliff heights. Shear failure still requires low cohesive strength, tensile failure leads to deeper dry-crevasse propagation (albeit, less than halfway through the cliff), and compressive failure drops the threshold height for triggering rapid ice-front retreat via slumping to 200 m (145-280 m).

  12. [Indirect blast rupture of the pancreas with a primary unperforated blast injury of the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Ignjatović, Dragan; Ignjatović, Mile; Jevtić, Miodrag

    2006-02-01

    To present a patient with an indirect blast rupture of the head of pancreas, as well as with a blast contusion of the duodenum following abdominal gunshot injury. A patient with the abdominal gunshot injury was submitted to the management of the injury of the liver, gaster and the right kidney in the field hospital. The revealed rupture of the head of the pancreas and the contusion of the duodenum were managed applying the method of Whipple. Indirect blast injuries require extensive surgical interventions, especially under war conditions.

  13. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Sea Ice , and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sunlight, Sea Ice , and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover 5a...during a period when incident solar irradiance is large increasing solar heat input to the ice . Seasonal sea ice typically has a smaller albedo

  14. Functional Interactions of Major Rice Blast Resistance Genes Pi-ta with Pi-b and Minor Blast Resistance QTLs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Major blast resistance (R) genes confer resistance in a gene-for-gene manner. However, little information is available on interactions between R genes. In this study, interactions between two rice blast R genes, Pi-ta and Pi-b, and other minor blast resistance quantitative trait locus (QTLs) were in...

  15. Comment on "chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model".

    PubMed

    Tsao, Jack W

    2012-10-24

    In their recent paper, Goldstein et al. show murine brain tau neuropathology after explosive blast with head rotation but do not present additional evidence that would delineate whether this neuropathology was principally caused by blast exposure alone or by blast exposure plus head rotational injury.

  16. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice-accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional (3-D) features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-in. chord, two-dimensional (2-D) straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice-accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 × 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For five of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3 percent with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately 1 deg or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several

  17. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-inch chord, 2-D straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For four of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3% with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately one degree or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several of the ice

  18. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  19. Subsurface Ice Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

  20. Ice-Nucleating Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Hitoshi

    Since the discovery of ice-nucleating bacteria in 1974 by Maki et al., a large number of studies on the biological characteristics, ice-nucleating substance, ice nucleation gene and frost damage etc. of the bacteria have been carried out. Ice-nucleating bacteria can cause the freezing of water at relatively warm temperature (-2.3°C). Tween 20 was good substrates for ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. Major fatty acids of Isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) W-11 grown at 30°C were palmitic, cis-9-hexadecenoic and cis-11-octadecenoic which amounted to 90% of the total fatty acids. Sequence analysis shows that an ice nucleation gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens is related to the gene of Pseudomonas syringae.

  1. Sea Ice and Oceanographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oceanus, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)

  2. IceCube

    Science.gov Websites

    . PDF file High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers with IceCube. PDF file IceCube Performance with Artificial Light Sources: the road to a Cascade Analyses + Energy scale calibration for EHE. PDF file , 2006. PDF file Thorsten Stetzelberger "IceCube DAQ Design & Performance" Nov 2005 PPT

  3. Aircraft Icing Handbook. (Update)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological Commentary of D (air) 1209, Icing,* Germany, Reichsamt fur...Wetterdienst, Forschungs-und Krfahrungsberichte, Ser. a, No. 29, 1943. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological-Physical Limitations of Icing on the Atmosphere...Apparatus for Measurement,’ Harvard - Mt. Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676.. Findeisen , W., "The

  4. Advanced MRI in Blast-related TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    test two advanced MRI methods, DTI and resting-state fMRI, in active-duty military blast-related TBI patients acutely after injury and correlate...Introduction: The purpose of the research effort was to test two advanced MRI methods, DTI and resting-state fMRI, in active-duty military blast-related TBI...clinical follow-up assessments and repeat scans on 78 subjects with TBI and 18 controls. 9) We extensively analyzed DTI , resting-state fMRI, and

  5. Implementations of BLAST for parallel computers.

    PubMed

    Jülich, A

    1995-02-01

    The BLAST sequence comparison programs have been ported to a variety of parallel computers-the shared memory machine Cray Y-MP 8/864 and the distributed memory architectures Intel iPSC/860 and nCUBE. Additionally, the programs were ported to run on workstation clusters. We explain the parallelization techniques and consider the pros and cons of these methods. The BLAST programs are very well suited for parallelization for a moderate number of processors. We illustrate our results using the program blastp as an example. As input data for blastp, a 799 residue protein query sequence and the protein database PIR were used.

  6. Effects of geometry on blast-induced loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher Dyer

    Simulations of blasts in an urban environment were performed using Loci/BLAST, a full-featured fluid dynamics simulation code, and analyzed. A two-structure urban environment blast case was used to perform a mesh refinement study. Results show that mesh spacing on and around the structure must be 12.5 cm or less to resolve fluid dynamic features sufficiently to yield accurate results. The effects of confinement were illustrated by analyzing a blast initiated from the same location with and without the presence of a neighboring structure. Analysis of extreme pressures and impulses on structures showed that confinement can increase blast loading by more than 200 percent.

  7. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  8. Dueling Mechanisms for Dry Zones around Frozen Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbano, Caitlin; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Ice acts as a local humidity sink, due to its depressed saturation pressure relative to that of supercooled water. Hygroscopic chemicals typically exhibit annular dry zones of inhibited condensation; however, dry zones do not tend to form around ice because of inter-droplet frost growth to nearby liquid droplets that have already condensed on the chilled surface. Here, we use a humidity chamber with an embedded Peltier stage to initially suppress the growth of condensation on a chilled surface containing a single frozen droplet, in order to characterize the dry zone around ice for the first time. The length of the dry zone was observed to vary by at least two orders of magnitude as a function of surface temperature, ambient humidity, and the size of the frozen droplet. The surface temperature and ambient humidity govern the magnitudes of the in-plane and out-of-plane gradients in vapor pressure, while the size of the frozen droplet effects the local thickness of the concentration boundary layer. We develop an analytical model that reveals two different types of dry zones are possible: one in which nucleation is inhibited and one where the net growth of condensate is inhibited. Finally, a phase map was developed to predict the parameter space in which nucleation dry zones versus flux dry zones are dominant.

  9. Clouds Over Sea Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-01

    Low-lying clouds over sea ice on the Bellingshausen Sea. Credit: NASA / Maria-Jose Vinas NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. Edge of Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Edge of an ice shelf in Adelaide Island, off the Antarctic Peninsula. Credit: NASA / Maria-Jose Vinas NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Sunlight off the ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Sunlight reflecting off of ice in the Bellingshausen Sea on Oct. 19, 2012. Credit: NASA / George Hale NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. Low-cost blast wave generator for studies of hearing loss and brain injury: blast wave effects in closed spaces.

    PubMed

    Newman, Andrew J; Hayes, Sarah H; Rao, Abhiram S; Allman, Brian L; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C; Salvi, Richard

    2015-03-15

    Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198dB SPL (159.3kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188dB peak SPL (50.4kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-Cost Blast Wave Generator for Studies of Hearing Loss and Brain Injury: Blast Wave Effects in Closed Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Andrew J.; Hayes, Sarah H.; Rao, Abhiram S.; Allman, Brian L.; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C.; Salvi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. New Method To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. Results The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198 dB SPL (159.3 kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188 dB peak SPL (50.4 kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Comparison to existing methods Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. Conclusions This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. PMID:25597910

  14. Otologic blast injuries due to the Kenya embassy bombing.

    PubMed

    Helling, Eric Robert

    2004-11-01

    Otologic injuries are frequently associated with large blasts. On August 7, 1998, a large truck bomb exploded next to the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. Initial patient findings and care are reviewed. Five months later, an otologic screening and care mission was then sent to comprehensively screen all remaining blast victims on site in Nairobi and to determine degree of persistent injury. Surgical care appropriate for an outpatient environment was provided. Five of 14 tympanic membranes without intervention failed to heal, while 3 of 3 with previous intervention had. Blast injury severity did not correlate to distance from blast epicenter. This may be due to channeling of the blast through the embassy building and an unpredictable pattern of blast overpressure within the building. It is recommended that comprehensive otologic screening be performed after blast events to identify occult injuries and improve outcomes. Early intervention for tympanic membrane perforation (suctioning, eversion of perforations, and paper patch) is recommended.

  15. Bacterial ice crystal controlling proteins.

    PubMed

    Lorv, Janet S H; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions.

  16. Small Airframe Manufacturer's Icing Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppins, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the icing effects, risk mitigation practices, and icing certifications for various Cessna small aircraft models. NASA's role in the development of simulation tools for icing certifications is also discussed.

  17. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  18. Measurements of Ice Nuclei properties at the Jungfraujoch using the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Cédric

    2010-05-01

    Ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds have different microphysical properties. Both affect the climate in various ways. Ice phase present in these clouds have the ability to scatter the incoming solar radiation and absorb terrestrial radiation differently from water droplets. Ice is also responsible for most of the precipitation in the mid-latitudes. Ice crystals can be formed via two main processes: homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Investigation of thermodynamic conditions at which ice nuclei (IN) trigger nucleation and their number concentrations is necessary in order to understand the formation of the ice phase in the atmosphere. In order to investigate the presence of IN in the free troposphere, the Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences of the ETH Zurich has recently designed a new chamber: the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC), which is the field version of the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (Stetzer et al., 2008). Both chambers follow the principle of a "continuous flow diffusion chamber" (Rogers, 1988) and can measure the number concentration of IN at different temperatures and relative humidities. Aerosols are collected through an inlet where an impactor removes larger particles that could be counted as ice crystals. The aerosol load is layered between two dry sheath air flows as it enters the main chamber. Both walls of the chamber are covered with a thin layer of ice and maintained at two different temperatures in order to create supersaturation with respect to ice (and with respect to water in case of a larger temperature difference between the walls). At the exit of the main chamber, the sample goes throught the evaporation part that is kept saturated with respect to ice. There, water droplets evaporate and only ice crystals and smaller aerosol particles are counted by the Optical Particle Counter (OPC) at the bottom of the chamber. The high alpine research station Jungfraujoch is located at 3580 m a.s.l. It is mainly in

  19. Geomorphological evidence for ground ice on dwarf planet Ceres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Britney E.; Hughson, Kynan H.G.; Chilton, Heather T.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Platz, Thomas; Nathues, Andreas; Sizemore, Hanna; Bland, Michael T.; Byrne, Shane; Marchi, Simone; O'Brien, David; Schorghofer, Norbert; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Hendrick Pasckert, Jan; Lawrence, Justin D.; Buzckowski, Debra; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Sykes, Mark V.; Schenk, Paul M.; DeSanctis, Maria-Cristina; Mitri, Giuseppe; Formisano, Michelangelo; Li, Jian-Yang; Reddy, Vishnu; Le Corre, Lucille; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2017-01-01

    Five decades of observations of Ceres suggest that the dwarf planet has a composition similar to carbonaceous meteorites and may have an ice-rich outer shell protected by a silicate layer. NASA’s Dawn spacecraft has detected ubiquitous clays, carbonates and other products of aqueous alteration across the surface of Ceres, but surprisingly it has directly observed water ice in only a few areas. Here we use Dawn Framing Camera observations to analyse lobate morphologies on Ceres’ surface and we infer the presence of ice in the upper few kilometres of Ceres. We identify three distinct lobate morphologies that we interpret as surface flows: thick tongue-shaped, furrowed flows on steep slopes; thin, spatulate flows on shallow slopes; and cuspate sheeted flows that appear fluidized. The shapes and aspect ratios of these flows are different from those of dry landslides—including those on ice-poor Vesta—but are morphologically similar to ice-rich flows on other bodies, indicating the involvement of ice. Based on the geomorphology and poleward increase in prevalence of these flows, we suggest that the shallow subsurface of Ceres is comprised of mixtures of silicates and ice, and that ice is most abundant near the poles.

