Science.gov

Sample records for dry-mill corn starch

  1. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  2. Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-08-01

    The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using {kappa}-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, 94% conversion and ethanol concentration of 70 g/L was achieved, giving an overall productivity of 23 g/L-h.

  3. One step preparation of spherical drug particles by contamination-free dry milling technique with corn starch beads.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Maria; Hayashi, Naoko; Kondo, Keita

    2017-08-07

    The novel dry milling technique has been developed by using a mechanical powder processor for improving the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. It was found that the drug crystals were well pulverized by co-processing with fine particles of corn starch (CS). The morphological observation and particle size evaluation revealed that the processed products formed the composite particles with ordered-mixed structure, having double-layered particles with a core of CS and a coating layer of phenytoin (Phe), as a model drug. This result suggested that the drug crystals were selectively micronized and the resultant miniaturized Phe particles were adhered/fixed on the surface of un-milled CS particles. The mechanical characteristics detected by the indentation test assumed that the brittle Phe crystals sandwiched between elastic CS particles would be successfully crushed down by high shearing stress in the processor. The newly-established dispersion-sedimentation test indicated that the fine Phe particles were immediately detached from the composite particles in aqueous phase, constructing the suspension. The dissolution behavior from the processed particles was found to be improved and strongly dependent on the size and amount of detached Phe particles. Such milling and ordered-mixturization have been also successfully done by using recrystallized larger Phe particles than 100μm. These results would propose the contamination-free dry milling technique without using hard milling balls or beads. The mechanism of the current milling and ordered-mixing phenomena is also provided in this report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits.

  5. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  6. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  7. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  8. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  9. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  10. Enhancing profitability of dry mill ethanol plants: process modeling and economics of conversion of degermed defibered corn to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; McCalla, Darold; Stowers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An Aspen Plus modeling platform was developed to evaluate the performance of the conversion process of degermed defibered corn (DDC) to ethanol in 15- and 40-million gallons per year (MGPY) dry mill ethanol plants. Upstream corn milling equipment in conventional dry mill ethanol plants was replaced with germ and fiber separation equipment. DDC with higher starch content was fed to the existing saccharification and fermentation units, resulting in higher ethanol productivity than with regular corn. The results of the DDC models were compared with those of conventional dry mill ethanol process models. A simple financial analysis that included capital and operating costs, revenues, earnings, and return on investment was created to evaluate each model comparatively. Case studies were performed on 15- and 40-MGPY base case models with two DDC process designs and DDC with a mechanical oil extraction process.

  11. Impact of industrial dry-milling on fumonisin redistribution in non-transgenic corn in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordini, Jaqueline Gozzi; Ono, Mario Augusto; Garcia, Glauco Tironi; Fazani, Victor Hugo Meconi; Vizoni, Édio; Rodrigues, Karem Caroline Bonacin; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko; Ono, Elisabete Yurie Sataque

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) during industrial dry-milling in two lots from 2014 (n=120) and 2015 (n=120) of non-transgenic corn and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, cornmeal and grits), collected from one of the major Brazilian milling industries. Fumonisins were concentrated in the germ and pericarp at a rate of 322% and 188% (lot 1) and 311% and 263% (lot 2), respectively. In the endosperm, cornmeal and grits fumonisin levels decreased from 60 to 95%. Fumonisin levels in cornmeal and grits were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission. Therefore, corn industrial dry-milling can contribute to reducing fumonisin levels in corn products intended for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Successive Reduction Dry Milling of Normal and Waxy Corn: Grain, Grit, and Flour Properties.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh

    2015-06-01

    Dry milling of different corn types resulted in varied proportions of germ, pericarp, grit and flour. Grit and flour produced during different reduction stages varied in particle size and chemical constituents, hence applications in food industry. In this study, recovery of different fractions and variation in physicochemical and pasting properties of grit and flour fractions obtained during 3 successive reduction dry millings of 2 normal (African tall, HQPM1) and 1 waxy corn (IC 550353) were evaluated. Waxy corn grains had the highest L*, a*, b*, ash, fat, and protein content and the lowest weight. Waxy and African tall gave the highest recovery of germ and pericarp, respectively. Waxy corn showed lower grit and flour recovery as compared to normal corn. Flour fractions showed higher L* and lower a* and b* values than grit fractions. Particle size of grit and flour fractions ranged from 840 to 982 μm and 330 to 409 μm, respectively. Fractions with larger particle size showed lower L* value. The b* value showed positive correlation with yellow pigment content. Grit and flour from the 1st reduction stage showed higher ash and fat content. Protein content was correlated positively with ash content and negatively with L* value. Grit and flour fractions with higher protein content had lower pasting viscosities. Pasting viscosities were higher for flours than their corresponding grits. Protein profiling of grit and flour fractions from different stages showed quantitative and qualitative differences in medium (22, 28, and 35 kDa) and low molecular weight (16, 17, and 19 kDa) polypeptides and were related to grit and flour yield.

  13. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  14. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  15. Effect of Extrusion on Physicochemical Properties, Digestibility, and Phenolic Profiles of Grit Fractions Obtained from Dry Milling of Normal and Waxy Corn.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sheetal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Baljit

    2017-03-29

    Extrusion behavior of grits obtained from 3 successive reductions of dry milling of 2 normal corn types and 1 waxy corn was studied at different extrusion temperatures (ET). The grit from each reduction stage (RS) showed the presence of base-hydrolyzed bound protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and quercetin, and the concentrations of these decreased after acid hydrolysis and that of gallic acid increased. African tall grit from all RSs showed the highest average specific mechanical energy (SME) and torque, while waxy corn grit had the lowest. Corn extrudates showed an increase in water solubility index (WSI) and a decrease in water absorption index (WAI), as well as in expansion ratio (ER) with an increase in ET. Extrudates from each corn type showed an increase in rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and a decrease in slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch with an increase in ET. Most of the phenolics were present in bound form in extrudates, and quercetin, and catechin observed in grit were not present in extrudates. Frying of extrudates showed lower L(*) and higher a(*) and b(*) when compared to color parameters of raw extrudates. Lower expansion of fried extrudates from waxy corn than those from other corn types may be related to its higher protein and fat contents and to lower amylose content.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  19. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  20. Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy saving alternative to production of high fructose syrup. Final executive report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to study, test, and demonstrate a process of producing high-fructose corn syrup and protein byproducts from dry milled corn as an energy conserving alternative of the current industrial corn wet-milling process. This final report is divided into 5 sections. Section 1 deals with the process which is the main and, indeed, the final product of the energy conservation study. Section 2 deals with protein Extraction which conditions the dry-milled corn before hydrolysis. Section 3 deals with the analytical technique of GPC developed with the alpha-amylase hydrolysis of starch. Section 4 deals with immobilized glucoamylase hydrolysis. Section 5 deals with the recovery of soluble protein by ion-exchange resins. Each section has been abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  1. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p < 0.01) with starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  2. Properties of corn starch subjected hydrothermal modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryszkin, Artur; Zięba, Tomasz; Kapelko-Żeberska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heating a water dispersion of corn starch to various temperatures, followed by its freezing and defrosting, on selected properties of re-formed starch pastes. A suspension of starch was heated to various temperatures ranging from 59 to 94°C, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. The differential scanning calorimetry (Mettler Toledo, 822E) thermal characteristics of starch pre-heated to temperatures not inducing complete pasting revealed transitions of: (I) retrograded amylopectin, (II) non-pasted starch, (III) amylose-lipid complexes, (IV) retrograded amylose, and (V) highly thermostable starch structures. The application of higher temperatures during heating caused disappearance of transitions II and V. The increase of pre-heating temperature induced firstly a decrease and then stabilization of the swelling power as well as a successive decrease in starch solubility. Pastes pre-heated to temperatures over 79°C contained large macroparticles that were increasing viscosity of the re-formed starch paste (their size was positively correlated with viscosity value).

  3. Physicochemical properties of starches isolated from pumpkin compared with potato and corn starches.

    PubMed

    Przetaczek-Rożnowska, Izabela

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the selected physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of pumpkin starches and compared with the properties of potato and corn starches used as control samples. Pumpkin starches could be used in the food industry as a free gluten starch. Better thermal and rheological properties could contribute to reduce the costs of food production. The syneresis of pumpkin starches was similar to that of potato starch but much lower than that for corn starch. Pasting temperatures of pumpkin starches were lower by 17-21.7°C and their final viscosities were over 1000cP higher than corn paste, but were close to the values obtained for potato starch. The thermodynamic characteristic showed that the transformation temperatures of pumpkin starches were lower than those measured for control starches. A level of retrogradation was much lower in pumpkin starch pastes (32-48%) than was in the case of corn (59%) or potato (77%) starches. The pumpkin starches gels were characterized by a much greater hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness, than potato or corn starches gels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Resistant Starch and Starch Thermal Characteristics in Exotic Corn Lines Grown in Temperate and Tropical Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn as a food that is heated and cooled to allow starch retrogradation has higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Increasing the amount of RS can make corn an even healthier food and may be accomplished by breeding and selection, especially by using exotic germplasm. Sixty breeding lines of introg...

  5. Grinding and cooking dry-mill germ to optimize aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil. This report describes an aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method to separate oil from dry-mill corn germ (DMG). The method is an extension of AEE previously developed for wet...

  6. Shear thickening of corn starch suspensions: does concentration matter?

    PubMed

    Crawford, Nathan C; Popp, Lauren B; Johns, Kathryn E; Caire, Lindsey M; Peterson, Brittany N; Liberatore, Matthew W

    2013-04-15

    Suspensions of corn starch and water are the most common example of a shear thickening system. Investigations into the non-Newtonian flow behavior of corn starch slurries have ranged from simplistic elementary school demonstrations to in-depth rheological examinations that use corn starch to further elucidate the mechanisms that drive shear thickening. Here, we determine how much corn starch is required for the average person to ‘‘walk on water’’ (or in this case, run across a pool filled with corn starch and water). Steady shear rate rheological measurements were employed to monitor the thickening of corn starch slurries at concentrations ranging from 0 to 55 wt.% (0-44 vol.%). The steady state shear rate ramp experiments revealed a transition from continuous to discontinuous thickening behavior that exists at 52.5 wt.%. The rheological data was then compared to macro-scopic (~5 gallon) pool experiments, in which thickening behavior was tested by dropping a 2.1 kg rock onto the suspension surface. Impact-induced thickening in the ‘‘rock drop’’ study was not observed until the corn starch concentration reached at least 50 wt.%. At 52.5 wt.%, the corn starch slurry displayed true solid-like behavior and the falling rock ‘‘bounced’’ as it impacted the surface. The corn starch pool studies were fortified by steady state stress ramps which were extrapolated out to a critical stress value of 67,000 Pa (i.e., the force generated by an 80 kg adult while running). Only the suspensions containing at least 52.5 wt.% (42 vol.%) thickened to high enough viscosities (50-250 Pa s) that could reasonably be believed to support the impact of a man’s foot while running. Therefore, we conclude that at least 52.5 wt.% corn starch is required to induce strong enough thickening behavior to safely allow the average person to ‘‘walk on water’’.

  7. Utilization of resistant starch of native tapioca, corn and waxy corn starches and their retrograded preparations by Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Wronkowska, Malgorzata; Soral-Smietana, Maria; Biedrzycka, Elzbieta

    2008-02-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of native starches from tapioca, normal and waxy corn, and their laboratory modified preparations, by selected Bifidobacterium strains (Bifidobacterium pseudolongum KSI9, Bifidobacterium breve KN14, and Bifidobacterium animalis KS20a1) was carried out under in vitro conditions. The growth and acidifying properties of bifidobacteria and utilization of resistant starches were determined in relation to glucose in the control sample. The preparations obtained from normal and waxy corn starches were the best substrates for growth of B. breve KN14, even compared with glucose. The growth of B. animalis KS20a1 was comparable, both on native and modified starches, whereas the starch preparations better stimulated the growth and acidifying activity of B. pseudolongum KSI9, as compared with native starches. The resistant starch fractions of all preparations were generally utilized to a higher degree (64-85%) compared with native starches (56-79%). The results of the study indicate that tapioca and corn starches, both native and modified, could be substrates beneficial for the enhancement of Bifidobacterium intestinal populations.

  8. Preparation and characteristic of gelatine/oxidized corn starch and gelatin/corn starch blend microspheres.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhi Hua; Woo, Meng Wai; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of gelatin (G) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) were explored as a new microcapsule composite for single droplet spray drying. The blending solutions property, gel time, transparency and viscosity of G/CS (corn starch) and G/OCS blend solutions were compared at different ratios (10:0;9:1;8:2;7:3;6:4;5:5) and concentrations(1%wt; 3%wt; 5%wt). The drying and dissolution behaviors of composite droplet have been studied using the single droplet drying technique. Possible reaction mechanisms in the composite blend were elucidated by SEM and FTIR techniques. Blends solutions of G/OCS showed longer Gel time, higher transparency and lower viscosity; further displayed faster dissolution rate than that of G/CS under similar conditions. This was attributed to the formed Schiff base between the aldehyde group of OCS and amino group of G which improved the compatibility between G and OCS. All results indicated that the composites could be prepared with excellent properties by G/OCS (6:4) which would overcome some disadvantage such as thermodynamic incompatibility and phase separation by G/CS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of β-amylolysis on the resistant starch formation of debranched corn starches.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Curtis R; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2012-05-09

    Retrograded amylose is resistant to digestion by amylolytic enzymes, which is known as resistant starch type III (RS3). In this study we investigated the effect of β-amylase hydrolysis on the formation and physicochemical properties of RS3 from debranched corn starches. Three types of corn starch (Hylon VII, Hylon V, and common corn) were first gelatinized and then hydrolyzed using β-amylase to varying degrees. The resultant hydrolyzed starch was debranched with isoamylase and then exposed to temperature cycling to promote RS formation. A broad endotherm from approximately 45 to 120 °C and a small endotherm above 150 °C were noted for all retrograded starches. All three corn starches had increased RS contents after moderate β-amylolysis, with Hylon V having the highest RS content at 70.7% after 4 h of β-amylolysis. The results suggest that RS3 formation is affected by the starch composition as well as the starch structure and can be increased by moderate β-amylolysis.

  10. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  11. In vitro analyses of resistant starch in retrograded waxy and normal corn starches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-04-01

    Gelatinized waxy and normal corn starches (40% starch) were subjected to temperature cycling between 4 and 30°C (1 day at each temperature) or isothermal storage (4°C) to induce retrogradation. The in vitro analysis methods that are currently used for the measurement of resistant starch (RS), i.e. Englyst, AACC 32-40 and Goni methods, were compared with homogenized retrograded starch gels and freeze-dried powders of the gels. RS contents obtained by the three analysis methods were in the following order: Goni>Englyst>AACC. Although different RS values were obtained among the analysis methods, similar trends in regards to the starch type and storage conditions could be observed. Little or no RS was found in freeze-dried powders of the retrograded starch gels and storage conditions had no effect, indicating that the physical state for RS analysis is important. More RS was found in normal corn starch gels than in waxy corn starch gels under identical storage conditions and in the gels stored under temperature cycling than those under isothermal storage (4°C), indicating that the presence of amylose inhibits starch digestion and the level of crystalline structure of re-crystallized amylopectin also affects the RS formation during retrogradation.

  12. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in corn starch classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, N.; Wojciechowski, C.; Ta, C. D.; Huvenne, J. P.; Legrand, P.

    1997-06-01

    The authentication of food is a very important issue for both the consumer and the food industry at all levels of the food chain from raw materials to finished products. Corn starch can be used in a wide variety of food preparations such as bakery cream fillings, sauces, salad dressings, frozen foods etc. Many modifications are made to corn starch in connection with its use in agrofood. The value of the product increases with the degree of modification. Some chemical and physical tests have been devised to solve the problem of identifying these modifications but all the methods are time consuming and require skilled operators. We separate corn starches into groups related to their modification on the basis of the infrared spectra.

  13. Biosysthesis of corn starch palmitate by lipase Novozym 435.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Tie; Lin, Kai; Chang, Le; Xia, Chun-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435), was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6%) and emulsion stability (79.6%) than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%). Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  14. Characterisation of corn starch-based films reinforced with taro starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-01

    Taro starch nanoparticles (TSNPs) obtained by hydrolysis with pullulanase and the recrystallisation of gelatinised starch were used as reinforcing agents in corn starch films. The influence of TSNPs contents (0.5-15%) on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and structural properties of starch films was investigated. An increase in the concentration of TSNPs led to a significant decrease in the water vapour permeability (WVP) of films. The addition of TSNPs increased the tensile strength (TS) of films from 1.11 MPa to 2.87 MPa. Compared with pure starch films, the surfaces of nanocomposite films became uneven. The onset temperature (To) and melting temperature (Tm) of films containing TSNPs were higher than those of pure starch films. The addition of TSNPs improved the thermal stability of starch films.

  15. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  16. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    PubMed

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  17. Characterization of acetylated corn starch prepared under ultrahigh pressure (UHP).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Hyun-Shik; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the impact of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) on the physicochemical properties of the UHP-assisted starch acetate, common corn starch was subjected to either conventional (0.1 MPa, 30 degrees C, 60 min) or UHP-assisted (400 MPa, 25 degrees C, 15 min) acetylation reactions at three levels (4, 8, or 12%) of acetic anhydride. Without significant changes in starch granule crystal structure, UHP-assisted reaction exhibited lower degree of substitution values than conventional reaction across reagent addition levels. An increase in reagent addition levels exhibited common trends in starch solubility/swelling power, gelatinization, and pasting properties for the conventional and UHP-assisted starch acetates relative to native starch. Within an equivalent derivatization level, however, the UHP-assisted (relative to conventional) starch acetates revealed restricted starch solubility/swelling power, reduced gelatinization temperatures, and lower pasting viscosities. Overall, this result suggested that UHP treatment in acetylation reaction might influence the physicochemical properties of starch acetate by facilitating the formation of lipid-complexed amylose or altering granular reaction patterns to acetic anhydride.

  18. Starch bioavailability in arepas made from ordinary or high amylose corn: concentration and gastrointestinal fate of resistant starch in rats.

    PubMed

    Granfeldt, Y E; Drews, A W; Björck, I M

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the importance of the amylose/amylopectin ratio for the content and gastrointestinal fate of resistant starch in a realistic composite starchy food. Corn-based breads (arepas) from dent corn (25% amylose) and from high amylose corn (70% amylose) were used as test products. Resistant starch concentration was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using rats treated with an antibiotic drug (Nebacitin) to suppress hindgut fermentation. Experiments in rats with intact hindgut microflora allowed determination of resistant starch fermentability. The small intestinal digestibility of starch in dent corn arepas was close to 96% (total starch basis), whereas the starch in high amylose arepas was poorly digested (approximately 68%, total starch basis), as calculated from the fecal recovery of resistant starch in Nebacitin-treated animals. The main resistant starch fraction required solubilization in alkali to render it available to the analytical amylases (nonhydrated fraction). The total amount of resistant starch as well as the nonhydrated starch fraction delivered to the hindgut could be accurately predicted from analysis of starch remnants in an enzymatic gravimetric dietary fiber residue. Resistant starch present in dent corn arepas was fermented approximately 63%, whereas the fermentability of resistant starch from the high amylose product was remarkably low (< 11%).

  19. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) Compare the differences of ethanol production between normal and waxy corn representing a diverse set of racial germplasm using a cold-fermentation process; 2) Understand the effects of starch structure and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields po...

  20. Electrospinning of guar gum/corn starch blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, electrospun nanofibers were prepared for the first time from aqueous blends of guar gum (GG) and corn starch with amylose contents of 27.8% (CS28) and 50% (CS50). The fiber morphology and fiber diameter sizes (FDS) were correlated with solution rheology. The spinning solutions were pr...

  1. Effects of Kernel Composition and Starch Structure on Ethanol Yield Produced from Dry-Grind Corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of kernels (i.e., starch, protein, and lipid contents) and the starch structure of dry-grind corn affected the enzyme hydrolysis of starch and the ethanol yield during yeast fermentation. Four lines of corn, designated, 05GEM06031, 06G...

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics of media-milled corn starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Jen; Shen, Yu-Chin; Yeh, An-I

    2010-08-25

    Nano/submicrometer scale corn starch particles have been prepared by using media milling. Molecular weight and pasting properties of milled starch were determined by HPSEC-MALLS-RI and an oscillatory rheometer, respectively. After 30-min of milling, the number-average diameter of the starch particle was reduced from 9.61 to 0.26 μm. Particle size was further reduced by extended milling. Microscopic observation confirmed the presence of particles smaller than 100 nm. As starch granules were being disintegrated, the mechanical energy imparted by media milling resulted in 43.7% of starch damage and 55% degree of gelatinization during the initial 30 min. In the meanwhile, the weight average molecular weight was reduced from 9.98 to 7.63 × 10(6) g/mol. The pasting properties were significantly altered by milling, which resulted in lower onset and peak temperature, and reduction in breakdown and set back. The importance of molecular weight on the physicochemical properties of milled starch was discussed.

  3. Glycemic response to corn starch modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and its relationship to physical properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn starch was modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) below the gelatinization temperature. The porous, partially hydrolyzed, granules with or without CGTase hydrolysis products, cyclodextrins (CDs) and short chain maltodextrins, may be used as an alternative to modified corn starc...

  4. Morphological, physicochemical, and viscoelastic properties of sonicated corn starch.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Amini, Asad; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali

    2015-05-20

    In the present work, different parameters of ultrasound treatment were studied for physical modification of corn starch. The results revealed that the influence of sonication strongly depends on temperature (25-65 °C) and exposure time (5-15 min), while concentration (10-20% w/w) and ultrasound amplitude (50 and 100%) have little influence on functional and rheological properties. SEM micrographs demonstrated the damage induced by ultrasound on starch granules' surface. The solubility, swelling power, and gel clarity were increased. Ultrasonication decreased the gelatinisation enthalpy and temperature range while the X-ray pattern and crystallinity remained almost unchanged, except for samples treated at onset temperature as measured by DSC. The pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient decreased; also, apparent viscosity diminished prominently. The pasting behaviour of samples was altered without any clear change in gel strength characterised by loss factor. The results of the present work provide further insight into the mode of action of ultrasound on modifying corn starch granules.

  5. Potassium sorbate controlled release from corn starch films.

    PubMed

    López, Olivia V; Giannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemí E; García, M Alejandra

    2013-04-01

    Active starch films with glycerol and potassium sorbate were obtained by casting. Native and acetylated corn starches, as well as the mixture of them in equal proportions were used and filmogenic suspensions with pH 4.5 were also prepared. Sorbate concentration decreased during film storage due to its oxidative degradation. Active films resulted more yellow and less transparent than films without sorbate. The minimum inhibitory concentration of sorbate resulted 0.3%, regardless of the starch type and the formulation pH. The use of antimicrobial package was more effective to prevent microbial growth on food surfaces than the use of conventional methods. Additive kinetic release was neither affected by the starch type nor by the formulation pH. Sorbate diffusion process was mathematically modeled satisfactorily. Active films were able to inhibit Candida spp., Penicillium spp., S. aureus and Salmonella spp. growth. Active films extended 21% the shelf life of refrigerated cheese, regardless of the formulation pH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of dry heating on physicochemical properties of corn starch and lysine mixture.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Yu, Jicheng; Xu, Yongbin; Zhang, Yinghui

    2016-10-01

    Corn starch was modified with lysine by dry heat treatment and to investigate how they can affect the pasting and structural properties of the treated starches. Dry heating with lysine reduced the pasting temperature and resulting in viscosity increase. The particle size of heated starch-lysine mixture increased, suggesting that starch granules were cross-linked to lysine. After dry heating, the onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature of corn starch-lysine mixture were lower than those of other starches. The degree of crystallinity decreased for the starch after dry heat treatment while these heated starch samples still have the same X-ray diffraction types as the original starch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extrusion of Rice, Bean and Corn Starches: Extrudate Structure and Molecular Changes in Amylose and Amylopectin.

    PubMed

    Vanier, Nathan Levien; Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Seetharaman, Koushik; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Berrios, Jose De J

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of starch source and amylose content on the expansion ratio, density, and texture of expanded extrudates, as well as to investigate the structural and molecular changes that occur in starch granules as a function of extrusion. The starches employed were rice starches (8%, 20%, and 32% amylose), carioca bean starch (35% amylose), and Hylon V(®) corn starch (55% amylose). The extrudates from rice starches containing 20% and 32% amylose exhibited the highest expansion ratio, while, extrudates from Hylon V(®) corn starch containing 55% amylose exhibited the lowest expansion ratio. The hardness values of the extrudates with 55% amylose were twice those of the extrudates with 20%, 32%, and 35% amylose. An additional finding was that although the amylopectin promoted the expansion of the gelatinized starch matrix, it failed to strengthen and sustain the walls of the extrudate bubbles during expansion. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Detoxification of corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors by ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Khiyami, Mohammad A; Pometto, Anthony L; Brown, Robert C

    2005-04-20

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) shake flask culture with 3 mM veratryl alcohol addition on day 3 was able to grow and detoxify different concentrations of diluted corn stover (Dcs) and diluted corn starch (Dst) pyrolysis liquors [10, 25, and 50% (v/v)] in defined media. GC-MS analysis of reaction products showed a decrease and change in some compounds. In addition, the total phenolic assay with Dcs samples demonstrated a decrease in the phenolic compounds. A bioassay employing Lactobacillus casei growth and lactic acid production was developed to confirm the removal of toxic compounds from 10 and 25% (v/v) Dcs and Dst by the lignolytic enzymes, but not from 50% (v/v) Dcs and Dst. The removal did not occur when sodium azide or cycloheximide was added to Ph. chrysosporium culture media, confirming the participation of lignolytic enzymes in the detoxification process. A concentrated enzyme preparation decreased the phenolic compounds in 10% (v/v) corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors to the same extent as the fungal cultures.

  10. Internal structure and physicochemical properties of corn starches as revealed by chemical surface gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Kuakpetoon, Daris; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2007-11-05

    The organization of amylose and amylopectin within starch granules is still not well elucidated. This study investigates the radial distribution of amylose and amylopectin in different corn starches varying in amylose content (waxy corn starch (WC), common corn starch (CC), and 50% and 70% amylose corn starches (AMC)). Corn starches were surface gelatinized by 13 M LiCl at room temperature to different extents (approximately 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). The gelatinized surface starch and remaining granules were characterized for amylose content, amylopectin chain-length distribution, thermal properties, swelling power (SP), and water solubility index (WSI). Except for the outmost 10% layer, the amylose content in CC increased slightly with increasing surface removal. In contrast, amylose was more concentrated at the periphery than at the core for 50% and 70% AMC. The proportion of amylopectin A chains generally decreased while that of B1 chains generally increased with increasing surface removal for all corn starches. The gelatinization enthalpy usually decreased, except for 70% AMC, whereas the retrogradation enthalpy relatively remained unchanged for CC but increased for WC, 50% and 70% AMC with increasing surface removal. The SP and WSI increased with increasing surface removal for all corn starches, with WC showing a significant increase in SP after the removal of the outmost 10% layer. The results of this study indicated that there were similarities and differences in the distribution of amylose and amylopectin chains along the radial location of corn starch granules with varying amylose contents. More amylose-lipid complex and amylopectin long chains were present at the periphery than at the core for amylose-containing corn starches.

  11. Effects of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the pasting and thermal behaviors of maize starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid. Recent research showed its considerable potential in food processing. In this study, the interactions of maize starch and CFG were studied. Maize starch/CFG blend gels were prepared from maize starch suspension mixed with 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, ...

  12. Effects of corn fiber gum with different molecular weights on the gelatinization behaviors of corn and wheat starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid. Recent research has shown that it has a considerable potential in food processing. In our previous study, we reported that CFG could be used to modify the gelling and rheological properties of starch-based food. In this study, starch and CFG...

  13. The addition of corn fiber gum improves the long-term stability and retrogradation properties of corn starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the stability and physical properties of starch gels could be improved by adding small amounts of corn fiber gum (CFG). When compared with the starch gel alone, the addition of CFG (0 to 1.0 %) significantly lowered the hardness of the composite s...

  14. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, Elizabeth M

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique (α < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (ToG), narrower range of gelatinization (RG), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHG). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower ToG, wider RG, and lower ΔHG. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were

  15. Application of enzyme-treated corn starches in breakfast cereal coating.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Curtis R; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2012-08-01

    Presently ready-to-eat cereals are coated with high levels of sugar coating to extend the bowl life. Because of health concerns of added sugar, there is a need to identify alternative coating materials. This study was designed to test the efficacy of debranched corn starches with varying amylose contents as a cereal coating. Hylon VII (70% amylose), common, and waxy corn starches were gelatinized and debranched, and then sprayed onto ready-to-eat breakfast cereal flakes. The surface morphology, milk absorption, texture, and digestibility of coated cereals were determined. A starch film with a thickness of 50 to 130 μm was observed with scanning electron microscopy on the surface of the cereals coated with Hylon VII. All starch-coated cereals had a lower milk absorption value than the uncoated and glucose-coated controls. Among starch coatings, common corn starch and Hylon VII resulted in lower milk absorption than did waxy corn starch. After soaking in milk for 3 min, the peak force and work to peak of the cereals coated with corn starches were higher than those of the glucose control and uncoated reference. The cereals coated with Hylon VII were found to have an increase in dietary fiber content. The results suggest that debranched amylose-containing corn starches could extend the bowl-life of ready-to-eat cereals. Currently, many cereals are coated with sugar to keep them from becoming soggy in milk. However, added sugar has been linked to obesity, hyperactivity, and dental caries. This has led to the investigation of alternative coating materials. This study employed the film-forming properties of enzyme-treated corn starch to function as a coating material in breakfast cereal flakes. In addition, the enzyme-treated high amylose corn starch also increased the dietary fiber content of the cereal flakes. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch-aroma compound inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Yibin; Jin, Shanshan; Meng, Xin; Yang, Liping; Wang, Haisong

    2017-01-01

    Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to (a) investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and (b) characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2 and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol and menthol respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of CO at 1771 cm(-1) and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch-polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS (13) C NMR) results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the supramolecular structure of corn starch with different amylose contents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Hemar, Yacine; Mo, Guang; Wei, Yanru; Li, Zhihong; Wu, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Corn starches with amylose contents ranging from 0 to 80% were suspended in 60 wt% water or ethanol and subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) up to 600 MPa. The impact of HHP treatment on the granule morphology, lamellae structures, and crystalline characteristics were examined with a combination of SAXS, WAXS and optical microscopy. All starch dispersed in water showed a decrease in area of the lamellar peak in the SAXS data at q∼0.6 nm(-1). The lamellae thickness (d) increased for pressurized waxy, normal, and Gelose80 corn starches, suggesting water is forced into starch lamellae during HHP. However, for Gelose50 corn starch, the d remained constant over the whole pressure range and light microscopy showed no obvious granule swelling. WAXS studies demonstrated that HHP partially converted A-type starches (waxy and normal corn) to starches with a faint B-type pattern while starches with a B+V-type pattern (Gelose50 and Gelose80), were not affected by HHP. All corn starches suspended in ethanol showed no detectable changes in either granule morphology, or the fractal, the lamellae, and the crystalline structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrophobic corn starch thermoplastic films produced by plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Daniele C; Santos, Anastácia E F; da Silva, Monica L V J; Simão, Renata A

    2009-07-01

    Polymer coating technology is currently an important field in science as it can lead to final products with enhanced characteristics characterized by desired bulk and surface properties. Low power plasmas can induce the polymerization of a precursor gas on the substrate surface as well as introduce functional groups under specific plasma conditions. In the present work, we studied the possibility of reducing water sensitivity of corn starch films by sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) plasma treatment. Confocal laser microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy was used to observe the main surface modifications and results indicated starch cross-linking. Fluoride was incorporated to the surface and the relationship between fluoride and sulfur incorporation to the surface was very much dependent on plasma power. Results indicate that fluoride could be preferentially incorporated on polymeric surfaces at -100V self-bias and the overall surface morphology determined the measured contact angle. The dynamic behavior of surface contact angle was observed to be very much dependent on the treatment time and force-distance curves were used to further characterize the chemical surface modifications locally. Optimized treatment conditions led to water contact angles up to 130 degrees . Even after being in contact with water for 10min, surfaces remained hydrophobic, presenting contact angles over 100 degrees .

  19. Columnar Jointing and Quasihexagonal Crack Patterns in Corn Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas; Morris, Stephen W.

    2003-03-01

    The well-known geophysical phenomenon of basaltic columnar jointing, occurring most spectacularly in the Giant's Causeway in N. Ireland, has inspired several theories describing the origin and evolution of quasihexagonal crack patterns (P. Budkewitsch and P-Y. Robin, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 59, 219 (1994); E. A. Jagla and A. G. Rojo, Phys. Rev. E, 65, 026203 (2002) for example). Field studies have not been able to distinguish between these theories. However, the desiccation of water-starch mixtures also produces quasihexagonal crack patterns (G. Müller, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 15239 (1998)). The diffusion and evaporation of water is thought to be analogous to the diffusion and extraction of heat from a basalt flow. To better understand hexagonal columnar jointing, we have desiccated corn starch under controlled conditions. We have studied the dynamics of the crack pattern, and measured several maturation indices. Such indices attempt to quantify how disordered cracks evolve into ordered hexagonal patterns. Our objective is to determine whether laboratory tests can discriminate between the theoretical models of this interesting geological pattern.

  20. Agro-industrial residue from starch extraction of Pachyrhizus ahipa as filler of thermoplastic corn starch films.

    PubMed

    López, O V; Versino, F; Villar, M A; García, M A

    2015-12-10

    Biocomposites films based on thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) containing 0.5% w/w fibrous residue from Pachyrhizus ahipa starch extraction (PASR) were obtained by melt-mixing and compression molding. PASR is mainly constituted by remaining cell walls and natural fibers, revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition of the residue indicated that fiber and starch were the principal components. Biocomposites thermo-stability was determined by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis. A continuous PASR-TPS interface was observed by SEM, as a result of a good adhesion of the fibrous residue to starch matrix. Likewise, films containing PASR presented fewer superficial cracks than TPS ones, whereas their fracture surfaces were more irregular. Besides, the presence of PASR increased starch films roughness, due to fibers agglomerates. Films reinforced with PASR showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP). In addition, PARS filler increased maximum tensile strength and Young's modulus of TPS films, thus leading to more resistant starch matrixes.

  1. The Pasting and Gel Textural Properties of Corn Starch in Glucose, Fructose and Maltose Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations. PMID:24755772

  2. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.

  3. Microscopic analysis of corn fiber using starch- and cellulose-specific molecular probes.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephanie E; Donohoe, Bryon S; Beery, Kyle E; Xu, Qi; Ding, Shi-You; Vinzant, Todd B; Abbas, Charles A; Himmel, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  4. Gelatinization and solubility of corn starch during heating in excess water: new insights.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2006-05-17

    Starch gelatinization is associated with the disruption of granular structure causing starch molecules to disperse in water. This study was designed to examine starch granules as they were heated in water, and their resulting morphological, structural, and solubility traits. The results indicate that starch gelatinization is a more complex process than the previously suggested order-to-disorder transition. The energy absorbed by the granules facilitates the rearrangement or formation of new bonds among molecules prior to the temperatures normally associated with the melting of amylopectin crystallites during gelatinization. It is also evident that amylose plays an important role during the initial stages of corn starch gelatinization.

  5. Retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwen; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Qiu, Yijing; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-07-15

    The retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) was investigated using rheometry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dynamic time sweep analysis confirmed that the storage modulus (G') of corn starch stored at 4 °C decreased with increasing GBE treatment time. PNMR analysis demonstrated that the transverse relaxation times (T2) of corn starches treated with GBE were higher than that of control during the storage at 4 °C. DSC results demonstrated that the retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr) of corn starch was reduced by 22.3% after GBE treatment for 10h. Avrami equation analysis showed that GBE treatment reduced the rate of starch retrogradation. FTIR analysis revealed that GBE treatment led to a decrease in hydrogen bonds within the starch. Overall, these results demonstrate that both short- and long-term retrogradation of corn starch were retarded by GBE treatment.

  6. Investigation of glycerol concentration on corn starch morphologies and gelatinization behaviours during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Guo, Li; Du, Xianfeng; Chen, Peirong; Ji, Yishun; Hao, Huili; Xu, Xiaonan

    2017-11-15

    The effects of various glycerol concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50%, w/w) on the morphologies and gelatinization behaviours of corn starch were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco-analyzer (RVA). When corn starch granules with no added glycerol were treated at 65°C, the granules of corn starch were almost completely broken and tightly connected, and the characteristic birefringence of the starch granules disappeared. Various microscopic techniques revealed that starch gelatinization was delayed to higher temperatures as the glycerol concentration increased. In the presence of glycerol-water systems (5%, 10%, 20%, and 50%, w/w), the peak temperatures of corn starch increased by 1.6°C, 7.4°C, 10.7°C, and 19.7°C, respectively, compared to corn starch in water. The RVA pasting profiles showed that the gelatinization temperature increased as the glycerol concentration increased, which was consistent with polarized light microscope observations and DSC tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (<0.05) and R(2) values indicated that the selected models were consistent. Linear equations were obtained for oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose addition and homogenization conditions on properties and ageing of corn starch based films.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Alberto; Fabra, María José; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2012-06-20

    Edible films based on corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures were prepared by using two different procedures to homogenize the film forming dispersions (rotor-stator and rotor-stator plus microfluidizer). The influence of both HPMC-starch ratio and the homogenization method on the structural, optical, tensile and barrier properties of the films was analysed. The ageing of the films was also studied by characterizing them after 5 weeks' storage. Starch re-crystallization in newly prepared and stored films was analysed by means of X-ray diffraction. HPMC-corn starch films showed phase separation of polymers, which was enhanced when microfluidization was applied to the film forming dispersion. Nevertheless, HPMC addition inhibited starch re-crystallization during storage, giving rise to more flexible films at the end of the period. Water barrier properties of starch films were hardly affected by the addition of HPMC, although oxygen permeability increased due to its poorer oxygen barrier properties.

  9. Modification of flow and compressibility of corn starch using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Abbas; Sadeghi, Hasti; Dabbagh, Mohammad Ali

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to improve flowability and compressibility characteristics of starch to use as a suitable excipient in direct compression tabletting. Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion was used as a crystal modification method. Corn starch was dissolved in hydrochloric acid at 80°C and then ethanol as a non-solvent was added with lowering temperature until the formation of a precipitate of modified starch. Flow parameters, particle size and thermal behavior of the treated powders were compared with the native starch. Finally, the 1:1 mixture of naproxen and each excipient was tabletted, and hardness and friability of different tablets were evaluated. Larger and well shaped agglomerates were formed which showed different thermal behavior. Treated starch exhibited suitable flow properties and tablets made by the treated powder had relatively high hardness. It was found that recrystallization of corn starch by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method could improve its flowability and compressibility characteristics.

  10. Effect of okra-extract on wheat, corn, and rice starches properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seedless okra pods were extracted with 0.05M NaOH. The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant and the precipitate were freeze-dried. Wheat, corn and rice starch blends were prepared by replacing 0, 5, 190, and 15% of the starch with dried supernatant (DSP) or dried precipitate (DPP). The eff...

  11. Aqueous carbon black dispersions prepared with steam jet-cooked corn starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utilization of jet-cooked waxy and normal corn starch to prepare aqueous dispersions of hydrophobic carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) is reported. Blending carbon black (CB) into aqueous jet-cooked dispersions of starch followed by high pressure homogenization produced stable aqueous carbon black di...

  12. PROCESSING WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE AND CORN STARCH USING A TORQUE RHEOMETER

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Processing a combination of starch and protein mixtures for food or nonfood applications involves shearing and heating to produce desired texture, appearance and thermo-mechanical properties. In this study, corn starch and whey protein isolate (WPI) were processed in a torque rheometer at varying ro...

  13. Characterisation of Physicochemical Properties of Propionylated Corn Starch and Its Application as Stabiliser.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lee-Fen; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Lee, Chong Yew; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2015-09-01

    A series of propionylated starches with different degrees of substitution (DS) was synthesised and their physicochemical properties and application as a stabiliser were investigated. Starch propionates with moderate DS were prepared by esterification of native corn starch with propionic anhydride. By varying the reaction times of the esterification process, twelve starch propionates with DS of 0.47 to 0.94 were prepared. FTIR and NMR confirmed the introduction of propionyl groups to the starch. X-ray diffraction pattern showed reduced crystallinity in the starch propionates. The contact angle was found to increase proportionately with the increase in DS. Swelling power results showed that starch propionates were able to swell more than native corn starch at low temperature (40 °C). Oil-in- -water (O/W) emulsions prepared using starch propionates (DS of 0.64 to 0.86) showed exceptional stability when challenged by centrifugation stress test. These stable O/W emulsions had viscosities in the range of 1236.7-3330.0 mPa·s. In conclusion, moderately substituted short-chain (propionylated) starches could be a promising cold swelling starch, thickener and O/W emulsion stabiliser in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  14. Characterisation of Physicochemical Properties of Propionylated Corn Starch and Its Application as Stabiliser

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lee-Fen; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Lee, Chong Yew

    2015-01-01

    Summary A series of propionylated starches with different degrees of substitution (DS) was synthesised and their physicochemical properties and application as a stabiliser were investigated. Starch propionates with moderate DS were prepared by esterification of native corn starch with propionic anhydride. By varying the reaction times of the esterification process, twelve starch propionates with DS of 0.47 to 0.94 were prepared. FTIR and NMR confirmed the introduction of propionyl groups to the starch. X-ray diffraction pattern showed reduced crystallinity in the starch propionates. The contact angle was found to increase proportionately with the increase in DS. Swelling power results showed that starch propionates were able to swell more than native corn starch at low temperature (40 °C). Oil-in- -water (O/W) emulsions prepared using starch propionates (DS of 0.64 to 0.86) showed exceptional stability when challenged by centrifugation stress test. These stable O/W emulsions had viscosities in the range of 1236.7–3330.0 mPa·s. In conclusion, moderately substituted short-chain (propionylated) starches could be a promising cold swelling starch, thickener and O/W emulsion stabiliser in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:27904359

  15. Synthesis and characterization of maleic anhydride esterified corn starch by the dry method.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2013-11-01

    Maleic anhydride esterified starch was synthesized by a dry method using corn starch as the material and maleic anhydride as the esterifying agent. The esterified starch (ES) was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed that there was a successful esterification reaction between the maleic anhydride and corn starch. The effects of reaction temperature and time on the degree of substitution of esterified starch were studied, where the results showed that 80 °C of reaction temperature and 3h of reaction time were optimal conditions. The result of XPS testing demonstrated that the esterification reaction led to increase of ester bonds in starch. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analyzer results showed that esterification led to roughness on the surface of the starch particle, and the particle size and distribution rate of esterification starch became larger. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis demonstrated that esterification reaction did not change the crystalline type of native starch. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that destruction of the crystal structure resulted in improved thermoplasticity of the starch, decreased the gelatinization temperature and increased the thermogravimetric rate of esterification starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol fermentation of corn starch digested by Chalara paradoxa amylase without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Mikuni, K.; Monma, M.; Kainuma, K.

    1987-04-01

    Alcohol fermentation of corn starch without cooking was performed by using Chalara paradoz glucoamylase preparation, which had stronger raw starch digesting activity than those of the conventionally known glucoamylases. A raw corn starch-enzyme-yeast mixture was fermented optimally at pH 5.0 and 30/sup 0/C for five days and produced ethanol. The yields of ethanol were between 63.5 and 86.8% of the theoretical value by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and between 81.1 and 92.1% of the theoretical value by sake yeast (Saccharomyces sake).

  17. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  18. Glycemic Response to Corn Starch Modified with Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase and its Relationship to Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Dura, A; Yokoyama, W; Rosell, C M

    2016-09-01

    Corn starch was modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) below the gelatinization temperature. The porous granules with or without CGTase hydrolysis products may be used as an alternative to modified corn starches in foods applications. The amount and type of hydrolysis products were determined, containing mainly β-cyclodextrin (CD), which will influence pasting behavior and glycemic response in mice. Irregular surface and small holes were observed by microscopic analysis and differences in pasting properties were observed in the presence of hydrolysis products. Postprandial blood glucose in mice fed gelatinized enzymatically modified starch peaked earlier than their ungelatinized counterparts. However, in ungelatinized enzymatically modified starches, the presence of β- CD may inhibit the orientation of amylases slowing hydrolysis, which may help to maintain lower blood glucose levels. Significant correlations were found between glycemic curves and viscosity pattern of starches.

  19. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-10-22

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P < .001) higher than those between N and RD and between C and RD. There is therefore the need to carefully choose the nature (N) and concentration (C) of starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern.

  20. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Analysis of the Interaction Between Corn Starch and an Exogenous Lipid During Hydrothermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    E Hernandez-Hernandez; C Avila-Orta; B Hsiao; j Castro-Rosas; J Gallegos-Infante; J Morales-Castro; L Ochoa-Martinez; C Gomez-Aldapa

    2011-12-31

    Lipids have an important effect on starch physicochemical properties. There exist few reports about the effect of exogenous lipids on native corn starch structural properties. In this work, a study of the morphological, structural and thermal properties of native corn starch with L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, the main phospholipid in corn) was performed under an excess of water. Synchrotron radiation, in the form of real-time small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), was used in order to track structural changes in corn starch, in the presence of LPC during a heating process from 30 to 85 C. When adding LCP, water absorption decreased within starch granule amorphous regions during gelatinization. This is explained by crystallization of the amylose-LPC inclusion complex during gelatinization, which promotes starch granule thermal stability at up to 95 C. Finally, a conceptual model is proposed for explaining the formation mechanism of the starch-LPC complex.

  1. Enzymatic modification of corn starch with 4-α-glucanotransferase results in increasing slow digestible and resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In this study, partial 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT) treatment was used to modulate the fine structure responsible for the slow digestion and resistant property of starch. Normal corn starch modified using 4αGT for 4h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 9.40% to 20.92%, and resistant starch from 10.52 to 17.63%, respectively. The 4αGT treatment decreased the content of amylose from 32.6% to 26.8%. The molecular weight distribution and chain length distribution of 4αGT-treated starch showed a reduction of molecular weight and a great number of short (DP<13) and long (DP>30) chains through cleaving and reorganization of starch molecules. Both the short and long chain fractions of modified amylopectin were attributed to the low in vitro digestibility. The viscosity was inversely related to the digestibility of the 4αGT-treated starch. These results suggested that the 4αGT modified starch synthesized the novel amylopectin clusters with slow digestible and resistant character.

  2. Corn starch ferulates with antioxidant properties prepared by N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole-mediated grafting procedure.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu; Ye, Fayin; Zhu, Jianfei; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    This work presents novel synthesis processes and properties of corn starch ferulates. First, N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, a green activating reagent, was used to transform ferulic acid into ferulate-imidazolide. The ferulate-imidazolide was then further reacted with corn starch to produce corn starch ferulates. The grafting reaction of ferulic acid onto corn starch was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution (DS), relating products and reaction parameters, depended on the molar ratio of the anhydroglucose unit to ferulic acid (nAGU/FA), the temperature of the reaction, and the time that elapsed. The dependence of the degree of substitution was optimized by response surface methodology. Results implied the greatest DS (0.389) was obtained under the conditions of nAGU/FA 1:3.6, 90°C and 7.12h. The morphological, crystalline, and in vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing power of the corn starch ferulates showed potential for antioxidant properties.

  3. Different-frequency ultrasonic effects on properties and structure of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Hu, Aijun; Li, Li; Zheng, Jie; Lu, Jing; Meng, Xin; Liu, Yan; Rizwan-ur-Rehman

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound is widely used to accelerate many reactions and unit operations, but few studies have reported its effects on starch properties and structure. Corn starch suspended in ethanol solution was treated by dual-frequency ultrasound (DFU) and single-frequency ultrasound (SFU). Results showed that the transparency of the starch treated under 20 + 25 kHz DFU improved by 26.94% and 31.70%, respectively, compared to 20 kHz and 25 kHz SFU. Hardness, brittleness, elasticity, adhesiveness, conglutination degree, chewiness and recoverability of starch was reduced after ultrasonic treatment, and with increasing ultrasonic frequency these properties decreased. Its enthalpy value also decreased with ultrasound. Compared with each SFU treatment, enthalpy value decreased by 1.41% and 0.82%, respectively, by DFU. The freeze-thaw stability of starch was also weakened by ultrasound, which was obviously changed by DFU. Under ultrasound, the crystal structure of starch was not damaged, characteristic diffraction peak intensity was significantly reduced and diffuse diffraction features increased, exhibiting a decline in crystal lattice ordering degree. In comparison to SFU, DFU caused a pronounced reduction in starch crystallinity. After ultrasonic treatment, the transparency of corn starch paste improved, but its hardness, brittleness, elasticity, adhesiveness, conglutination degree, chewiness and recoverability decreased, as well as starch crystallinity and enthalpy values. DFU was found to be more effective than SFU. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Fermentation of corn starch to ethanol with genetically engineered yeast.

    PubMed

    Inlow, D; McRae, J; Ben-Bassat, A

    1988-07-05

    Expression of the glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus awamori by laboratory and distiller's strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed them to ferment soluble starch. Approximately 95% of the carbohydrates in the starch were utilized. Glycerol production was significantly decreased when soluble starch was used instead of glucose. Ethanol yield on soluble starch was higher than that on glucose. The rate of starch fermentation was directly related to the level of glucoamylase activity. Strains with higher levels of glucoamylase expression fermented starch faster. The decline in starch fermentation rates toward the end of the fermentation was associated with accumulation of disaccharides and limit dextrins, poor substrates for glucoamylase. The buildup of these products in continuous fermentations inhibited glucoamylase activity and complete utilization of the starch. Under these conditions maltose-fermenting strains had a significant advantage over nonfermenting strains. The synthesis and secretion of glucoamylase showed no deleterious effects on cell growth rates, fermetation rates, and fermentation products.

  5. Enzymatic production of cyclodextrins from unliquefied corn starch in an attrition bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y D; Kim, H S

    1991-04-15

    A novel enzymatic process for the production of cyclodextrins from unliquefied starch was developed. Cyclodextrins were produced in an attrition bioreactor in which simultaneous hydrolysis of starch and synthesis of cyclodextrins by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) occur. The CGTase was obtained from isolated Bacillus sp. BE101, and maximum activity of the enzyme was observed at pH 6.0 and a temperature of 45 degrees C. The effect of milling media size and material on the performance of the attrition bioreactor was investigated, and operational parameters such as agitation speed, volume of milling media, ratio of enzyme to starch, and starch concentration were optimized. The production yield of cyclodextrins from unliquefied corn starch of 15% reached 35% at 24 h under optimized conditions. Energy consumption for the production of cyclodextrins in the attrition bioreactor system was estimated to be about 25% of that required for the liquefaction of starch in the conventional process.

  6. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  7. Temperature Related Structural Changes in Wheat and Corn Starch Granules and Their Effects on Gels and Dry Foam

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of processing temperature on structural changes in wheat, corn, and high amylose corn starch granules was investigated and related to the mechanical properties of gels and microcellular foam (MCF). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed that wheat starch granules form ghosts with thic...

  8. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources.

  9. Determination of the bulk moisture diffusion coefficient for corn starch using an automated water sorption instrument.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Schmidt, Arthur R; Bello-Perez, Luis A; Schmidt, Shelly J

    2008-01-09

    The bulk moisture diffusion coefficient (Db) is an important physical parameter of food ingredients and systems. However, the traditional method of measuring Db using saturated salt solutions is very time-consuming and cumbersome. New automated water sorption instruments, which can be used to conveniently and precisely control both relative humidity and temperature, provide a faster, more robust method for collecting the data needed for determining Db. Thus, the objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the use of the DVS instrument for collecting the data needed for determining the adsorption (Dba) and desorption (Dbd) bulk moisture diffusion coefficients for dent corn starch as a function of relative humidity and (2) determine the effect of temperature on Dba for dent corn starch at a constant relative humidity. Kinetic water sorption profiles of dent corn starch were obtained at eight relative humidity values ranging from 10 to 80% at 10% intervals at 25 degrees C and at five temperatures, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 degrees C, at 50% relative humidity using a DVS instrument. Db was calculated from the kinetic water sorption profiles using the full solution of Fick's second law for the thin slab model, as well as the slope method, a simplification of the full model. The Dba of dent corn starch at 25 degrees C reached a maximum at intermediate relative humidity values, after which Dba decreased due to a change in the moisture diffusion mechanism from vapor to liquid diffusion. The Dbd of dent corn starch at 25 degrees C remained nearly constant as a function of relative humidity. The Dba for dent corn starch increased as temperature increased from 15 to 35 degrees C, with an activation energy of 38.85 +/- 0.433 kJ/mol.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of corn starch modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Dura, Angela; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-06-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) has been used to produce cyclodextrins (CDs) from starches, but their ability to modify starches has been barely explored. The effect of CGTase on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature (50°C) and at different pH conditions, pH 4.0 and pH 6.0, was evaluated. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analysis, oligosaccharides and CDs content were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining structures with irregular surface and small pinholes. The extent of the starch modification was largely dependent on the pHs, being higher at pH 6.0. This was also confirmed by the low viscosity of the resulting pastes during a heating and cooling cycle. Thermal parameters were not affected due to enzymatic treatment. Modified starches were less susceptible to undergo α-amylase hydrolysis. CDs released were higher for samples treated at pH 4.0. Therefore, CGTase modification of corn starches at sub-gelatinization temperature offers an attractive alternative for obtaining porous starches with different properties depending on the pH conditions.

  11. Influence of drying temperature, water content, and heating rate on gelatinization of corn starches.

    PubMed

    Altay, Filiz; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2006-06-14

    The gelatinization properties of starch extracted from corn and waxy corn dried at different temperatures were determined at various water contents and heating rates by differential scanning calorimetry. All gelatinization transition temperatures increased with drying temperature and heating rate. Onset and peak temperatures remained relatively constant, whereas end temperature decreased in the presence of excess water. The gelatinization enthalpy (deltaH(g)) of corn starch decreased with drying temperature at 50% water; however, it remained constant for waxy corn starch. The effects of water content and heating rate on deltaH(g) were dependent on each other. The minimum water levels required for gelatinization of starch extracted from corn dried at 20 and 100 degrees C are 21 and 29%, respectively. The activation energy (E(a)) was calculated using an Arrhenius-type equation and two first-order models; the degree of conversion (alpha) was predicted using a newly proposed model that produced good results for both E(a) and alpha.

  12. Gelatinization and freeze-concentration effects on recrystallization in corn and potato starch gels.

    PubMed

    Ronda, Felicidad; Roos, Yrjö H

    2008-04-07

    Freeze-concentration of starch gels was controlled by temperature and gelatinization with glucose and lactose. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of freezing temperature and gel composition on starch recrystallization behaviour of corn and potato starch gels (water content 70%, w/w) in water or glucose or lactose (10%, w/w) solutions. Starch gels were obtained by heating in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of starch gels were frozen at -10 degrees C, -20 degrees C and -30 degrees C for 24h and, after thawing, stored at +2 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. The extent of starch recrystallization was taken from the enthalpy of melting of the recrystallized starch by DSC. Freezing temperatures, glucose, lactose and the origin of the starch affected the recrystallization behaviour greatly. The recrystallization of amorphous starch during storage was enhanced by freeze-concentration of gels at temperatures above T'(m). Molecular mobility was enhanced by unfrozen water and consequently molecular rearrangements for nucleation could take place. Further storage at a higher temperature enhanced the growth and the maturation of crystals. In particular, glucose decreased the T'(m) of the gels and consequently lower freezing temperatures were needed to reduce enhanced recrystallization during storage. Freeze-concentration temperatures also showed a significant effect on the size and the perfection of crystals formed in starch recrystallization.

  13. Kinetic modeling of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Białas, Wojciech; Czerniak, Adrian; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) of native starch from corn flour, has been performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme. The quantitative effects of mash concentration, enzyme dose and pH were investigated with the use of a Box-Wilson central composite design protocol. Proceeding from results obtained in optimal fermentation conditions, a kinetics model relating the utilization rates of starch and glucose as well as the production rates of ethanol and biomass was tested. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate corn starch granule surface after the SFF process. A maximum ethanol concentration of 110.36 g/l was obtained for native corn starch using a mash concentration of 25%, which resulted in ethanol yield of 85.71%. The optimal conditions for the above yield were found with an enzyme dose of 2.05 ml/kg and pH of 5.0. These results indicate that by using a central composite design, it is possible to determine optimal values of the fermentation parameters for maximum ethanol production. The investigated kinetics model can be used to describe SSF process conducted with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes. The SEM micrographs reveal randomly distributed holes on the surface of granules.

  14. Compressional characteristics of native and pregelatinized forms of sorghum, plantain, and corn starches and the mechanical properties of their tablets.

    PubMed

    Alebiowu, G; Itiola, O A

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of the compressional characteristics of native and pregelatinized forms of sorghum, plantain, and corn starches and the mechanical properties of their tablets. Compressional characteristics were analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita plots. Pregelatinized starches exhibited more densification than native starches during die filling and at low pressures. The ranking for the mean yield pressure (Py) values for the starches was plantain < corn < sorghum, with the pregelatinized starches having lower values than the native starches. The ranking for the values of another pressure term, Pk--an inverse measure of plasticity, was corn < plantain < sorghum, but with the native starches having the lower values. For the tablets, the ranking for values of tensile strength (T) was corn > plantain > sorghum, while the ranking for the brittle fracture index (BFI) was plantain > corn > sorghum. Tablets made from pregelatinized starches had lower T and BFI values than those made from native starches. The results suggest that pregelatinization of the starches facilitated faster onset of plastic deformation but reduced the amount of plastic deformation which occurred during the compression process.

  15. Influence of ensiling time and inoculation on alteration of the starch-protein matrix in high-moisture corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fates of hydrophobic zein proteins, which encapsulate corn starch creating vitreous endosperm, have not been investigated in high moisture corn (HMC). To assess influences of ensiling time and inoculation on hydrophobic zein proteins in HMC, quadruplicate samples of two random corns (A and B) co...

  16. Influence of Inoculation and Storage Time on Alteration of the Starch-Protein Matrix in High Moisture Corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fates of hydrophobic prolamin (Zein) proteins, which encapsulate corn starch creating vitreous endosperm, have not been investigated in high moisture corn (HMC). To assess influences of inoculation and storage time on hydrophobic proteins in HMC, quadruplicate samples of two random corns (A and ...

  17. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25 °C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25 °C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS.

  18. Technical note: a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy technique to predict particle size of starch within corn silage.

    PubMed

    Zwald, A; Dorshorst, A E; Hoffman, P C; Bauman, L M; Bertram, M G

    2008-05-01

    Starch particle size characteristics of 81 diverse corn silage samples, which included 27 combinations of hybrid, planting dates, and harvest dates subjected to 3 different degrees of kernel processing, were determined via vertical shaking through 9 screens with nominal square apertures of 19.0, 13.2, 9.5, 6.7, 4.75, 3.35, 2.36, 1.18, and 0.6 mm and a pan. Starch content of dry matter remaining on each screen and on the pan for each corn silage was determined, and geometric mean particle size (GMPS, mum), starch particles(SP)/g, starch surface area (SSA, cm(2)/g), kernel processing score (KPS), % starch < 4.75 mm, and the percentage of total starch remaining on each screen of the vertical shakers were calculated. Near-infrared reflectance spectra were obtained by scanning 3 types of samples: 1 mm of dried ground corn silage; whole undried, unground corn silage; and undried, unground corn silage that passed through a 19-mm screen. Calibrations to predict GMPS, SP, SSA, and KPS characteristics of corn silage starch were attempted from each spectral origin. Calibrations to predict GMPS, SP, SSA, KPS, and the percentage of total starch retained on screens of the vertical shaker was unattainable (R(2) < 0.45) using spectra obtained from 1 mm of dried ground corn silage or whole undried, unground corn silage. However, reasonable near-infrared reflectance spectra equations (R(2) > 0.81) for GMPS, SSA, and KPS were attained using spectra from undried, unground corn silage that passed through a 19-mm screen. This technique holds promise as a rapid and efficient method to determine particle size characteristics of starch within corn silage.

  19. Robust and biodegradable elastomers based on corn starch and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    PubMed

    Ceseracciu, Luca; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Dante, Silvia; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bayer, Ilker S

    2015-02-18

    Designing starch-based biopolymers and biodegradable composites with durable mechanical properties and good resistance to water is still a challenging task. Although thermoplastic (destructured) starch has emerged as an alternative to petroleum-based polymers, its poor dimensional stability under humid and dry conditions extensively hinders its use as the biopolymer of choice in many applications. Unmodified starch granules, on the other hand, suffer from incompatibility, poor dispersion, and phase separation issues when compounded into other thermoplastics above a concentration level of 5%. Herein, we present a facile biodegradable elastomer preparation method by incorporating large amounts of unmodified corn starch, exceeding 80% by volume, in acetoxy-polyorganosiloxane thermosets to produce mechanically robust, hydrophobic bioelastomers. The naturally adsorbed moisture on the surface of starch enables autocatalytic rapid hydrolysis of polyorganosiloxane to form Si-O-Si networks. Depending on the amount of starch granules, the mechanical properties of the bioelastomers can be easily tuned with high elastic recovery rates. Moreover, starch granules considerably lowered the surface friction coefficient of the polyorganosiloxane network. Stress relaxation measurements indicated that the bioelastomers have strain energy dissipation factors that are lower than those of conventional rubbers, rendering them as promising green substitutes for plastic mechanical energy dampeners. Corn starch granules also have excellent compatibility with addition-cured polysiloxane chemistry that is used extensively in microfabrication. Regardless of the starch concentration, all of the developed bioelastomers have hydrophobic surfaces with lower friction coefficients and much less water uptake capacity than those of thermoplastic starch. The bioelastomers are biocompatible and are estimated to biodegrade in Mediterranean seawater within three to six years.

  20. Structural and mechanical characteristics of film using modified corn starch by the same two chemical processes used in different sequences.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liping; Hu, Fei; Peng, Yali

    2013-01-16

    Structure of dual modified starches, cross-linked esterified corn starch (CES) and esterified cross-linked corn starch (ECS), and product films (CEF and ECF) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The peak 1730cm(-1) of IR spectra confirmed the formation of ester carbonyl groups in starch matrix. The sequence of modification procedure had an impact on the final modification degree, resulting in structural differences of modified starches and starch films. Compared to native starch film (NF), CEF and ECF showed improved transparence (77.59% and 74.39% respectively) with compact structure, lower crystallinity (6.5% and 7.4% respectively). Results of mechanical test indicated that structure of ECF was more flexible than CEF, whereas tensile strength was higher in CEF. Accordingly, complex modification could be an effective method to adequate properties of starch films for specific processing requirements.

  1. Effects of Ingredients and Extrusion Parameters on Aquafeeds Containing DDGS and Corn Starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isocaloric (3.05 kcal/g) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25, and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5, and 35% db), and feed moisture content (25, 35, and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of corn starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin, and m...

  2. Gelatinisation kinetics of corn and chickpea starches using DSC, RVA, and dynamic rheometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gelatinisation kinetics (non-isothermal) of corn and chickpea starches at different heating rates were calculated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid visco analyser (RVA), and oscillatory dynamic rheometry. The data obtained from the DSC thermogram and the RVA profiles were fitt...

  3. Corn porous starch: preparation, characterization and adsorption property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Cui, Dapeng; Liu, Mingzhu; Gong, Honghong; Huang, Yinjuan; Han, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop a new type of modified starch based on α-amylase and glucoamylase. The structural and chemical characteristics of the porous starch were determined by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The potential application of the porous starch as an adsorbent was evaluated using methyl violet as an adsorbed model. The adsorption capacity was optimized by investigating the reaction factors, including the mass ratio of α-amylase to glucoamylase (m(α-amylase)/m(glucoamylase)), the mass ratio of total amount of enzymes to starch (m(enzyme)/m(St)), the ratio of liquid volume to starch mass (V(H2O)/M(St)), pH value of the reaction solution, enzymatic reaction temperature, and enzymatic reaction time. The hydrolysis ratio of each sample was also determined to investigate the effect of different reaction conditions on the hydrolysis degree. The results suggest that the porous starch has a more excellent adsorption capacity than the native starch, and may be expected to have wide potential applications in many fields.