  20. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; (3) Have a resistance no greater than 20-gauge copper wire; and (4) Be not more than 30 feet long. (g..., copper wire of a diameter not smaller than 18-gauge; and (2) Long enough to permit the round to be fired... different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; (3) Have a resistance no greater than 20-gauge copper wire; and (4) Be not more than 30 feet long. (g..., copper wire of a diameter not smaller than 18-gauge; and (2) Long enough to permit the round to be fired... different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; (3) Have a resistance no greater than 20-gauge copper wire; and (4) Be not more than 30 feet long. (g..., copper wire of a diameter not smaller than 18-gauge; and (2) Long enough to permit the round to be fired... different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be...

  4. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  5. Global efforts in managing rice blast disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major destructive disease threatening global food security. Resistance (R) genes to M. oryzae are effective in preventing infections by strains of M. oryzae carry the corresponding avirulence (AVR) genes. Effectiveness of genetic resist...

  6. Numerical Simulation of Quarry Blast Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Phillips Laboratory (PL/PKVA) AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 3701 N. Fairfax Dr. #717 3651 Lowry Avenue, SE Arlington, VA 2203-1714 Kirtland, AFB, NM 87117...Freeman and Company, San Francisco. Smith, A. T. (1992), "Discrimination of Explosions from Simultaneous Mining Blasts," Lawrence Livermore Report UCRL

  7. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    in various biomarkers (S100B, NSE, MBP, NF-H, SBDP, IL-6, HSP - 70 ). 21 Table 6. Details of Blast and Sham Tests for Histological Studies of...in 100% ethyl alcohol for 3 minutes followed by a 1 minute change in 70 % alcohol and a 1 minute change in distilled water. The sections were then

  8. Centuries of intense surface melt on Larsen C Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Suzanne L.; Luckman, Adrian; Hubbard, Bryn; Kulessa, Bernd; Ashmore, David; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; O'Leary, Martin; Booth, Adam; Sevestre, Heidi; McGrath, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Following a southward progression of ice-shelf disintegration along the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), Larsen C Ice Shelf (LCIS) has become the focus of ongoing investigation regarding its future stability. The ice shelf experiences surface melt and commonly features surface meltwater ponds. Here, we use a flow-line model and a firn density model (FDM) to date and interpret observations of melt-affected ice layers found within five 90 m boreholes distributed across the ice shelf. We find that units of ice within the boreholes, which have densities exceeding those expected under normal dry compaction metamorphism, correspond to two climatic warm periods within the last 300 years on the Antarctic Peninsula. The more recent warm period, from the 1960s onwards, has generated distinct sections of dense ice measured in two boreholes in Cabinet Inlet, which is close to the Antarctic Peninsula mountains - a region affected by föhn winds. Previous work has classified these layers as refrozen pond ice, requiring large quantities of mobile liquid water to form. Our flow-line model shows that, whilst preconditioning of the snow began in the late 1960s, it was probably not until the early 1990s that the modern period of ponding began. The earlier warm period occurred during the 18th century and resulted in two additional sections of anomalously dense ice deep within the boreholes. The first, at 61 m in one of our Cabinet Inlet boreholes, consists of ice characteristic of refrozen ponds and must have formed in an area currently featuring ponding. The second, at 69 m in a mid-shelf borehole, formed at the same time on the edge of the pond area. Further south, the boreholes sample ice that is of an equivalent age but which does not exhibit the same degree of melt influence. This west-east and north-south gradient in the past melt distribution resembles current spatial patterns of surface melt intensity.

  9. Monitoring Antarctic ice sheet surface melting with TIMESAT algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y.; Cheng, X.; Li, X.; Liang, L.

    2011-12-01

    Antarctic ice sheet contributes significantly to the global heat budget by controlling the exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum at the surface-atmosphere interface, which directly influence the global atmospheric circulation and climate change. Ice sheet melting will cause snow humidity increase, which will accelerate the disintegration and movement of ice sheet. As a result, detecting Antarctic ice sheet melting is essential for global climate change research. In the past decades, various methods have been proposed for extracting snowmelt information from multi-channel satellite passive microwave data. Some methods are based on brightness temperature values or a composite index of them, and others are based on edge detection. TIMESAT (Time-series of Satellite sensor data) is an algorithm for extracting seasonality information from time-series of satellite sensor data. With TIMESAT long-time series brightness temperature (SSM/I 19H) is simulated by Double Logistic function. Snow is classified to wet and dry snow with generalized Gaussian model. The results were compared with those from a wavelet algorithm. On this basis, Antarctic automatic weather station data were used for ground verification. It shows that this algorithm is effective in ice sheet melting detection. The spatial distribution of melting areas(Fig.1) shows that, the majority of melting areas are located on the edge of Antarctic ice shelf region. It is affected by land cover type, surface elevation and geographic location (latitude). In addition, the Antarctic ice sheet melting varies with seasons. It is particularly acute in summer, peaking at December and January, staying low in March. In summary, from 1988 to 2008, Ross Ice Shelf and Ronnie Ice Shelf have the greatest interannual variability in amount of melting, which largely determines the overall interannual variability in Antarctica. Other regions, especially Larsen Ice Shelf and Wilkins Ice Shelf, which is in the Antarctic Peninsula

  10. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cmmore » from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff

  11. Academic Airframe Icing Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Mike; Rothmayer, Alric; Thompson, David

    2009-01-01

    2-D ice accretion and aerodynamics reasonably well understood for engineering applications To significantly improve our current capabilities we need to understand 3-D: a) Important ice accretion physics and modeling not well understood in 3-D; and b) Aerodynamics unsteady and 3-D especially near stall. Larger systems issues important and require multidisciplinary team approach

  12. Turning into Ice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Hanlon, Regina; Bohland, Cynthia; Schmale, David G., III

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary unit in which students explore biological "ice nucleation"--by particles that cause water to freeze at temperatures above -38°C--through the lens of the microbial ice nucleator "Pseudomonas syringae." Such This activity, which aligns with the "Next Generation Science…

  13. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  14. Ice forming experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.

    1982-01-01

    A low gravity experiment to assess the effect of the presence of supercooled cloud droplets on the diffusional growth rate of ice crystals is described. The theoretical work and the feasibility studies are summarized. The nucleation of ice crystals in supercooled clouds is also discussed.

  15. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  16. Larsen B Ice Shelf

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Unique Views of a Shattered Ice Shelf     View Larger Image ... views of the breakup of the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf are shown in this image pair from the Multi-angle Imaging ...

  17. Iceberg in sea ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    An iceberg embedded in sea ice as seen from the IceBridge DC-8 over the Bellingshausen Sea on Oct. 19, 2012. Credit: NASA / James Yungel NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Ice sheet altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Generalized surface slopes were computed for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets by differencing plotted contour levels and dividing them by the distance between the contours. It was observed that more than 90% of the ice sheets have surface slopes less than 1%. Seasat test mode-1 Seasat altimeter measurements over Greenland were analyzed by comparisons with collinear and intersecting normal mode Seasat altimeter passes. Over the ice sheet, the computed surface elevations from test mode-1 measurements were consistently lower by about 45 m and the AGC levels were down by approximately 6 dB. No test mode-1 data were acquired over Antarctica. It is concluded that analysis of the existing altimeter data base over the two ice sheets is crucial in designing a future improved altimeter tracking capability. It is recommended that additional waveform retracking be performed to characterize ice sheet topography as a function of geographic area and elevation.

  19. Convective Heat Transfer from Castings of Ice Roughened Surfaces in Horizontal Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukhan, Nihad; Vanfossen, G. James, Jr.; Masiulaniec, K. Cyril; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A technique was developed to cast frozen ice shapes that had been grown on a metal surface. This technique was applied to a series of ice shapes that were grown in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on flat plates. Eight different types of ice growths, characterizing different types of roughness, were obtained from these plates, from which aluminum castings were made. Test strips taken from these castings were outfitted with heat flux gages, such that when placed in a dry wind tunnel, they could be used to experimentally map out the convective heat transfer coefficient in the direction of flow from the roughened surfaces. The effects on the heat transfer coefficient for parallel flow, which simulates horizontal flight, were studied. The results of this investigation can be used to help size heaters for wings, helicopter rotor blades, jet engine intakes, etc., or de-icing for anti-icing applications where the flow is parallel to the iced surface.

  20. Acceleration from short-duration blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzel, D. V.; Van Albert, S.; Sajja, V.; Long, J.

    2018-01-01

    The blast-induced motion of spheres has been studied experimentally where the shock wave is rapidly decaying during the period that quasi-steady acceleration would be developed in the case of a step-function shock wave as considered in most shock-tube studies. The motion of sphere models ranging from 39 to 251 mm in diameter and having a range of densities was assessed using the "free-flight" method in a simulator specially designed to replicate the decaying shock wave profile of spherical blast including negative phase and positive entropy gradient. A standardized blast-wave simulation of 125 kPa and 6-ms positive-phase duration was applied for all experiments. In all cases, there are three phases to the motion: a relatively low "kickoff" velocity from the shock diffraction, acceleration or deceleration during the positive duration, then deceleration through the negative phase and subsequent quiescent air. The unexpected deceleration of larger spheres after their kickoff velocity during the decaying yet high-speed flow of the blast wave seems associated with the persistence of a ring vortex on the downstream side of the sphere. The flow is entirely unsteady with initial forces dominated by the shock diffraction; therefore, the early motion of spheres under such conditions is not governed by quasi-steady drag as in classical aerodynamics. The work will help establish scaling rules for model studies of blast-induced motion relevant to improvised explosive devices, and preliminary results are shown for motion imparted to a human skull surrogate.

  1. Cloth ballistic vest alters response to blast.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Y Y; Mundie, T G; Yelverton, J T; Richmond, D R

    1988-01-01

    Ballistic wounds have been and will remain the principal cause of casualties in combat. Cloth ballistic vests (CBV) play an important role in limiting critical wounds from fragments and small-arms fire. There is an increased risk of primary blast injury on the modern battlefield. In a previous study, volunteers were exposed to short-duration blast waves of low peak pressure (18.6 +/- 0.8 kPa). Pressure measurements made in the distal esophagus as an estimate of intrathoracic pressure (ITP) were significantly higher (p less than 0.05) when the standard U.S. Army ballistic jacket was worn (8.7 +/- 1.2 kPa) than when fatigues alone were worn (7.4 +/- 0.7 kPa). In this study 58 sheep were exposed to nominal blast levels of 115, 230, 295, and 420 kPa peak pressure in groups of 12, 18, 16, and 12, respectively. Half of each group was fitted with a CBV. Lung weight index (LWI), lung weight expressed as a percentage of body weight, was used as a measure of blast injury. Use of the CBV was associated with a significant increase in LWI (p less than 0.05) which averaged 21% for the two middle exposure groups. At the 420 kPa level, two of six non-CBV animals died as opposed to five of six animals wearing the CBV. Intrathoracic pressure was generally higher in the CBV group. Likely mechanisms of injury enhancement include an increase in target surface area and an alteration of the effective loading function on the thorax. This information may be useful in the triage and treatment of casualties exposed to intense blast environments.