  4. Dosage effects of Waxy gene on the structures and properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Blanco, Michael; Gardner, Candice; Li, Xuehong; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2016-09-20

    The objective of this study was to understand dosage effects of the Waxy gene on the structures of amylose and amylopectin and on the properties of corn starch. Reciprocal crossing of isogenic normal and waxy corn lines was conducted to develop hybrids with different dosages (0, 1, 2, 3) of Waxy gene in the endosperm. The amylose content of starch and proportions of branch chains of DP 17-30 and extra-long branch chains (DP>100) of amylopectin were positively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage. Proportions of short (DP<17) and long branch-chains (DP 30-80), however, were negatively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage. The gelatinization conclusion-temperature and temperature-range of the starch were negatively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage, indicating that amylose facilitated dissociation of the surrounding crystalline regions. These results helped us understand the function of granule-bound starch synthase I in the biosynthesis of amylose and amylopectin and impacts of Waxy-gene dosages on the properties of corn starch.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and functional properties of low substituted acetylated corn starch.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Liu, Mingzhu; Gong, Honghong; Lü, Shaoyu; Ni, Boli; Zhang, Bing

    2012-05-01

    Acetylated corn starch (ACS) was synthesized by the reaction of native corn starch (NCS) with acetic anhydride (AA) in an aqueous medium in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. The factors that could affect the degree of substitution (DS) and reaction efficiency (RE) of corn starch were investigated which included the reaction temperature and time, the mass ratio of AA to starch, the ratio of the water volume to starch mass and pH. The optimal DS of 0.071 and RE of 67.05% was obtained. FTIR spectrometry showed new bands at 1733, 1375 and 1252 cm(-1). The SEM of the ACS indicated some cavities on the granules which fused together, compared with NCS. Wide angle X-ray diffraction revealed that ACS had a similar profile as NCS (A type). However, the intensity of peaks were diminished. DSC thermograms exhibited that ACS had some lower gelatinization temperatures and enthalpies than NCS. The functional properties of ACS such as the swelling power, solubility, water absorption, clarity, freeze-thaw stability, retrogradation and viscosity were also studied. The results suggest that the ACS has much better functional properties than the NCS, and could be expected to have wide applications especially in food industry.

  6. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity and mass balance study of corn starch fiber in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Crincoli, Christine M; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Rihner, Marisa O; Lambert, Elizabeth A; Greeley, Melanie A; Godsey, Justin; Eapen, Alex K; van de Ligt, Jennifer L G

    2016-11-01

    The potential toxicity of corn starch fiber was assessed and compared to polydextrose, a commonly used bulking agent with a long history of safe use in the food supply. Groups of male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (control), 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day corn starch fiber in the diet for 90 days. The polydextrose reference article was offered on a comparable regimen at 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Following a single gavage dose of [(14)C]-corn starch fiber on study day 13 or 90, the mass balance of the test article was assessed by analysis of excreta samples collected from 0 to 168 h post-dose. There were no toxicologically or biologically relevant findings in any of the test article-treated groups. The few minor differences observed between the corn starch fiber and polydextrose exposed groups were considered to be due to normal biological variation. Following [(14)C]-corn starch fiber dosing, nearly complete excretion of the administered dose occurred over 168 h post-dosing, with the majority excreted in the feces. The dietary no-observed-adverse-effect level of corn starch fiber after 90 days was 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Similar toxicity profiles for corn starch fiber and polydextrose were observed due to the structural and compositional similarities of these materials.

  7. Modification of flow and compressibility of corn starch using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method

    PubMed Central

    Akhgari, Abbas; Sadeghi, Hasti; Dabbagh, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to improve flowability and compressibility characteristics of starch to use as a suitable excipient in direct compression tabletting. Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion was used as a crystal modification method. Materials and Methods: Corn starch was dissolved in hydrochloric acid at 80°C and then ethanol as a non-solvent was added with lowering temperature until the formation of a precipitate of modified starch. Flow parameters, particle size and thermal behavior of the treated powders were compared with the native starch. Finally, the 1:1 mixture of naproxen and each excipient was tabletted, and hardness and friability of different tablets were evaluated. Results: Larger and well shaped agglomerates were formed which showed different thermal behavior. Treated starch exhibited suitable flow properties and tablets made by the treated powder had relatively high hardness. Conclusion: It was found that recrystallization of corn starch by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method could improve its flowability and compressibility characteristics. PMID:25422746

  8. Preparation of hydroxypropyl corn and amaranth starch hydrolyzate and its evaluation as wall material in microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Amol C; Singhal, Rekha S

    2008-06-01

    Hydroxypropylation of starches lends it useful physicochemical and functional properties that are industrially important. The literature on hydroxypropylation using organic solvents for obtaining higher molar substitution (MS) is scantily available. The present work reports on hydroxypropylation of corn and a waxy amaranth starch to different MS with propylene oxide in an alkaline-organic medium (isopropanol). The synthesis was followed in terms of MS. The parameters optimized were starch:isopropanol ratio (w/w), reaction temperature, reaction time and the quantity of alkali required in the process. A maximal MS of 0.180 and 0.162 were obtained for hydroxypropyl corn starch (HPSC) and hydroxypropyl amaranth starch (HPSA), respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the HPSC and HPSA of the above MS was carried out on a 30% (w/v) solution at a pH of 6.5 and 95°C for varying time periods using 0.1% (w/w based on starch) bacterial α-amylase, termamyl. The hydrolysis was terminated by adjusting the pH to 3.5 using 0.1N HCl. The hydrolyzates were characterized in terms of dextrose equivalent and viscosity. The hydrolyzate obtained after 3h of hydrolysis was spray dried and compared to gum arabic with respect to encapsulation of model flavourings, orange oil and lemon oil.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on molecular structure and physicochemical properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Chung, H-J; Liu, Q

    2009-06-01

    Carboxyl content and amylose leaching of gamma-irradiated corn starch increased and swelling factor decreased with increasing radiation dose. The apparent amylose content decreased gradually from 28.7% for native starch to 20.9% for 50 kGy irradiated starch. The proportion of short amylopectin branch chains (DP 6 to 12) increased, while the proportion of longer branch chains (DP > or = 37) decreased with increasing radiation dose. The relative crystallinity and the degree of granule surface order decreased from 28.5% and 0.631 in native starch to 26.9% and 0.605 in 50 kGy irradiated starch, respectively. Pasting viscosity and gelatinization temperatures decreased with an increase in radiation dose. At a high dose (50 kGy), melting of amylose-lipid complex in DSC thermogram was not observed. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content slightly decreased up to 10 kGy but increased at 50 kGy. The resistant starch (RS) content slightly decreased at 2 kGy and then increased up to 50 kGy. The slowly digestible starch (SDS) content showed the opposite trend to RS content. Slower irradiation dose rate reduced carboxyl content, swelling factor, and amylose leaching. The apparent amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution were not significantly affected by dose rate of gamma irradiation. However, the relative crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy increased with slower dose rate. Slower dose rate decreased RDS and SDS contents, and increased RS content.

  10. Branch chain elongation by amylosucrase: production of waxy corn starch with a slow digestion property.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Kyung; Kim, Hye In; Moon, Tae Wha; Choi, Seung Jun

    2014-01-01

    Starches with high slowly digestible starch (SDS) contents were prepared by treating completely gelatinized waxy corn starch with amylosucrase. The structural properties of the prepared starches were then investigated. The content of SDS increased by up to 38.7% after amylosucrase modification, and the portion of chains with degree of polymerisation (DP) 25-36 increased, while the portion of chains with DP⩽12 decreased. Amylosucrase-modified starches showed a weak B-type crystalline structure. A slight increase in the degree of relative crystallinity was observed with increased reaction time. The thermal properties, including melting temperature and enthalpy, of the amylosucrase-modified starches were higher than for the control starch. Although the amylosucrase-modified starches showed varying structural properties according to reaction time (1-45 h), their digestibilities did not change much after 6 h. By controlling the reaction time of the amylosucrase treatment, a tailored starchy food containing the desired amount of SDS can be produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the pasting and thermal behaviors of maize starch.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Yadav, Madhav P; Chen, Hao; Liu, Yan; Tatsumi, Eizo; Yin, Lijun

    2015-01-22

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) was a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid and recent researches showed its considerable potential in food processing. In this study, the interactions of maize starch and CFG were studied. Maize starch/CFG blend gels were prepared from maize starch suspension mixing with 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0% (w/w) CFG. The pasting and thermal properties, rheological properties, microstructure, leached amylose and swelling power characteristics were evaluated. Compared with the reference, CFG addition lowered peak viscosity and breakdown of the composite system, but increased final viscosity in RVA measurement. The swelling power and the amount of leached amylose of maize starch gels were reduced as the addition concentration of CFG increased. The thermal characteristics of maize starch/CFG mixtures varied insignificantly as determined in DSC heating process. Rheological parameters, such as storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G"), of the maize starches were observed to increase when CFG was present, supporting the hypothesis that the interaction between CFG and amylose could happen in the composite system. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed changes in gels microstructure as starch components tended to be inhibited from leaching out of the granules when CFG was added, and the morphology of starch granule was more compact when CFG was added. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of corn starch-β-carotene composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

    2016-01-20

    Starch-β-carotene composites were generated by drop-wise addition of ethanol comprising varying β-carotene contents (5, 10, or 20mg) into starch pastes (1, 3, or 5% w/v) to improve water-dispersibility and stability of β-carotene. The mean diameter of the composites was less than 900 nm, allowing particles to be homogeneously dispersed in aqueous media for over two weeks without sedimentation. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis confirmed the composite mainly consisted of Vh-amylose, amorphous starch matrices, and starch-β-carotene ordered structures. Both amorphous matrices and Vh-amylose structures in the composite were readily digested within 20 min in vitro digestion, while highly ordered structures, which melted between 132 and 159 °C, exhibited inhibited and/or delayed enzymatic digestion. As more β-carotene was incorporated into the composite, the β-carotene content of the ordered structure was increased. Formation of starch-β-carotene composites also appeared to enhance the stability of β-carotene against chemical oxidation.

  13. Effect of acid hydrolysis combined with heat moisture treatment on structure and physicochemical properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Si, Fumei; Xiong, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Modification of starch led to new products with new desirable properties. Corn starch samples modified by acid hydrolysis combined with heat moisture treatment (AH-HMT) were made by changing pH, moisture content and treated temperature. After modification, swelling power at temperature higher than 75 °C of corn starches decreased while solubility of the starches increased. After AH-HMT, pasting temperature (PT) of all treated starch samples increased. But lower peak viscosity (PKV), trough viscosity (TV) and break down (BD) of most treated starch samples were observed. AH-HMT increased the gel hardness of all treated starches. And the biggest hardness of modified starch gel was 148.419 g, improving 93.471 g compared with native starch gel. The melting temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) of modified starch increased, but the melting range and △H decreased. The X-ray pattern remained practically unchanged with or without AH-HMT. Acid hydrolysis combined with heat moisture treatment (AH-HMT) improved the functional properties of corn starch.

  14. Preliminary Investigation to Determine the Suitable Mixture Composition for Corn Starch Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huzaimi Zakaria, Nazri; Ngali, Zamani; Zulkefli Selamat, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    The use of natural fiber as reinforcement in polymeric composites has been seen a dramatically increase over the last decades. The surge in the interest of natural fiber composite or biodegradable composite is mainly due to the attractive cost of production, improved of hardness, better fatigue endurance and good thermal and mechanical resistivity. In this work, corn starch in the form of powder is utilized as the matrix of the composite. However, starch is brittle and has low strength make it inappropriate candidate for matrix binder. The main objective of this study is to modify the mechanical properties of pure corn starch by mixing it with water, glycerol and vinegar. The composition ratio of water is 60~80%, corn starch 10~35%, glycerol is 5~15% and vinegar is 0~5%, ten samples (A-J) have been manufactured and the best mixture composition is selected based on few selection criteria. The selection criteria are visual impaction, hardness and density. From the results, the samples without vinegar are not suitable to be used because of the fungus availability on the surface. Meanwhile the results from the samples with 5 ml vinegar have no fungus on their surface even has been exposed to the ambient air. While the sample C has shown the best sample based on the visual, hardness and density test.

  15. Synthesis, optimization and characterization of acetylated corn starch with the high degree of substitution.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Acetylated corn starch (ACS) was synthesized by the reaction of native corn starch (NCS) with acetic anhydride (AA) and acetic acid in an aqueous medium in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) as a catalyst. The factors that could affect the degree of substitution (DS) of corn starch were investigated which included the reaction temperature and time, the volume ratio of AA to acetic acid and the usage of the catalyst PTSA. The optimal DS of 2.85 was obtained. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry showed new bands at 1733, 1375 and 1252cm(-1). As DS increased, the bands at 3400cm(-1) and 1083cm(-1) were gradually weakened. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the ACS indicated that the exterior and interior of native starch were destroyed by the esterification. Wide angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the peaks at 15°, 18°, 20° and 23° were diminished, while the peak at 21° became more distinct as the DS increased. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms exhibited that ACS had some lower gelatinization temperatures and enthalpies than NCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of drying conditions of corn kernels and storage at an elevated humidity on starch structures and properties.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Stephen; Widjaja, Hany; Rakphongphairoj, Vinai; Jane, Jay-lin

    2010-12-08

    The objective of this study was to understand effects of sun drying (35 °C) and machine drying (80 °C) of corn kernels followed by storage at 27 °C and 85-90% relative humidity for up to 6 months on starch structures and properties. The peak viscosity and starch hydrolysis rate using porcine pancreatic α-amylase of finely ground samples decreased with storage of both sun-dried and machine-dried corn kernels. The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of the isolated starch obtained from the sun-dried corn increased with storage time, but that from the machine-dried corn decreased. The gelatinization temperature, pasting temperature, and percentage crystallinity of the isolated starch increased but the gelatinization enthalpy-change and peak viscosity of the starch decreased with storage time. Numbers of damaged starch granules and starch granules with pinholes increased but the molecular weight of starch and long branch-chains of amylopectin decreased with storage time. The results indicated that endogenous enzyme activity remained after sun drying, which hydrolyzed starch and reduced viscosity.

  17. Comparative methodologies for measuring metabolizable energy of various types of resistant high amylose corn starch.

    PubMed

    Tulley, Richard T; Appel, Marko J; Enos, Tanya G; Hegsted, Maren; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Zhou, Jun; Raggio, Anne M; Jeffcoat, Roger; Birkett, Anne; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-09-23

    Energy values of high amylose corn starches high in resistant starch (RS) were determined in vivo by two different methodologies. In one study, energy values were determined according to growth relative to glucose-based diets in rats fed diets containing RS(2), heat-treated RS(2) (RS(2)-HT), RS(3), and amylase predigested versions to isolate the RS component. Net metabolizable energy values ranged from 2.68 to 3.06 kcal/g for the RS starches, and 1.91-2.53 kcal/g for the amylase predigested versions. In a second study, rats were fed a diet containing RS(2)-HT and the metabolizable energy value was determined by bomb calorimetry. The metabolizable energy value was 2.80 kcal/g, consistent with Study 1. Thus, high amylose corn based RS ingredients and their amylase predigested equivalents have energy values approximately 65-78% and 47-62% of available starch (Atwater factor), respectively, according to the RS type (Garcia, T. A.; McCutcheon, K. L.; Francis, A. R.; Keenan, M. J.; O'Neil, C. E.; Martin, R. J.; Hegsted, M. The effects of resistant starch on gastrointestinal organs and fecal output in rats. FASEB J. 2003, 17, A335).

  18. Modification of granular corn starch with 4-alpha-glucanotransferase from Thermotoga maritima: effects on structural and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Oh, E J; Choi, S J; Lee, S J; Kim, C H; Moon, T W

    2008-04-01

    Corn starch was converted using alpha-1,4-glucanotransferase from Thermotoga maritima (Tm alpha GT), a hyperthermophilic bacterium, without inducing gelatinization, and the structural changes and physical properties of the modified starches were investigated. Enzyme modification was induced at 65 degrees C for 8, 16, or 24 h, and the morphology of the modified starches was observed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Granule integrity was mostly maintained after enzyme treatment, although some granules were partially fragmented as evidenced by enlarged surface pores and some cracks. The modified starches had lower apparent amylose levels than raw starch. The molecular weights of amylose and amylopectin molecules in the treated starches were lower than those of raw starch, and the amount of branched molecules, which had much lower molecular weights, also increased in the treated starches. The chain-length distribution of amylopectin showed an increased number of shorter branched chains. The modified starches showed a wider melting temperature range and a lower melting enthalpy than that of raw starch. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the modified starches showed typical A-type starch peaks, but the relative crystallinities were lower than that of raw starch. The solubility and paste clarity of the modified starches were much higher than those of raw starch. The modified starch gels maintained their rigidity over the whole frequency range tested and showed thermoreversibility between 4 and 75 degrees C. These results suggest that Tm alpha GT can be used to produce granular corn starch, which contains amylose and amylopectin having lower molecular weights and a thermoreversible gelation property.

  19. Effect of resistant starch on hydrolysis and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Rausch, Kent D; Graeber, James V; Schmidt, Shelly J; Buriak, Philip; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2010-03-01

    Starch samples with 0% or 30% amylose were subjected to four different liquefaction enzyme treatments (at various temperature and pH conditions) followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Resistant starch (RS) measurements were conducted for the initial starch sample, after liquefaction and after SSF. Initial RS was higher for 30% amylose starch samples (16.53 g/100 g sample) compared with 0% amylose (0.76 g/100 g sample). Higher initial RS resulted in lower conversion of starch into sugars and lower final ethanol yields. The four enzymes hydrolyzed RS, but in varying amounts. Higher temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a larger portion of RS, resulting in higher ethanol concentrations and lower final residual solids (non-fermentables), whereas lower temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a smaller portion of RS and resulted in lower ethanol concentrations and higher final residual solids. Decreases in resistant starch after high temperature liquefaction were 55% to 74%, whereas low temperature liquefaction decreases were 11% to 43%. For all enzyme treatments, RS content of starch samples decreased further after SSF.

  20. Fractionation of transgenic corn seed by dry and wet milling to recover recombinant collagen-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Glatz, Charles E; Fox, Steven R; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2009-01-01

    Corn continues to be considered an attractive transgenic host for producing recombinant therapeutic and industrial proteins because of its potential for producing recombinant proteins at large volume and low cost as coproducts of corn seed-based biorefining. Efforts to reduce production costs have been primarily devoted to increasing accumulation level, optimizing protein extraction conditions, and simplifying the purification. In the present work, we evaluated two grain fractionation methods, dry milling and wet milling, to enrich two recombinant collagen-related proteins; thereby, reducing the amount and type of corn-derived impurities in subsequent protein extraction and purification steps. The two proteins were a full-length human recombinant collagen type I alpha 1(rCIalpha1) chain with telopeptides and peptide foldon to effect triple helix formation and a 44-kDa rCIalpha1 fragment. For each, approximately 60% of the rCIalpha1s in the seed was recovered in the dry-milled germ-rich fractions making up ca. 25% of the total kernel mass. For wet milling, approximately 60% of each was recovered in three fractions accounting for 20-25% of the total kernel mass. The rCIalpha1s in the dry-milled germ-rich fractions were enriched three to six times compared with the whole corn kernel, whereas the rCIalpha1s were enriched 4-10 times in selected wet-milled fractions. The recovered starch from wet milling was almost free of rCIalpha1. Therefore, it was possible to generate rCIalpha1-enriched fractions by both dry and wet milling along with rCIalpha1-free starch using wet milling. Because of its simplicity, the dry milling procedure could be accomplished on-farm thus minimizing the risk of inadvertent release of viable transgenic seeds.

  1. [Effect of the incorporation of additives on the aging of corn starch gels and "arepas"].

    PubMed

    Rivero de Padua, M; Verde, O; Lucena de Orellana, M; Arias, J

    1988-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the effect of the incorporation of various additives on the ageing of corn starch and arepas. Starches were extracted from the endosperm of degerminated corn by a wet milling process, and its retrogradation, with or without the incorporation of additives was evaluated using the Brabender amilograph and by measuring the viscosity changes of the starch gels through time, using a Brookfield viscometer model RVT. The most effective additives in retarding the rate of ageing of starch gels, were used in the arepas. Likewise, trained panelists were utilized to find the levels of the additives incorporated in the arepas, by running taste threshold tests for each one of the additives. Textural changes of the arepas--maintained at two different storage temperatures, 9 degrees and 23 degrees C--were evaluated using an Instron texturometer. Preliminary tests with the corn starch allowed to choose the following additives: distilled monoglicerides, guar gum and hydrogenated vegetable oil. The effect of 15 different combinations of these additives on the texture of arepas was then studied, and findings revealed that only three of them were able to totally revert the retrogradation process, and maintain the hardness and elasticity within the expected range of a fresh-made arepa, when this is reheated until reaching a maximum temperature of 49 degrees C. A 66% of the hardening of the arepas prepared without additives can be reverted with the reheating process, but only if the product has not suffered dehydration. When stored for 24 hours at room temperature, unpacked arepas have a surface moisture loss of 47%, and even if reheated, hardening becomes irreversible in 84.6% of them.

  2. Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.H.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process has been developed combining initial dry milling of corn with subsequent solvent extraction of protein and conversion of starch to syrup. Based on laboratory studies of the alternative process, the water removal load is less than half of that for wet milling and a full scale plant using the alternative technology should require 30% less energy than a corresponding wet milling facility. Further developmental work is in progress on a pilot plant scale to allow process optimization and to afford more accurate evaluations of the energy requirements of the proposed process.

  3. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua; Mansouri, Shahnaz; May, Bee K; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Hui; Woo, Meng Wai

    2017-05-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326°C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conductivity and electrical properties of corn starch-chitosan blend biopolymer electrolyte incorporated with ammonium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Y. M.; Shukur, M. F.; Illias, H. A.; Kadir, M. F. Z.

    2014-03-01

    This work focuses on the characteristics of polymer blend electrolytes based on corn starch and chitosan doped with ammonium iodide (NH4I). The electrolytes were prepared using the solution cast method. A polymer blend comprising 80 wt% starch and 20 wt% chitosan was found to be the most amorphous blend and suitable to serve as the polymer host. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis proved the interaction between starch, chitosan and NH4I. The highest room temperature conductivity of (3.04 ± 0.32) × 10-4 S cm-1 was obtained when the polymer host was doped with 40 wt% NH4I. This result was further proven by field emission scanning electron microscopy study. All electrolytes were found to obey the Arrhenius rule. Dielectric studies confirm that the electrolytes obeyed non-Debye behavior. The temperature dependence of the power law exponent s for the highest conducting sample follows the quantum mechanical tunneling model.

  5. Analysis of the pasting profile in corn starch: Structural, morphological, and thermal transformations, Part I.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Vega-Rojas, Lineth J; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Acosta-Osorio, A A; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2016-10-01

    This work is focused on the understanding of the apparent viscosity profile of corn starch, in terms of the physicochemical and morphological changes that take place during the thermal profile of starch-water suspension to its respective gel formation. A mathematical model was used to obtain the experimental operating conditions that satisfy the Froude number. Freeze drying samples are studied in different stages along the pasting profile. Changes in the structural properties of the samples are studied using X-ray diffraction, and the morphological changes are followed using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze the thermal changes in starch. The changes in the pasting profile are associated with structural, thermal,and morphological changes of the system and the analysis of the physicochemical transformation that occur during the pasting profile are explained. The finding in this work does not show evidence of gel retrogradation at the end of the cooling process.

  6. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  7. Effect of microwave-assisted dry heating with xanthan on normal and waxy corn starches.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Xu, Yicai; Xiong, Liu

    2014-07-01

    Normal corn starch (CS) and waxy corn starch (WCS) were impregnated with xanthan gum (1% based on starch) and heat-treated using a microwave in a dry state for 0, 4, or 6min (CS-X0, CS-X4, CS-X6, WCS-X0, WCS-X4, WCS-X6), respectively. Effects of the microwave-assisted dry heating (MADH) on pasting, morphological, and structural properties were evaluated. The results revealed that the viscosity of both the CS and WCS with xanthan increased compared with untreated samples after MADH, and the effect on WCS was more obvious. The syneresis values showed that the water-holding ability of CS-X6 and WCS-X6 increased, and that value of CS was lower than that of WCS after MADH with xanthan. The MADH with xanthan reduced the To, Tc, Tp, and ΔH values of both the CS and WCS. After MADH, the particle morphology of the starch-xanthan connected more densely, especially WCS, and the gelatinized samples exhibited a strong and smooth laminar structure. The Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) displayed that the absorption peak width of both CS-X6 and WCS-X6 became larger. X-ray diffraction showed that the crystallinity of CS-X6 and WCS-X6 decreased slightly as a result of MADH, and the crystalline pattern remained A-type. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine faecal microbiota in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harlow, B E; Donley, T M; Lawrence, L M; Flythe, M D

    2015-11-01

    The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: (i) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and (ii) fermentation by equine microbiota. When faecal washed cell suspensions were incubated with any substrate amylolytics increased over time. However, at 24 h there were 10 and 1000-fold more amylolytics with corn than wheat or oats respectively. Predominant amylolytics isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (corn, wheat) and Streptococcus bovis (oats). GPC increased with any substrate, but decreased during stationary phase in oats only. Lactobacilli decreased during stationary phase with corn only. By 24 h, oats had more lactate-utilizers and lactobacilli and fewer GPC than corn and wheat. More gas was produced from oats or wheat than from corn. These results indicate that the growth of bacteria and fermentative capacity associated with starch metabolism is starch source dependent. This study demonstrates a relationship between starch source and microbial changes independent of host digestion. However, future research is needed to evaluate the effect of starch source on the hindgut microbial community in vivo. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Effect of replacement of corn starch by whey protein isolate in biodegradable film blends obtained by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Viviane Machado; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Marconcini, José Manoel; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Neto, Alfredo Rodrigues Sena; Pereira, Tamara Coelho; Pereira, Camila Ferreira Gonçalves

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn starch by whey protein isolated (WPI) in biodegradable polymer blends developed by extrusion. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of a Vh-type crystalline arrangement. The films were homogeneous, indicating strong interfacial adhesion between the protein and the thermoplastic starch matrix (TPS) as observed in scanning electron microscopy. The addition of WPI on TPS matrix promoted an increase in the thermal stability of the materials. It was observed 58.5% decrease in the water vapor permeability. The effect of corn starch substitution by WPI on mechanical properties resulted in a more resistant and less flexible film when compared the TPS film. The addition of WPI caused greenish yellow color and less transparent films. The substitution of corn starch by WPI made it possible to obtain polymer blends with improved properties and represents an innovation for application as a packaging material.

  10. Changes in physicochemical properties of waxy corn starches after harvest, and in mechanical properties of fresh cooked kernels during storage.

    PubMed

    Ketthaisong, Danupol; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-05-15

    Changes in the physicochemical properties of waxy corn starches after harvest and in the mechanical properties of cooked fresh kernels during storage were investigated. Immature waxy corn ears from four genotypes were stored at ambient temperature, and starches were isolated from kernels removed at 0, 2, 4 and 6 days after harvest. Starch content in the kernels generally increased with storage time, and also significantly differed depending on the genotype. For all the days after harvest, medium granules had the highest contribution to the total starch volume, followed by small and large granules. The average chain length distribution of amylopectin increased in relation to storage time. Starches at harvesting state exhibited the lowest peak viscosity in all four genotypes, which increased relative to postharvest periods. Moreover, the average force behaviours of cooked kernels were greatly affected by storage times after cooking.

  11. Effect of alkali and oxidative treatments on the physicochemical, pasting, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Spier, Franciela; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Marques e Silva, Ricardo; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2013-07-01

    Few studies on starch modifications using different chemical agents are available in the literature, and no reports were found on the combined effect of oxidation and alkaline treatment of corn starch. Thus this work evaluated the physicochemical, pasting, morphological, cystallinity and thermal properties of chemically modified corn starch, after either the isolated or combined action of alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and oxidative (sodium hypochlorite) treatments. The highest values for the sum of carbonyl and carboxyl and enzymatic hydrolysis occurred in starches submitted to oxidative treatment at high active chlorine concentrations. The alkali treatment in isolation modified the pasting properties, reduced the paste temperature and increased the peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback of starches. Starch modified by the action of sodium hypochlorite and hydroxide in combination presented more severe damage on granule surfaces. The results show that corn starch modified by the combined action of oxidative and alkaline treatments should be studied more, especially at the concentration limit of sodium hydroxide where gelatinization occurs. Under these conditions the effect of oxidation can be more intense and thus allow the production of starches with different properties and an increase in their industrial applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Gamma radiation influences pasting, thermal and structural properties of corn starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Bettaïeb, Nasreddine; Jerbi, Mohamed Taïeb; Ghorbel, Dorra

    2014-10-01

    Irradiation is one of the effective methods able to change starch structure and its functional properties. In this research, the effect of γ-radiation (3, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy) on the pasting, thermal, structural and morphological properties of corn starch was studied. Brabender viscoamylograph test showed that the maximal consistency of the starch paste and its corresponding temperature decreased significantly with increasing irradiation dose. Differential scanning calorimetry also showed a decrease in gelatinization temperatures (TOnset, Tp, TOffset) with increasing irradiation dose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of O-H stretch, C-H stretch, bending mode of water and bending mode of glycosidic linkage. No modification in the shape and intensity of X-ray diffraction peaks was observed after irradiation. These results suggested that until 50 kGy, γ- radiation would affect the starch granule membrane and the amorphous zone rather than the crystalline one.

  13. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P < 0.05). An increase in moisture, water, and oil absorption capacity was observed for the acetylated starch and, which was less pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed starch but more pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed acetylated product. The latter product underwent an increase in resistant starch content, which is induced by a rise in hydrolysis time to attain about 67 % after 1 h of reaction. The modified starch samples were added to cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch.

  14. Trehalose accumulation from corn starch by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 during 2-l fermentation and trehalose purification.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhe; Wang, Ji-Ming; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Ye, Fang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, corn starch was used as the substrate for cell growth and trehalose accumulation by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11. Effect of different aeration rates, agitation speeds, and concentrations of corn starch on direct conversion of corn starch to trehalose by S. fibuligera A11 were examined using a Biostat B2 2-l fermentor. We found that the optimal conditions for direct conversion of corn starch to trehalose by this yeast strain were that agitation speed was 200 rpm, aeration rate was 4.0 l/min, concentration of corn starch was 2.0% (w/v), initial pH was 5.5, fermentation temperature was 30 degrees C. Under these conditions, over 22.9 g of trehalose per 100 g of cell dry weight was accumulated in the yeast cells, cell mass was 15.2 g/l of the fermentation medium, 0.12% (w/v) of reducing sugar, and 0.21% (w/v) of total sugar were left in the fermented medium within 48 h of the fermentation. It was found that trehalose in the yeast cells could be efficiently extracted by the hot distilled water (80 degrees C). After isolation and purification, the crystal trehalose was obtained from the extract of the cells.

  15. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Prateek; Kaur, Birender; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.; Singh, Inderbir

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates. PMID:25328710

  16. Glass transitions and physical aging of cassava starch - corn oil blends.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Sandoval, Aleida J; Cova, Aura; Müller, Alejandro J

    2014-05-25

    Glass transition temperatures and physical aging of amorphous cassava starch and their blends with corn oil were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two enthalpic relaxation endotherms, well separated in temperature values, were exhibited by neat amorphous cassava starch with 10.6% moisture content, evidencing two amorphous regions within the starch with different degrees of mobility. The phase segregation of these two amorphous regions was favored by added corn oil at low moisture contents during storage. The presence of amylose-lipid complexes in this matrix, may also affect the molecular dynamics of these two amorphous regions at low moisture contents. Increasing moisture content, leads to a homogeneous amorphous phase, with an aging process characterized by a single enthalpic relaxation peak. In all cases, after deleting the thermal history of the samples only one glass transition temperature was detected (during DSC second heating runs) indicating that a single homogeneous amorphous phase was attained after erasing the effects of physical aging. Trends of the enthalpic relaxation parameters were also different at the two moisture contents considered in this work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Replacement of starch from corn with nonforage fiber from distillers grains and soyhulls in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ranathunga, S D; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-03-01

    Forty Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by a 6-wk experimental period to evaluate incremental substitution of nonforage fiber provided by dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and soyhulls (SH) for starch provided by corn in the diet. Diets provided decreasing concentrations of starch: 29% starch with 0% DDGS; 26% starch with 7% DDGS; 23% starch with 14% DDGS; and 20% starch with 21% DDGS. Diets contained 27% corn silage, 22% alfalfa hay, and 51% concentrate mix and were formulated to be 17% crude protein, 4.7% fat, and 23% neutral detergent fiber from forage. Total neutral detergent fiber increased as DDGS and SH were included in the diet. Soyhulls were included in a linear fashion along with DDGS to replace soybean meal and expeller soybean meal, thereby maintaining a similar crude protein content across diets. Dry matter intake decreased linearly; consequently, feed efficiency tended to increase linearly as starch was replaced by nonforage fiber. There was no effect of diet on milk production or milk fat and protein percentage or yield. Milk fatty acid profiles were similar across diets. Other response variables, including 4% fat-corrected milk, total solids, and milk urea nitrogen, were unaffected by dietary treatments. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration did not differ between diets. Concentrations of blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar across diets. Results from this research suggest that nonforage fiber from DDGS can partially substitute for starch from corn in dairy cow diets without affecting milk production and milk composition. Economic analysis of the diets showed that feeding DDGS and SH in substitution of corn was cost-effective. Results from this experiment indicate that DDGS and SH can replace corn as an energy source to decrease feed costs.