  2. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  3. Measurements of ethane in Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Fosse, E. K.; Aydin, K. M.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    Ethane is one of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The major ethane sources are fossil fuel production and use, biofuel combustion, and biomass-burning emissions and the primary loss pathway is via reaction with OH. A paleoatmospheric ethane record would be useful as a tracer of biomass-burning emissions, providing a constraint on past changes in atmospheric methane and methane isotopes. An independent biomass-burning tracer would improve our understanding of the relationship between biomass burning and climate. The mean annual atmospheric ethane level at high southern latitudes is about 230 parts per trillion (ppt), and Antarctic firn air measurements suggest that atmospheric ethane levels in the early 20th century were considerably lower (Aydin et al., 2011). In this study, we present preliminary measurements of ethane (C2H6) in Antarctic ice core samples with gas ages ranging from 0-1900 C.E. Samples were obtained from dry-drilled ice cores from South Pole and Vostok in East Antarctica, and from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS-D). Gases were extracted from the ice by melting under vacuum in a glass vessel sealed by indium wire and were analyzed using high resolution GC/MS with isotope dilution. Ethane levels measured in ice core samples were in the range 100-220 ppt, with a mean of 157 ± 45 ppt (n=12). System blanks contribute roughly half the amount of ethane extracted from a 300 g ice core sample. These preliminary data exhibit a temporal trend, with higher ethane levels from 0-900 C.E., followed by a decline, reaching a minimum between 1600-1700 C.E. These trends are consistent with variations in ice core methane isotopes and carbon monoxide isotopes (Ferretti et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2010), which indicate changes in biomass burning emissions over this time period. These preliminary data suggest that Antarctic ice core bubbles contain paleoatmospheric ethane levels. With further improvement of laboratory techniques it appears

  4. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  5. Blast waves and how they interact with structures.

    PubMed

    Cullis, I G

    2001-02-01

    The paper defines and describes blast waves, their interaction with a structure and its subsequent response. Explosions generate blast waves, which need not be due to explosives. A blast wave consists of two parts: a shock wave and a blast wind. The paper explains how shock waves are formed and their basic properties. The physics of blast waves is non-linear and therefore non-intuitive. To understand how an explosion generates a blast wave a numerical modelling computer code, called a hydrocode has to be employed. This is briefly explained and the cAst Eulerian hydrocode is used to illustrate the formation and propagation of the blast wave generated by a 1 kg sphere of TNT explosive detonated 1 m above the ground. The paper concludes with a discussion of the response of a structure to a blast wave and shows that this response is governed by the structures natural frequency of vibration compared to the duration of the blast wave. The basic concepts introduced are illustrated in a second simulation that introduces two structures into the blast field of the TNT charge.

  6. Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Dry Ice Slider-Projectiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gales, Jenna; Baker, Blane

    2008-01-01

    Energy concepts are fundamentally important for describing and analyzing systems ranging from subatomic particles to spiral galaxies. In general, students first encounter such concepts in introductory courses that typically focus on forms of energy, energy transfer, and conservation laws. Within these courses, conservation of mechanical energy is…

  7. Particle Size Control for PIV Seeding Using Dry Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    in flight actually being carried out, the observations, drawings and notes of Leonardo da Vinci showed an analytical process to develop a way for...theoretical particle response: dvp dt = −C(vp − U) C = 18µ ρpd2p 86 87 Bibliography 1. Linscott, R. N. and Da Vinci , L., The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci

  8. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery.

  9. Icing Cloud Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ide, Robert F.; Oldenburg, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center underwent a major rehabilitation in 1999, necessitating recalibration of the icing clouds. This report describes the methods used in the recalibration, including the procedure used to establish a uniform icing cloud and the use of a standard icing blade technique for measurement of liquid water content. The instruments and methods used to perform the droplet size calibration are also described. The liquid water content/droplet size operating envelopes of the icing tunnel are shown for a range of airspeeds and compared to the FAA icing certification criteria. The capabilities of the IRT to produce large droplet icing clouds is also detailed.

  10. Anti-Icing Formulas Prevent Train Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    In the winter of 2009, Washington, DC, workers faced the prospect of a difficult commute due to record-setting snowfalls. But thousands of the city's Metrorail riders found the public transportation system fully functional, thanks in part to a NASA technology invented years before. Just like trains, an airplane must be snow- and ice-free to ensure safe travel. Traditionally, fluids containing a compound called ethylene glycol have been used to inhibit ice on planes. In 1992, however, the US Air Force banned its purchase of this ingredient due to toxicity concerns. According to the Centers for Disease Control, exposure to large amounts of ethylene glycol through air or water can damage the kidneys, nervous system, lungs, and heart. Urine samples from airport deicing workers have contained traces of the substance. At the time of the Air Force s ban, Robert Lockyer was working at NASA s Ames Research Center in the Advanced Composites Model Development Branch, where he says "we decided to pick up the gauntlet and began researching existing fluid compositions and the processes used in deicing aircraft." Along with Lockyer, in 1997 Ames researchers Leonard Haslim and John Zuk devised a nontoxic, biodegradable, and cost effective substitute for ethylene glycol. When applied to a dry surface before a snow or ice event, the solution prevented ice from forming a bond with the surface. This made it easy to wipe away any accumulation.

  11. Ice sheets and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Eric W

    2013-07-05

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2-3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas.

  12. Micromechanics of ice friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammonds, P. R.; Bailey, E.; Lishman, B.; Scourfield, S.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional mechanics are controlled by the ice micro-structure - surface asperities and flaws - but also the ice fabric and permeability network structure of the contacting blocks. Ice properties are dependent upon the temperature of the bulk ice, on the normal stress and on the sliding velocity and acceleration. This means the shear stress required for sliding is likewise dependent on sliding velocity, acceleration, and temperature. We aim to describe the micro-physics of the contacting surface. We review micro-mechanical models of friction: the elastic and ductile deformation of asperities under normal loads and their shear failure by ductile flow, brittle fracture, or melting and hydrodynamic lubrication. Combinations of these give a total of six rheological models of friction. We present experimental results in ice mechanics and physics from laboratory experiments to understand the mechanical models. We then examine the scaling relations of the slip of ice, to examine how the micro-mechanics of ice friction can be captured simple reduced-parameter models, describing the mechanical state and slip rate of the floes. We aim to capture key elements that they may be incorporated into mid and ocean-basin scale modelling.

  13. Skylab floating ice experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Ramseier, R. O.; Weaver, R. J.; Weeks, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Coupling of the aircraft data with the ground truth observations proved to be highly successful with interesting results being obtained with IR and SLAR passive microwave techniques, and standard photography. Of particular interest were the results of the PMIS system which operated at 10.69 GHz with both vertical and horizontal polarizations. This was the first time that dual polarized images were obtained from floating ice. In both sea and lake ice, it was possible to distinguish a wide variety of thin ice types because of their large differences in brightness temperatures. It was found that the higher brightness temperature was invariably obtained in the vertically polarized mode, and as the age of the ice increases the brightness temperature increases in both polarizations. Associated with this change in age, the difference in temperature was observed as the different polarizations decreased. It appears that the horizontally polarized data is the most sensitive to variations in ice type for both fresh water and sea ice. The study also showed the great amount of information on ice surface roughness and deformation patterns that can be obtained from X-band SLAR observations.

  14. Analysis of iced wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, T.; Chen, H. H.; Kaups, K.; Schimke, S.; Shin, J.

    1992-01-01

    A method for computing ice shapes along the leading edge of a wing and a method for predicting its aerodynamic performance degradation due to icing is described. Ice shapes are computed using an extension of the LEWICE code which was developed for airfoils. The aerodynamic properties of the iced wing are determined with an interactive scheme in which the solutions of the inviscid flow equations are obtained from a panel method and the solutions of the viscous flow equations are obtained from an inverse three-dimensional finite-difference boundary-layer method. A new interaction law is used to couple the inviscid and viscous flow solutions. The application of the LEWICE wing code to the calculation of ice shapes on a MS-317 swept wing shows good agreement with measurements. The interactive boundary-layer method is applied to a tapered ice wing in order to study the effect of icing on the aerodynamic properties of the wing at several angles of attack.

  15. Water Ice on Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-16

    The Ralph instrument on NASA's New Horizons spacecraft detected water ice on Pluto's surface, picking up on the ice's near-infrared spectral characteristics. (See featured image from Oct. 8, 2015.) The middle panel shows a region west of Pluto's "heart" feature -- which the mission team calls Tombaugh Regio -- about 280 miles (450 kilometers) across. It combines visible imagery from Ralph's Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) with infrared spectroscopy from the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA). Areas with the strongest water ice spectral signature are highlighted in blue. Major outcrops of water ice occur in regions informally called Viking Terra, along Virgil Fossa west of Elliot crater, and in Baré Montes. Numerous smaller outcrops are associated with impact craters and valleys between mountains. In the lower left panel, LEISA spectra are shown for two regions indicated by cyan and magenta boxes. The white curve is a water ice model spectrum, showing similar features to the cyan spectrum. The magenta spectrum is dominated by methane ice absorptions. The lower right panel shows an MVIC enhanced color view of the region in the white box, with MVIC's blue, red and near-infrared filters displayed in blue, green and red channels, respectively. The regions showing the strongest water ice signature are associated with terrains that are actually a lighter shade of red. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20030

  16. Pyroelectricity of water ice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanfu; Bell, Richard C; Iedema, Martin J; Schenter, Gregory K; Wu, Kai; Cowin, James P

    2008-05-22

    Water ice usually is thought to have zero pyroelectricity by symmetry. However, biasing it with ions breaks the symmetry because of the induced partial dipole alignment. This unmasks a large pyroelectricity. Ions were soft-landed upon 1 mum films of water ice at temperatures greater than 160 K. When cooled below 140-150 K, the dipole alignment locks in. Work function measurements of these films then show high and reversible pyroelectric activity from 30 to 150 K. For an initial approximately 10 V induced by the deposited ions at 160 K, the observed bias below 150 K varies approximately as 10 Vx(T/150 K)2. This implies that water has pyroelectric coefficients as large as that of many commercial pyroelectrics, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The pyroelectricity of water ice, not previously reported, is in reasonable agreement with that predicted using harmonic analysis of a model system of SPC ice. The pyroelectricity is observed in crystalline and compact amorphous ice, deuterated or not. This implies that for water ice between 0 and 150 K (such as astrophysical ices), temperature changes can induce strong electric fields (approximately 10 MV/m) that can influence their chemistry, ion trajectories, or binding.

  17. Ice sheets and nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  18. Fire beneath the ice

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-02-13

    A volcano discovered six years ago by researchers Blankenship and Bell under Antarctica poses questions about a potential climatic catastrophe. The researchers claim that the volcano is still active, erupting occasionally and growing. A circular depression on the surface of the ice sheet has ice flowing into it and is used to provide a portrait of the heat source. The volcano is on a critical transition zone within West Antarctica with fast flowing ice streams directly downhill. Work by Blankenship shows that a soft layer of water-logged sediments called till provide the lubricating layer on the underside of the icemore » streams. Volcanos may provide the source of this till. The ice streams buffer the thick interior ice from the ocean and no one know what will happen if the ice streams continue to shorten. These researchers believe their results indicate that the stability of West Antarctica ultimately depends less on the current climate than on the location of heat and sediments under the ice and the legacy of past climatic changes.« less

  19. Modelling the Source of Blasting for the Numerical Simulation of Blast-Induced Ground Vibrations: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainalis, Daniel; Kaufmann, Olivier; Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Verlinden, Olivier; Kouroussis, Georges

    2017-01-01

    The mining and construction industries have long been faced with considerable attention and criticism in regard to the effects of blasting. The generation of ground vibrations is one of the most significant factors associated with blasting and is becoming increasingly important as mining sites are now regularly located near urban areas. This is of concern to not only the operators of the mine but also residents. Mining sites are subjected to an inevitable compromise: a production blast is designed to fragment the utmost amount of rock possible; however, any increase in the blast can generate ground vibrations which can propagate great distances and cause structural damage or discomfort to residents in surrounding urban areas. To accurately predict the propagation of ground vibrations near these sensitive areas, the blasting process and surrounding environment must be characterised and understood. As an initial step, an accurate model of the source of blast-induced vibrations is required. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the approaches to model the blasting source in order to critically evaluate developments in the field. An overview of the blasting process and description of the various factors which influence the blast performance and subsequent ground vibrations are also presented. Several approaches to analytically model explosives are discussed. Ground vibration prediction methods focused on seed waveform and charge weight scaling techniques are presented. Finally, numerical simulations of the blasting source are discussed, including methods to estimate blasthole wall pressure time-history, and hydrodynamic codes.

  20. Coulombic charge ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.

    2014-05-01

    We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.

  1. Development of a Continuous Drill and Blast Tunneling Concept, Phase II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-05-01

    A spiral drilling pattern is described which offers high efficiency drill and blast tunnelling via frequent small blasts rather than occasional large blasts. Design work is presented for a machine which would stay at the face to provide essentially c...

  2. Experimental Analysis of Sublimation Dynamics for Buried Glacier Ice in Beacon Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfeucht, S.; Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The age of the oldest known buried ice in Beacon Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) Antarctica is a topic of active debate due to its implications for the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Published age estimates range from as young as 300 ka to as old as 8.1 Ma. In the upland MDV, ablation occurs predominantly via sublimation. The relict ice in question (ancient ice from Taylor Glacier) lies buried beneath a thin ( 30-70 cm) layer of sublimation till, which forms as a lag deposit as underlying debris-rich ice sublimes. As the ice sublimates, the debris held within the ice accumulates slowly on the surface, creating a porous boundary between the buried-ice surface and the atmosphere, which in turn influences gas exchange between the ice and the atmosphere. Additionally, englacial debris adds several salt species that are ultimately concentrated on the ice surface. It is well documented the rate of ice sublimation varies as a function of overlying till thickness. However, the rate-limiting dynamics under varying environmental conditions, including the threshold thicknesses at which sublimation is strongly retarded, are not yet defined. To better understand the relationships between sublimation rate, till thickness, and long-term surface evolution, we build on previous studies by Lamp and Marchant (2017) and evaluate the role of till thickness as a control on ice loss in an environmental chamber capable of replicating the extreme cold desert conditions observed in the MDV. Previous work has shown that this relationship exhibits exponential decay behavior, with sublimation rate significantly dampened under less than 10 cm of till. In our experiments we pay particular attention to the effect of the first several cm of till in order to quantify the dynamics that govern the transition from bare ice to debris-covered ice. We also examine this transition for various forms of glacier ice, including ice with various salt species.

  3. Determination of end point of primary drying in freeze-drying process control.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Doen, Takayuki; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Freeze-drying is a relatively expensive process requiring long processing time, and hence one of the key objectives during freeze-drying process development is to minimize the primary drying time, which is the longest of the three steps in freeze-drying. However, increasing the shelf temperature into secondary drying before all of the ice is removed from the product will likely cause collapse or eutectic melt. Thus, from product quality as well as process economics standpoint, it is very critical to detect the end of primary drying. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose as model systems. The apparent end point of primary drying was determined by comparative pressure measurement (i.e., Pirani vs. MKS Baratron), dew point, Lyotrack (gas plasma spectroscopy), water concentration from tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, condenser pressure, pressure rise test (manometric temperature measurement or variations of this method), and product thermocouples. Vials were pulled out from the drying chamber using a sample thief during late primary and early secondary drying to determine percent residual moisture either gravimetrically or by Karl Fischer, and the cake structure was determined visually for melt-back, collapse, and retention of cake structure at the apparent end point of primary drying (i.e., onset, midpoint, and offset). By far, the Pirani is the best choice of the methods tested for evaluation of the end point of primary drying. Also, it is a batch technique, which is cheap, steam sterilizable, and easy to install without requiring any modification to the existing dryer.

  4. Ancient ice islands in salt lakes of the Central Andes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurlbert, S.H.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Massive blocks of freshwater ice and frozen sediments protrude from shallow, saline lakes in the Andes of southwestern Bolivia and northeastern Chile. These ice islands range up to 1.5 kilometers long, stand up to 7 meters above the water surface, and may extend out tens of meters and more beneath the unfrozen lake sediments. The upper surfaces of the islands are covered with dry white sediments, mostly aragonite or calcite. The ice blocks may have formed by freezing of the fresh pore water of lake sediments during the "little ice age." The largest blocks are melting rapidly because of possibly recent increases in geothermal heat flux through the lake bottom and undercutting by warm saline lake water during the summer.

  5. Spectral Analysis and Experimental Modeling of Ice Accretion Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, D. J.; Breuer, K. S.; Torres, B. E.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A self-consistent scheme for relating wind tunnel ice accretion roughness to the resulting enhancement of heat transfer is described. First, a spectral technique of quantitative analysis of early ice roughness images is reviewed. The image processing scheme uses a spectral estimation technique (SET) which extracts physically descriptive parameters by comparing scan lines from the experimentally-obtained accretion images to a prescribed test function. Analysis using this technique for both streamwise and spanwise directions of data from the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) are presented. An experimental technique is then presented for constructing physical roughness models suitable for wind tunnel testing that match the SET parameters extracted from the IRT images. The icing castings and modeled roughness are tested for enhancement of boundary layer heat transfer using infrared techniques in a "dry" wind tunnel.

  6. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  7. Advances in ice mechanics - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.; Hallam, S.D.; Maatanen, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the interaction of icebergs with offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included advances in ice mechanics in the United Kingdom, ice mechanics in Finland, recent advances in ice mechanics in Canada, advances in sea ice mechanics in the USA, foundations, monitoring, hazards, risk assessment, and deformation.

  8. Echo Source Discrimination in Airborne Radar Sounding Data for Mars Analog Studies, Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Blankenship, D. D.; Peters, M. E.; Kempf, S. D.; Morse, D. L.; Williams, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    The recent identification of features on Mars exhibiting morphologies consistent with ice/rock mixtures, near-surface ice bodies and near-surface liquid water [1,2], and the importance of such features to the search for water on Mars, highlights the need for appropriate terrestrial analogs in order to prepare for upcoming radar missions targeting these and other water-related features. Climatic, hydrological, and geological conditions in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are analogous in many ways to those on Mars, and a number of ice-related features in the Dry Valleys may have direct morphologic and compositional counterparts on Mars.

  9. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  10. A tuff cone erupted under frozen-bed ice (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica): linking glaciovolcanic and cosmogenic nuclide data for ice sheet reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, J. L.; Rocchi, S.; Johnson, J. S.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    The remains of a small volcanic centre are preserved on a thin bedrock ridge at Harrow Peaks, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The outcrop is interpreted as a monogenetic tuff cone relict formed by a hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic) eruption of mafic magma at 642 ± 20 ka (by 40Ar-39Ar), corresponding to the peak of the Marine Isotope Stage 16 (MIS16) glacial. Although extensively dissected and strewn with glacial erratics, the outcrop shows no evidence for erosion by ice. From interpretation of the lithofacies and eruptive mechanisms, the weight of the evidence suggests that eruptions took place under a cold-based (frozen-bed) ice sheet. This is the first time that a tuff cone erupted under cold ice has been described. The most distinctive feature of the lithofacies is the dominance of massive lapilli tuff rich in fine ash matrix and abraded lapilli. The lack of stratification is probably due to repeated eruption through a conduit blasted through the ice covering the vent. The ice thickness is uncertain but it might have been as little as 100 m and the preserved tephra accumulated mainly as a crater (or ice conduit) infill. The remainder of the tuff cone edifice was probably deposited supraglacially and underwent destruction by ice advection and, particularly, collapse during a younger interglacial. Dating using 10Be cosmogenic exposure of granitoid basement erratics indicates that the erratics are unrelated to the eruptive period. The 10Be ages suggest that the volcanic outcrop was most recently exposed by ice decay at c. 20.8 ± 0.8 ka (MIS2) and the associated ice was thicker than at 642 ka and probably polythermal rather than cold-based, which is normally assumed for the period.

  11. The Pre-Blast Concept for use on Armour Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    to improve blast resistance Repeated blast test results (up to 7 times) of candidate armour materials showed that the greatest deformation...may be used to increase blast resistance of steels. To test this, the ‘pre-blast’ concept test program includes hardening of materials by sheet charge...steels with hardness 450 HV or higher (up to 650 HV). In general, the improvement in deformation resistance is associated with increases in

  12. Blast Injury: Translating Research Into Operational Medicine (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-20

    i Blast Injury: Translating Research into Operational Medicine Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...SUBTITLE Blast Injury: Translating Research Into Operational Medicine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Z39-18 iii Blast Injury: Translating Research into Operational Medicine Preprint BI-QP-JHS-CH10 Borden Institute This chapter was originally

  13. Ice - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov Websites

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You Center Norfolk new site for Atlantic Tropical Warnings Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, 1100

  14. Ross Ice Shelf

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Larger Image According to researchers funded by the National Science Foundation, several penguin colonies near the Ross Ice Shelf, ... Hut Point Peninsula. For a press release from the National Science Foundation containing additional details and MISR imagery ...

  15. Web life: Ice Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-11-01

    Computer and video gamers of a certain vintage will have fond memories of Lemmings, a game in which players must shepherd pixelated, suicidal rodents around a series of obstacles to reach safety. At first glance, Ice Flows is strikingly similar.

  16. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  17. Ice damage to concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-04-01

    Concrete is a porous material. When saturated with water and then cooled to below 00C, it cracks internally. Upon repeated freezing and thawing, the cracks grow, interact, and lead eventually to macroscopic degradation, termed ice damage. This report...

  18. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE)

    EPA Science Inventory



    Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) utilizes selected ion recording with a double focusing mass spectrometer to simultaneously determine exact masses and relative isotopic abundances from mass peak profiles. These can be determined more accurately and at higher sensitivity ...