  18. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  19. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  20. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  1. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using corn starch as basal diet to determine the true metabolizable energy of protein feedstuffs in Chinese Yellow chickens.

    PubMed

    Ren, L Q; Tan, H Z; Zhao, F; Zhao, J T; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, H F

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using corn starch as the basal diet to determine the ME of protein feedstuffs using the TME assay in Chinese Yellow chickens. In the first experiment, the TME of corn starch were determined by force-feeding 25 or 40 g of feed. To test the repeatability of the bioassay, the same experiment was repeated 4 times. In the second experiment, the TME of soybean meal and cottonseed meal was determined by considering corn starch as the basal diet, while corn was fed alone to the chickens. To test the accuracy of the TME assay for individual ingredients, the additivity was evaluated by determining the TME of 3 mixed diets: corn-soybean meal diet, corn-cottonseed meal diet, and corn-soybean meal-cottonseed meal diet. In experiment 1, the value of endogenous energy loss was 16.76 to 18.46 kcal/48 h, and no significant differences between the 4 assays were noted. The TME and energy metabolizability of the 25-g corn starch treatment (4.06 kcal/g and 98.06%) were higher than those of the 40-g treatment (3.79 kcal/g and 91.45%; P < 0.01); whereas the CV were less than that of the 40-g treatment, indicating that it is reasonable to use the TME value of the 25-g treatment in feed formulation. In experiment 2, the TME values for corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal were 4.02, 3.39, and 2.92 kcal/g, respectively. The observed and predicted TME values of the corn-soybean meal, corn-cottonseed meal, and corn-soybean meal-cottonseed meal diets were in high agreement with differences ranging from -0.02 to 0.01 kcal/g. None of the differences was significant, indicating an accurate measure of the TME of the individual ingredients. Thus, using corn starch as the basal diet to determine the TME of protein feedstuffs was validated.

  3. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A

    2011-10-01

    Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, and low-fat food increases. High-amylose corn starch was cooked in an excess-steam jet cooker in the presence of oleic acid. Amylose formed helical inclusion complexes with the fatty acid. Shortening was added at different levels to jet-cooked starch. The resulting starch-lipid composites (SLC) had 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% fat. The composites were used to substitute shortening in the preparation of cake icings with 1% to 13% fat. SLC icings were formulated by either keeping the total solids constant, or the starch and sugar to water ratio constant as the fat level was reduced. The effect of fat and formulation of shortening and SLC icings on the physical and rheological characteristics were studied. It was found that low-fat SLC icings can be prepared by optimizing the formulation. Practical Application:  This study indicates potential new applications for SLC that benefit the confectionary industry by generating new products offering healthy alternatives to the consumers.

  4. Biomaterials from blends of fluoropolymers and corn starch-implant and structural aspects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, João D A S; Camargo, Regina C T; Filho, José C S C; Alves, Neri; Rodriguez-Perez, Miguel A; Constantino, Carlos J L

    2014-03-01

    The development of polymeric blends to be used as matrices for bone regeneration is a hot topic nowadays. In this article we report on the blends composed by corn starch and poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, or poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), to obtain biocompatible materials. Blends were produced by compressing/annealing and chemically/structurally characterized by micro-Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopies, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), besides in vivo study to evaluate the tissue response. Vibrational spectroscopy reveals no chemical interaction between the polymers and starch, absence of material degradation due to compressing/annealing process or organism implantation, and maintenance of α and ferroelectric crystalline phases of PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE), respectively. As a consequence of absence of interaction between polymers and starch, it was possible to identify by SEM each material, with starch acting as filler. Elastic modulus (E') obtained from DMA measurement, independent of the material proportion used in blends, reaches values close to those of cancellous bone. Finally, the in vivo study in animals shows that the blends, regardless of the composition, were tolerated by cancellous bone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on expansion and rheological properties of extruded corn starch.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Mario; Emin, M Azad; Hochstein, Bernhard; Willenbacher, Norbert; Schuchmann, Heike Petra

    2013-04-02

    Enhancement of product properties of extruded starch based products can be achieved by incorporating health promoting oil into the matrix. In order to achieve a preferably high expansion with a homogeneous pore structure, the expansion mechanisms have to be understood. In our study, we applied a customized twin-screw extruder set up to feed medium-chain triglycerides after complete gelatinization of corn starch, minimizing its effect on the starch gelatinization. Despite the fact, that the addition of up to 3.5% oil showed no influence on the extrusion parameters, we observed a three-fold increase in sectional expansion. Longitudinal expansion was less affected by the oil content. Rheological properties of the gelatinized starch were measured using an inline slit die rheometer. In addition to shear viscosity, we presented a method to determine the Bagley pressure, which reflects the elongational properties of a fluid. We were able to observe an increase in the Bagley pressure from about 25 bar up to 35-37 bar due to the addition of oil.

  6. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on the starch-water interactions between partially gelatinized corn starch and water during gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zong-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Zou, Hui; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-30

    The effect of moisture content on the interactions between water and partially gelatinized starch during gelatinization process was investigated. The interactions were probed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The starch samples were partially gelatinized at 25°C (S25), 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and the moisture contents were varied from 25% to 78% (w/w). The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed in S64, S68 and S70 in the entire moisture content range. The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed at higher peak temperature in S25 when the moisture content was below 30% (w/w). The melting temperature of M2 endotherm in S70 was the highest among all the samples tested in the entire moisture content range. At water content>30% (w/w), S68 and S70 had lower amount of unfreezable water, while S64 had higher amount of unfreezable water.

  8. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    SciTech Connect

    Cozar, O.; Filip, C.; Tripon, C.; Cioica, N.; Coţa, C.; Nagy, E. M.

    2013-11-13

    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra.

  9. Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Narpinder; Sharma, Parul; Kaur, Seeratpreet

    2015-12-01

    The effect of xanthan and guar-gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches was studied. Mung bean starch showed the highest amylose content (43.4 %) followed by potato (23.2 %) and corn starch (15.5 %). Potato starch showed the highest swelling power (19.0 g/g) and solubility index (17.5 %) and exhibited the highest paste viscosities. Addition of both gums improved peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and final viscosity for mung and corn starches; while for potato starch, guar gum increased peak and final viscosities and decreased hot paste viscosity while xanthan gum increased hot paste and final viscosities and decreased peak viscosity. The noodles made from mung bean starch showed the most desirable characteristics in terms of the lowest-cooking loss and adhesiveness. The gums increased noodle cooking time and decreased cooking loss, firmness and cohesiveness.

  10. Microstructure and characteristics of high-amylose corn starch-chitosan film as affected by composition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qianqian; Hu, Fei; Qiu, Liping

    2013-06-01

    Edible films composed of high-amylose corn starch and chitosan were developed by casting method. The effects of the ratio of high-amylose corn starch to chitosan, concentration of glycerol and methyl cellulose on the oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation, water vapor transmission, tensile strength and percent elongation at break values of edible composite films were investigated. Film microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase of the ratio of chitosan and content of glycerol in the film forming suspensions both made the structure of films flexible, causing the decrease of tensile strength and increase of percent elongation of composite films, while showing poor water vapor barrier properties as the water vapor transmission values increased. The addition of methyl cellulose as to reinforce the structure of matrix improved the water vapor barrier properties of the edible films with the decrease of water vapor transmission from 1946 to 1668 g/(m(2)·24 h), as well as the mechanical properties were improved as expected, which could be attributed to the differentia of the interaction between methyl cellulose and other components in the film preparation as the concentration ranged from 2% (w/w) to 8% (w/w). Films with different compositions, resulting different microstructures, showed variance in barrier and mechanical properties.

  11. Ozone treatment of process water from a dry-mill ethanol plant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shilpi; Fan, Maohong; Brown, Robert C

    2008-04-01

    Fuel ethanol production in corn dry milling plants is a rapidly expanding industrial sector. Whole stillage, the residue from the distillation of the fermented corn, is centrifuged and the concentrate, thin stillage, is found to have a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of approximately 75,000 mg/L. This thin stillage is partly recycled, but much of it needs to be evaporated to concentrate the solubles for addition to the animal feed coproduct from corn dry milling. This research is an exploration into lowering COD from thin stillage using ozonation as a simple single-step unit process to facilitate a larger reusable fraction. The ozonation would usually be a pretreatment before additional flocculation or biological treatment. Also, COD removal by ozonation with and without a catalyst has been studied. Three different application rates of ozone O(3,1)=7 mg/min, O(3,2)=21 mg/min, and O(3,3)=33 mg/min were used for 8h into samples of 2L each of three dilutions 20x, 30x and 40x. COD removal of 85% was observed with an ozone dosage of 4000 mg/L into a 40x-diluted sample. This would correspond to about 0.5 mg COD removed per mg ozone dosed. However, at lower dosages and smaller dilutions, more than 1mg COD removal was achieved per mg ozone dosed. Two different catalysts, Fe(II) and Fe(III), were used and the samples were ozonated for 4 h. Five different dosages of each of the two catalysts were used and better COD removal was observed compared to ozonation alone with all 5 dosages. COD removal rate was increased from 45% to 74% with Fe(III) and was increased to 77% with Fe(II). Up to 10mg/L COD was removed per mg O(3) dosed well below the maximum dosage. Both the catalysts resulted in almost the same improved COD removal rates when compared to ozonation alone.

  12. Determining the Cost of Producing Ethanol from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    McAloon, A.; Taylor, F.; Yee, W.; Ibsen, K.; Wooley, R.

    2000-10-25

    The mature corn-to-ethanol industry has many similarities to the emerging lignocellulose-to-ethanol industry. It is certainly possible that some of the early practitioners of this new technology will be the current corn ethanol producers. In order to begin to explore synergies between the two industries, a joint project between two agencies responsible for aiding these technologies in the Federal government was established. This joint project of the USDA-ARS and DOE/NREL looked at the two processes on a similar process design and engineering basis, and will eventually explore ways to combine them. This report describes the comparison of the processes, each producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol. This paper attempts to compare the two processes as mature technologies, which requires assuming that the technology improvements needed to make the lignocellulosic process commercializable are achieved, and enough plants have been built to make the design well-understood. Ass umptions about yield and design improvements possible from continued research were made for the emerging lignocellulose process. In order to compare the lignocellulose-to-ethanol process costs with the commercial corn-to-ethanol costs, it was assumed that the lignocellulose plant was an Nth generation plant, built after the industry had been sufficiently established to eliminate first-of-a-kind costs. This places the lignocellulose plant costs on a similar level with the current, established corn ethanol industry, whose costs are well known. The resulting costs of producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol from each process were determined. The figure below shows the production cost breakdown for each process. The largest cost contributor in the corn starch process is the feedstock; for the lignocellulosic process it is the capital cost, which is represented by depreciation cost on an annual basis.

  13. Study of quantitative interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of heavy metal salts.

    PubMed

    Szymońska, Joanna; Molenda, Marcin; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2015-12-10

    Interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of silver, lead, copper or iron salts were investigated. It was shown experimentally that granules accumulated the cations in amounts depending on the granule structure and water content as well as a type of both metal and counter-ions present in solution. Potato starch retained almost three times more cations compared to corn starch what was proportional to the total phosphorous content in these starches. Quantity of milligrams of cations bound by 1g of starch was inversely correlated with the cation hydration. Ag(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) were connected in stoichiometric amounts of moles to semicrystalline and amorphous parts of the granules. Fe(3+) ions were accumulated in higher than stoichiometric quantities mainly in granule amorphous regions. Metal ions penetrated into granules together with anions except nitrates which remained on surface of potato starch granules. Cations facilitated the starch thermal decomposition in accordance with values of their standard redox potentials. Nitrates supported this process only in the presence of base metal cations.

  14. Regulatory effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates on pasting and gelatinization action of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Niu, Haili; Sun, Fangda; Han, Jianchun; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates (PPPH) on the physicochemical, pasting, and gelatinization properties of corn starch (CS). The results showed that the solubility of CS markedly increased, whereas swelling power and gel penetration force decreased with increased PPPH concentration (P<0.05). Compared with native CS, PPPH significantly lowered peak viscosity, minimum viscosity, final viscosity, and total setback, whereas it increased breakdown and pasting temperature in rapid visco analyzer (RVA) measurement (P<0.05) and obviously enhanced the gelatinization temperature as determined in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (P<0.05). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that PPPH surrounded the starch granules at room temperature (25°C) and then formed a network with swollen starch granules during gelatinization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that the blocklet sizes of gelatinized CS-PPPH mixtures were smaller and more uniform than native CS. The results proved that pasting and gelatinization abilities of CS can be effectively influenced by adding PPPH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of locust bean gum on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Singh, Ajaypal; Vatankhah, Hamed; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2017-03-01

    In this study, interactions between resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) on the viscoelastic, pasting and morphological characteristics of aqueous dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with the addition of LBG, and the rheograms demonstrated a biphasic behavior. RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G' > G'') or viscous (G'' > G'), depending on the added concentration level of LBG. Gum addition also caused higher peak viscosity, breakdown and total set back of RS/LBG mixtures. A strong correlation between rheological and structural properties was found. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed the transition of starch particles from a scattered angular shape to clustered structures cross-linked by dense aggregate junction zones justifying the observed changes in rheological properties.

  16. Rheological Properties of Dispersions of Spherulites from Jet-Cooked High-Amylose Corn Starch and Fatty Acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High amylose corn starch was cooked in an excess-steam jet cooker in the presence of 5% oleic or palmitic acid, based on amylose. The cooked product was rapidly cooled in an ice bath and then freeze dried or drum dried. Amylose was removed from solution by forming helical inclusion complexes with ...

  17. Identification and releasing characteristics of high-amylose corn starch-cinnamaldehyde inclusion complex prepared using ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yaoqi; Zhu, Yanqiao; Bashari, Mohanad; Hu, Xiuting; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2013-01-16

    In this study, the high-amylose corn starch-cinnamaldehyde inclusion complex was prepared by an ultrasound treatment and its releasing characteristic was investigated. The results showed that the ultrasound treatment (35°C, 10min and 250W) generated a higher encapsulation rate of 40.2% than the conventional treatment (encapsulation rate, 5.7%). Data obtained from Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that cinnamaldehyde was successfully encapsulated by high-amylose corn starch and the encapsulation significantly increased the dissociation temperature of cinnamaldehyde by around 70°C. Compared to the physical mixture of high-amylose corn starch and cinnamaldehyde, the formed inclusion complex had good retention ability and reduced the releasing rate of cinnamaldehyde from 57.5% to 28.4% in the first week. These results suggest that cinnamaldehyde could be encapsulated by high-amylose corn starch with an ultrasound treatment for presenting the releasing behavior in food preservation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine fecal microbiota in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: 1) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and 2) fermentation by equine microflora. Methods and Results: When fecal washed cel...

  19. Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sila Mary Rodrigues; de Mello, Ana Paula; de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos, Mônica; Krüger, Cláudia Carneiro Hecke; Azoubel, Patrícia Moreira; de Oliveira Alves, Márcia Aurelina

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mixture of sorghum-rice-corn flour and potato starch in the development of gluten-free pasta for celiac disease patients. The experiment was designed according to simplex-lattice method and different types of gluten-free flours were used, such as sorghum, rice, corn, and potato starch. The fifteen formulations were subjected to sensory analysis (Mixed Structured Scale - MSS) and seven formulations were selected in respect to taste and grittiness. These formulations were subjected to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), which evaluated the attributes: appearance, color, odor, hardness, elasticity, stickiness, grittiness, taste, residual bitterness and overall quality. Results showed significant difference in appearance, color and hardness. The formulations that showed the best sensory results were submitted to chemical analysis and cooking quality of pasta. It was observed that the best results for mixing is sorghum flour, rice flour and potato starch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic engineering of Aspergillus oryzae for efficient production of l-malate directly from corn starch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    2017-09-28

    L-malate, an important chemical building block, has been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, and bio-based materials industries. In previous work, we engineered Aspergillus oryzae by rewiring the reductive tricarboxylic acid pathway to produce L-malate from glucose. To decrease the production cost, here, we further engineered A. oryzae to efficiently produce L-malate directly from corn starch with simultaneous liquefaction-saccharification and fermentation. First, a promoter PN5 was constructed by quintuple tandem of the 97-bp fragment containing the cis-element of the glucoamylase gene promoter (PglaA), and with the promoter PN5, the transcriptional level of glaA gene increased by 25∼45%. Then, by co-overexpression of glaA, a-amylase (amyB) and a-glucosidase (agdA) genes with the promoter PN5, the L-malate titer increased from 55.5g/L to 72.0g/L with 100g/L corn starch in shake flask. In addition, to reduce the concentration of byproducts succinate and fumarate, a fumarase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which facilitated the transformation of fumarate to L-malate, was overexpressed. As a result, the concentration of succinate and fumarate decreased from 12.6 and 1.29g/L to 7.8 and 0.59g/L, and the L-malate titer increased from 72.0g/L to 78.5g/L. Finally, we found that the addition of glucose at the initial fermentation stage facilitated the cell growth and L-malate synthesis, and the L-malate titer further increased to 82.3g/L by co-fermentation of 30g/L glucose and 70g/L corn starch, with a productivity of 1.18g/L/h and a yield of 0.82g/g total carbon sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pasting and thermal properties of waxy corn starch modified by 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ren, Junyan; Li, Yang; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2017-04-01

    Waxy corn starch was modified with the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. Incubating waxy corn starch with GBE increased the number of α-1,6 branch points and reduced the average chain length. Enzymatic modification also decreased the breakdown and setback values of Brabender viscosity curves, indicating that the modified starch had higher paste stability. Preheating the starch at 65°C for 30min before incubation with GBE could promote enzymatic modification of starch. Linear regression was used to describe the relationships between starch structure and its pasting and thermal properties. The setback value showed a negative linear correlation with the α-1,6 branch point content (R(2)=0.9824) and a positive linear correlation with the average chain length (R(2)=0.8954). Meanwhile, the gelatinization enthalpy was also linearly correlated to the α-1,6 branch point content (R(2)=0.9326) and the average chain length (R(2)=0.8567). These insights provide a useful reference for food processors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  3. Analysis of thermal pasting profile in corn starch rich in amylose and amylopectin: Physicochemical transformations, part II.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Millan-Malo, Beatriz; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2016-08-01

    This work focused on the study of the behaviors of the apparent viscosity profiles of isolated corn starches rich in amylose and amylopectin, through the physicochemical and morphological changes that take place during the thermal profile and the gel formation. Frozen dry samples were studied at different stages along the pasting profile. Changes in the structural properties of the samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, and the morphological changes were followed using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze the thermal changes. The changes in the pasting profile (curve of apparent viscosity) were associated with structural, thermal, and morphological changes of the starch-water suspension. From the results obtained, a new interpretation of the parameters measured with the pasting profile is introduced. In this work does not show evidence of retrogradation at the end of the cooling process for starch rich in amylopectin and that starch rich in amylose does not develop viscosity.

  4. Gas production and starch degradability of corn and barley meals differing in mean particle size.

    PubMed

    Gallo, A; Giuberti, G; Masoero, F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of mean particle size (mPS) on both gas production and in vitro rumen starch degradability (IVSD) of corn and barley meals (Cm and Bm, respectively). Batches of the same Cm or Bm were separately processed through 2 different mills (i.e., a cutter mill or a rotor speed mill) equipped with or without different screens to achieve different mPS for each tested meal. Samples were analyzed accordingly to a completely randomized design and the main tested effect of model was mPS (n=11, from 0.46 to 3.50mm mPS for Cm or n=10, from 0.11 to 2.98mm mPS for Bm). For both in vitro assays, the rumen inocula were collected from 2 rumen-fistulated Holstein lactating dairy cows fed a total mixed ration with 16.2% crude protein, 28.5% starch, and 35.0% neutral detergent fiber on a dry matter basis. To fit gas production data, 1-pool exponential model and 1-pool or 2-pool Gompertz models were adopted. The rate of gas production decreased and lag increased by increasing mPS of both Cm and Bm, irrespective of adopted 1-pool models. When the 2-pool Gompertz model was used to fit gas production data, a shift of particles from fast to slow fermentable pools was measured by increasing mPS. In particular, the ratio between fast and slow final volumes ranged from 0.90 at 0.11mm mPS to 0.10 at 2.98mm mPS for Bm. For Cm, the ratio between fast and slow final volumes decreased quadratically by increasing mPS, with the highest value (i.e., 0.58) measured at the lowest tested mPS. Values lower than 0.10 were measured for mPS greater than 1.93mm for Cm. Concerning IVSD data, linear decreases in rate of starch degradation equal to -0.049 or -0.092h(-1) for each 1-mm increase in mPS were achieved for Cm and Bm, respectively. The 7-h IVSD decreased by 6.3 or 6.5% starch for each 1-mm increase in mPS of Cm or Bm, respectively. Present findings supported the hypothesis that different particle sizes within the same starch source represent an important

  5. Effect of thermostable α-amylase injection on mechanical and physiochemical properties for saccharification of extruded corn starch.

    PubMed

    Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2014-01-30

    In industry, a jet cooker is used to gelatinize starch by mixing the starch slurry with steam under pressure at 100-175 °C. A higher degree of starch hydrolysis in an extruder is possible with glucoamylase. Unfortunately, it is difficult to carry out liquefaction and saccharification in parallel, because the temperature of gelatinization will be too high and will inactivate glucoamylase. Since the temperature for liquefaction and saccharification is different, it is hard to change the temperature from high (required for liquefaction) to low (required for saccharification). The industrial gelatinization process is usually carried out with 30-35% (w/w) dry solids starch slurry. Conventional jet cookers cannot be used any more at high substrate concentrations owing to higher viscosity. In this study, therefore, corn starch was extruded at different melt temperatures to overcome these limitations and to produce the highest enzyme-accessible starch extrudates. Significant effects on physical properties (water solubility index, water absorption index and color) and chemical properties (reducing sugar and % increase in reducing sugar after saccharification) were achieved by addition of thermostable α-amylase at melt temperatures of 115 and 135 °C. However, there was no significant effect on % increase in reducing sugar of extruded corn starch at 95 °C. The results show the great potential of extrusion with thermostable α-amylase injection at 115 and 135 °C as an effective pretreatment for breaking down starch granules, because of the significant increase (P < 0.05) in % reducing sugar and enzyme-accessible extrudates for saccharification yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Characterization of Corn Starch Films Reinforced with CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qingjie; Xi, Tingting; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of corn starch (CS) films impregnated with CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. Criteria such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and mechanical properties were the focus of the investigation. It was found that the CaCO3 contents had significant effects on the tensile properties of the nanocomposite films. The addition of CaCO3 nanoparticles to the CS films significantly increased tensile strength from 1.40 to 2.24 MPa, elongation from 79.21 to 118.98%, and Young’s modulus from 1.82 to 2.41 MPa. The incorporation of CaCO3 nanoparticles increased the opacity of films, lowered the degree of WVP and film solubility value compared to those of the CS films. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that with the increase of CaCO3 nanoparticles content in starch films, the roughness of the films increased, and pores or cavities were found on the surface of the films, while small cracks were observed in the structures of the fractured surfaces. X-ray diffraction showed that the addition of nanoparticles increased the peaks in the intensity of films. PMID:25188503

  7. Improvement on the freeze-thaw stability of corn starch gel by the polysaccharide from leaves of Corchorus olitorius L.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Sago, Toru; Kasubuchi, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Kazuhito; Matsuoka, Toshio; Kurita, Osamu; Nambu, Hironobu; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2013-04-15

    Effect of the polysaccharide from leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. (PLC) on the freeze-thaw (FT) stability of corn starch gel was studied. PLC was incorporated into the starch gel at 0.7% and total solid was adjusted to 6.0%. The syneresis was measured by the centrifugal-filtration method and, as a result, addition of PLC reduced effectively the syneresis of the starch gel even after 5 FT cycles, which was less than one third that of the normal starch gel. The rheological changes of the starch/PLC gel during the FT treatments were evaluated while the gel remained on the rheometer plate. The starch/PLC gel had less significant changes in the rheological parameters during the FT cycles than starch/guar gum or xanthan gum gel systems. SEM images showed that PLC stabilized the gel matrix surrounding pores, which would contribute to both a lower syneresis production and a higher stability in the rheological behavior at FT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro and in vivo digestibility of corn starch for weaned pigs: Effects of amylose:amylopectin ratio, extrusion, storage duration, and enzyme supplementation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, A R; Luo, H F; Wei, H; Zhou, Z; Peng, J; Ru, Y J

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amylose (AM):amylopectin (AP) ratio, extrusion, storage duration, and enzyme supplementation on starch digestibility of corn. Three corn varieties with high (0.60; HA), medium (0.44; MA), and low (0.39; LA) AM:AP ratios, respectively, were selected from 74 corn samples to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of starch. In Exp. 1, during wk 4 after extrusion, resistant starch (RS) content of the 3 selected corn varieties (LA, MA, and HA) increased (P < 0.05) each week and starch digestibility in vitro decreased as storage time increased (P < 0.05). The AM:AP ratio affected the formation of RS (P < 0.01). The RS content of the 3 corn varieties was ranked as LA < MA < HA in each week (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that AM:AP ratio and storage duration were both positively correlated with RS content (P < 0.01). Furthermore, a significant quadratic relation was found between storage duration and RS content in each corn variety as well as storage duration and digestibility. Starch digestibility was negatively correlated with RS content (P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, digestion trials were performed on cannulated pigs with BW of 13.20 ± 0.94 kg. Extrusion increased ileal digestibility of GE and starch of either HA or LA compared with the enzyme-supplemented diets (P < 0.001). Enzyme supplementation did not improve ileal energy and starch digestibility. The ileal digestibility of starch and GE of LA varieties was greater than HA samples (P < 0.05). The results implied that AM:AP ratio and storage duration after extrusion may be important determinants of RS formation and digestibility of starch for corn. In addition, RS content could be an important indicator of digestibility of starch in extruded corn. Using a lower AM:AP ratio corn or reducing the storage duration of extruded corn would help to reduce the formation of RS and improve the starch bioavailability of corn for piglets.

  9. Effects of ionic conduction on hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose induced by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2016-02-10

    This study investigated the effects of ionic conduction of electrolytes under microwave field to facilitate hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose (Avicel), typical model biomass substrates. Addition of 0.1M NaCl was effective to improve reducing sugar yield by 1.61-fold at unit energy (kJ) level. Although Avicel cellulose was highly recalcitrant to hydrothermal hydrolysis, addition of 0.1M MgCl2 improved reducing sugar yield by 6.94-fold at unit energy (kJ). Dielectric measurement of the mixture of corn starch/water/electrolyte revealed that ionic conduction of electrolytes were strongly involved in facilitating hydrothermal hydrolysis of polysaccharides.

  10. Expanded corn starch as a versatile material in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene and methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankushi; Kumar, Arvind; Latha, Patnam Padma; Ray, Siddharth Sankar; Chatterjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-10-05

    Polymerization of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was performed by surface initiated (SI) and activator generated by electron transfer (AGET) systems of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using renewable expanded corn starch (ECS) as a support. This prepared ECS is found to have V type crystallinity with 50 m(2)g(-1) surface area (<1m(2)g(-1) for corn starch (CS)) and average pore volume of 0.43 cm(3)g(-1) (<0.1cm(3)g(-1) for CS). In SI-ATRP, hydroxyl groups on ECS were converted into macro-initiator by replacing with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) with a 0.06 degree of substitution determined from NMR. In AGET-ATRP, CuBr2/ligand complex get adsorbed on ECS (Cu(II)/ECS=10 wt.%) to catalyze the polymerization. Synthesized PS/PMMA was characterized by SEM, FT-IR, (1)H NMR.

  11. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  12. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  13. Quality Properties of Sausages Made with Replacement of Pork with Corn Starch, Chicken Breast and Surimi during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture and fat contents, but lower protein content than the treatments (p<0.05). The sausages in the T2 and T5 had decreased pH values after 3 wk storage (p<0.05). The lightness value was lowest in the T3, while the yellowness values were lowest in the T5 during the storage. The TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values were lowest in the control in all storage times (p<0.05). However, the sausage in the control had higher VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) value than the treatments during the 1 wk storage (p<0.05). All treatments had significantly higher hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness values (p<0.05) than the control. The results indicated that corn starch, chicken breast and surimi can used as a pork replacer, that it also improves the physicochemical and texture properties of pork sausages. PMID:26761892

  14. Advanced Biorefinery of Distriller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced via the dry milling process, which converts corn grain to ethanol. The co-product, distiller’s grain (DG), is sold as a low-cost, high-protein feed source for livestock.

  15. Hydrothermal treatment and iodine binding provide insights into the organization of glucan chains within the semi-crystalline lamellae of corn starch granules.

    PubMed

    Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Hoover, Ratnajothi; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2014-08-01

    The importance of glucan chains that pass through both the amorphous and crystalline lamellae (tie chains) in the organization of corn starch granules was studied using heat-moisture treatment (HMT), annealing (ANN), and iodine binding. Molecular structural analysis showed that hylon starches (HV, HVII, and HVIII) contained higher proportion of intermediate glucan chains (HVIII > HVII > HV) than normal corn (CN) starch. Wide angle X-ray scattering revealed that on HMT, the extent of polymorphic transition in hylon starches decreased with increasing proportion of intermediate and long chains. Iodine treated hylon starches exhibited increased order in the V-type polymorphism as evidenced by the intense peak at 20° 2θ and the strong reflection intensity at 7.5° 2θ and the extent of the change depended on the type of hylon starch. DSC results showed that the gelatinization enthalpy of CN and waxy corn starch (CW) remained unchanged after ANN. However, hylon starches showed a significant increase in enthalpy with more distinct endotherms after ANN. It can be concluded that tie chains influence the organization of crystalline lamellae in amylose extender mutant starches. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Modification of Sodium Release Using Porous Corn Starch and Lipoproteic Matrix.

    PubMed

    Christina, Josephine; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sodium consumption can result in hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, and kidney diseases. Various chips and extruded snacks, where salt is mainly applied on the product surface, accounted for almost 56% of snacks retail sales in 2010. Hence, it is important to target sodium reduction for those snack products. Past studies had shown that modifying the rate-release mechanism of sodium is a promising strategy for sodium reduction in the food industry. Encapsulation of salt can be a possible technique to control sodium release rate. Porous corn starch (PCS), created by enzymatic treatment and spray drying and lipoproteic matrix, created by gelation and freeze drying, were evaluated as carriers for controlled sodium release targeting topically applied salts. Both carriers encapsulated salt and their in vitro sodium release profiles were measured using a conductivity meter. The sodium release profiles of PCS treated with different enzymatic reaction times were not significantly different. Protein content and fat content altered sodium release profile from the lipoproteic matrix. The SEM images of PCS showed that most of the salt crystals coated the starch instead of being encapsulated in the pores while the SEM images and computed tomography scan of lipoproteic matrix showed salt dispersed throughout the matrix. Hence, PCS was found to have limitations as a sodium carrier as it could not effectively encapsulate salt inside its pores. The lipoproteic matrix was found to have a potential as a sodium carrier as it could effectively encapsulate salt and modify the sodium release profile. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Acetylation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) starches using a microwave heating procedure and iodine as catalyst: II. Rheological and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Almanza-Benitez, Sirlen; Bello-Perez, Luis A; Mendez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Núñez-Santiago, María C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Gutierrez-Meráz, Felipe

    2013-02-15

    The effect of iodine concentration on the acetylation of starches with low and moderate degree of substitution (DS<0.5) and its impact on the physicochemical feature and structural features was evaluated. The acetylated starches were prepared with 0.03 mol anhydroglucose unit, 0.12 mol of anhydride acetic, and 0.6, 0.9 or 1.4 mM of molecular iodine as catalyst in a sealed Teflon vessel using microwave heating (600 W/2 min). Pasting profile and rheological properties were obtained under steady flow; dynamic oscillatory test was used. Structural features were obtained by HPSEC-RI. In acetylated starches, DS and acetyl groups increased when the iodine concentration increased, corn starch showed higher values than banana starch. The viscosity of acetylated starches decreased relative to unmodified starches while, acetylated corn starch had lower value than acetylated banana starch. In the flow curves, a non-Newtonian pattern (shear-thinning) was shown in the pastes of native and modified starches. Storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") showed low dependence on frequency (G'αω(0.1); G"αω(0.2)) on frequency sweep test, which is characteristic of a viscoelastic gel. Debranched native banana and corn starches presented trimodal chain-length distribution. The pattern was maintained in the acetylated starches, but with different level of short and long chains. The structural differences in native and acetylated samples explain the rheological characteristics in both starches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased dissolution of disulfiram by dry milling with silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jing, Guanghui; Zhong, Yue; Zhang, Ling; Gou, Jingxin; Ji, Xinchao; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yanjiao; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a suitable method to increase the dissolution of disulfiram (DSF) which is easily decomposed. The dissolution of DSF within 1 h was significantly increased from 37% to >90% by co-milling with Aerosil® 200 pharm (Aerosil) and the increased dissolution remained stable during long-term storage while there was no significant degradation of DSF. By monitoring the changes in particle size of the grinding mixture, a mosaic DSF-in-Aerosil structure was demonstrated. The core size of the mosaic DSF/Aerosil system was 3.625 µm. The particle size of DSF was reduced from 20.75 µm to ∼200 nm and the size of the mosaic DSF/Aerosil system (3.625∼7.956 µm) increased on increasing the drug-loading content. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the largely amorphous state of DSF in the mosaic drug/carrier system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of hydrogen bonding between DSF and Aerosil. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy verified the DSF-in-Aerosil relationship in the particle size determination at different size levels. The possible mechanisms of dry milling included the hypothesis that during impact and collision, DSF particles melted into the surface of Aerosil turning them into an amorphous state or they became inlayed into the interspaces of the Aerosil structure with a much smaller size.