  19. ICE telemetry performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Acquiring telemetry data from the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) at its encounter with the comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985 proved to be among the more difficult challenges the DSN has met in recent years. The ICE spacecraft began its life as an Earth orbiting monitor of the Solar Wind. At the comet, ICE was nearly 50 times as distant as in its initial role, with its signal strength diminished nearly 2500 times. Collecting enough of that weak signal to provide meaningful scientific data about the comet required unique new telemetry capabilities and special handling by the DSN. This article describes the development and validation of the DSN telemetry capability for ICE from its early planning stages through the successful comet encounter.

  20. Europa Broken Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    Jupiter moon Europa, as seen in this image taken June 27, 1996 by NASA Galileo spacecraft, displays features in some areas resembling ice floes seen in Earth polar seas. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00291

  1. Embedded ice with lead

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Iceberg embedded in sea ice with a lead on one side. This opening was likely caused by winds blowing against the side of the iceberg. Credit: NASA / George Hale NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  3. Geoengineering Marine Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica is highly sensitive to the presence of warm ocean water that drives melting at the grounding line. Rapid melting near the grounding line causes ice shelf thinning, loss of buttressing, flow acceleration, grounding line retreat, and ultimately mass loss and sea-level rise. If the grounding line enters a section of overdeepened bed the ice sheet may even enter a runaway collapse via the marine ice sheet instability. The warm water that triggers this process resides offshore at depth and accesses the grounding line through deep troughs in the continental shelf. In Greenland, warm water transport is further constricted through narrow fjords. Here, I propose blocking warm water transport through these choke points with an artificial sill. Using a simple width- and depth-averaged model of ice stream flow coupled to a buoyant-plume model of ocean melting, I find that grounding line retreat and sea level rise can be delayed or reversed for hundreds of years if warm water is prevented from accessing the grounding line at depth. Blocking of warm water from the sub-ice cavity causes ice shelf thickening, increased buttressing, and grounding line readvance. The increase in buttressing is greatly magnified if the thickened ice shelf regrounds on a bathymetric high or on the artificial sill itself. In some experiments for Thwaites Glacier the grounding line is able to recover from a severely retreated state over 100 km behind its present-day position. Such a dramatic recovery demonstrates that it is possible, at least in principle, to stop and reverse an ongoing marine ice sheet collapse. If the ice shelf regrounds on the artificial sill itself, erosion of the sill beneath the grounded ice could reduce the effectiveness of the intervention. However, experiments including sill erosion suggest that even a very weak sill (1 kPa) could delay a collapse for centuries. The scale of the artificial sills in Greenlandic fjords is comparable to

  4. Application of directional blasting in mining and civil engineering, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Chernigovskii, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the mechanism of breaking mineral rocks through blasting and offers recommendations on the application of directional blasting in mining and civil engineering. He also introduces criteria for cost-effectiveness of transporting rock mass from stope to pile by means of energy of explosion. And, the book presents ballistic tables to be used in constructing the trajectory of movement of a rock fragment during blasting operations while taking into account the topography of the land. In this edition, the author presents a more detailed theoretical treatment on the mechanism of fragmentation of a monolithic or fissured rock mass throughmore » blasting.« less

  5. 13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH SAWDUST HOPPER. BLASTING TUB HAS DOUBLE WALLS OF 3/4' THICK STEEL ARMOR PLATE. CHARGE TO BE TESTED IS BURIED IN SAWDUST WITH FLAME RESISTANT CHEMICALS. ELEVATOR BEHIND TUB CARRIES SAWDUST BACK TO TOP OF SAWDUST HOPPER AFTER TEST IS COMPLETED AND SAWDUST IN BLASTING TUB HAS BEEN SIFTED FOR SHELL FRAGMENTS. LOUVERS IN WALLS ARE HINGED FREELY SO THEY OPEN TO RELIEVE BLAST PRESSURE DURING A TEST. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

  8. Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  9. Aerostat Icing Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    34.-0 " -4 to -0 ) i ’ to-0 - 0-1J :x0. tf1 0 0 * *4-0 0- - C -4- - t)0o U 4- fa -- Etot 0 In 00)- r 4- a..- - D 4- 0 41 0 --- 0). S- E4JaW 4) 4- CJ - ea... valves ). Figure B2. Icing patterns, copolymer-coated surface left, uncoated right, continuous sheet. 17 Figure B3. Icing pattern, copolymer-coated

  10. IceCube

    Science.gov Websites

    the IEEE Spectrum reflects on the deployment of IceCube's last string. (February 2011). From the Daily Californian (January 26, 2011) includes current group photo. From the Guardian and Observer (UK) (January 23 , 2011) NSF Press Release (December 2010) Major Milestone - Completion of the IceCube Detector December

  11. Cloth Ballistic Vest Alters Response to Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701-501 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. jACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) CLOTH BALLSISTIC VEST ALTERS RESPONSE...Suppl. ’rintd in USA Cloth Ballistic Vest Alters Response to Blast YANCY Y. PHILLIPS, M.D., THOMAS G. MUNDIE, PH.D., JOHN T. YELVERTON, M.S., AND DONALD R...RICHMOND, PH.D. Ballistic wounds have been and will remain the principal cause of casualties in combat. Cloth ballistic vests (CBV) play an

  12. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    mTBI) as the signature wound in returning service members [1,2]. Shell shock and post concussive syndrome had a similar prominence during World Wars I...head only exposed blast overpressure of 241 kPa [43]. Turner et al, using a tabletop shock tube, reported graded astrocytic reactivity in the corpus...in astrocytes with increasing pressure [63]. This is different from Turner et al who reported an increase in the number of corpus callosum

  13. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  14. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE...Introduction 4 Statement of Work 4 Task I Report 4 1 . Adjustment of the experimental design and methodology 4 2. Preparations for Blast

  15. The Centrifugal Simulation of Blast Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    a is to be experimentally evaluated. The terms that remain in Equation (1) are not nondimensional; that is, they are not true i-terms. This does not...If necessary and identify by block number This study is concerned with the use oT a centrifuge as an experimental device on which free-field blast...5 SIMILITUDE. .. .. ..... ...... ...... ... 9 Ill. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES .. .. ... ...... ........13 INTRODUCTION

  16. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    allow early screening and assessment of brain abnormality in soldiers to enable timely therapeutic intervention. The current study reports on the...use of qEEG in blast-induced brain injury using a swine model. The purposes are to determine if qEEG can detect brain activity abnormalities early...brain functional abnormalities and deficits in absence of any clinical mTBI symptoms. Methods such as EEG-wavelet entropy measures [36] and Shannon

  17. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  18. Plastic Media Blasting Data Gathering Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    products of organic compounds containing the amino group (-NH 2 ) and an aldehyde. The better known members of this group are urea formaldehyde (a...suspected carcinogen) and melamine formaldehyde . The actual composition and toxicity of the dust from the various operations must be collected and...blasting is a paint removal technique in which small, granular amino thermoset or unsaturated polyester resins (plastic beads) are forced at high

  19. Numerical Simulation of Quarry Blast Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    REPORT NUMBER 3701 N. Fairfax Dr. #717 3651 Lowry Avenue, SE Arlington, VA 22203-1714 Kirtland, AFB, NM 87117-5777 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a...Blasts, LLNL Report UCRL -JC- 109245. Wuster, J. (1993). Discrimination of Chemical Explosions and Earthquakes in Central Europe - A Case Study, Bull. Seism...NMRO Building 77 3701 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 717 University of Arizona Arlington, VA 22203-1714 Tucson, AZ 85721 ARPAIOASB/Librarian Dr. William

  20. Data acquisition from blast overpressure trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, D. R.

    1993-03-01

    A Macintosh computer has been used to acquire data from blast overpressure trials on various weapons. The computer is connected to a multiple channel FM data recorder via a MacSCS1488 bus controller, allowing the computer to control the recorder and to acquire data from it through an analog to digital converter. Detailed instructions are given for connecting the hardware and operating the software involved.

  1. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  2. Warm winter, thin ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeve, Julienne C.; Schroder, David; Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Winter 2016/2017 saw record warmth over the Arctic Ocean, leading to the least amount of freezing degree days north of 70° N since at least 1979. The impact of this warmth was evaluated using model simulations from the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) and CryoSat-2 thickness estimates from three different data providers. While CICE simulations show a broad region of anomalously thin ice in April 2017 relative to the 2011-2017 mean, analysis of three CryoSat-2 products show more limited regions with thin ice and do not always agree with each other, both in magnitude and direction of thickness anomalies. CICE is further used to diagnose feedback processes driving the observed anomalies, showing 11-13 cm reduced thermodynamic ice growth over the Arctic domain used in this study compared to the 2011-2017 mean, and dynamical contributions of +1 to +4 cm. Finally, CICE model simulations from 1985 to 2017 indicate the negative feedback relationship between ice growth and winter air temperatures may be starting to weaken, showing decreased winter ice growth since 2012, as winter air temperatures have increased and the freeze-up has been further delayed.

  3. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  4. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    PubMed

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  5. Modeling the Blast Load Simulator Airblast Environment using First Principles Codes. Report 1, Blast Load Simulator Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 16 -3 1 Modeling the Blast Load Simulator Airblast Environment Using First Principles Codes Report 1, Blast Load...Simulator Airblast Environment using First Principles Codes Report 1, Blast Load Simulator Environment Gregory C. Bessette, James L. O’Daniel...evaluate several first principles codes (FPCs) for modeling airblast environments typical of those encountered in the BLS. The FPCs considered were

  6. Generation of Fullspan Leading-Edge 3D Ice Shapes for Swept-Wing Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camello, Stephanie C.; Lee, Sam; Lum, Christopher; Bragg, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effect of ice accretion on aircraft is often assessed through dry-air flight and wind tunnel testing with artificial ice shapes. This paper describes a method to create fullspan swept-wing artificial ice shapes from partial span ice segments acquired in the NASA Glenn Icing Reserch Tunnel for aerodynamic wind-tunnel testing. Full-scale ice accretion segments were laser scanned from the Inboard, Midspan, and Outboard wing station models of the 65% scale Common Research Model (CRM65) aircraft configuration. These were interpolated and extrapolated using a weighted averaging method to generate fullspan ice shapes from the root to the tip of the CRM65 wing. The results showed that this interpolation method was able to preserve many of the highly three dimensional features typically found on swept-wing ice accretions. The interpolated fullspan ice shapes were then scaled to fit the leading edge of a 8.9% scale version of the CRM65 wing for aerodynamic wind-tunnel testing. Reduced fidelity versions of the fullspan ice shapes were also created where most of the local three-dimensional features were removed. The fullspan artificial ice shapes and the reduced fidelity versions were manufactured using stereolithography.

  7. Antarctic lakes (above and beneath the ice sheet): Analogues for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The perennial ice covered lakes of the Antarctic are considered to be excellent analogues to lakes that once existed on Mars. Field studies of ice covered lakes, paleolakes, and polar beaches were conducted in the Bunger Hills Oasis, Eastern Antarctica. These studies are extended to the Dry Valleys, Western Antarctica, and the Arctic. Important distinctions were made between ice covered and non-ice covered bodies of water in terms of the geomorphic signatures produced. The most notable landforms produced by ice covered lakes are ice shoved ridges. These features form discrete segmented ramparts of boulders and sediments pushed up along the shores of lakes and/or seas. Sub-ice lakes have been discovered under the Antarctic ice sheet using radio echo sounding. These lakes occur in regions of low surface slope, low surface accumulations, and low ice velocity, and occupy bedrock hollows. The presence of sub-ice lakes below the Martian polar caps is possible. The discovery of the Antarctic sub-ice lakes raises possibilities concerning Martian lakes and exobiology.

  8. Mechanisms of basal ice formation in polar glaciers: An evaluation of the apron entrainment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Sean; Webb, Nicola; Mager, Sarah; MacDonell, Shelley; Lorrain, Regi; Samyn, Denis

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies of polar glaciers have argued that basal ice can form when these glaciers override and entrain ice marginal aprons that accumulate adjacent to steep ice cliffs. To test this idea, we have studied the morphology, structure, composition, and deformation of the apron and basal ice at the terminus of Victoria Upper Glacier in the McMurdo dry valleys, which are located on the western coast of the Ross Sea at 77°S in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Our results show that the apron has two structural elements: an inner element that consists of strongly foliated ice that has a steep up-glacier dip, and an outer element that lacks a consistent foliation and has a down-glacier, slope-parallel dip. Although strain measurements show that the entire apron is deforming, the inner element is characterized by high strain rates, whereas relatively low rates of strain characterize the outer part of the apron. Co-isotopic analyses of the ice, together with analysis of solute chemistry and sedimentary characteristics, show that the apron is compositionally different from the basal ice. Our observations show that aprons may become deformed and partially entrained by advancing glaciers. However, such an ice marginal process does not provide a satisfactory explanation for the origin of basal ice observed at the ice margin. Our interpretation of the origin of basal ice is that it is formed by subglacial processes, which are likely to include deformation and entrainment of subglacial permafrost.

  9. A Synthesis of the Basal Thermal State of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, J. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Catania, G. A.; Aschwanden, A.; Clow, G. D.; Colgan, W. T.; Gogineni, S. P.; Morlighem, M.; Nowicki, S. M. J.; Paden, J. D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Greenland's thick ice sheet insulates the bedrock below from the cold temperatures at the surface, so the bottom of the ice is often tens of degrees warmer than at the top, because the ice bottom is slowly warmed by heat coming from the Earth's depths. Knowing whether Greenland's ice lies on wet, slippery ground or is anchored to dry, frozen bedrock is essential for predicting how this ice will flow in the future. But scientists have very few direct observations of the thermal conditions beneath the ice sheet, obtained through fewer than two dozen boreholes that have reached the bottom. Our study synthesizes several independent methods to infer the Greenland Ice Sheet's basal thermal state -whether the bottom of the ice is melted or not-leading to the first map that identifies frozen and thawed areas across the whole ice sheet. This map will guide targets for future investigations of the Greenland Ice Sheet toward the most vulnerable and poorly understood regions, ultimately improving our understanding of its dynamics and contribution to future sea-level rise. It is of particular relevance to ongoing Operation IceBridge activities and future large-scale airborne missions over Greenland.

  10. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    PubMed

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  11. Interaction of ice binding proteins with ice, water and ions.

    PubMed

    Oude Vrielink, Anneloes S; Aloi, Antonio; Olijve, Luuk L C; Voets, Ilja K

    2016-03-19

    Ice binding proteins (IBPs) are produced by various cold-adapted organisms to protect their body tissues against freeze damage. First discovered in Antarctic fish living in shallow waters, IBPs were later found in insects, microorganisms, and plants. Despite great structural diversity, all IBPs adhere to growing ice crystals, which is essential for their extensive repertoire of biological functions. Some IBPs maintain liquid inclusions within ice or inhibit recrystallization of ice, while other types suppress freezing by blocking further ice growth. In contrast, ice nucleating proteins stimulate ice nucleation just below 0 °C. Despite huge commercial interest and major scientific breakthroughs, the precise working mechanism of IBPs has not yet been unraveled. In this review, the authors outline the state-of-the-art in experimental and theoretical IBP research and discuss future scientific challenges. The interaction of IBPs with ice, water and ions is examined, focusing in particular on ice growth inhibition mechanisms.

  12. Ice Flow in the North East Greenland Ice Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, M.; MacAyeal, Doug

    1999-01-01

    Early observations with ERS-1 SAR image data revealed a large ice stream in North East Greenland (Fahnestock 1993). The ice stream has a number of the characteristics of the more closely studied ice streams in Antarctica, including its large size and gross geometry. The onset of rapid flow close to the ice divide and the evolution of its flow pattern, however, make this ice stream unique. These features can be seen in the balance velocities for the ice stream (Joughin 1997) and its outlets. The ice stream is identifiable for more than 700 km, making it much longer than any other flow feature in Greenland. Our research goals are to gain a greater understanding of the ice flow in the northeast Greenland ice stream and its outlet glaciers in order to assess their impact on the past, present, and future mass balance of the ice sheet. We will accomplish these goals using a combination of remotely sensed data and ice sheet models. We are using satellite radar interferometry data to produce a complete maps of velocity and topography over the entire ice stream. We are in the process of developing methods to use these data in conjunction with existing ice sheet models similar to those that have been used to improve understanding of the mechanics of flow in Antarctic ice streams.

  13. Calving of Talyor Glacier, Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, J. D.; Pettit, E. C.; Creager, K. C.; Hallet, B.

    2007-12-01

    Calving of tide-water glaciers has received considerable attention, with seismic arrays in Alaska, Greenland, and Antarctica devoted to their observation. In these environments, ice cliffs are directly coupled to oceanic temperatures. The land-based polar glaciers of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica represent a simpler environment unaffected directly by water contact where other factors can be isolated. In particular, summer calving events of Taylor Glacier are observed to consist of precursory activity including crack growth, cliff overhang, and active seismicity at least 1 hour before collapse. We propose that collapse occurs only after a stress threshold has been crossed, evident from 'pre-calving' of ice from the cliff base 1-3 days prior to the major event. We provide photographic, seismic, and temperature data to illustrate the thermal and stress landscape for land-based calving of polar glaciers.

  14. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave -Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the...Chukchi Sea in the late summer have potentially changed the impact of fall storms by creating wave fields in the vicinity of the advancing ice edge. A...first) wave -ice interaction field experiment that adequately documents the relationship of a growing pancake ice cover with a time and space varying

  15. Evaluation of Blast Resistance of Fiber Reinforced Composite Specimens under Contact Blast Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janota, O.; Foglar, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents results of experimental programme which took place in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Experiments were focused on the resistance of full scale concrete panels subjected to contact blast loading. Specimens were loaded by contact blast by plastic explosive. All specimens were reinforced concrete slabs made of fiber concrete. Basalt mesh and textile sheets were added to some of the experiments for creating more heterogeneous material to achieve better resistance of the specimens. Evaluation of experiments was mainly focused on the damaged area on the contact side and soffit of the specimens. Dependency of the final damage of concrete panels on the weight of explosive and concrete strength was assessed.

  16. Air drying of lumber.

    Treesearch

    1999-01-01

    This report describes how lumber can be air-dried most effectively under outdoor conditions and illustrates the principles and procedures of air-drying lumber that were developed through field investigations and observations of industrial practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the yarding of lumber in unit packages. Included are topics such as why lumber is dried...

  17. Pedogenesis on ice (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known from ice cores that organic and mineral debris accumulates within glacier ice following atmospheric deposition. However, the concentrations of such debris are usually greatest upon the ice surface, especially at the margins of continental glaciers and ice sheets, where it forms mm-scale aggregate particles called “cryoconite”. According to the literature, cryoconite covers about 2 % of the ablation areas of glaciers outside Greenland and Antarctica, equivalent to a mass loading of ca. 25 g/m2. Of the great ice sheets not included in this figure, Greenland is the easiest to estimate, and new observations from the NE and SW sectors indicate mass loadings in the range 17 - 440 g/m2. Studies of cryoconite often report the presence of a significant biomass (usually 10^4 - 10^7 cells/g) that is capable of a wide range of biogeochemical functions. The first part of this presentation will therefore explore the contention that the formation of cryoconite represents the first stages of pedogenesis, resulting in the production of soil-type aggregates that inoculate glacial forefields following glacier retreat. Emphasis will be given to the relevant processes that result in aggregate formation, including rapid cell-mineral attachment within melting snowpacks and the slower, biological processes of cementation within thermodynamically stable habitats such as cryoconite holes. The second part of the presentation will use examples from Svalbard, Greenland and Antarctica to consider the carbon balance of the cryoconite during the longest phase of its life cycle: upon the ice. It will be demonstrated how the efficacy of photosynthesis is strongly influenced by thermodynamic conditions at or near this surface. Data from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will show how thermal equilibration decouples variations in photosynthesis from variations in incident radiation over timescales > 1 d, resulting in an equitable, low-carbon economy for aggregates within

  18. Ice in Volcanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    It is widely recognized that lightning activity in thunderstorm clouds is associated with ice in the clouds. In volcanic plumes the lower electrical discharges near the vent are clearly not associated with ice; however, the electrical discharges from the upper volcanic clouds very likely are associated with ice. There is ample water in volcanic plumes and clouds. The explosive volcanic eruption is produced by volatile components in the rising magma. Researchers estimate that the water content of the volatiles is up to 99% by mole; other gases are mainly sulfur and chlorine species. These volatiles carry with them a wide range of hot magma melts and solids, importantly silicate particles and tephra. The more massive components fall out near the vent carrying with them much of the heat from the plume; these large components are not in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gases, ash, and lapilli; thus the heat removed does not lower the temperature of the materials carried aloft in the plume. Upward motion is initially provided by the thrust from the volcanic eruption, then by buoyancy of the hot plume. The rising plume is cooled by entrainment of environmental air, which contains water, and by adiabatic expansion; the plume transitions into a volcanic cloud. Further lifting and cooling produces supercooled water droplets (T ~ -5 C) in a limited zone (z ~ 9 km) before the fast updraft (~ 60 m/s) rapidly transforms them into ice. Computer models of volcanic clouds that include water and ice microphysics indicate that the latent heat of condensation is not significant in cloud dynamics because it occurs in a region where buoyancy is provided by the original hot plume material. The latent heat of ice formation occurs at higher and colder levels and seems to contribute to the final lifting of the cloud top by ~1.5km. Laboratory results indicate that the fine silicate ash particles, which are abundant, are good ice nuclei, IN. Because of the abundance of the silicate ash

  19. A Bridge Too Far: Suppressing Frost Using an Out-of-Plane Dry Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Corey; Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    It has recently been shown that ice can suppress the formation of any nearby condensation or frost on a substrate. However, these in-plane dry zones require the hygroscopic ice features to be placed on the same surface they are helping to keep dry, which makes it impossible to achieve complete anti-frosting. Here, we create an out-of-plane dry zone by holding two aluminum surfaces parallel to each other, where a uniform sheet of frost was grown on one surface to keep the other surface completely dry. The critical separation required to keep the test surface dry was found to be a function of the ambient supersaturation. We also show that inter-droplet ice bridging, now known to be a primary mechanism for in-plane frost growth, can be similarly extended to an out-of-plane configuration. We freeze a droplet on a hydrophobic surface and suspend a water droplet above it, such that an ice bridge grows toward the water droplet. More generally, these findings show that the recently discovered phenomena of dry zones and ice bridging can be extended to out-of-plane scenarios, which could lead to a better understanding of the behavior of mixed-phase systems. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1604272) and by the 3M Company (Non-Tenured Faculty Award).