  19. Effect of compression force and corn starch on tablet disintegration time.

    PubMed

    Hill, P M

    1976-11-01

    An unusual occurrence of decreasing tablet disintegration time with increasing tablet hardness was explored. Tablets were made with varying ratios of starch disintegrant to starch paste and compressed with eight different forces. This unusual disintegration pattern is modified by changes in the starch ratios. The reason for this phenomenon is ascribed to gain swelling as the mechanism by which starch acts as a disintegrant.

  20. Influence of ensiling time and inoculation on alteration of the starch-protein matrix in high-moisture corn.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Shaver, R D; Coblentz, W K; Scott, M P; Bodnar, A L; Schmidt, R J; Charley, R C

    2011-05-01

    The fates of hydrophobic zein proteins, which encapsulate corn starch to create vitreous endosperm, have not been investigated in high-moisture corn (HMC). To assess influences of ensiling time and inoculation on zein proteins in HMC, quadruplicate samples of 2 random corn hybrids (A and B), containing 25.7 and 29.3% moisture, were ground, inoculated with (I) or without 600,000 cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI), and ensiled for 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 d. Nutrient composition [crude protein (CP), starch, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber], fermentation (pH, lactate, and acetate), and protein degradation markers (buffer-soluble CP, isopropanol-soluble CP, and NH(3)-N) were evaluated. At 0 and 240 d, α, γ, δ, and β zein subunits were profiled using HPLC. Data were evaluated as a split-split plot using the PROC MIXED procedures of SAS. Ensiling time and inoculation decreased pH, and altered lactate and acetate contents of HMC. Lactate and acetate contents of A, AI, B, and BI at 240 d were 0.40, 0.32, 1.11, 0.73, and 0, 0.35, 0.30, and 0.87% of DM, respectively. Buffer-soluble CP in HMC increased from 1.5 to 2.0% of DM at 0 d to >4.0% of DM at 240 d. Inoculation had no effect on buffer-soluble CP but increased NH(3)-N content of HMC. Corn A contained more isopropanol-soluble CP than did corn B and peak areas for 6 α, and all γ and δ zein regions were greater for corn A. Ensiling (0 vs. 240 d) decreased all zein subunits with the exception of 2 α and 1 δ subunit. Ensiling decreased (42.2-73.2%) γ zeins, which are primarily responsible for cross-linking in the starch-protein matrix. Despite altering lactate and acetate contents, inoculation had no effect on degrading hydrophobic zein proteins in HMC. Data suggest that hydrophobic zein proteins in the starch-protein matrix of HMC are degraded by proteolytic activity over an extended ensiling time. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science

  1. Fomation of corn fiber gum-milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber arabinoxylan is hemicellulose B isolated from the fibrous portions (pericarp, tip cap, and endosperm cell wall fractions) of corn kernels and is commonly referred to as corn fiber gum (CFG). Our previous studies showed that CFG isolated from corn bran (a byproduct of corn dry milling) co...

  2. Acid hydrolysis of native corn starch: morphology, crystallinity, rheological and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Utrilla-Coello, R G; Hernández-Jaimes, C; Carrillo-Navas, H; González, F; Rodríguez, E; Bello-Pérez, L A; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2014-03-15

    The acid hydrolysis of native corn starch at 35 °C was monitored during 15 days. After this time, the residual solids were about 37.0 ± 3.0%. First-order kinetics described the hydrolysis data, giving a constant rate of kH = 0.18 ± 0.012 days(-1). Amylose content presented a sharp decrement of about 85% and X-ray diffraction results indicated a gradual increase in crystallinity during the first 3 days. SEM micrographs showed that hydrolysis disrupted granule morphology from an initial regular shape to increasingly irregular shapes. Fractal analysis of SEM images revealed an increase in surface roughness. Fast changes in the thermal effects were caused by molecular rearrangements after fast hydrolysis of amylose in the amorphous regions in the first day. Steady shear rate and oscillatory tests showed a sharp decrease of the apparent viscosity and an increase of the damping factor (tan(δ)) caused by amylose degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Surface display of phytase on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient bioethanol production from corn starch].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Chen, Xianzhong; Shen, Wei; Yang, Haiquan; Fan, You

    2015-12-01

    Production of bioethanol using starch as raw material has become a very prominent technology. However, phytate in the raw material not only decreases ethanol production efficiency, but also increases phosphorus discharge. In this study, to decrease phytate content in an ethanol fermentationprocess, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered forheterologous expression of phytase on the cell surface. The phy gene encoding phytase gene was fused with the C-terminal-half region of α-agglutinin and then inserted downstream of the secretion signal gene, to produce a yeast surface-display expression vector pMGK-AG-phy, which was then transformed into S. cerevisiae. The recombinant yeast strain, PHY, successfully displayed phytase on the surface of cells producing 6.4 U/g wet cells and its properties were further characterized. The growthrate and ethanol production of the PHY strain were faster than the parent S. cerevisiae strain in the fermentation medium by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Moreover, the phytate concentration decreased by 91% in dry vinasse compared to the control. In summary, we constructed recombinant S. cerevisiae strain displaying phytase on the cell surface, which could effectively reduce the content of phytate, improve the utilization value of vinasse and reduce the discharge of phosphorus. The strain reported here represents a useful novel engineering platform for developing an environment-friendly system for bioethanol production from a corn substrate.

  4. Electrical, structural, thermal and electrochemical properties of corn starch-based biopolymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Liew, Chiam-Wen; Ramesh, S

    2015-06-25

    Biopolymer electrolytes containing corn starch, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmImPF6) are prepared by solution casting technique. Temperature dependence-ionic conductivity studies reveal Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) relationship which is associated with free volume theory. Ionic liquid-based biopolymer electrolytes show lower glass transition temperature (Tg) than ionic liquid-free biopolymer electrolyte. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrate higher amorphous region of ionic liquid-added biopolymer electrolytes. In addition, the potential stability window of the biopolymer electrolyte becomes wider and stable up to 2.9V. Conclusively, the fabricated electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) shows improved electrochemical performance upon addition of ionic liquid into the biopolymer electrolyte. The specific capacitance of EDLC based on ionic liquid-added polymer electrolyte is relatively higher than that of ionic liquid-free polymer electrolyte as depicted in cyclic voltammogram. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of some formulation and process parameters on the stability of lysozyme incorporated in corn flour- or corn starch-based extruded materials prepared by melt blending processing.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Fouzia; Galland, Sophie; Telliez, Camille; Akkari, Zied; Roux, Roselyne; Oulahal, Nadia; Dole, Patrice; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    In order to obtain an antimicrobial biodegradable material, corn flour was extruded with 1% of lysozyme. Since the limited stability of natural preservatives such as lysozyme is a common bottleneck to the elaboration of active biomaterials by melt blending processes, the influence of formulation and of extrusion processing temperature on its residual enzymatic activity was investigated. To assess the contribution of process parameters such as temperature, shear stress and of related formulation parameters such as glycerol and moisture contents, the stability of lysozyme following its extrusion or its thermoforming with plasticized corn starch or thermal treatments in aqueous glycerol solutions was also studied. Increasing glycerol content from 25% to 30% significantly limited inactivation of lysozyme during extrusion, while increasing initial moisture content of the mixture from 14.5% to 28.5% had the opposite effect. These observations open the possibility to prepare active materials retaining more than 60±7% of initial lysozyme activity.

  6. Effect of a saponin-based surfactant and aging time on ruminal degradability of flaked corn grain dry matter and starch.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Zaman, S; VanderPol, M; Szasz, P; Huber, K; Greer, D

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of a saponin-based surfactant, Grain Prep surfactant (GP), and hot flake aging time on starch characteristics and ruminal DM and starch degradability of steam-flaked corn grain. In 2 experiments, the moisture content of incoming corn was automatically adjusted using the Grain Prep Auto Delivery System to 19.8% (Exp. 1) and 18.5% (Exp. 2). The application rate of GP was 22 mg/kg (as-is basis). Control corn was treated with water alone. Processed corn in Exp. 2 was stored in insulated containers for 0, 4, 8, or 16 h. Flaked corn samples were incubated in the rumen of lactating dairy cows for 0, 2, 4, 6, 16, or 24 h. In Exp. 1, GP increased, compared with the control, the soluble fraction and effective degradability (ED) of DM by 17.2 and 8.6%, respectively. The ED of cornstarch was increased by 6.7%. In Exp. 2, the concentration of soluble DM and starch were increased by GP by 15 and 24% compared with the control. The ED of DM and starch were also increased by 3 and 4%, respectively. No differences in gelatinization temperatures were observed due to treatment, except that GP-treated grain had a slightly greater mean gelatinization enthalpy in Exp. 2. In a pilot study, DM degradability parameters were not affected by germination of the corn kernels. Aging of the hot flakes for up to 16 h resulted in a quadratic decrease in DM and starch ruminal degradability. The aging process affected starch gelatinization enthalpy values of flaked grain in a manner opposite to that observed for ruminal DM and starch degradation. This phenomenon was most likely explained by increased starch intramolecular associations or crystallinity associated with starch annealing, or both. This study confirmed our previous observations that Grain Prep surfactant increases flaked corn DM and starch degradability in the rumen. Because the rate of degradation was not affected by the surfactant, the increase in degradability was attributed

  7. Total antioxidant capacity and starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, oat, corn and barley flour.

    PubMed

    Soong, Yean Yean; Tan, Seow Peng; Leong, Lai Peng; Henry, Jeya Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Muffins are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. Increased glycemic load has been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes. This study examined the starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, corn, oat and barley flour. Rapidly digested starch (RDS) was greatest in rice (445 mg/g) and wheat (444 mg/g) muffins, followed by oat (416 mg/g), corn (402 mg/g) and barley (387 mg/g). Total phenolic content was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidative capacity and inversely related to the RDS of muffins. The phenolic content was highest in muffin baked with barley flour (1,687 μg/g), followed by corn (1,454 μg/g), oat (945 μg/g), wheat (705 μg/g), and rice (675 μg/g) flour. Browning was shown not to correlate with free radical scavenging capacity and digestibility of muffins. The presence of high phenolic content and low RDS makes barley muffin an ideal snack to modulate glycemic response.

  8. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet.

  9. Effects of corn-based reduced-starch diets using alternative carbohydrate sources on performance of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Fredin, S M; Cotanch, K W; Grant, R J; Kokko, C; Ji, P; Fujita, K

    2015-06-01

    Increases in grain prices have led to renewed interest in feeding reduced-starch diets to lactating dairy cows. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of altering carbohydrate sources and reducing dietary starch on lactational performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal measures of Holstein dairy cows. Fifteen multiparous cows (6 ruminally cannulated) were blocked and assigned to 1 of 5 squares and used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a control diet containing 20% brown midrib corn silage, 20% conventional corn silage, and 10% hay crop silage (CON); a reduced-starch high-forage diet containing 53% brown midrib corn silage and 10% hay crop silage (HFOR); and a reduced-starch diet containing the same forages as CON with partial replacement of corn meal by nonforage fiber sources (HNFFS). The CON diet contained (% of dry matter) 26.0% starch and 34.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), whereas the HFOR and HNFFS diets contained 21.4 or 21.3% starch and 38.3 or 38.0% NDF, respectively. Dry matter intake tended to be greater for cows fed the CON diet (28.2 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (27.2 kg/d). Dry matter intake for cows fed the HNFFS diet was intermediate (27.7 kg/d). Milk yield was greater for cows fed the CON diet (51.6 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (48.4 kg/d), but milk fat content tended to increase for cows fed the HFOR diet (3.98%) compared with those fed the CON diet (3.66%). Consequently, fat-corrected and solids-corrected milk yields were unaffected by dietary treatments. Total chewing, eating, and rumination times were similar across all dietary treatments. Rumination time per kilogram of DM was greatest for the HFOR diet, intermediate for the HNFFS diet, and least for the CON diet, whereas rumination time per kilogram of NDF was greatest for the CON diet and least for the HNFFS diet. Mean ruminal pH, NH3-N (mg/dL), and total volatile fatty acid

  10. Effect of storage time on in vitro digestion rate and resistant starch content of tortillas elaborated from commercial corn masas.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Tovar, Juscelino; Trejo-Estrada, Sergio Rubén; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2005-03-01

    Tortilla samples were elaborated by four small commercial factories in Mexico, employing masas prepared with the traditional nixtamalization process. Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 72 hours and their chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility features were evaluated. Chemical composition did not change with the storage time, but soluble carbohydrates decreased slightly during storage. A significant decrease in available starch content upon storage was observed, concomitant with increased resistant starch (RS) levels. These changes are possibly due to retrogradation. Retrograded resistant starch (RRS) values increased with storage time; in some samples, RRS represented more than 75% of total RS whereas in others it only accounted for 25%. The digestion rate (DR) in the freshly prepared tortillas was similar for the various samples, but after 72 h storage some differences among tortillas were found. Also, when a single tortilla sample was compared throughout the different storage times, lower DRs were determined in samples subjected to prolonged storage, which is related to the concomitant. increase in RRS. The differences found among the various tortilla samples may be due to minor variations in the commercial processing conditions and to the use of different corn varieties.

  11. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physicochemical and Microstructural Characterization of Corn Starch Edible Films Obtained by a Combination of Extrusion Technology and Casting Technique.

    PubMed

    Fitch-Vargas, Perla Rosa; Aguilar-Palazuelos, Ernesto; de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, José; Vega-García, Misael Odín; Valdez-Morales, Jesús Enrique; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Jacobo-Valenzuela, Noelia

    2016-09-01

    Starch edible films (EFs) have been widely studied due to their potential in food preservation; however, their application is limited because of their poor mechanical and barrier properties. Because of that, the aim of this work was to use the extrusion technology (Ex T) as a pretreatment of casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain EFs with improved physicochemical properties. To this, corn starch and a mixture of plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol, in different ratios) were processed in a twin screw extruder to generate the starch modification and subsequently casting technique was used for EFs formation. The best conditions of the Ex T and plasticizers concentration were obtained using response surface methodology. All the response variables evaluated, were affected significatively by the Plasticizers Ratio (Sorbitol:Glycerol) (PR (S:G)) and Extrusion Temperature (ET), while the Screw Speed (SS) did not show significant effect on any of these variables. The optimization study showed that the appropriate conditions to obtain EFs with the best mechanical and barrier properties were ET = 89 °C, SS = 66 rpm and PR (S:G) = 79.7:20.3. Once the best conditions were obtained, the optimal treatment was characterized according to its microstructural properties (X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy) to determine the damage caused in the starch during Ex T and casting technique. In conclusion, with the combination of Ex T and casting technique were obtained EFs with greater breaking strength and deformation, as well as lower water vapor permeability than those reported in the literature. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. EFFECT OF ENDOSPERM HARDNESS ON AN ETHANOL PROCESS USING A GRANULAR STARCH HYDROLYZING ENZYME

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P; W Liu, D B; Johnston, K D; Rausch, S J; Schmidt, M E; Tumbleson, V Singh

    2010-01-01

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) can hydrolyze starch at low temperature (32°C). The dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process) has fewer unit operations and no changes in process conditions (pH 4.0 and 32°C) compared to the conventional process because it dispenses with the cooking and liquefaction step. In this study, the effects of endosperm hardness, protease, urea, and GSHE levels on GSH process were evaluated. Ground corn, soft endosperm, and hard endosperm were processed using two GSHE levels (0.1 and 0.4 mL per 100 g ground material) and four treatments of protease and urea addition. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from a dry milling pilot plant; classifications were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. During 72 h of simultaneous granular starch hydrolysis and fermentation (GSHF), ethanol and glucose profiles were determined using HPLC. Soft endosperm resulted in higher final ethanol concentrations compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased final ethanol concentrations for soft and hard endosperm. Protease addition increased ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates for soft endosperm, hard endosperm, and ground corn. The effect of protease addition on ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was most predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm, and least for ground corn. Samples (soft endosperm, hard endosperm, or corn) with protease resulted in higher (1.0% to 10.5% v/v) ethanol concentration compared to samples with urea. The GSH process with protease requires little or no urea addition. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Due to nutrients (lipids, minerals, and soluble proteins) present in corn that enhance yeast growth, ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm.

  14. Hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch: a potential new therapeutic option for treating hypoglycemia in autoimmune hypoglycemia (Hirata's disease).

    PubMed

    Lechner, K; Aulinger, B; Brand, S; Waldmann, E; Parhofer, K G

    2015-12-01

    We report the successful treatment of autoimmune hypoglycemia in an 82-year-old non-diabetic Caucasian male with hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch, a product which is used in other conditions associated with hypoglycemia, most typically glycogen storage disease type I. An 82-year-old-Caucasian male presented with recurrent spontaneous hypoglycemia as low as 30 mg/dl following in-patient treatment for community acquired pneumonia. During a fasting-test, symptomatic hypoglycemia occurred. Plasma concentrations of c-peptide and insulin were considerably elevated. Autoimmune hypoglycemia was confirmed by the presence of insulin autoantibodies. While dietary restriction alone did not result in sufficient glucose control in this patient with autoimmune hypoglycemia, treatment with hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch led to stable euglycemia. This easy, well tolerated and non-invasive treatment may constitute a new therapeutic option for hypoglycemia in patients with autoimmune hypoglycemia who do not achieve sufficient control of hypoglycemia by dietary restriction alone.

  15. Potential application of corn starch edible films with spice essential oils for the shelf life extension of red meat.

    PubMed

    Radha Krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Rakhavan, K R; Tharavin, R; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of corn starch (CS) edible films with spice oils on the stability of raw beef during refrigerated storage. The antimicrobial properties of corn starch films containing 0-4·0% (w/v) ratios of clove (CL) and cinnamon (CI) essential oils (EOs) were tested against seven meat spoilage organisms by zone inhibition test. Effects of CS films containing 3% CL or CI or a mixture of CL + CI were also tested in raw beef stored at 4°C. Meat samples were analysed for pH, microbial counts, colour values and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values for a period of 15 days. CS films with CL + CI resulted in a significant reduction in microbial populations in the meat samples and also improved meat colour stability at the end of storage period. The incorporation of spice EOs in CS films may provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that could improve the stability of raw meat. Results from this study may be applied in meat industries as an additional barrier to control microbial spoilage as well as lipid oxidation in meat products. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. The Preparation and Applications of One Biodegradable Liquid Film Mulching by Oxidized Corn Starch-Gelatin Composite.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xugang; Shan, Zhihua; Chen, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Degraded gelatin (Gel) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) as abundant, recyclable, and biodegradable materials can be applied to agricultural production, which has been investigated in this research. Firstly, the prepared oxidized corn starch-gelatin (OCS-Gel) composite material was characterized through a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture, and a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The OCS-Gel was then used as a liquid film mulching for agricultural production, and the application performances (hygroscopicity, permeability, water retention, etc.) of the OCS-Gel were measured. Finally, the planting rapeseed experiments were carried out, and the germination and growing state of the rapeseed seeds were observed. The results from the structural analysis indicated that OCS-Gel enriches pore structure and exhibits high thermal stability up to 324.8 °C. In the application experiments, the OCS-Gel showed excellent properties of water-absorbing and water-retention and low permeability. In addition, the germination rate of the rapeseed seed reached 80 %, and the height of rapeseeds obviously increased in pot experiments after adding the liquid film mulching.

  17. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P < 0.05) when compared with birds fed diets without carbohydrases. Relative to the basal diet, AMEn was increased (P < 0.01) by 70 kcal/kg and 99 kcal/kg when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by 3.5% and 2.4%, respectively, when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of

  18. Dietary soyabean oil depresses the apparent digestibility of fibre in trotters when substituted for an iso-energetic amount of corn starch or glucose.

    PubMed

    Jansen, W L; Geelen, S N J; van der Kuilen, J; Beynen, A C

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether the inhibitory effect of fat feeding on fibre digestion has been underestimated due to the substitution of fat for corn starch. A high fat intake has been shown to lower total intestinal tract apparent digestibility of crude fibre in horses but, since fat was substituted for nonstructural carbohydrates, including starch, the specific effect of fat could not be ascertained. The possibility could not be excluded that starch also inhibits fibre digestibility, so that the fat effect observed earlier would have been underestimated. In this study, the intakes of iso-energetic amounts of soyabean oil, corn starch or glucose were compared as to fibre digestibility. Unlike starch, glucose is fully absorbed by the small intestine and, therefore, is not expected to influence fibre fermentation in the caecum and colon. Six trotters were fed rations high in soyabean oil (158 g/kg dry matter), corn starch (337 g/kg dry matter) or glucose (263 g/kg dry matter) according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Apparent crude fibre digestibility was similar for the rations with corn starch (mean +/- s.d., 70.7 +/- 3.06% of intake, n = 6) or glucose (71.0 +/- 1.90%), but was significantly depressed by fat feeding (56.5 +/- 7.65%). Similar observations were made for apparent digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fibre and of cellulose. It was concluded that the addition of fat to the feed ration of horses has a specific inhibitory effect on fibre utilisation and, therefore, reduces the amount of energy provided by dietary fibre.

  19. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients. PMID:26770915

  20. Impact of ghosts on the viscoelastic response of gelatinized corn starch dispersions subjected to small strain deformations.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Navas, H; Avila-de la Rosa, G; Gómez-Luría, D; Meraz, M; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2014-09-22

    Corn starch dispersions (5.0% w/w) were gelatinized by heating at 90°C for 20 min using gentle stirring. Under these conditions, ghosts, which are insoluble material with high amylopectin content, were detected by optical microscopy. Strain sweep tests showed that the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD) exhibited a loss modulus (G″) overshoot at relatively low strains (∼1%). In order to achieve a greater understanding as to the mechanisms giving rise to this uncharacteristic nonlinear response at low strains, very small constant torques (from 0.05 to 0.5 μN m) were applied in the bulk of the GSD with a rotating biconical disc. This resulted in small deformations exhibiting torque-dependent inertio-elastic damped oscillations which were subjected to phenomenological modelling. Inertial effects played an important role in the starch mechanical response. The model parameters varied with the magnitude of constant small applied torque and could be related to microstructural changes of ghosts and to the viscoelastic response of GSD.

  1. Detoxification of corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors by Pseudomonas putida and Streptomyces setonii suspended cells and plastic compost support biofilms.

    PubMed

    Khiyami, Mohammad A; Pometto Iii, Anthony L; Brown, Robert C

    2005-04-20

    Plant biomass can be liquefied into fermentable sugars (levoglucosan then to glucose) for the production of ethanol, lactic acid, enzymes, and more by a process called pyrolysis. During the process microbial inhibitors are also generated. Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17484) and Streptomyces setonii75Vi2 (ATCC 39116) were employed to degrade microbial inhibitors in diluted corn stover (Dcs) and diluted corn starch (Dst) pyrolysis liquors. The detoxification process evaluation included measuring total phenols and changes in UV spectra, a GC-MS analysis, and a bioassay, which employed Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamosus (ATCC 11443) growth as an indicator of detoxification. Suspended-cell cultures illustrated limited detoxification ability of Dcs and Dst. P. putida and S. setoniiplastic compost support (PCS) biofilm continuous-stirred-tank-reactor pure cultures detoxified 10 and 25% (v/v) Dcs and Dst, whereas PCS biofilm mixed culture also partially detoxified 50% (v/v) Dcs and Dst in repeated batch culture. Therefore, PCS biofilm mixed culture is the process of choice to detoxify diluted pyrolysis liquors.

  2. FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

  3. A comparison of corn fiber gum, hydrophobically modified starch, gum arabic and soybean soluble polysaccharide: interfacial dynamics, viscoelastic response at oil/water interfaces and emulsion stabilization mechanisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interfacial rheology of polysaccharide adsorption layers of corn fiber gum (CFG), octenyl succinate anhydride-modified starch (OSA-s), gum arabic (GA) and soybean soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) at the oil/water interface and their emulsifying properties in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were compa...

  4. Corn starch granules with enhanced load-carrying capacity via citric acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

    2013-01-02

    This research investigated conditions by which maize starch granule porosity and load-carrying capacity (LCC) might be enhanced via treatment with varying citric acid concentrations (0.5-1.5 M), temperatures (40-60 °C), and lengths of treatment (1-8 h). At the lowest temperatures (40 and 50 °C), citric acid treatment induced minimal physicochemical changes to granules. In contrast, both aqueous and oil LCCs of starches treated at 60 °C (0.5 M citric acid, 2 h) were almost doubled (15.69 and 14.48 mL/10 g starch, respectively), recovering 92% of the granular starch after treatment. Such treatment increased starch hydration capacity (0.97-1.91) and reduced gelatinization enthalpy (10.6-7.4 J/g). More severe treatment conditions adversely impacted aqueous LCC (due to excessive granule swelling), but improved oil absorption. The basis for LCC enhancement by citric acid treatment was ascribed to leaching of starch material from granules and partial disruption of the granule crystalline structure, as opposed to starch hydrolysis or chemical substitution.

  5. Effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on physicochemical properties of pregelatinized and granular cold-water swelling corn starches.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Sara; Majzoobi, Mahsa; Shahidi, Fakhri; Koocheki, Arash; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-12-15

    The physicochemical properties of drum dried pregelatinized (PG) and granular cold-water-swelling (GCWS) corn starch pastes were determined in the presence of NaCl and CaCl2 (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200mM). Light micrographs revealed that NaCl roughened the surface of PG starch particles while CaCl2 did not bring about obvious changes on their morphology. In the case of GCWS starch, there were some wrinkles on the surface of starch granules. NaCl increased the wrinkles but CaCl2 softened the surface of granules. GCWS starch had higher water absorption, cold paste viscosity and textural parameters than PG starch and these parameters were enhanced with addition of CaCl2 while NaCl exhibited an opposite trend for all of these factors. The Freeze-thaw (F-T) stability and turbidity of GCWS were also higher than PG starch. In presence of salts F-T stability and turbidity of both modified starches improved and CaCl2 caused more evident changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage.

  7. Tailoring barrier properties of thermoplastic corn starch-based films (TPCS) by means of a multilayer design.

    PubMed

    Fabra, María José; López-Rubio, Amparo; Cabedo, Luis; Lagaron, Jose M

    2016-12-01

    This work compares the effect of adding different biopolyester electrospun coatings made of polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on oxygen and water vapour barrier properties of a thermoplastic corn starch (TPCS) film. The morphology of the developed multilayer structures was also examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed a positive linear relationship between the amount of the electrospun coatings deposited onto both sides of the TPCS film and the thickness of the coating. Interestingly, the addition of electrospun biopolyester coatings led to an exponential oxygen and water vapour permeability drop as the amount of the electrospun coating increased. This study demonstrated the versatility of the technology here proposed to tailor the barrier properties of food packaging materials according to the final intended use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationships between dry matter content, ensiling, ammonia-nitrogen, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in high-moisture corn samples.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Taysom, K; Taysom, D M; Shaver, R D; Hoffman, P C

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to determine relationships between high-moisture corn (HMC) dry matter (DM), ammonia-N [% of crude protein (CP)], and soluble CP concentrations, and pH, with 7-h ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivStarchD), and (2) to evaluate the effect of ensiling on pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD measurements in HMC. A data set comprising 6,131 HMC samples (55 to 80% DM) obtained from a commercial feed analysis laboratory was used for this study. Month of sample submittal was assumed to be associated with length of the ensiling period. Data for month of sample submittal were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with month as a fixed effect. Regressions to determine linear and quadratic relationships between ivStarchD and ammonia-N, soluble CP, pH, and DM content were performed using Proc Mixed. The ivStarchD increased by 9 percentage units from October to August of the following year. Similar results were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP with increases from 1.8 to 4.6% of CP and 31.3 to 46.4% of CP, respectively, from October to August of the following year. Ammonia-N was positively related to ivStarchD (R(2)=0.61). The DM content of HMC at silo removal was negatively related (R(2)=0.47) to ivStarchD with a decrease of 1.6 percentage units in ivStarchD per 1-percentage-unit increase in DM content. The pH of HMC was negatively related to ammonia-N (R(2)=0.53), soluble CP (R(2)=0.57), and ivStarchD (R(2)=0.51). Combined, ammonia-N, DM, soluble CP, and pH provided a good prediction of ivStarchD (adjusted R(2)=0.70). Increasing pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD values indicate that HMC may need up to 10 mo of ensiling to reach maximum starch digestibility. Ammonia-N, DM content, soluble CP concentration, and pH are good indicators of ruminal in vitro starch digestibility for high-moisture corn. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Electrical analysis of amorphous corn starch-based polymer electrolyte membranes doped with LiI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukur, M. F.; Ibrahim, F. M.; Majid, N. A.; Ithnin, R.; Kadir, M. F. Z.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, polymer electrolytes have been prepared by doping starch with lithium iodide (LiI). The incorporation of 30 wt% LiI optimizes the room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte at (1.83 ± 0.47) × 10-4 S cm-1. Further conductivity enhancement to (9.56 ± 1.19) × 10-4 S cm-1 is obtained with the addition of 30 wt% glycerol. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the conductivity enhancement is due to the increase in amorphous content. The activation energy, Ea, of 70 wt% starch-30 wt% LiI electrolyte is 0.26 eV, while 49 wt% starch-21 wt% LiI-30 wt% glycerol electrolyte exhibits an Ea of 0.16 eV. Dielectric studies show that all the electrolytes obey non-Debye behavior. The power law exponent s is obtained from the variation of dielectric loss, ɛi, with frequency at different temperatures. The conduction mechanism of 70 wt% starch-30 wt% LiI electrolyte can be explained by the correlated barrier hopping model, while the conduction mechanism for 49 wt% starch-21 wt% LiI-30 wt% glycerol electrolyte can be represented by the quantum mechanical tunneling model.

  10. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model.

  11. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of corn tortilla, black beans, and tortilla-bean mixture: effect of cold storage.

    PubMed

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Tovar, Juscelino; Osorio-Díaz, P; Paredes-López, Octavio; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2005-02-23

    People in the rural areas of Mexico consume corn tortillas and beans as basic components of their diet. However, little is known about the nutritionally relevant features of starch present in such combined meals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro bioavailability of starch in tortilla-bean mixtures stored at 4 degrees C for different times, as compared to that of corn tortilla and boiled black beans kept separately under the same conditions. Available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS), and retrograded resistant starch (RRS) contents were measured. The in vitro starch hydrolysis indices (HI) of freshly cooked and cold-stored samples were evaluated using a chewing/dialysis digestion protocol. HIs were used to predict glycemic indices (pGI) of the samples. AS in tortilla and beans decreased between 3 and 6% after 48-72 h, whereas values in the mixture fell by 3% after 48 h, with no further change by 72 h. Only minor rises in RS contents (1.5-1.6%) were recorded for tortilla and beans after 72 h of storage, and a lower increase (0.4%) was recorded in the mixture. Judging from RRS values, an important proportion of RS is due to starch retrogradation. The HI and pGI were higher in tortilla than in bean and the mixture. Hydrolysis rate values decreased in the stored samples, a pattern that corresponded with RS and RRS changes. The slow digestion features of common beans are largely retained by the legume-tortilla combination. Data support the perceived health beneficial properties of starch in this traditional cereal-legume food.

  12. NMR relaxation investigation of the native corn starch structure with plasticizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioica, N.; Fechete, R.; Cota, C.; Nagy, E. M.; David, L.; Cozar, O.

    2013-07-01

    The influences of starch, glycerol and water ratios on the structure, morphology and dynamics of starch polymer chains were investigated by NMR relaxation method. The 1H NMR CPMG echo decays and saturation recovery build-up curves were recorded and analyzed using the UPIN algorithm in order to get the spin-spin T2 and spin-lattice T1 relaxation times distributions. Significant differences between the CPMG curves were observed for native starch and the formulas in which water is added, whether these have or not glycerol in composition. For the formula which contains both plasticizers (water and glycerol), the CPMG curves decay slowly, indicating the presence of more mobile components.

  13. Electron microscopic investigation of the diffusion of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase into corn starch granules.

    PubMed

    Helbert, W; Schülein, M; Henrissat, B

    1996-10-01

    A method for the direct electron microscopic observation of amylases in interaction with starch granules is presented. The technique involves immuno-gold labeling of the enzymes and cross-sectioning of hydrated starch granules. This approach allows the analysis of the internal degradation of starch with a concomitant visualization of enzymes at the sites of hydrolysis. The visualization of enzymes at the surface, inside the channel and inside the core of the degraded granules shows that the alpha-amylase molecules first proceed from the surface toward the center (centripetal hydrolysis). Then the core is completely degraded from within by erosion of its periphery (centrifugal hydrolysis). In the first case (centripetal hydrolysis), the enzymes act by progressing along the polysaccharide chains. By contrast, the centrifugal hydrolysis leads to even erosion, indicative of a more diffusive motion of the enzymes.

  14. Heat-moisture treatment of high-amylose corn starch increases dietary fiber content and lowers plasma cholesterol in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Ogawa, H; Ando, R; Nakakuki, T; Kishida, T; Ebihara, K

    2007-11-01

    The effect of dietary high-amylose corn starch (HACS) of varying dietary fiber (DF) content on plasma cholesterol was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Gelatinized normal corn starch (G-CS) was used as a reference. OVX rats were fed a fiber-free purified diet containing G-CS, HACS, gelatinized high-amylose corn starch (G-HACS), or heat-moisture treated HACS (HM-HACS) at 400 g starch/kg diet for 21 d. The DF content of G-CS, HACS, G-HACS, and HM-HACS measured by the AOAC method was 0.1, 19.3, 2.4, and 64.5 g/100 g, respectively. The dry weight of cecal contents, cecal wall weight, the amount of short chain fatty acids in cecal contents, the amount of bile acids in small intestinal contents, and fecal excretion of neutral sterols increased logarithmically with increasing DF, while total plasma cholesterol concentration decreased. On the other hand, hepatic CYP7A1 activity, fecal dry weight, and fecal excretion of bile acids increased linearly with increasing DF, while body weight gain decreased. The hypocholesterolemic effect of HACS in OVX-rats appeared to be more effective by heat-moisture treatment.

  15. Viability of bifidobacteria strains in yogurt with added oat beta-glucan and corn starch during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Rosburg, Valerie; Boylston, Terri; White, Pamela

    2010-06-01

    Probiotics must be consumed at a level of 10(7) CFU/mL for successful colonization of the gut. In yogurts containing beneficial cultures, the survival of probiotic strains can quickly decline below this critical concentration during cold storage. We hypothesized that beta-glucan would increase the viability of bifidobacteria strains in yogurt during cold storage. Yogurts were produced containing 0.44% beta-glucan (concentrated or freeze-dried) extracted from whole oat flour and/or 1.33% modified corn starch, and bifidobacteria (B. breve or B. longum) at a concentration of at least 10(9) CFU/mL. All yogurts were stored at 4 degrees C. Bifidobacteria and yogurt cultures, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbureckii subsp. bulgaricus, were enumerated from undisturbed aliquots before fermentation, after fermentation, and once a week for 5 wk. S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus maintained a concentration of at least 10(8) CFU/mL in yogurts containing concentrated or freeze-dried beta-glucan regardless of starch addition, and in the control with no added beta-glucan or starch. Similarly, the probiotic, Bifidobacterium breve, survived above a therapeutic level in all treatments. The addition of beta-glucan prolonged the survival of Bifidobacterium longum at a concentration of at least 10(7) CFU/mL by up to 2 wk on average beyond the control. Further, the inclusion of concentrated beta-glucan in yogurt improved survival of B. longum above 10(7) CFU/mL by 1 wk longer than did freeze-dried beta-glucan. Study results suggest that beta-glucan has a protective effect on bifidobacteria in yogurt when stressed by low-temperature storage.

  16. Biodegradable polymer blends based on corn starch and thermoplastic chitosan processed by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Mendes, J F; Paschoalin, R T; Carmona, V B; Sena Neto, Alfredo R; Marques, A C P; Marconcini, J M; Mattoso, L H C; Medeiros, E S; Oliveira, J E

    2016-02-10

    Blends of thermoplastic cornstarch (TPS) and chitosan (TPC) were obtained by melt extrusion. The effect of TPC incorporation in TPS matrix and polymer interaction on morphology and thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. Possible interactions between the starch molecules and thermoplastic chitosan were assessed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses showed a homogeneous fracture surface without the presence of starch granules or chitosan aggregates. Although the incorporation of thermoplastic chitosan caused a decrease in both tensile strength and stiffness, films with better extensibility and thermal stability were produced.

  17. Improvement of D-Ribose Production from Corn Starch Hydrolysate by a Transketolase-Deficient Strain Bacillus subtilis UJS0717

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhuan; Zhou, Jue; Sun, WenJing; Cui, FengJie; Xu, QinHua; Liu, ChangFeng

    2015-01-01

    D-Ribose is a five-carbon sugar and generally used as an energy source to improve athletic performance and the ability. The culture conditions for maximum D-ribose production performance from cheap raw material corn starch hydrolysate were improved by using one-factor-at-a-time experiments and a three-level Box-Behnken factorial design. The optimal fermentation parameters were obtained as 36°C culture temperature, 10% inoculum volume, and 7.0 initial pH. The mathematical model was then developed to show the effect of each medium composition and their interactions on the production of D-ribose and estimated that the optimized D-ribose production performance with the concentration of 62.13 g/L, yield of 0.40 g/g, and volumetric productivity of 0.86 g/L·h could be obtained when the medium compositions were set as 157 g/L glucose, 21 g/L corn steep liquor, 3.2 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 1 g/L yeast extract, 0.05 g/L MnSO4·H2O, and 20 g/L CaCO3. These findings indicated the D-ribose production performance was significantly improved compared to that under original conditions. PMID:26759810

  18. Improvement of D-Ribose Production from Corn Starch Hydrolysate by a Transketolase-Deficient Strain Bacillus subtilis UJS0717.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhuan; Zhou, Jue; Sun, WenJing; Cui, FengJie; Xu, QinHua; Liu, ChangFeng

    2015-01-01

    D-Ribose is a five-carbon sugar and generally used as an energy source to improve athletic performance and the ability. The culture conditions for maximum D-ribose production performance from cheap raw material corn starch hydrolysate were improved by using one-factor-at-a-time experiments and a three-level Box-Behnken factorial design. The optimal fermentation parameters were obtained as 36°C culture temperature, 10% inoculum volume, and 7.0 initial pH. The mathematical model was then developed to show the effect of each medium composition and their interactions on the production of D-ribose and estimated that the optimized D-ribose production performance with the concentration of 62.13 g/L, yield of 0.40 g/g, and volumetric productivity of 0.86 g/L·h could be obtained when the medium compositions were set as 157 g/L glucose, 21 g/L corn steep liquor, 3.2 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 1 g/L yeast extract, 0.05 g/L MnSO4·H2O, and 20 g/L CaCO3. These findings indicated the D-ribose production performance was significantly improved compared to that under original conditions.

  19. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill

    PubMed Central

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was <4%, whereas the reduction was about 7-8% without the binder. With 4% binder and 33% (w.b.) feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed of the dried pellets were >510 kg/m3 and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%. PMID:27340875

  20. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill.

    PubMed

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C; Hoover, Amber N

    2016-06-15

    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was <4%, whereas the reduction was about 7-8% without the binder. With 4% binder and 33% (w.b.) feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed of the dried pellets were >510 kg/m(3) and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%.

  1. Steam-processed corn and sorghum grain flaked at different densities alter ruminal, small intestinal, and total tract digestibility of starch by steers.

    PubMed

    Theurer, C B; Lozano, O; Alio, A; Delgado-Elorduy, A; Sadik, M; Huber, J T; Zinn, R A

    1999-10-01

    Crossbred steers (n = 7; 400 kg BW), fitted with T-type cannulas in the duodenum and ileum, were used to examine the effects of processing method, dry-rolled (DR) vs. steam-flaked (SF) sorghum grain, and degree of processing (flake density; FD) of SF corn (SFC) and SF sorghum (SFS) grain on site and extent of DM, starch, and N digestibilities and to measure extent of microbial N flow to the duodenum. In Exp. 1, diets contained 77% DRS or 77% SFS with FD of 437, 360, and 283 g/L (SF34, SF28, and SF22). In Exp. 2, diets contained 77% SFC with FD of SF34 or SF22. For sorghum and corn diets, respective average daily intakes were as follows: DM, 6.7 and 8.1 kg; starch, 3.8 and 4.7 kg; N, 136 and 149 g. Steers fed SFS vs. DRS increased (P = .01) starch digestibilities (percentage of intake) in the rumen (82 vs. 67%) and total tract (98.9 vs. 96.5%) and decreased digestibilities in the small intestine (16 vs. 28%; P = .01) and large intestine (.5 vs 1.2%; P = .05). As a percentage of starch entering the segment, digestibility was increased (P = .01) within the small intestine (91 vs. 85%) but was not altered within the large intestine by steers fed SFS vs. DRS. Decreasing FD of SFS and of SFC, respectively, linearly increased starch digestibilities (percentage of intake) in the rumen (P = .03, .02) and total tract (P = .03, .09) and linearly diminished starch digestibilities in the small intestine (P = .04, .09). Starch digestibilities (percentage of entry) within the small or large intestine were not changed by FD. The percentage of dietary corn or sorghum starch digested in the large intestine was very small, less than 2% of intake. Microbial N flow to the duodenum was not altered by SFS compared to DRS, or by decreasing FD of SFS and SFC. Reducing FD of SFS, but not of SFC, tended to decrease (P = .07) microbial efficiency linearly and tended to increase (P = .06) total tract N digestibilities linearly. Steam flaking compared to dry rolling of sorghum grain and

  2. The effect of partial gelatinization of corn starch on its retrogradation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zong-qiang; Wang, Li-jun; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yu-guang; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of partial gelatinization of starch on its retrogradation using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The Avrami equation was used to predict the evolution of starch retrogradation kinetics. The degree of retrogradation in starch samples partially gelatinized 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and control (S25) increased with storage time. The retrogradation enthalpies of S68 and S70 were almost four times as high as that of S64. The S25 and S64 had dominant A-type crystalline pattern while S68 and S70 showed dominant B-type crystalline pattern. The growth of remainder crystals was faster in S25 and S64, while both the nucleation and growth rates of new crystals were faster in S68 and S70. The Avrami model was found to represent the retrogradation kinetics data of these partially gelatinized starch samples quite satisfactorily (R(2)>0.95). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    The morphology, physiology and fermentation characteristics of this hitherto unrecognized species are described. The new Lactobacillus species can be differentiated from L. acidophilus, L. jensenii, and L. leichmannii on the basis of starch fermentation, G + C content, vitamin requirements and stereoisomerism of lactic acid produced. The type strain of L. amylovorus is NRRL B-4540. (Refs. 39).

  4. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    PubMed

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  5. The effects of starch and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed forage proportion.

    PubMed

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of the type (starch vs. nonstarch) and rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six ruminally cannulated cows were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Two starch levels [25 and 41% dry matter (DM) for low starch (LS) and high starch (HS) diets, respectively] were obtained by replacing starch-rich feedstuffs by nonstarch feedstuffs. These starch levels were combined with slowly, moderately, and rapidly rumen-degradable feedstuffs to obtain 3 levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from concentrate (18, 23, and 28% DM). These levels were estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly degradable and slowly degradable starch feedstuffs, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly degradable and rapidly degradable nonstarch feedstuffs, respectively. No interaction effect was found between dietary starch content and CRDM on pH range, volatile fatty acid (VFA) range, or VFA profile. Increasing CRDM led to a linear decrease in acetate-to-propionate ratio (from 2.7 to 2.1), and a linear increase in the pH and VFA ranges (from 0.86 to 1.12 pH units and from 34 to 56mM, respectively). Feeding HS diets decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.6 vs. 2.0) and increased pH range (0.89 vs. 1.04 pH units), but had no effect on VFA range. Increasing CRDM linearly decreased mean ruminal pH in LS diets but linearly increased mean ruminal pH in HS diets. Fibrolytic activity was unaffected in LS diets but decreased strongly in HS diets (from 62 to 50%). These findings suggest that pH regulation differs on a short-term and on a longer-term basis. In the short-term, increasing CRDM increased the rate of VFA production, which may have been partly buffered under LS diets due to the higher

  6. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals and gelatin in corn starch plasticized films.

    PubMed

    Alves, J S; dos Reis, K C; Menezes, E G T; Pereira, F V; Pereira, J

    2015-01-22

    Cellulose at the nanoparticle scale has been studied as a reinforcement for biodegradable matrices to improve film properties. The goal has been to investigate the properties of starch/gelatin/cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) films. Eleven treatments were considered using RCCD (rotatable central composite design), in addition to four control treatments. For each assay, the following dependent variables were measured: water vapor permeability (WVP), thickness, opacity and mechanical properties. The microstructure and thermal properties of the films were also assessed. Increases in gelatin and CNC concentrations lead to increases in film thickness, strength and elongation at break. The films containing only gelatin in their matrix displayed better results than the starch films, and the addition of CNC had a positive effect on the assessed response variables. The films exhibited homogeneous and cohesive structures, indicating strong interactions between the filler and matrix. Films with low levels of gelatin and CNC presented the maximum degradation temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  8. The effects of dry-rolled corn particle size on performance, carcass traits, and starch digestibility in feedlot finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, E F; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D

    2016-03-01

    Crossbred yearling steers ( = 360; 395 ± 33.1 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate the effects of dry-rolled corn (DRC) particle size in diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and starch digestibility. Steers were used in a randomized complete block design and allocated to 36 pens (9 pens/treatment, with 10 animals/pen). Treatments were coarse DRC (4,882 μm), medium DRC (3,760 μm), fine DRC (2,359 μm), and steam-flaked corn (0.35 kg/L; SFC). Final BW and ADG were not affected by treatment ( > 0.05). Dry matter intake was greater and G:F was lower ( < 0.05) for steers fed DRC vs. steers fed SFC. There was a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in DMI in the final 5 wk on feed with decreasing DRC particle size. Fecal starch decreased (linear, < 0.01) as DRC particle size decreased. In situ starch disappearance was lower for DRC vs. SFC ( < 0.05) and linearly increased ( < 0.05) with decreasing particle size at 8 and 24 h. Reducing DRC particle size did not influence growth performance but increased starch digestion and influenced DMI of cattle on finishing diets. No differences ( > 0.10) were observed among treatments for any of the carcass traits measured. Results indicate improved ruminal starch digestibility, reduced fecal starch concentration, and reduced DMI with decreasing DRC particle size in feedlot diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains on a DM basis.

  9. Effect of corn preparation methods on dry-grind ethanol production by granular starch hydrolysis and partitioning of spent beer solids.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, B P; Wang, H; Johnson, L A

    2011-06-01

    Two corn preparation methods, rollermill flaking and hammermill grinding, were compared for efficient processing of corn into ethanol by granular starch hydrolysis and simultaneous fermentation by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Corn was either ground in a hammermill with different size screens or crushed in a smooth-surfaced rollermill at different roller gap settings. The partitioning of beer solids and size distribution of solids in the thin stillage were compared. The mean particle diameter d(50) for preparations varied with set-ups and ranged between 210 and 340 μm for ground corn, and 1180-1267 μm for flaked corn. The ethanol concentrations in beer were similar (18-19% v/v) for ground and flaked preparations, however, ethanol productivity increased with reduced particle size. Roller versus hammermilling of corn reduced solids in thin stillage by 28%, and doubled the volume percent of fines (d(50) ∼ 7 μm)in thin stillage and decreased coarse (d(50) ∼ 122 μm) by half compared to hammermilling.

  10. Effects of Temperature on Dynamic Properties of a Biodegradable Polymer Made from Corn Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Ito, Noriomi; Kawase, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Koichi

    The effect of strain rate on compressive properties of starch-based biodegradable plastics (Nihon Cornstarch Co., CPR-M2) was examined. Dynamic stress-strain curves of starch-based biodegradable plastics were measured over a wide range of strain rates from 10-5 s-1 to 104 s-1, using a quasi-static compression testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The strain rate slightly affected Young's modulus and considerably increased 7% flow stress. Empirical equation for 7% flow stress was derived for the strain rates from 10-5 s-1 to 104 s-1. In addition, the effect of temperature on Young's modulus and flow stress was also examined in a range from 4°C to 63°C. A master curve of 7% flow stress, reduced to 24°C, was made. The values of activation energies related to the α and β relaxation processes were respectively estimated from the master curve of 7% flow stress and from the best fit of equations based on Ree-Eyring theory and Bauwens' treatment. Temperature measurement of specimens was also made using thermocouples during dynamic compression.

  11. Effects of ruminal doses of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oba, M; Mewis, J L; Zhining, Z

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate effects of a ruminal dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells. Six ruminally cannulated nonlactating nonpregnant Holstein cows (body weight=725±69.6kg) were assigned to treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design with 7-d periods; 1d for data and sample collection followed by a 6-d washout period. Cows were fed a diet containing whole-crop barley silage and dry ground corn, and dietary neutral detergent fiber and crude protein contents were 41.8 and 13.2% [dry matter (DM) basis], respectively. Treatment was a pulse-dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch (3.0, 3.0, and 2.85kg of DM, respectively; providing similar amounts of hexose across the treatments) through the ruminal cannulas. All treatments were given with alfalfa silage (1.75kg DM) to prevent acute rumen acidosis. Rumen pH was continuously monitored, and rumen fluid was sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after the dose. In addition, ruminal papillae were sampled from the ventral sac at 180min after the dose. Ruminal dosing with sucrose and lactose, compared with corn starch, increased ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportion of butyrate from 60 to 180min after the dose, and expression of genes for sodium hydrogen exchanger isoforms 1 and 2, and ATPase isoform 1 in ruminal epithelial cells. Ruminal dosing with sucrose, compared with lactose and corn starch, decreased rumen pH from 120 to 180min after the dose and molar proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min after the dose, and increased molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min, and expression of genes involved in butyrate metabolism (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase isoform 1) and anion exchange across ruminal apical cell membrane (putative anion transporter isoform 1). These results suggest that replacing dietary starch with sugars may affect ruminal

  12. Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flow Response to Nitrogen-free Diets with Differing Ratios of Corn Starch to Dextrose in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and amino acid (AA) composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF) of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg) fed N-free diets (NFD) formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg) was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01) but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028) IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake) in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs. PMID:25083106

  13. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  14. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    PubMed

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  15. Prediction of the dry-milling performance of maize hybrids through hardness-associated properties.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Sacco, Dario; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2013-04-01

    The hardness of kernels determines the dry-milling processing performance of maize hybrids. The identification of the best maize hybrids for the dry-milling process requires a limited number of simple, practical and reliable tests that are able to predict the potential grit yield. A total of 119 samples from different genetic and environmental backgrounds, collected over 3 years, were analysed for coarse/fine ratio (C/F), floating test (FLT), protein content (PC), kernel sphericity (S), total milling energy (TME) and test weight (TW). The total grit yield (TGY) of each sample was obtained through a micromilling procedure based on the manual separation of kernel endosperm followed by grinding and sieving under standard operational conditions. The TGY was used to establish the capability of the tests to predict the dry-milling aptitude. Single and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to establish equations for the prediction of TGY using C/F, FLT, PC, S, TME and TW as independent variables. The analyses were performed on three data sets, clustered year by year of the sample collection and analysis, and the resulting average coefficients of determination (R(2)) were compared by analysis of variance. C/F, FLT, TME and, to a lesser extent, TW appeared to be easy-to-use independent descriptors of maize dry-milling. An improved model prediction ability was observed when different combinations of a few physical and chemical properties were used as input variables. However, the models in which three or more variables were used did not lead to any significant improvement in TGY prediction compared with the smaller models. This study contributes towards establishing the best predictor of maize kernel aptitude to dry-milling processes. Of all considered data sets, a milling evaluation factor (C/F or TME) coupled with kernel density (measured by means of the FLT) showed the best predictive ability for dry-milled product yields. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of high amylose corn starch and microbial transglutaminase on the textural and microstructural properties of wheat flour composite gels at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shahsavani Mojarrad, Lida; Rafe, Ali; Sadeghian, Alireza; Niazmand, Razieh

    2017-05-29

    Textural and microstructural properties of composite gels (CGs), along with wheat flour and high amylose corn starch (Hylon VII) mixed with microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) at different levels and temperatures were investigated. The results showed by increasing Hylon starch content, the firmness increased and adhesiveness decreased. Indeed, high level of amylose and cross-linking formed by MTGase enhanced the gel elasticity and reduced adhesiveness. Moreover, MTGase had more effect on the firmness and provided more cross-linked intermolecular gel structures at high temperatures. By adding MTGase to the CG, the lowest peak viscosity and final viscosity were found for 15% of Hylon starch. As the more Hylon content in the CG, the more water solubility index was particularly obtained at high temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that MTGase and Hylon starch addition enhanced the structure. The differences in SEM of CG were reflected the pasting properties of the gels. Consequently, MTGase treated gels can withstand high temperature as well as maintain the overall structure of the samples gels. Therefore, the increment of Hylon to the CG gels supplied tighter, stronger, and denser protein network which were formed by MTGase cross-linking within the network of starch and proteins. Although, transglutaminase was practically used in the production of noodles and pasta in Japan, but there is little academic and industrial knowledge concerning its utilization in the pasta or noodles. Moreover, long shelf-life noodle/pasta products have become popular in the Japanese market and in the emergency conditions like as floods or earthquake, but they can be stored for at least 5 months by applying heat treatment at 95C. Here, high amylose corn starch as a resistant starch, wheat flour, and microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) were selected as the main components in the composite gel (CG) systems to elucidate the effects of MTGase and Hylon on the texture

  17. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed to remove residual water soluble proteins. Corn gluten is also produced as a byproduct during the conversion of the starch in...

  18. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Impact of amylosucrase modification on the structural and physicochemical properties of native and acid-thinned waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Xing; He, Jian; Wang, Tao; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches. With increasing reaction time, the relative crystallinity and endothermic enthalpy of the modified starches gradually decreased, whereas the melting peak temperatures and resistant starch contents increased. Slight differences were observed in thermal parameters, relative crystallinity, and branch chain length distribution between the modified native and acid-thinned starches. Moreover, the digestibility of the modified starches was not affected by acid hydrolysis pretreatment, but was affected by the percentage of intermediate and long chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fredin, S M; Shaver, R D

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous protease addition may be an option to increase proteolysis of zein proteins and thus starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn (HMC) ensiled for short periods. In addition, microbial inoculation may accelerate fermentation and increase acid production and thus increase solubilization of zein proteins. Four experiments were performed to evaluate the effect on fermentation profile, N fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of the following: (1) rehydration and ensiling of dry ground corn; (2) exogenous protease addition to rehydrated un-ensiled and ensiled corn; (3) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in rehydrated ensiled corn; and (4) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in HMC. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were performed with 7 treatments: dry ground corn (DGC); DGC rehydrated to a targeted dry matter content of 70% (REH); REH treated with exogenous protease (REH+); REH ensiled for 30 d (ENS); ENS treated with exogenous protease (ENS+); ENS treated with a microbial inoculant containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus sp. (ENSI); and ENS treated with exogenous protease and microbial inoculant (ENSI+). Experiment 1 compared DGC, REH, and ENS with ivSD being greater for ENS (64.9%) than DGC and REH (51.7% on average). Experiment 2 compared REH and ENS without or with exogenous protease addition (REH+ and ENS+, respectively). Ensiling and exogenous protease addition increased ivSD, but exogenous protease addition was more effective in ENS than REH (6.4 vs. 2.6 percentage unit increase). Experiment 3 compared the effects of exogenous protease addition and inoculation in ENS corn (ENS, ENS+, ENSI, and ENSI+). The addition of protease, but not inoculant, increased ivSD. Inoculation reduced pH and acetate, propionate, and ethanol concentrations, and increased lactate and total acid concentrations. In experiment 4, 8 treatments were a combination of HMC noninoculated

  1. Comparison of slurry mixing and dry milling in laboratory sample preparation for determination of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in wheat.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, Vincenzo; Pascale, Michelangelo; Valenzano, Stefania; Visconti, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The significance of laboratory sample preparation for the determination of two important mycotoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat was investigated by comparing water-slurry mixing and dry-milling procedures. The distribution of OTA and DON in 10 kg samples of naturally contaminated wheat was established by analyzing one hundred 100 g subsamples of each sample. A normal distribution and a good repeatability of DON measurements was observed for both water-slurry mixing (mean 2290 microg/kg, CV 4.6%, median 2290 microg/kg) and dry milling (mean 2310 microg/kg, CV 6.4%, median 2290 microg/kg) procedures. For OTA determinations, reliable results could be obtained only by slurry mixing sample preparation (mean 2.62 microg/kg, CV 4.0%, median 2.62 microg/kg), whereas dry-milling comminution resulted in an inhomogeneous distribution with a high variability (mean 0.83 microg/kg, CV 75.2%, median 0.60 microg/kg) and a positive skewness (2.12). Ad hoc experiments were performed on different size portions of the same sample (10 kg) to assess accuracy and precision of the comminution/homogenization procedures (slurry mixing and dry milling). Very good results were obtained for DON determination with both procedures in terms of accuracy (>98.7% of the "weighted value") and precision (CV <3%). For OTA determination good results were only obtained by slurry mixing (99.4% of the "weighted value," CV 10%), whereas dry milling provided results with low accuracy (43.2% of the "weighted value") and high variability (CV 110%). This study clearly demonstrated that sample preparation by slurry mixing is strictly necessary to obtain reliable laboratory samples for OTA determination in wheat to minimize misclassification of acceptable/rejectable lots, mainly within official control.

  2. End-product quality characteristics and consumer response of chickpea flour-based gluten-free muffins containing corn starch and egg white.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Herranz, Beatriz; Jiménez, María José; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this work was to study changes in technological characteristics and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins when using chickpea flour (CF) alone and/or with partial CF replacement by corn starch (CS). The effect of partial whole egg replacement by egg white (EW) was also investigated. Four different CF:CS ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75) were used in formulations with and without incorporated EW, and compared with wheat flour (WF) muffins (0:0). Muffins prepared from CF alone had lower hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience than control ones. However, reducing protein content by CS addition significantly increased texture profile analysis parameters of muffin crumb. Muffins prepared with 25:75 ratio had a structure with springiness similar to muffins made with WF but were too hard. Reducing whole egg content by partial replacement with EW also significantly increased muffin hardness. Flash profile performed by consumers showed a clear discrimination of muffins according to CF:CS ratio. Muffins containing both CF and CS at 50:50 ratio had the same high overall acceptability and purchase intention as gluten ones. Gluten-free CF-based muffins of satisfactory quality can be manufactured by CS incorporation, either with or without EW. By decreasing and increasing protein and starch contents of chickpea flour (CF) by incorporation of corn starch (CS), muffins formulated from a combination of CF and CS at different CF:CS ratios, either with or without partial replacement of whole egg with egg white, result in high-quality muffins with similar technological and sensory characteristics to those of their gluten counterparts. Sensory overall acceptability and purchase intention of muffins made with a 50:50 ratio did not differ significantly from those of the controls. These findings will benefit celiac population, while promoting the value and utilization of pulses through muffins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fuel ethanol production from granular corn starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a long term repeated SSF process with full stillage recycling.

    PubMed

    Białas, Wojciech; Szymanowska, Daria; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-05-01

    A major problem with fermentative ethanol production is the formation of large amounts of numerous organic pollutants. In an industrial distillery, stillage, fermenter and condenser cooling water are the main sources of wastewater. However, the selection of a proper technology makes it possible to almost completely avoid emissions of such kind of wastewater to the environment. This study examines the effect of stillage recirculation on fuel ethanol production. It is based on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using a native starch obtained from corn flour. It was shown that the yield of the ethanol production was not influenced by the recycled stillage, a mean yield being 83.38% of the theoretical value. No significant trend for change in the ethanol concentration or in the residual starch was observed during any particular run, even after the 75% of fresh water was replaced with stillage. Thus, by applying this new clean technology it is possible to significantly reduce the rate of water consumption and in this way the production of by-products such as stillage.

  4. Effect of gelatinization and additives on morphology and thermal behavior of corn starch/PVA blend films.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuegang; Li, Jiwei; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2012-11-06

    The blend films of ungelatinized and gelatinized starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared with a solution casting method by the introduction of additives (glycerol/urea) or not. The phase morphologies and thermal behaviors of the blends were carefully analyzed. A droplet phase was observed in the blends containing ungelatinized starch and a laminated phase was observed in the blends containing gelatinized starch. For both ungelatinized and gelatinized starch/PVA blends, the melting temperature (T(m)) (210-230 °C) of PVA was detected, and the T(m) of gelatinized starch/PVA blends was higher than that of the ungelatinized starch/PVA blends. Blend films containing 16.8 wt% of glycerol or urea exhibited a decreased T(m). The introduction of additives (glycerol or urea) reduced the decomposition onset temperature of the blend films. These various morphologies and thermal behaviors could be attributed to the different hydrogen bonding interaction characteristics between starch and polyvinyl alcohol at different conditions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis.

  6. Effects of partial replacement of dietary starch from barley or corn with lactose on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid absorption, nitrogen utilization, and production performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chibisa, G E; Gorka, P; Penner, G B; Berthiaume, R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-04-01

    In cows fed diets based on corn-alfalfa silage, replacing starch with sugar improves milk production. Although the rate of ruminal fermentation of sugar is more rapid than that of starch, evidence has been found that feeding sugar as a partial replacement for starch does not negatively affect ruminal pH despite increasing diet fermentability. The mechanism(s) for this desirable response are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing barley or corn starch with lactose (as dried whey permeate; DWP) on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows. Eight lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and source of starch (barley vs. corn) and level of DWP (0 vs. 6%, DM basis) as treatment factors. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal function, SCFA absorption, and N utilization. Dry matter intake and milk and milk component yields did not differ with diet. The dietary addition of DWP tended to increase ruminal butyrate concentration (13.6 vs. 12.2 mmol/L), and increased the Cl(-)-competitive absorption rates for acetate and propionate. There was no sugar effect on minimum ruminal pH, and the duration and area when ruminal pH was below 5.8. Minimum ruminal pH tended to be lower in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn (5.47 vs. 5.61). The duration when ruminal pH was below pH 5.8 tended to be shorter (186 vs. 235 min/d), whereas the area (pH × min/d) that pH was below 5.8 was smaller (47 vs. 111) on the corn than barley diets. Cows fed the high- compared with the low-sugar diet had lower ruminal NH3-N concentration. Feeding the high-sugar diet tended to increase apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter and organic matters and increased apparent total-tract digestibility of fat. Apparent total-tract digestibility of N tended to be greater in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn

  7. Quantifying Dry Milling in Pharmaceutical Processing: A Review on Experimental and Modeling Approaches.

    PubMed

    Naik, Shivangi; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2015-08-01

    Particle size reduction by mechanical means is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry, used to improve flow, solubility, and in amorphization of drugs. It is usually achieved by the fracturing of particles under the action of applied energy. Despite being pervasive in the pharmaceutical field, it is one of the least understood processes owing to the complexity of material and process variables involved during milling. To comprehend the process, efforts should be focused on techniques that measure the particle size as well as the control the process. With the ongoing initiative of US FDA to encourage design in quality, the review is focused on some process analytical tools to characterize particle size distribution as well as process modeling tools to simulate particle size reduction. Additionally, an overview of some fundamental aspects related to milling is provided. To this end, the review is limited, mainly concentrating on some of experimental and modeling approaches used to quantify and understand the physics behind the process of dry milling.