  20. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  1. Satellite remote sensing over ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.

  2. Satellite remote sensing over ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.

  3. Comparisons of Cubed Ice, Crushed Ice, and Wetted Ice on Intramuscular and Surface Temperature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. Objective: To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Intervention(s): Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Results: Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. Conclusions: As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures. PMID:19295957

  4. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  5. Quantification of Ice Accretions for Icing Scaling Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of ice accretion characteristics is an integral part of aircraft icing research. It is often necessary to compare an ice accretion obtained from a flight test or numerical simulation to one produced in an icing wind tunnel or for validation of an icing scaling method. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by overlaying two-dimensional tracings of ice accretion shapes. This paper addresses the basic question of how to compare ice accretions using more quantitative methods. For simplicity, geometric characteristics of the ice accretions are used for the comparison. One method evaluated is a direct comparison of the percent differences of the geometric measurements. The second method inputs these measurements into a fuzzy inference system to obtain a single measure of the goodness of the comparison. The procedures are demonstrated by comparing ice shapes obtained in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center during recent icing scaling tests. The results demonstrate that this type of analysis is useful in quantifying the similarity of ice accretion shapes and that the procedures should be further developed by expanding the analysis to additional icing data sets.

  6. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  7. Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Warmer surface temperatures over just a few months in the Antarctic can splinter an ice shelf and prime it for a major collapse, NASA and university scientists report in the latest issue of the Journal of Glaciology. Using satellite images of tell-tale melt water on the ice surface and a sophisticated computer simulation of the motions and forces within an ice shelf, the scientists demonstrated that added pressure from surface water filling crevasses can crack the ice entirely through. The process can be expected to become more widespread if Antarctic summer temperatures increase. This true-color image from Landsat 7, acquired on February 21, 2000, shows pools of melt water on the surface of the Larsen Ice Shelf, and drifting icebergs that have split from the shelf. The upper image is an overview of the shelf's edge, while the lower image is displayed at full resolution of 30 meters (98 feet) per pixel. The labeled pond in the lower image measures roughly 1.6 by 1.6 km (1.0 x 1.0 miles). Full text of Press Release More Images and Animations Image courtesy Landsat 7 Science Team and NASA GSFC

  8. Data archaeology at ICES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, Harry D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the function of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), both past and present, in particular in the context of its interest in compiling oceanographic data sets. Details are provided of the procedures it adopted to ensure adequate internationally collaborative marine investigations during the first part of the century, such as how it provided a forum for action by its member states, how it coordinated and published the results of scientific programs, and how it provided a foundation, through scientists employed in the ICES Office, for the establishment of the original oceanographic marine databases and associated products, and the scientific interpretation of the results. The growth and expansion of this area of ICES activity is then traced, taking into account the changing conditions for oceanographic data management resulting from the establishment of the National Data Centres, as well as the World Data Centres for Oceanography, which were created to meet the needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Finally, there is a discussion of the way in which the very existence of ICES has proved to be a valuable source of old data, some of which have not yet been digitized, but which can be readily retrieved because they have been very carefully documented throughout the years. Lessons from this activity are noted, and suggestions are made on how the past experiences of ICES can be utilized to ensure the availability of marine data to present and future generations of scientists.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1326 - Examination after blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1326 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1326 Examination... and dust. (b) Immediately after the blasting area has cleared, a qualified person or a person working...

  10. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  11. Identification of major blast resistance genes in the southern US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance (R) genes in rice play important roles in preventing infections of rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. In order to identify more R genes for different rice growing areas in the Southern US, an extensive field survey of the blast fungus was performed from 2012 to 2013. A total of 500 is...

  12. Current advances on genetic resistance to rice blast disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most threatening fungal diseases resulting in significant annual crop losses worldwide. Blast disease has been effectively managed by a combination of resistant (R) gene deployment, application of fungicides, and suita...

  13. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Microwave signatures of snow and fresh water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Wilheit, T. T.; Gloersen, P.; Meier, M. F.; Frank, D.; Dirmhirn, I.

    1973-01-01

    During March of 1971, the NASA Convair 990 Airborne Observatory carrying microwave radiometers in the wavelength range 0.8 to 21 cm was flown over dry snow with different substrata: Lake ice at Bear Lake in Utah; wet soil in the Yampa River Valley near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; and glacier ice, firm and wet snow on the South Cascade Glacier in Washington. The data presented indicate that the transparency of the snow cover is a function of wavelength. False-color images of microwave brightness temperatures obtained from a scanning radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm demonstrate the capability of scanning radiometers for mapping snowfields.

  15. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    these well-defined exposure conditions, anesthetized rats are used to simultaneously record intracranial pressure (ICP), intravascular pressure , and...blast flow conditions (e.g. peak static and total pressure , positive phase duration, and impulse) and acceleration and displacement of a wide range of...resultant pressure responses in varied compartments in concert with the neuropathological, neurochemical, and neurobehavioral consequences of exposures

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-22

    expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoD, and shall not be used for advertising or...Trembelay, J., “Validation of a Loading Model for Simulating Blast Mine Effects on Armoured Vehicles,” 7th International LS-DYNA Users Conference

  17. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  18. On the Ice Nucleation Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  19. Ocean-ice interaction in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chich Y.

    1994-01-01

    Ocean ice interaction processes in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) by wind, waves, and mesoscale features, such as upwelling and eddies, are studied using ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and ocean ice interaction model. A sequence of SAR images of the Chukchi Sea MIZ with three days interval are studied for ice edge advance/retreat. Simultaneous current measurements from the northeast Chukchi Sea as well as the Barrow wind record are used to interpret the MIZ dynamics.

  20. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Michael W.; Courtney, Amy C.

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  1. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Michael W; Courtney, Amy C

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  2. Numerical Modeling of River Ice Processes on the Lower Nelson River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenchak, Jarrod Joseph

    Water resource infrastructure in cold regions of the world can be significantly impacted by the existence of river ice. Major engineering concerns related to river ice include ice jam flooding, the design and operation of hydropower facilities and other hydraulic structures, water supplies, as well as ecological, environmental, and morphological effects. The use of numerical simulation models has been identified as one of the most efficient means by which river ice processes can be studied and the effects of river ice be evaluated. The continued advancement of these simulation models will help to develop new theories and evaluate potential mitigation alternatives for these ice issues. In this thesis, a literature review of existing river ice numerical models, of anchor ice formation and modeling studies, and of aufeis formation and modeling studies is conducted. A high level summary of the two-dimensional CRISSP numerical model is presented as well as the developed freeze-up model with a focus specifically on the anchor ice and aufeis growth processes. This model includes development in the detailed heat transfer calculations, an improved surface ice mass exchange model which includes the rapids entrainment process, and an improved dry bed treatment model along with the expanded anchor ice and aufeis growth model. The developed sub-models are tested in an ideal channel setting as somewhat of a model confirmation. A case study of significant anchor ice and aufeis growth on the Nelson River in northern Manitoba, Canada, will be the primary field test case for the anchor ice and aufeis model. A second case study on the same river will be used to evaluate the surface ice components of the model in a field setting. The results from these cases studies will be used to highlight the capabilities and deficiencies in the numerical model and to identify areas of further research and model development.

  3. The Great Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Louis L.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  4. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  5. Microwave ice accretion meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magenheim, Bertram (Inventor); Rocks, James K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for indicating ice thickness and rate of ice thickness growth on surfaces is disclosed. The region to be monitored for ice accretion is provided with a resonant surface waveguide which is mounted flush, below the surface being monitored. A controlled oscillator provides microwave energy via a feed point at a controllable frequency. A detector is coupled to the surface waveguide and is responsive to electrical energy. A measuring device indicates the frequency deviation of the controlled oscillator from a quiescent frequency. A control means is provided to control the frequency of oscillation of the controlled oscillator. In a first, open-loop embodiment, the control means is a shaft operated by an operator. In a second, closed-loop embodiment, the control means is a processor which effects automatic control.

  6. Space Shuttle ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1982-08-01

    Estimates are made showing that, as a consequence of rocket activity in the earth's upper atmosphere in the Shuttle era, average ice nuclei concentrations in the upper atmosphere could increase by a factor of two, and that an aluminum dust layer weighing up to 1000 tons might eventually form in the lower atmosphere. The concentrations of Space Shuttle ice nuclei (SSIN) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere were estimated by taking into account the composition of the particles, the extent of surface poisoning, and the size of the particles. Calculated stratospheric size distributions at 20 km with Space Shuttle particulate injection, calculated SSIN concentrations at 10 and 20 km altitude corresponding to different water vapor/ice supersaturations, and predicted SSIN concentrations in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere are shown.

  7. The mass balance of the ice plain of Ice Stream B and Crary Ice Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The region in the mouth of Ice Stream B (the ice plain) and that in the vicinity of Crary Ice Rise are experiencing large and rapid changes. Based on velocity, ice thickness, and accumulation rate data, the patterns of net mass balance in these regions were calculated. Net mass balance, or the rate of ice thickness change, was calculated as the residual of all mass fluxes into and out of subregions (or boxes). Net mass balance provides a measure of the state of health of the ice sheet and clues to the current dynamics.

  8. Large Ice Discharge From the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to measure the ice discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet close to the grounding line and/or calving front, and compare the results with mass accumulation and ablation in the interior to estimate the ice sheet mass balance.

  9. Submesoscale Sea Ice-Ocean Interactions in Marginal Ice Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manucharyan, Georgy E.; Thompson, Andrew F.

    2017-12-01

    Signatures of ocean eddies, fronts, and filaments are commonly observed within marginal ice zones (MIZs) from satellite images of sea ice concentration, and in situ observations via ice-tethered profilers or underice gliders. However, localized and intermittent sea ice heating and advection by ocean eddies are currently not accounted for in climate models and may contribute to their biases and errors in sea ice forecasts. Here, we explore mechanical sea ice interactions with underlying submesoscale ocean turbulence. We demonstrate that the release of potential energy stored in meltwater fronts can lead to energetic submesoscale motions along MIZs with spatial scales O(10 km) and Rossby numbers O(1). In low-wind conditions, cyclonic eddies and filaments efficiently trap the sea ice and advect it over warmer surface ocean waters where it can effectively melt. The horizontal eddy diffusivity of sea ice mass and heat across the MIZ can reach O(200 m2 s-1). Submesoscale ocean variability also induces large vertical velocities (order 10 m d-1) that can bring relatively warm subsurface waters into the mixed layer. The ocean-sea ice heat fluxes are localized over cyclonic eddies and filaments reaching about 100 W m-2. We speculate that these submesoscale-driven intermittent fluxes of heat and sea ice can contribute to the seasonal evolution of MIZs. With the continuing global warming and sea ice thickness reduction in the Arctic Ocean, submesoscale sea ice-ocean processes are expected to become increasingly prominent.