  8. Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy-saving alternative to production of high-fructose syrup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The liquefaction of pre-gelatinized starch was studied with various analytical techniques to determine the effects of starch molecular weight, granule structure, granule size, and mechanical depolymerization. Also, improvements were made in the chromatographic system used to characterize starch hydrolysates. Progress is reported on protein removal. The effects of pH, temperature, and ionic strength were examined for the removal of protein from a syrup stream by adsorption on a phenolic resin. Buffered systems, which maintain more stable pH values, were also examined. Mathematical modeling of the results is in progress. The pilot plant facility is complete and in operation. Starch streams containing 1% protein are being produced by the protein extraction process.

  9. Fat and starch as additive risk factors for milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the additive effects of starch and fat as risk factors associated with milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles. In experiment 1, 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows, averaging 114±14 d in milk and 662±52 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 4×4 Latin square to determine the effect of these risk factors on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. In each 21-d period, cows were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a control diet (CON; ether extract 5.2%, starch 19%); CON with added oil (OL; ether extract 6.4%, starch 18%); CON with added starch (STR; ether extract 5.5%, starch 22%); and CON with added oil and starch (COMBO; ether extract 6.5%, starch 23%). After completion of experiment 1, milk production response was evaluated in a second experiment with a similar approach to diet formulation. Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, averaging 117±17 d in milk and 641±82 kg, were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Results from experiment 1 showed that ruminal pH was not affected by treatment averaging 5.87±0.08. Molar proportion of propionate in rumen fluid was greatest on the COMBO diet, followed by OL and STR, and lowest for CON. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat increased with the COMBO diet. Adding oil, starch, or a combination of both resulted in lower concentration and yield of fatty acids<16 carbons. Compared with the control, OL and STR resulted in 13% lower concentration, whereas the COMBO diet resulted in a 27% reduction; similarly yield was reduced by 24% with the OL and STR treatments and 54% with the COMBO diet. In experiment 2, milk yield, milk protein percentage, and milk protein yield were similar across treatments, averaging 26.6±1.01 kg/d, 3.2±0.05%, and 0.84±0.03 kg/d, respectively. Fat-corrected milk was greatest for CON, 26

  10. Feasibility study for co-locating and integrating ethanol production plants from corn starch and lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Robert; Ibsen, Kelly; McAloon, Andrew; Yee, Winnie

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation.

  11. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping

    addition were evaluated in the dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process). Addition of proteases resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (15.2 to 18.0% v/v) and lower (DDGS) yields (32.9 to 45.8% db) compared to the control (no protease addition). As level of proteases and GSHE increased, ethanol concentrations increased and DDGS yields decreased. Proteases addition reduced required GSHE dose. Ethanol concentrations with protease addition alone were higher than with urea or with addition of both protease and urea. Corn endosperm consists of soft and hard endosperm. More exposed starch granules and rough surfaces produced from soft endosperm compared to hard endosperm will create more surface area which will benefit the solid phase hydrolysis as used in GSH process. In this study, the effects of protease, urea, endosperm hardness and GSHE levels on the GSH process were evaluated. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from dry milling pilot plant. Soft endosperm resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) for soft and hard endosperm. The effect of protease addition on increasing ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was more predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm and least for ground corn. The GSH process with protease resulted in higher ethanol concentration than that with urea. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm due to the presence of inherent nutrients which enhanced yeast growth.

  12. Thermodynamic study of binary system Propafenone Hydrocloride with Metoprolol Tartrate: solid-liquid equilibrium and compatibility with α-lactose monohydrate and corn starch.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, Daniela-Crina; Pincu, Elena; Meltzer, Viorica

    2013-05-20

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) for binary mixture of Propafenone Hydrocloride (PP) with Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and corresponding activity coefficients were calculated. Simple eutectic behavior for this system was observed. The excess thermodynamic functions: G(E) and S(E) for the pre-, post-, and eutectic composition have been obtained using the computed activity coefficients data of the eutectic phase with their excess chemical potentials μi(E) (i=1, 2). The experimental solid-liquid phase temperatures were compared with predictions obtained from available eutectic equilibrium models. The results indicate non-ideality in this mixture. Also, the compatibility of each component and their eutectic mixture with usual excipients was investigated, and the DSC experiments indicate possible weak interactions with α-lactose monohydrate and compatibility with corn starch. The results obtained were confirmed by FT-IR measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of high-pressure treatment on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch/locust bean gum mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Vatankhah, Hamed; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-10-05

    In this study, effects of a 30min high pressure (HP) treatment (200-600MPa) at room temperature on the rheological, thermal and morphological properties of resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with an increase pressure level, and demonstrated a bi-phasic behavior. HP treated RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G'>G'') or viscous (G''>G'), depending on the pressure level and LBG concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the pressurized mixtures showed a major effect on gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp,), and it was observed that RS/LBG mixtures gelatinized completely at ≥400MPa with a 30min holding time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed that at 600MPa, RS/LBG mixtures retained granular structures and their complete disintegration was not observed even at the endpoint of the gelatinization.

  14. Efficient production of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch by using a genetically modified L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient and alpha-amylase-secreting Lactobacillus plantarum strain.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Shinkawa, Satoru; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve direct and efficient fermentation of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch, we constructed L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum and introduced a plasmid encoding Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA). The resulting strain produced only D-lactic acid from glucose and successfully expressed amyA. With the aid of secreting AmyA, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished. After 48 h of fermentation, 73.2 g/liter of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.85 g per g of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of 99.6%. Moreover, a strain replacing the ldhL1 gene with an amyA-secreting expression cassette was constructed. Using this strain, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics. This is the first report of direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw starch.

  15. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li

    2017-08-02

    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy-saving alternative to production of high-fructose syrup. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1981-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the project to extract starch from corn efficiently. The procedure for removing organic impurities from corn syrup is described. Data are graphically shown of the ultraviolet scan of the dirty and clean syrup. Impurity in the glucose syrup could be reduced from 0.51 gm/ml level using the sedimental method down to 0.23 mg/ml by filtering the syrup through diatomic earth filter. The industrial products contain about 0.37 mg/ml (industrial product also filtered through diatomic earth filter). (MCW)

  17. Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.; Ibsen, K.; McAloon, A.; Yee, W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation. Although none of the scenarios identified could produce ethanol at lower cost than a straight grain ethanol plant, several were lower cost than a straight cellulosic ethanol plant.

  18. Biological control of aflatoxin contamination and pests in U.S. crops using formulations of corn starch-based bioplastic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For many years, these laboratories have studied the use of biological control methods to reduce aflatoxin contamination in harvested corn using non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates in grain-based granule and liquid formulations. More recently, research has focused on using various formulat...

  19. Method to produce durable pellets at lower energy consumption using high moisture corn stover and a corn starch binder in a flat die pellet mill

    DOE PAGES

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2016-06-15

    Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable energy resources for energy production. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for ground lignocellulosic biomass like corn stover limit its operation for energy purposes. The common drawbacks are inefficient transportation, a bigger storage foot print, and handling problems. Densification of biomass using pellet mill helps to overcome these limitations. This study helps to understand the effect of binder on high moisture biomass with a focus on the quality (density and durability), the pelleting efficiency and the specific energy consumption of its pelleting process. Raw corn stover was pelleted at high moisture ofmore » 33% (w.b.) at both varying preheating temperatures and binder percentage. The die speed of the pellet mill was set at 60Hz. The pellets produced were analyzed and showed higher moisture content. They were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70°C for 3-4 hr bringing the pellet moisture to <9%. The dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties like unit, bulk and tapped density, and durability. Furthermore, the results indicated increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved the physical properties of the pellets and reduced the specific energy consumption. Higher binder addition of 4% reduced the feedstock moisture loss during pelleting to <4%, which can be due reduced residence time of the material in the die. On the other hand the physical properties like density and durability improved significantly with binder addition. At 4% binder and 33% feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed were >510 kg/m3 and >98% and the percent fines generation has reduced to <3%. Also at these conditions the specific energy consumption was reduced by about 30-40% compared no binder pelleting test.« less

  20. Method to produce durable pellets at lower energy consumption using high moisture corn stover and a corn starch binder in a flat die pellet mill

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2016-06-15

    Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable energy resources for energy production. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for ground lignocellulosic biomass like corn stover limit its operation for energy purposes. The common drawbacks are inefficient transportation, a bigger storage foot print, and handling problems. Densification of biomass using pellet mill helps to overcome these limitations. This study helps to understand the effect of binder on high moisture biomass with a focus on the quality (density and durability), the pelleting efficiency and the specific energy consumption of its pelleting process. Raw corn stover was pelleted at high moisture of 33% (w.b.) at both varying preheating temperatures and binder percentage. The die speed of the pellet mill was set at 60Hz. The pellets produced were analyzed and showed higher moisture content. They were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70°C for 3-4 hr bringing the pellet moisture to <9%. The dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties like unit, bulk and tapped density, and durability. Furthermore, the results indicated increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved the physical properties of the pellets and reduced the specific energy consumption. Higher binder addition of 4% reduced the feedstock moisture loss during pelleting to <4%, which can be due reduced residence time of the material in the die. On the other hand the physical properties like density and durability improved significantly with binder addition. At 4% binder and 33% feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed were >510 kg/m3 and >98% and the percent fines generation has reduced to <3%. Also at these conditions the specific energy consumption was reduced by about 30-40% compared no binder pelleting test.

  1. Centrifugally spun starch-based fibers from amylopectin rich starches.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglong; Chen, Huanhuan; Yang, Bin

    2016-02-10

    Centrifugal spinning and electrospinning have proved to be effective techniques for fabricating micro-to-nanofibers. However, starches of amylopectin content above 65% cannot be fabricated to fiber by electrospinning. This paper is focus on the centrifugal spinnability of amylopectin rich starches. We investigated the amylopectin content of starches by Dual-wavelength colorimetry, studied the rheological properties of starch dopes to determine entanglement concentration (ce) by rotary rheometer. Results indicated that amylopectin rich native corn and potato starches, which with amylopectin content higher than 65%, were suitable for centrifugal spinning to micro-to-nanofibers. Additionally, starch-based fibers were successfully fabricated from the amylose rich corn starch as well. Rheological studies showed that the entanglement concentration (ce) of starch solution was crucial for successful centrifugal spinning. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical and functional properties of ozone-oxidized starch.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui T; Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, Alias A

    2009-07-08

    The effects of oxidation by ozone gas on some physicochemical and functional properties of starch (corn, sago, and tapioca) were investigated. Starch in dry powder form was exposed to ozone for 10 min at different ozone generation times (OGTs). Carboxyl and carbonyl contents increased markedly in all starches with increasing OGTs. Oxidation significantly decreased the swelling power of oxidized sago and tapioca starches but increased that of oxidized corn starch. The solubility of tapioca starch decreased and sago starch increased after oxidation. However, there was an insignificant changed in the solubility of oxidized corn starch. Intrinsic viscosity [eta] of all oxidized starches decreased significantly, except for tapioca starch oxidized at 5 min OGT. Pasting properties of the oxidized starches followed different trends as OGTs increased. These results show that under similar conditions of ozone treatment, the extent of starch oxidation varies among different types of starch.

  3. Effect of blueberry agro-industrial waste addition to corn starch-based films for the production of a pH-indicator film.

    PubMed

    Luchese, Cláudia Leites; Sperotto, Natalia; Spada, Jordana Corralo; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2017-11-01

    Intelligent packaging is an emerging area of food technology that can provide better preservation and be of further convenience for consumers. It is recommended that biodegradable materials be used to develop low-impact designs for better packaging, which could benefit the environment by simply expanding their use to new areas. In this work, corn starch, glycerol and blueberry powder (with and without prior fruit bleaching) were used to produce films by casting. Blueberry powder, a co-product from juice processing, which is rich in anthocyanins, was added in the films to evaluate its potential as a colorimetric indicator, due to the ability of anthocyanin to change color when placed in an acidic or basic environment. After the films were immersed in different buffer solutions, visual color changes were observed, where the films became reddish at acidic pH and bluish at basic pH. The ΔE* values were greater than 3, suggesting a visually perceptible change to the human eye. The samples with fruit bleaching (CB) were visually darker (lower luminance values), while the samples without bleaching (SB) had a lighter color and higher brightness, represented by larger L* values. These results indicate the potential of blueberry powder as a pH indicator for intelligent food packaging or even for sensing food deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of acetone butanol (AB) from liquefied corn starch, a commercial substrate, using Clostridium beijerinckii coupled with product recovery by gas stripping.

    PubMed

    Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Qureshi, Nasib; Blaschek, Hans P

    2007-12-01

    A potential industrial substrate (liquefied corn starch; LCS) has been employed for successful acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) production. Fermentation of LCS (60 g l(-1)) in a batch process resulted in the production of 18.4 g l(-1) ABE, comparable to glucose: yeast extract based medium (control experiment, 18.6 g l(-1) ABE). A batch fermentation of LCS integrated with product recovery resulted in 92% utilization of sugars present in the feed. When ABE was recovered by gas stripping (to relieve inhibition) from the fed-batch reactor fed with saccharified liquefied cornstarch (SLCS), 81.3 g l(-1) ABE was produced compared to 18.6 g l(-1) (control). In this integrated system, 225.8 g l(-1) SLCS sugar (487 % of control) was consumed. In the absence of product removal, it is not possible for C. beijerinckii BA101 to utilize more than 46 g l(-1) glucose. A combination of fermentation of this novel substrate (LCS) to butanol together with product recovery by gas stripping may economically benefit this fermentation.

  5. Preparation and characterization of poly(acrylic acid)—corn starch blend for use as chemical sand-fixing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Xugang; Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhihua

    2017-07-01

    One chemical sand-fixing materials based on poly(acrylic acid)-corn starch (PACS) blend was studied in this work. The PACS blend was prepared by solution mixing method between PA and CS. In order to prepare sand-fixing materials for environmental applications using the well-established method of spraying evenly PACS blend solution on the surfaces of fine sand. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed the existence of the intermolecular interactions between the blend components. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a continuous phase of blend, and it also showed the good sand-fixing capacity. The test results of hygroscopicity and water retention experiments indicated that the blends had excellent water-absorbing and water-retention capacity. The results of contact angle measurements between the PACS solutions and fine sand showed that the PACS blend has a satisfactory effect on fine sand wetting. And the PACS, as a sand-fixation material, has excellent sand-fixation rate up to 99.5%.

  6. Effect of varying flow regimes upon elution behaviour, apparent molecular characteristics and hydrodynamic properties of amylopectin isolated from normal corn starch using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Juna, Shazia; Huber, Anton

    2012-01-06

    A detailed study of the elution behaviour, apparent molecular characteristics and hydrodynamic properties of amylopectin-type fraction (isolated from normal corn starch) in aqueous media employing asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) was undertaken by systematically varying the channel flow (F(ch)), cross flow (F(cr)) and F(cr)/F(ch) ratios. Distributions of apparent molar masses and radii of gyration, mass recoveries and hydrodynamic radii decreased as a function of increasing F(cr) at a fixed F(ch), due to the increase in the retention of amylopectin-type fraction in the AF4 channel. Increased retention of the amylopectin-type fraction in the AF4 channel was also observed at low F(ch) and high F(cr)/F(ch) ratios. Large amylopectin-type molecules/particles (possibly aggregates) eluted at high F(ch), low F(cr) and low F(cr)/F(ch) ratios. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  8. Improved postprandial response and feeling of satiety after consumption of low-calorie muffins with maltitol and high-amylose corn starch.

    PubMed

    Quílez, J; Bulló, M; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the postprandial glucose (GR), insulin (IR), and triglyceride response as well as the satiety response (SR) to low-calorie muffins (LCMs) and to compare them to those of conventional plain muffins (PMs) and bread. The LCMs had a lower fat content, their sugar was replaced by maltitol, and wheat flour was partially replaced by high-amylose corn starch. We used bread as a reference to calculate glycemic (GI), insulinemic (II), and satiety indices (SI). Seven men and 7 women (33 +/- 7.8 y; body mass index = 25.8 +/- 2.9) were studied in a randomized crossover design and were given either bread, an LCM, or a PM during 3 different occasions. Plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were periodically measured for 2 h after consumption. We used the same design in a separate assay to evaluate SR by means a subjective questionnaire. The results show that LCMs reduced the IR by 30% (P= 0.03) and lipemic response by 50% (P < 0.001) compared to PMs. GR was only found to be significantly different between bread and LCMs (52% lower in LCM; P= 0.03), with PMs in an intermediate position. The SR of LCMs is similar to bread and higher than PMs (191%; P= 0.02). We concluded that LCMs are a product with a very low GI with better postprandial and SRs than PMs. These metabolic properties are useful in normal and overweight persons. However, further research is needed on the effects of this type of products in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

  9. Growth, /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake, and metabolites of starch synthesis in apical and basal kernels of corn (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Developing field-grown kernels of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Cornell 175) from the base and apex of the ear were sampled from seven to 70 days after pollination (DAP) an compared with respect to dry weight, ability to take up /sup 14/C-sucrose from solution in vitro, and content of sucrose, glucose, starch, glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), and UDP-glucose (UDPG). ADPG and UDPG were analyzed by HPLC. All other metabolites were analyzed enzymatically. Simultaneous hand-pollination of all ovaries in an ear did not reduce the difference between apical and basal kernels in dry weight, indicating that the latter fertilization of apical kernels was not responsible for their lesser mature dry weight. Detached kernels took up /sup 14/C-sucrose (0.3-400 mM) and glucose (5-100 mM) at rates linearly proportional to the sugar concentration. Glucose, fructose, and sorbitol did not inhibit uptake of /sup 14/C-sucrose. Uptake was not stimulated by 5 mM CaCl/sup 2/ or the addition of buffers (pH 4.5-6.7) to the medium. Sulfhydryl reagents (PCMBS, NEM) and metabolic inhibitors (TNBS, DNP, NaF) did not reduce uptake. These observations suggest that sucrose is taken up by a non-saturable, non-energy-requiring mechanism. Sucrose uptake increased throughout development, especially at the stage when basal kernels began to accumulate more dry weight than apical kernels (10-20 DAP in freely pollinated ears; 25 DAP in synchronously pollinated ears). Hydrolysis of incorporated sucrose increased from 87% at 14 DAP to 99% by 57 DAP.

  10. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  11. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of lentil starch.

    PubMed

    Joshi, M; Aldred, P; McKnight, S; Panozzo, J F; Kasapis, S; Adhikari, R; Adhikari, B

    2013-02-15

    The physicochemical properties of lentil starch were measured and linked up with its functional properties and compared with those of corn and potato starches. The amylose content of lentil starch was the highest among these starches. The crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy of lentil starch were the lowest among these starches. The high amylose: amylopectin ratio in lentil starch resulted into low crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy. Gelatinization and pasting temperatures of lentil starch were in between those of corn and potato starches. Lentil starch gels showed the highest storage modulus, gel strength and pasting viscosity than corn and potato starch gels. Peleg's model was able to predict the stress relaxation data of these starches well (R(2)>0.98). The elastic modulus of lentil starch gel was less frequency dependent and higher in magnitude at high temperature (60 °C) than at lower temperature (10 °C). Lentil starch is suitable where higher gel strengthened pasting viscosity are desired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy determination of corn co-products fed to broiler chicks from 15 to 24 days of age and use of composition analysis to predict AMEn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment (3 trials) was conducted to determine the AMEn of 15 corn co-products obtained from various wet and dry milling plants, and to develop prediction equations for AMEn based upon chemical composition. Co-products included: distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, n = 6), high protein...

  13. Effects of granule swelling on starch saccharification by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Cai, Liming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-08-13

    The effects of granule swelling on enzymatic saccharification of normal corn starch by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme were investigated. After swelling, Km values for the saccharification of granular starch decreased compared with native granular starch, indicating that granule swelling caused granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme to have higher affinity for starch granules. The partial swelling of starch granules enhanced starch saccharification. Furthermore, the enhancement at an earlier stage of enzymatic reaction was much more significant than that at later stages. For granular starch pretreated at 67.5 °C for 30 min, conversions to glucose after incubation with the enzyme at 32 °C for 4 and 24 h were approximately 3-fold and 26% higher than for native granular starch, respectively. As a result, proper heat pretreatment of granular starch before simultaneous saccharification and fermentation has great potential to facilitate industrial production of ethanol by use of granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

  14. Short communication: The effect of an exogenous enzyme with amylolytic activity on gas production and in vitro rumen starch degradability of small and large particles of corn or barley meals.

    PubMed

    Gallo, A; Giuberti, G; Duval, S; Moschini, M; Masoero, F

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous amylase supplementation on gas production and on in vitro rumen starch degradability (IVSD) of different sized particles of corn and barley meals (Cm and Bm, respectively). An aqueous liquid amylase formulation from Bacillus licheniformis was tested at 3 enzyme doses (EnzD; 0, 300 and 1,500 kilo novo units/kg of dry matter) on small (<750 µm) and large (≥750 µm) particle size (PS) of Cm and Bm. Data were analyzed according to a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement of treatments; the main tested effects were PS, EnzD, and their interaction. Fermentation run entered in the model as random effect. The mixed rumen fluid was collected from 2 rumen-fistulated Holstein dry dairy cows fed at maintenance (forage:concentrate ratio of 80:20; 12% crude protein; 55% amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber). Small particles of both Cm and Bm had a greater rate of fermentation and shorter lag time than large particles. The rate of starch degradation was greater for small than for large particles of Bm, being 0.187 and 0.125 1/h, respectively. Conversely, the rate of starch degradation of Cm averaged 0.063 1/h and was similar among treatments. Enzyme supplementation tended to reduce lag time and to increase rate of fermentation for both PS of Cm and Bm, with a more pronounced effect for small PS. A limited EnzD effect was measured for IVSD data and rate of starch degradation; PS influenced fermentation parameters and the magnitude of starch degradation more than EnzD. Supplementation with exogenous amylase influenced the rumen fermentation pattern of small and large PS of Cm and Bm, even if the effect of the enzyme supplementation differed according to the PS of cereal meals.

  15. Contribution of protein, starch, and fat to the apparent ileal digestible energy of corn- and wheat-based broiler diets in response to exogenous xylanase and amylase without or with protease1

    PubMed Central

    Romero, L. F.; Sands, J. S.; Indrakumar, S. E.; Plumstead, P. W.; Dalsgaard, S.; Ravindran, V.

    2014-01-01

    The ileal energy contribution of protein, starch, and fat in response to 2 exogenous enzyme combinations was studied in 2 digestibility assays with 21- (experiment 1; 432 birds) and 42-d-old (experiment 2; 288 birds) Ross 308 broiler chickens. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 base grains (corn or wheat), without or with high fiber ingredients (corn distillers dried grains with solubles and canola meal), and 3 enzyme treatments was implemented. Enzyme treatments, fed from 12 to 21 d or 32 to 42 d, were 1) without enzymes, 2) with xylanase from Trichoderma ressei (2,000 U/kg) and amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (200 U/kg; XA), or 3) with XA plus protease from Bacillus subtilis (4,000 U/kg; XAP). All diets contained Escherichia coli phytase (500 FTU/kg). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein, starch, and fat, as well as the apparent ileal digestible energy, were determined using titanium dioxide as inert marker. A generalized mixed model was used to test main effects and 2-way interactions at P < 0.05. An enzyme × grain interaction was detected for AID of starch at 21 and 42 d, and AID of fat at 21 d, with greater effects of enzymes in wheat-based compared with corn-based diets, but significant increments due to enzymes compared with controls in both diet types. Apparent ileal digestibility of fat at 42 d increased with enzyme supplementation compared with the control treatments. The XA and XAP treatments gradually (P < 0.05) increased AID of protein at 21 d, but only XAP increased AID of protein compared with the control at 42 d. Compared with the controls, XA increased AID energy by 52 or 87 kcal, and XAP by 104 or 152 kcal/kg of DM at 21 or 42 d, respectively. The caloric contribution of starch, fat, and protein were affected differentially by base grain and the presence of fibrous ingredients at 21 and 42 d of age. PMID:25071229

  16. Contribution of protein, starch, and fat to the apparent ileal digestible energy of corn- and wheat-based broiler diets in response to exogenous xylanase and amylase without or with protease.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Sands, J S; Indrakumar, S E; Plumstead, P W; Dalsgaard, S; Ravindran, V

    2014-10-01

    The ileal energy contribution of protein, starch, and fat in response to 2 exogenous enzyme combinations was studied in 2 digestibility assays with 21- (experiment 1; 432 birds) and 42-d-old (experiment 2; 288 birds) Ross 308 broiler chickens. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 base grains (corn or wheat), without or with high fiber ingredients (corn distillers dried grains with solubles and canola meal), and 3 enzyme treatments was implemented. Enzyme treatments, fed from 12 to 21 d or 32 to 42 d, were 1) without enzymes, 2) with xylanase from Trichoderma ressei (2,000 U/kg) and amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (200 U/kg; XA), or 3) with XA plus protease from Bacillus subtilis (4,000 U/kg; XAP). All diets contained Escherichia coli phytase (500 FTU/kg). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein, starch, and fat, as well as the apparent ileal digestible energy, were determined using titanium dioxide as inert marker. A generalized mixed model was used to test main effects and 2-way interactions at P < 0.05. An enzyme × grain interaction was detected for AID of starch at 21 and 42 d, and AID of fat at 21 d, with greater effects of enzymes in wheat-based compared with corn-based diets, but significant increments due to enzymes compared with controls in both diet types. Apparent ileal digestibility of fat at 42 d increased with enzyme supplementation compared with the control treatments. The XA and XAP treatments gradually (P < 0.05) increased AID of protein at 21 d, but only XAP increased AID of protein compared with the control at 42 d. Compared with the controls, XA increased AID energy by 52 or 87 kcal, and XAP by 104 or 152 kcal/kg of DM at 21 or 42 d, respectively. The caloric contribution of starch, fat, and protein were affected differentially by base grain and the presence of fibrous ingredients at 21 and 42 d of age. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  18. Energy determination of corn co-products fed to broiler chicks from 15 to 24 days of age, and use of composition analysis to predict nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Kerr, B J; Dozier, W A

    2011-09-01

    An experiment (3 trials) was conducted to determine the AME(n) of 15 corn co-products obtained from various wet and dry milling plants, and to develop prediction equations for AME(n) based on chemical composition. Co-products included distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS, n = 6), high-protein distillers dried grains (n = 2), corn germ (n = 2), corn germ meal, corn bran with solubles, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and dehulled, degermed corn. Treatments (15) consisted of 85% inclusion of the corn-soybean meal basal diet combined with a 15% inclusion of each corn co-product, as well as a control diet containing glucose•H(2)O (15%) at the expense of the co-product. In each trial, Ross × Ross 708 chicks (10 birds per pen) were randomly assigned to 16 dietary treatments (12 replicate pens; 4 replicate pens per trial). After a 7-d diet acclimation period from 15 to 22 d of age, a 48-h total excreta collection was conducted for the determination of AME(n). Co-products were analyzed for gross energy, CP, moisture, crude fat, starch, crude fiber, ash, total dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose was determined by difference. Stepwise regression resulted in the following equation: AME(n), kcal/kg of DM = 3,517 + (46.02 × % crude fat, DM basis) - (82.47 × % ash, DM basis) - (33.27 × % hemicellulose, DM basis) (R(2) = 0.89; SEM = 191; P ≤ 0.01). Removing hemicellulose from the model resulted in the following equation: AME(n), kcal/kg of DM = (-30.19 × % neutral detergent fiber, DM basis) + (0.81 × gross energy, kcal/kg of DM basis) - (12.26 × % CP, DM basis) (R(2) = 0.87; SEM = 196; P ≤ 0.01). These results indicate that nutrient composition may be used to generate AME(n) prediction equations for corn co-products fed to broiler chicks.

  19. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  4. Effect of dry heating with ionic gums on physicochemical properties of starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Si, Fumei; Xiong, Liu; Chu, Lijun

    2013-02-15

    Corn starch, potato starch, pea starch were impregnated with ionic gums (sodium alginate, CMC, and xanthan, 1% based on starch solids) and heat-treated in a dry state for 0, 2, or 4 h at 130°C. Effects of the dry heating on paste viscosity (RVA), microstructure and thermal properties were examined. Dry heat treatment with ionic gums reduced the pasting temperature of the three starches. Heating with xanthan increased the paste viscosity of corn and potato starch. With heat treatment, the paste viscosity of all the starch-sodium alginate mixtures decreased. Heating with CMC increased the paste viscosity of potato starch, but decreased that of corn and pea starch. After dry-heating, To, Tp and Tc of potato starch with ionic gums decreased significantly. SEM of potato starch with CMC showed that the gel structure got compacter after drying-heating. Heat treatment obviously improved the functional properties of the three starches.

  5. The effects of feeding rice in substitution of corn and the degree of starch gelatinization of rice on the digestibility of dietary components and productive performance of young pigs.

    PubMed

    Vicente, B; Valencia, D G; Pérez-Serrano, M; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2008-01-01

    A 28-d trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the main cereal of the diet (corn or rice), heat processing (HP) of rice, and the degree of starch gelatinization (SG) of rice on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary components and productive performance of pigs weaned at 25 d of age. The experimental design was a completely randomized, with 4 treatments and 8 replicates per treatment (5 pigs penned together). Control pigs were fed a complex diet without growth promoters and based on milk products, fish meal, and 50% cooked and flaked corn, with a degree of SG of 84%. Experimental groups received the same complex diet as the control group, but the corn was substituted by rice with 3 different degrees of SG; 11% that corresponded to raw rice and 52 or 76% that corresponded to cooked rice processed under 2 different conditions. Pig growth was measured at 25, 39, and 53 d of age, and ATTD was determined at 29, 39, and 53 d of age. The ATTD of all dietary components except for N increased with age (P <0.01) and were greater for the rice than for the corn diet. Heat processing of rice improved ATTD of all dietary components at 29 d of age, but no beneficial effects were observed at 39 or 53 d of age. Modifying the conditions of HP to increase the degree of SG of rice from 52 to 76% and to reduce mean particle size from 480 to 405 mum did not result in further improvement of nutrient digestibility. From 25 to 53 d of age, pigs fed rice consumed more feed (678 vs. 618 g/d; P <0.05), grew faster (466 vs. 407 g/d; P <0.01), and tended to have greater G:F (0.685 vs. 0.662; P <0.10) than pigs fed corn. In fact, from 25 to 39 d of age, pigs fed rice consumed 23% more feed (P <0.01), grew 29% faster (P <0.01), and had 5% greater G:F (P <0.05) than pigs fed corn. Feeding rice improved performance of weanling pigs, and HP of rice under mild conditions enhanced diet digestibility and productive performance of pigs. Severe processing of rice increased the degree

  6. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and

  7. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; ...

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of bothmore » ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement

  8. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-01-01

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol's life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement credits

  9. Characterizations of Pickering emulsions stabilized by starch nanoparticles: Influence of starch variety and particle size.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shengju; Xiong, Liu; Li, Man; Liu, Jing; Yang, Jie; Chang, Ranran; Liang, Caifeng; Sun, Qingjie

    2017-11-01

    Pickering emulsions were first successfully fabricated by different types and sizes of corn, tapioca, sweet potato, and waxy corn starch nanoparticles as stabilizers. Photography, optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and rheology measurements were used to characterize Pickering emulsions stabilized by various starch nanoparticles. The results showed that tapioca, sweet potato, and corn starch nanoparticles were appropriate for Pickering emulsion stabilization because the three nanoparticles have nearly neutral wettability (θow ∼90°). Confocal microscopy revealed that intact and thick nanoparticle shells coated the surface of oil droplets. The Pickering emulsions stabilized by sweet potato and corn starch nanoparticles with a diameter that ranged from 100 to 220nm had better stability than those with a diameter either less than 100nm or more than 220nm. These results suggested that starch nanoparticles could be used as promising particulate emulsifiers to fulfill the demands of Pickering emulsions with stable characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of starches on mechanical properties of paracetamol tablet formulations. I. Pregelatinization of starch binders.