  10. Evolution of Interstellar Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Walker, Robert L.

    1999-10-01

    Infrared observations, combined with realistic laboratory simulations, have revolutionized our understanding of interstellar ice and dust, the building blocks of comets. Ices in molecular clouds are dominated by the very simple molecules H2O, CH3OH, NH3, CO, CO2, and probably H2CO and H2. More complex species including nitriles, ketones, and esters are also present, but at lower concentrations. The evidence for these, as well as the abundant, carbon-rich, interstellar, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reviewed. Other possible contributors to the interstellar/pre-cometary ice composition include accretion of gas-phase molecules and in situ photochemical processing. By virtue of their low abundance, accretion of simple gas-phase species is shown to be the least important of the processes considered in determining ice composition. On the other hand, photochemical processing does play an important role in driving dust evolution and the composition of minor species. Ultraviolet photolysis of realistic laboratory analogs readily produces H2, H2CO, CO2, CO, CH4, HCO, and the moderately complex organic molecules: CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC(=O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C(=O)NH2 (acetamide), R-CN (nitriles), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), as well as more complex species including amides, ketones, and polyoxymethylenes (POMs). Inclusion of PAHs in the ices produces many species similar to those found in meteorites including aromatic alcohols, quinones and ethers. Photon assisted PAH-ice deuterium exchange also occurs. All of these species are readily formed and are therefore likely cometary constituents.

  11. Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests.

    PubMed

    Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Shridharani, Jay K; Matthews, Kyle A; Capehart, Bruce P; Myers, Barry S; Bass, Cameron R

    2013-02-01

    Clinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body armour use on the potential for primary blast injury and to determine the risk of brain and pulmonary injury following a blast and its impact on the clinical care of patients with a history of blast exposure. A shock tube was used to generate blast overpressures on soft ballistic protective vests (NIJ Level-2) and hard protective vests (NIJ Level-4) while overpressure was recorded behind the vest. Both types of vest were found to significantly decrease pulmonary injury risk following a blast for a wide range of conditions. At the highest tested blast overpressure, the soft vest decreased the behind armour overpressure by a factor of 14.2, and the hard vest decreased behind armour overpressure by a factor of 56.8. Addition of body armour increased the 50th percentile pulmonary death tolerance of both vests to higher levels than the 50th percentile for brain injury. These results suggest that ballistic protective body armour vests, especially hard body armour plates, provide substantial chest protection in primary blasts and explain the increased frequency of head injuries, without the presence of pulmonary injuries, in protected subjects reporting a history of blast exposure. These results suggest increased clinical suspicion for mild to severe brain injury is warranted in persons wearing body armour exposed to a blast with or without pulmonary injury.

  12. Comment on "chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model".

    PubMed

    Tisdall, Martin; Petzold, Axel

    2012-10-24

    In a case study, the authors report an increase in phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain, a marker of neuroaxonal damage, in the plasma of a blast-exposed patient immediately after injury. They suggest that this phosphoprotein may be a useful body fluid indicator of acute blast traumatic brain injury.

  13. Survey of rice blast race identity for blast resistance gene identification in the USA and Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice blast disease is a significant threat to stable rice production in the USA and worldwide. The major resistance gene (Pi-ta) located within a cluster of resistance genes on rice chromosome 12 has been demonstrated to confer resistance to the rice blast disease. Katy, a rice cultivar released in ...

  14. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  15. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  16. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  17. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  18. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  19. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  20. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  1. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  2. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  3. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  4. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including electric...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.905 - Loading of explosives or blasting agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading of explosives or blasting agents. 1926.905 Section... Explosives § 1926.905 Loading of explosives or blasting agents. (a) Procedures that permit safe and efficient... have contained explosives or blasting agents. (g) No explosives or blasting agents shall be left...

  6. Water Ice on Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This orthographic projection view from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft provides a look at Mercury north polar region. The yellow regions in many of the craters mark locations that show evidence for water ice, as detected by Earth-based radar observations from Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. MESSENGER has collected compelling new evidence that the deposits are indeed water ice, including imaging within the permanently shaded interiors of some of the craters, such as Prokofiev and Fuller. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Arecibo Radar Image: In yellow (Harmon et al., 2011, Icarus 211, 37-50) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19411

  7. Marginal Ice Zone Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    A Voyage of Discovery. George Deacon 70th An-niversary Volume, (M. Angel, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, p.15-41. Coachman, L.K., C.A. Barnes, 1961...some polar contrasts. In: S "" RUsium on Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, ( George Deacon, ed.), Sci- 72 Lebedev, A.A., 1968: Zone of possible icing of...Atlantic and Western Europe. British Meteorological Office. Geophysical Memoirs, 4(41). Brost , R.A., J.C. Wyngaard, 1978: A model study of the stably

  8. Civilian blast-related burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J.N.; Tan, A.; Dziewulski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is limited English literature describing the experience of a civilian hospital managing blast-related burn injuries. As the largest regional burn unit, we reviewed our cases with the aim of identifying means to improve current management. A 6-year retrospective analysis of all patients coded as sustaining blast-related burns was conducted through the unit’s burns database. Medical case notes were reviewed for information on burn demographics, management and outcomes. 42 patients were identified. Male to female ratio was 37:5. Age range was 12-84 years, (mean=33 years). Total body surface area (%TBSA) burn ranged from 0.25% to 60%, (median=1%). The most common burn injury was flame (31/42, 73.8%). Gas explosions were the most common mechanism of injury (19 cases; 45.2%). 7/42 cases (16.7%) had full ATLS management pre-transfer to the burns unit. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 0-43 (median=2). 17/42 (40.4%) patients required admission. 37/36 (88.1%) patients were managed conservatively of which 1 patient later required surgery due to deeper burns. 5/42 (11.9%) patients required surgical management at presentation and these were noted to be burns with >15% TBSA requiring resuscitation. One case required emergency escharotomies and finger amputations. All patients survived their burn injuries. Blast-related burn injuries are generally uncommon in the civilian setting. Following proper assessment, most of these cases can be deemed as minor injuries and managed conservatively. Improvement in burns management education and training at local emergency departments would provide efficient patient care and avoid unnecessary referrals to a burns unit. PMID:27857651

  9. Impact and Blast Resistance of Sandwich Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, George J.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.; Suvorov, Alexander P.

    Response of conventional and modified sandwich plate designs is examined under static load, impact by a rigid cylindrical or flat indenter, and during and after an exponential pressure impulse lasting for 0.05 ms, at peak pressure of 100 MPa, simulating a nearby explosion. The conventional sandwich design consists of thin outer (loaded side) and inner facesheets made of carbon/epoxy fibrous laminates, separated by a thick layer of structural foam core. In the three modified designs, one or two thin ductile interlayers are inserted between the outer facesheet and the foam core. Materials selected for the interlayers are a hyperelas-tic rate-independent polyurethane;a compression strain and strain rate dependent, elastic-plastic polyurea;and an elastomeric foam. ABAQUS and LS-Dyna software were used in various response simulations. Performance comparisons between the enhanced and conventional designs show that the modified designs provide much better protection against different damage modes under both load regimes. After impact, local facesheet deflection, core compression, and energy release rate of delamination cracks, which may extend on hidden interfaces between facesheet and core, are all reduced. Under blast or impulse loads, reductions have been observed in the extent of core crushing, facesheet delaminations and vibration amplitudes, and in overall deflections. Similar reductions were found in the kinetic energy and in the stored and dissipated strain energy. Although strain rates as high as 10-4/s1 are produced by the blast pressure, peak strains in the interlayers were too low to raise the flow stress in the polyurea to that in the polyurethane, where a possible rate-dependent response was neglected. Therefore, stiff polyurethane or hard rubber interlayers materials should be used for protection of sandwich plate foam cores against both impact and blast-induced damage.

  10. Is CO2 ice permanent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    Carbon dioxide ice has been inferred to exist at the south pole in summertime, but Earth based measurements in 1969 of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggest that all CO2 ice sublined from the southern polar cap and exposed underlying water ice. This implies that the observed summertime CO2 ice is of recent origin. It appears possible to construct an energy balance model that maintains seasonal CO2 ice at the south pole year round and still reasonably simulates the polar cap regression and atmospheric pressure data. This implies that the CO2 ice observed in the summertime south polar cap could be seasonal in origin, and that minor changes in climate could cause CO2 ice to completely vanish, as would appear to have happened in 1969. However, further research remains before it is certain whether the CO2 ice observed in the summertime south polar cap is seasonal or is part of a permanent reservoir.

  11. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  12. MMAB Sea Ice Forecast Page

    Science.gov Websites

    verification statistics Grumbine, R. W., Virtual Floe Ice Drift Forecast Model Intercomparison, Weather and Forecasting, 13, 886-890, 1998. MMAB Note: Virtual Floe Ice Drift Forecast Model Intercomparison 1996 pdf ~47

  13. Doped colloidal artificial spin ice

    DOE PAGES

    Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-10-07

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Conversely, magnetic artificial spin ices, unlike colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations, allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloidsmore » is suppressed near the doping sites. Our results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.« less

  14. Doped colloidal artificial spin ice

    SciTech Connect

    Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Conversely, magnetic artificial spin ices, unlike colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations, allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloidsmore » is suppressed near the doping sites. Our results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.« less

  15. Domestic Ice Breaking Simulation Model User Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Temperatures” sub-module. Notes on Ice Data Sources Selected Historical Ice Data *** D9 Historical (SIGRID Coded) NBL Waterways * D9 Waterway...numbers in NBL scheme D9 Historical Ice Data (Feet Thickness) Main Model Waterways * SIGRID code conversion to feet of ice thickness D9 Historical Ice Data...Feet Thickness) NBL Waterways * SIGRID codes Years for Ice Data ** Types of Ice Waterway Time Selected Ice and Weather Data Years DOMICE Simulation

  16. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  17. NASA TEERM Project: Corn Based Blast Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Coatings removal is a necessary part of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul activities at many NASA centers and contractor support sites. Sensitive substrates, such as composites and thin aluminum alloys require special handling such as the use of chemical stripping, pneumatic hand sanding, or softer blast media. Type V, acrylic based PMB is commonly used to de-coat, strip, or de-paint the delicate substrates of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) currently used in support of the Shuttle and slated to be used in support of CxP.

  18. Steel Foil Improves Performance Of Blasting Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Perry, Ronnie; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Blasting caps, which commonly include deep-drawn aluminum cups, give significantly higher initiation performance by application of steel foils on output faces. Steel closures 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) thick more effective than aluminum. Caps with directly bonded steel foil produce fragment velocities of 9,300 ft/s (2.8 km/s) with large craters and unpredictable patterns to such degree that no attempts made to initiate explosions. Useful in military and aerospace applications and in specialized industries as mining and exploration for oil.

  19. Numerical modeling and characterization of blast waves for application in blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Michael G.

    Human exposure to blast waves, including blast-induced traumatic brain injury, is a developing field in medical research. Experiments with explosives have many disadvantages including safety, cost, and required area for trials. Shock tubes provide an alternative method to produce free field blast wave profiles. A compressed nitrogen shock tube experiment instrumented with static and reflective pressure taps is modeled using a numerical simulation. The geometry of the numerical model is simplified and blast wave characteristics are derived based upon static and pressure profiles. The pressure profiles are analyzed along the shock tube centerline and radially away from the tube axis. The blast wave parameters found from the pressure profiles provide guidelines for spatial location of a specimen. The location could be based on multiple parameters and provides a distribution of anticipated pressure profiles experience by the specimen.

  20. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    PubMed

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.