    PubMed

    Alebiowu, Gbenga; Itiola, Oludele Adelanwa

    2003-09-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pregelatinization of native sorghum and plantain starches on the mechanical properties of a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with corn starch BP. The mechanical properties tested, viz. tensile strength (T) and brittle fracture index (BFI) of the paracetamol tablets were affected by pregelatinization of the starch. The results suggest that pregelatinized starches may be useful as binders when a particular degree of bond strength and brittleness is desired.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  15. Effect of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference by dairy cows fed high-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows experiencing a bout of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this study, 12 lactating (8 ruminally cannulated), multiparous Holstein cows averaging 91±40d in milk and weighing 695±95kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square. During each of the four 21-d periods, animals were offered 1 of 4 diets that were chemically similar but varied in corn silage particle size and supplemental second cutting orchardgrass hay: short corn silage total mixed ration (TMR; ST); short corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (SH); long corn silage TMR (L); and long corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (LH). Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme for 14d, and cannulated cows were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA by restricting feed before the challenge and providing 4kg of ground wheat via the rumen cannula. Although baseline pH was low, the SARA challenge lowered ruminal pH further for all cows regardless of diet. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 5.44 and 5.45 to 5.33 and 5.38 for ST and SH, respectively, and from 5.64 and 5.54 to 5.47 and 5.39 for L and LH, respectively, from baseline to challenge phase. Following the rumen challenge, rumen concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate increased. Decreasing corn silage particle size significantly increased TMR and total DMI during all phases of the model. Feeding short corn silage TMR increased milk, protein, and lactose yields. Cows fed supplemental hay had increased fat yield and protein concentration in the milk and responded minimally to the effects of particle size selection when challenged with SARA. Cows consuming short corn silage TMR changed feed preference for longer forage particles during the course of the SARA challenge. During the recovery phase, however

  16. Dry Starch Powders Modified Teabag Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following is a test protocol for a “tea bag analysis” that was conducted on PMN starches by the Corn Refiners Association. This protocol is one approach to providing information on swellability of high molecular weight polymers.

  17. Crude protein, ash, phosphorus, neutral detergent fiber and starch concentrations in particle size distributions of corn steam flaked to varying bulk densities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The particle size distribution that results from steam flaking cereal grains could be related to differences in the chemical composition of steam-flaked (SF) vs. unprocessed grain. Particle size distribution and associated crude protein (CP), phosphorus (P), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and starch...

  18. Characterisation and disintegration properties of irradiated starch.

    PubMed

    De Kerf, M; Mondelaers, W; Lahorte, P; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2001-06-19

    Irradiation treatment could provide a quick and simple way to modify the physical, chemical and pharmaceutical properties of biopolymers such as starch. Corn, potato and drum dried corn starch were exposed to X-ray and electron beam (e-beam) irradiation treatment at doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy. The disintegration properties of these starches were compared using alpha-lactose monohydrate tablets containing 5% (w/w) starch as disintegrant. Starch solubility increased, while its swelling capacity decreased with increasing irradiation dose. The irradiation treatment caused fragmentation of the amylopectin fraction. Irradiation modified the different starches thoroughly, showing remarkable differences in disintegration properties after X-ray treatment and e-beam modification. The e-beam modification resulted in significantly higher disintegration times of the tablets.

  19. Isolation and partial characterization of mango (Magnifera indica L.) starch: morphological, physicochemical and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Aparicio-Saguilán, A; Méndez-Montealvo, G; Solorza-Feria, J; Flores-Huicochea, E

    2005-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch from two varieties of mango highly consumed in Mexico ("criollo" and "manila"), and to evaluate its chemical composition, along with some morphological, physicochemical and functional properties. Mango starch had an amylose content of about 13%, the fat content of "criollo" variety starch (0.1-0.12%), was similar to that of commercial corn starch used as control (0.2%); both mango starches had higher ash amount (0.2-0.4%) than corn starch. Mango starches presented a smaller granule size (10 microm) than corn starch (15 microm), along with an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern with slight tendency to a C-type. All values of water retention capacity (WRC) increased with the temperature. When the temperature increased, solubility and swelling values increased and in general, mango starches had higher values than corn starch. Both mango starches had gelatinization temperatures lower than the control, but "criollo" variety starch presented higher enthalpy values than "manila" variety and corn starches. Overall, it was concluded that due to its morphological, physicochemical and functional properties, mango starches could be a feasible starch source with adequate properties, suitable for using in the food industry.

  20. Grain processing effects on starch utilization by ruminants.

    PubMed

    Theurer, C B

    1986-11-01

    Starch utilization may be markedly enhanced by proper grain processing; however, extent of improvement is primarily dependent upon the ruminant species, grain source and method of processing. Grain processing has less impact on starch digestion by sheep than cattle. The magnitude of improvement is inverse to the starch digestion values for nonprocessed (or minimally processed) grains. Utilization of sorghum grain starch is improved most by extensive processing, and then corn, with little improvement in barley starch digestion. Studies comparing processing effects on barley or wheat starch utilization by cattle were not found. Steam-flaking consistently improves digestibility of starch by cattle fed corn- or sorghum grain-based diets over whole, ground or dry-rolled processes. Other extensive processing methods appear to enhance starch digestibility of corn and sorghum grain to a similar extent as steam-flaking, but comparative data are too limited to quantitate adequately effects of these methods. This improvement in starch utilization appears to be the primary reason for enhanced feed conversion of cattle fed diets high in these processed grains. The major site of cereal grain starch digestion is usually the rumen. Processing increases microbial degradation of starch in the rumen and decreases amounts of starch digested post-ruminally. Rates of in vitro amylolytic attack of starch in cereal grains by both ruminal microbial and pancreatic enzyme sources are improved by processing methods employing proper combinations of moisture, heat and pressure. In vitro and in situ studies suggest that much of the increase in ruminal starch fermentation with steam-flaking is due to changes in starch granular structure, which produces additive effects beyond those of decreasing particle size. Thus, efficiency of ruminal starch fermentation by cattle appears to be improved by proper processing of corn and sorghum grain. Processing and grain source studies both suggest that

  1. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  2. Influence of starch source on sporulation and enterotoxin production by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Labbe, R; Somers, E; Duncan, C

    1976-03-01

    Of 16 different starch preparations tested, Clostridium perfringes NCTC 8798 yielded maximum sporulation and enterotoxin formation when ICN-soluble starch was included in Duncan and Strong sporulation medium. In general soluble starches were better than potato, corn, or arrowroot starch with regard to these two parameters.

  3. Ultrasonic modification of starch - Impact on granules porosity.

    PubMed

    Sujka, Monika

    2017-07-01

    Rice, corn, wheat, and potato starch granules suspended in water or ethanol were treated with ultrasounds at frequency of 20kHz and power 170W for 30min. Porosity of starch was investigated in terms of specific surface area (SBET), average pore size and pore size distribution using low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method. The significant increase of SBET was noted for all the studied starches sonicated in water and for potato starch modified in ethanol. Ultrasonic treatment influenced the average diameter of mesopores (2nmstarches suspended in ethanol and for potato starch granules suspended in water, but in the case of corn starch, the obtained value was slightly lower after sonication in water. Modification of starch with ultrasounds resulted in the formation of new pores in the studied range of diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Corn fiber utilization for production of Schizophyllan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber is an abundant coproduct of the corn wet milling process, primarily composed of the seed pericarp and adherent starch. Schizophyllan is a biopolymer composed entirely of glucose, with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and single ß-1,6-linked glucose side chains at every third residue, produced by t...

  5. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification ste...

  7. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  8. Consumption of guar gum and retrograded high-amylose corn resistant starch increases IL-10 abundance without affecting pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon of pigs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T; Lackeyram, D; Liu, Q; Mine, Y; Paliyath, G

    2012-12-01

    Increases in dietary intake of viscous and nonviscous soluble fiber are reported to improve bowel health. However, related biological mechanisms are not very clear. This study was conducted to examine if colonic inflammation would occur in a typical Western diet model and determine if consumption of soluble fiber components would attenuate potential detrimental effects by differentially affecting colonic abundances of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and 2 pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet supplemented, respectively, with 15% viscous soluble fiber guar gum (GG) and 15% nonviscous soluble fiber, that is, retrograded high-amylose corn (Zea mays) resistant starch (RS). A total of 24 Yorkshire growing barrows were assigned into a standard corn and soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based grower diet as a positive control (PC), an animal protein-based high-fat basal diet as the negative control (NC), and 2 NC basal diets supplemented with 15% GG and 15% RS, respectively, according to a completely randomized block design for 4 wk. Abundance of these cytokines in homogenized and extracted colonic tissue supernatant samples was measured by ELISA. Although colonic IL-10 abundance was lower (P < 0.05) in the corn and SBM-based PC group than that in the high-fat basal NC group, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in colonic abundances of TNF-α and IL-6 between NC and PC groups and among all of the treatment groups. Compared with the NC group, consumption of GG and RS at 15% increased (P < 0.05) colonic IL-10 abundance. Moreover, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in colonic IL-10 abundance between the 15% GG and the 15% RS groups. Thus, consumption of a typical high-fat Western diet did not induce colonic inflammation. Diets supplemented with 15% GG or 15% RS may protect the colon from developing inflammation by enhancing IL-10 abundance.

  9. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  10. Starch gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2009-01-01

    Starch occurs as highly organized structures, known as starch granules. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that have permitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications. When heated in water, starch undergoes a transition process, during which the granules break down into a mixture of polymers-in-solution, known as gelatinization. The sequence of structural transformations that the starch granule undergoes during this order-to-disorder transition has been extensively researched. None of the published starch gelatinization theories can fully and adequately explain the exact mechanism of sequential structural changes that starch granules undergo during gelatinization. This chapter analyzes several published theories and summarizes our current understanding of the starch gelatinization process.

  11. Occurrence and exposure assessment of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize germ, refined corn oil and margarine.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Jacqueline; Lorán, Susana; Giménez, Isabel; Ferruz, Elena; Herrera, Marta; Herrera, Antonio; Ariño, Agustín

    2013-12-01

    Analytical methods were validated for the analysis of fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in maize germ, corn oil and margarine. A survey of 74 samples consisting of 12 wet-milled maize germ, 12 dry-milled maize germ, 25 refined corn oil, and 25 corn oil margarine was conducted. Results revealed that 100% and 87.5% of maize germ samples presented FB1 and FB2, respectively, attaining concentrations for the sum of both toxins of 1302±541 μg kg(-1) in wet-milled and 820±831 μg kg(-1) in dry-milled maize germ. The lower incidence of FB1, FB2 and DON in edible oil and margarine (4-8%) may be related with the industrial processes for their obtaining besides the high water-solubility of these mycotoxins. In contrast, 25% of maize germ samples were positive for ZEA as well as 32% of corn oil and 24% of margarine, which may be related with its lipophilic nature. A number of samples exceeded the maximum limits indicating that strict control is needed, though estimated dietary exposure was less than 0.2% tolerable daily intakes in all cases.

  12. Effects of starches on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablet formulations. II. Sorghum and plantain starches as disintegrants.

    PubMed

    Alebiowu, Gbenga; Itiola, Oludele Adelanwa

    2003-12-01

    This study evaluates the disintegrant properties--tablet disintegration time (DT) and crushing strength--friability/disintegration time (CSFR/DT) ratio of a paracetamol tablet formulation prepared with sorghum and plantain starches in comparison with corn starch BP. The effects of disintegrant concentration, relative density of tablets and the mode of disintegrants addition were studied. The study revealed that the rank order of effectiveness of the starches as disintegrants was corn > plantain > sorghum. The mode of addition of disintegrants, disintegrant concentration and relative density had a significant impact on the disintegrant properties. The tested starches, namely, sorghum and plantain, showed promising results.

  13. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  14. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    PubMed

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  15. Corn silage management I: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on chemical and physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Robutti, J L; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of whole plant corn on chemical and physical characteristics, particle size, pack density, and dry matter recovery. In the first experiment, hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. In the second experiment, hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with a theoretical length-of-cut of 12.7 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing by using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. The percentage of intact corn kernels present in unprocessed corn silage explained 62% of variation in total tract starch digestibility. As the amount of intact kernels increased, total tract starch digestibility decreased. Post-ensiled vitreousness of corn kernels within the corn silage explained 31 and 48% of the variation of total tract starch digestibility for processed and unprocessed treatments, respectively. For a given amount of vitreous starch in corn kernels, total tract starch digestibility was lower for cows fed unprocessed corn silage compared with processed corn silage. This suggests that processing corn silage disrupts the dense protein matrix within the corn kernel where starch is embedded, therefore making the starch more available for digestion. Particle size of corn silage and orts that contained corn silage was reduced when it was processed. Wet pack density was greater for processed compared with unprocessed corn silage.

  16. Thermal and rheological properties of breadfruit starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueyu; Chen, Ling; Li, Xiaoxi; Xie, Fengwei; Liu, Hongshen; Yu, Long

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and rheological properties of breadfruit starch were studied using DSC and 2 different rheometers. It was found that the gelatinization temperature of starch with excess moisture content (>70%) was at approximately 75 °C. A new endotherm was detected at about 173 °C when the moisture content was lower than required for full gelatinization of the starch. A detailed examination revealed that this endotherm represented the melting of amylose-lipid complexes. Breadfruit starch paste exhibited shear-thinning fluid characteristics, and good thermal and pH stability. The setback viscosity of the breadfruit starch was lower than that of potato and corn starches. The rheological properties of the breadfruit starch paste was well described by the Herschel-Bulkley model at a shear rate of 0 to 100 s(-1), where R(2) is greater than 0.95, and it behaved like a yield-pseudoplastic fluid. Both the storage modulus and loss modulus of the paste initially increased sharply, then dropped after reaching the gelatinization peak. Breadfruit starch gel showed both flexibility and viscosity. Suspension with 6% starch content exhibited very weak gel rigidity; however, this increased significantly at starch contents above 20%.

  17. Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis.

  18. Novel approach of corn fiber utilization.

    PubMed

    Kálmán, G; Recseg, K; Gáspár, M; Réczey, K

    2006-01-01

    The corn wet milling process produces a 10% (w/w of the processed corn) byproduct called corn fiber, which is utilized worldwide as a low-value feedstock for cattle. The aim of this study was to find a higher value use of corn fiber. The main fractions of corn fiber are: 20% starch, 40% hemicellulose, 14% cellulose, and 14% protein. Extraction of the highly valuable, cholesterol-lowering corn fiber oil is not feasible owing to its low (2% w/w) concentration in the fiber. The developed technology is based on simple and inexpensive procedures, like washing with hot water, dilute acid hydrolysis at 120 degrees C, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, screening, drying, and extraction. The main fractions are sharply separated in the order of starch, hemicellulose, cellulose, lipoprotein, and lignin). The lipoprotein fraction adds up to 10% of the original dry corn fiber, and contains 45% corn fiber oil, thus yielding more oil than direct extraction of the fiber. It is concluded that the defined method makes the extraction of the corn fiber oil economically feasible. The fractionation process also significantly increases the yield of cholesterol-lowering substances (sterols and sterolesters). At the same time clear and utilizable fractions of monosaccharides, protein, and lignin are produced.

  19. Novel approach of corn fiber utilization.

    PubMed

    Kálmán, G; Recseg, K; Gáspár, M; Réczey, K

    2006-03-01

    The corn wet milling process produces a 10% (w/w of the processed corn) byproduct called corn fiber, which is utilized worldwide as a low-value feedstock for cattle. The aim of this study was to find a higher value use of corn fiber. The main fractions of corn fiber are: 20% starch, 40% hemicellulose, 14% cellulose, and 14% protein. Extraction of the highly valuable, cholesterol-lowering corn fiber oil is not feasible owing to its low (2% w/w) concentration in the fiber. The developed technology is based on simple and inexpensive procedures, like washing with hot water, dilute acid hydrolysis at 120 degrees C, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, screening, drying, and extraction. The main fractions are sharply separated in the order of starch, hemicellulose, cellulose, lipoprotein, and lignin). The lipoprotein fraction adds up to 10% of the original dry corn fiber, and contains 45% corn fiber oil, thus yielding more oil than direct extraction of the fiber. It is concluded that the defined method makes the extraction of the corn fiber oil economically feasible. The fractionation process also significantly increases the yield of cholesterol-lowering substances (sterols and sterolesters). At the same time clear and utilizable fractions of monosaccharides, protein, and lignin are produced.

  20. Paraformaldehyde-Resistant Starch-Fermenting Bacteria in “Starch-Base” Drilling Mud

    PubMed Central

    Myers, G. E.

    1962-01-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde. PMID:13936949

  1. Solid-state MAS NMR, TEM, and TGA studies of structural hydroxyl groups and water in nanocrystalline apatites prepared by dry milling.

    PubMed

    Pajchel, Lukasz; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2013-01-01

    A series of nanocrystalline calcium hydroxyapatites was prepared by dry milling and characterized using proton and (31)P MAS NMR, TEM, and TGA methods. The samples contained stubby rod-shaped crystals, which length and width varied in the 130-30 and 95-20 nm ranges, respectively. It was confirmed that concentration of structural hydroxyl groups in nanocrystalline apatites decreases with the decreasing crystal size. In the series of the studied apatites, the decrease was from 86 to ca. 50 % in reference to stoichiometric apatite. Water was found in the surface hydrated layer and in the c-axis channels, in which compartments existed as adsorbed and structural, respectively. Molecules of the adsorbed water were capable of moving from the crystal surface into the lattice c-axis channels of apatite. This process introduced considerable structural disorder within and around those channels and reduced the content of the structural hydroxyl groups, particularly in the region underneath the apatite crystal surface.

  2. Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C

    2013-06-01

    Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of <0.0001 and R(2) of 0.886. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of granulator screw speed and Comil® impeller speed on the length-weighted chord length distribution (CLD) and particle size distribution (PSD) determined by FBRM and nested sieve analysis, respectively. The effect of granulator speed and mill speed on bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index were also investigated. An inline FBRM probe placed below the Comil-generated chord lengths and CLD data at designated times. The collection of the milled samples for sieve analysis and PSD evaluation were coordinated with the timing of the FBRM determinations. Both FBRM and sieve analysis resulted in similar bimodal distributions for all ten manufactured batches studied. Within the experimental space studied, the granulator screw speed (650-850 rpm) and Comil® impeller speed (1,000-2,000 rpm) did not have a significant effect on CLD, PSD, bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index (p value > 0.05).

  3. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-17

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  4. Colloid Characteristics and Emulsifying Properties of OSA Starches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokić, Petar; Dokić, Ljubica; Dapčević, Tamara; Krstonošić, Veljko

    The objective of this paper was to characterize commercially available octenyl-succinate starches (OSA starches), Purity Gum 2000 and Hi-cap 100, by determining their viscous behaviour and characteristics and molecular mass, as well as to examine their emulsifying properties in corn oil-in-water emulsion system.

  5. Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

  6. 'Green' crosslinking of native starches with malonic acid and their properties.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Dastidar, Trina; Netravali, Anil N

    2012-11-06

    Starch is a highly hydrophilic biomaterial with weak mechanical properties rendering it useless for commercial applications. A fully 'green' water based process is presented to crosslink corn (cereal) and potato (tuber) starch to enhance mechanical properties as well as lower hydrophilicity. In addition, malonic acid, a green, plant based water soluble and relatively inexpensive polycarboxylic acid, was used as the crosslinker. The reactivity of potato starch toward esterification and crosslinking was found to be higher than that of corn starch owing to the inherent differences in the granule morphology and internal structure of the two starches. It was observed that potato starch granules had a higher degree of substitution (DS) of 0.19 than corn starch granules (DS=0.1) under similar reaction conditions. Chemical, thermal and mechanical test results confirmed the crosslinking as well as reduced moisture sensitivity.

  7. Corning's Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Brad

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Corning, Inc.'s relationship with the surrounding community and the problem that arose when a large Corning-backed campus-style high school was proposed that brought objections from many local residents. (GR)

  8. Applicability, Commercial Utility and Recent Patents on Starch and Starch Derivative as Pharmaceutical Drug Delivery Carrier.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shreya; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod K

    2015-01-01

    Natural polymers are widely utilized in pharmaceutical and food industries. Starch, a major carbohydrate is a staple food in human and animal diets which is simply extractable from various sources, like potato, maize, corn, wheat, etc. It is widely used as a raw material in various food and non food industries as well as in paper, textile and other industries. This article summarizes the starch and modification of starch and to produce a novel molecule with various applications in industries including number of advances in pharmaceutical industry. The unique characteristics of starch and their modified form can be successfully used as drug delivery carriers in various pharmaceutical preparations. It is widely used as controlled and sustained release polymer, tablet disintegrant, drug delivery carrier, plasma volume expander and also finds its applicability in bone tissue engineering and in artificial red cells. It also includes the patents related to starch and modified starch based products and their commercial utility.

  9. CORN FLAVOR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  10. Sites, rates, and limits of starch digestion and glucose metabolism in growing cattle.

    PubMed

    Huntington, G B; Harmon, D L; Richards, C J

    2006-04-01

    Growing cattle in the United States consume up to 6 kg of starch daily, mainly from corn or sorghum grain. Total tract apparent digestibility of starch usually ranges from 90 to 100% of starch intake. Ruminal starch digestion ranges from 75 to 80% of starch intake and is not greatly affected by intake over a range of 1 to 5 kg of starch/d. Starch apparently digested in the small intestine decreases from 80 to 34% as starch entering the small intestine increases from 0.2 to 2 kg/d. Starch apparently digested in the large intestine ranges from 44 to 46% of starch entering the large intestine. Approximately 70% of starch digested in the small intestine appears as glucose in the bloodstream. Within the range of starch intakes that do not cause rumen upsets, increasing starch (and energy) intake increases the amount of starch digested in the rumen, increases the supply of starch to the small intestine, increases starch digested in small intestine (albeit at reduced efficiency), and increases starch digested in the large intestine, such that total tract digestibility remains relatively constant. With increased starch intake, most of the starch is still digested in the rumen, but increasing amounts of starch escape ruminal and intestinal digestion, and disappear distal to the ileocecal junction. Again, within the range of starch intakes that do not cause rumen upsets, as starch intake increases, hepatic gluconeogenesis increases, glucose entry increases, and glucose irreversible loss increases, with a significant portion lost as CO2. The ability to increase use of dietary starch to support greater weight gains or improved marbling could come from increasing starch digestion in a healthy rumen or in the small intestine, but we conclude that the main limit to use of dietary starch to support live weight gain is digestion and absorption from the small intestine. Increased oxidation of glucose at greater starch intakes may alter energetic efficiency by sparing other

  11. Hydrolysis of native and heat-treated starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Uthumporn, U; Shariffa, Y N; Karim, A A

    2012-03-01

    The effect of heat treatment below the gelatinization temperature on the susceptibility of corn, mung bean, sago, and potato starches towards granular starch hydrolysis (35°C) was investigated. Starches were hydrolyzed in granular state and after heat treatment (50°C for 30 min) by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme for 24 h. Hydrolyzed heat-treated starches showed a significant increase in the percentage of dextrose equivalent compared to native starches, respectively, with corn 53% to 56%, mung bean 36% to 47%, sago 15% to 26%, and potato 12% to 15%. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the presence of more porous granules and surface erosion in heat-treated starch compared to native starch. X-ray analysis showed no changes but with sharper peaks for all the starches, suggested that hydrolysis occurred on the amorphous region. The amylose content and swelling power of heat-treated starches was markedly altered after hydrolysis. Evidently, this enzyme was able to hydrolyze granular starches and heat treatment before hydrolysis significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis.

  12. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzymatic Corn Wet Milling (E-Milling) is a proposed alternative process to conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and coproducts using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and to decrease the steeping time. In 2005, the total starch production in USA by conven...

  13. Effect of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition to whole-plant corn silage of various hybrids, maturities, and chop lengths on nitrogen fractions and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition on soluble CP (% of CP), ammonia-N (% of N), and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) from 3 hybrids, 2 maturities, and 2 chop lengths. Samples from 3 nonisogenic hybrids [brown midrib containing the bm3 gene mutation (BM3), dual-purpose (DP), or floury-leafy (LFY)] at 2 harvest maturities [2/3 kernel milk line (early) or 7d later (late)] with 2 theoretical lengths of cut settings (0.64 or 1.95cm) on a forage harvester were collected at harvest, treated with or without exogenous protease, and ensiled in triplicate in vacuum heat-sealed plastic bags for 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240d. Thus, the experiment consisted of 120 treatments (3 hybrids × 2 maturities × 2 chop lengths × 2 protease treatments × 5 time points) and 360 mini-silos (3 replications per treatment). Vitreousness, measured by dissection on unfermented kernels on the day of harvest, averaged 66.8, 65.0, and 59.0% for BM3, DP, and LFY, respectively. A protease × maturity interaction was observed with protease increasing ivSD in late but not early maturity. Ensiling time × hybrid interactions were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP concentrations with greater values for FLY than other hybrids only after 120d of ensiling. Ensiling time × hybrid or protease × hybrid interactions were not observed for ivSD. Measurements of ivSD were greatest for FLY and lowest for BM3. Length of the ensiling period did not attenuate negative effects of kernel vitreousness or maturity on ivSD in WPCS. Results suggest that the dosage of exogenous protease addition used in the present study may reduce but not overcome the negative effects of maturity on ivSD in WPCS. No interactions between chop length and ensiling time or exogenous protease addition were observed for ivSD. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reinforcement of injectable calcium phosphate cement by gelatinized starches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiling; Guan, Ying; Wei, Donglei; Gao, Chunxia; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Current injectable calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC) encounter the problems of low strength, high brittleness, and low cohesion in aqueous environment, which greatly hinder their clinical applications for loading-bearing bone substitution and minimally invasive orthopedic surgeries. Here, a strategy of using gelatinized starches to reinforce injectable CPC was investigated. Four types of starches, namely corn starch, crosslinked starch, cationic starch, and Ca-modified starch, were studied for their influence on CPC mechanical properties, injectability, setting times, anticollapsibility, and cytocompatibility. Gelatinized starch significantly improved compressive strength and modulus as well as strain energy density of CPC to different extents. Specifically, both corn starch and Ca-modified starch revealed sixfold and more than twofold increases in the compressive strength and modulus of CPC, respectively. The addition of gelatinized starches with proper contents increased the injectability and anticollapsibility of CPC. In addition, osteoblast proliferation tests on leaching solution of modified cements showed that gelatinized starches had no adverse effect on cell proliferation, and all cement samples resulted in better osteoblast proliferation compared to phosphate-buffered solution control. The mechanisms behind the reinforcing effect of different starches were preliminarily studied. Two possible mechanisms, reinforcement by the second phase of gelatinized starch and strong interlocking of apatite crystals, were proposed based on the results of starch zeta potential and viscosity, cement microstructure, and resultant mechanical properties. In conclusion, incorporating gelatinized starches could be an effective, facile, and bio-friendly strategy to reinforce injectable CPC and improve its mechanical stability, and thus, should be further studied and developed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Liquefaction, Saccharification, and Fermentation of Ammoniated Corn to ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of non-fermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the...

  16. Nutritive value of corn silage as affected by maturity and mechanical processing: a contemporary review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L; Harrison, J H; Hunt, C; Shinners, K; Doggett, C G; Sapienza, D

    1999-12-01

    Stage of maturity at harvest and mechanical processing affect the nutritive value of corn silage. The change in nutritive value of corn silage as maturity advances can be measured by animal digestion and macro in situ degradation studies among other methods. Predictive equations using climatic data, vitreousness of corn grain in corn silage, starch reactivity, gelatinization enthalpy, dry matter (DM) of corn grain in corn silage, and DM of corn silage can be used to estimate starch digestibility of corn silage. Whole plant corn silage can be mechanically processed either pre- or postensiling with a kernel processor mounted on a forage harvester, a recutter screen on a forage harvester, or a stationary roller mill. Mechanical processing of corn silage can improve ensiling characteristics, reduce DM losses during ensiling, and improve starch and fiber digestion as a result of fracturing the corn kernels and crushing and shearing the stover and cobs. Improvements in milk production have ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 kg/d when cows were fed mechanically processed corn silage. A consistent improvement in milk protein yield has also been observed when mechanically processed corn silage has been fed. With the advent of mechanical processors, alternative strategies are evident for corn silage management, such as a longer harvest window.

  17. Structure stabilization in starch-quinoa bran doughs: The role of water availability and gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Föste, Maike; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    Bran is a promising ingredient for nutritional fortification in starch-based dough systems. However its incorporation is a technological challenge favoring a shift in dough functionality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of bran on baking performance independent of dough firmness and start of gelatinization. Therefore, corn starch was replaced by quinoa bran (10% to 50%) and water addition (80-110g/100g flour) was standardized on a fixed complex shear modulus (G*) and start of gelatinization (TOnset) based on a corn starch reference dough. A destabilizing effect by bran particles was counteracted in corn starch dough by adjusting the water content up to 110 g/100g flour. Moreover, a negative correlation between TOnset and loaf volume was determined (r=- 0.9042), thus an early TOnset should be aspired in order to prevent gas release and to stabilize corn starch- quinoa bran dough. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Making starch.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M

    1999-06-01

    Improvements in understanding the structure of the starch granule and the nature and roles of starch-synthesising enzymes have allowed detailed mechanisms of the synthesis of the amylopectin and amylose components of the granule to be suggested. However, none of these proposed mechanisms has yet been shown to operate in vivo. Several critical aspects of granule synthesis, including granule initiation and the formation of the growth rings, remain a mystery.

  19. Co-production of schizophyllan and arabinoxylan from corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Timothy D; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P

    2006-05-01

    Schizophyllum commune strain ATCC 38548 grew well on a medium containing alkaline H2O2 -pretreated corn fiber as a sole carbon source, and clarified the culture medium within 7 days. The strain preferentially utilized the starch component of corn fiber for growth and production of schizophyllan. Culture supernatants contained approx. 50 mg schizophyllan and 200 mg arabinoxylan per g corn fiber. These polysaccharides were recovered separately by differential precipitation with ethanol.

  20. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown.

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion to increase the net energy balance of corn grain ethanol.

    PubMed

    Agler, Matthew T; Garcia, Marcelo L; Lee, Eric S; Schlicher, Martha; Angenent, Largus T

    2008-09-01

    U.S. production of fuel ethanol from corn grain has increased considerably over the last 10 years. Intense debate regarding the true environmental impact of the overall production process has been ongoing. The present study evaluated the utilization of thin stillage (a major byproduct of the dry-mill corn grain-to-ethanol process) in laboratory-scale thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors for conversion to methane. We found that augmentation of cobalt as a growth factor to the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process is required. After reaching sustainable operating performances, the methane potential in the reactors was 0.254 L CH4/g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) fed. Together with a reduction in the mass of solids that needs drying, methane generation translates to a 51% reduction of natural gas consumption at a conventional dry mill, which improves the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 to 1.70. At the design hydraulic retention time of 10 days, the digesters achieved TCOD, biodegradable COD, volatile solids, and total solids removal efficiencies of 90%, 75%, 89%, and 81%, respectively. We also found that struvite precipitation occurred in the thermophilic digesters during the course of the study, resulting in possibilities for nutrient recovery.

  2. Acid hydrolysis of native and annealed starches and branch-structure of their Naegeli dextrins.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yuta; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2003-11-21

    Eight commercial starches, including common corn, waxy corn, wheat, tapioca, potato, Hylon V, Hylon VII, and mung bean starch, were annealed by a multiple-step process, and their gelatinization characteristics were determined. Annealed starches had higher gelatinization temperatures, reduced gelatinization ranges, and increased gelatinization enthalpies than their native starches. The annealed starches with the highest gelatinization enthalpies were subjected to acid hydrolysis with 15.3% H2SO4, and Naegeli dextrins were prepared after 10 days' hydrolysis. Annealing increased the acid susceptibility of native starches in the first (rapid) and the second (slow) phases with potato starch showing the greatest and high amylose starches showing the least changes. Starches with a larger shift in onset gelatinization temperature also displayed a greater percent hydrolysis. The increase in susceptibility to acid hydrolysis was proposed to result from defective and porous structures that resulted after annealing. Although annealing perfected the crystalline structure, it also produced void space, which led to porous structures and possible starch granule defects. The molecular size distribution and chain length distribution of Naegeli dextrins of annealed and native starches were analyzed. The reorganization of the starch molecule during annealing occurred mainly within the crystalline lamellae. Imperfect double helices in the crystalline lamellae improved after annealing, and the branch linkages at the imperfect double helices became protected by the improved crystalline structure. Therefore, more long chains were observed in the Naegeli dextrins of annealed starches than in native starches.

  3. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  4. Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy-saving alternative to production of high-fructose syrup. For the quarter, January 1, 1981-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The liquefaction of pre-gelatinized starch was studied with various analytical techniques to determine the effects of starch molecular weight, granule structure, granule size, and mechanical depolymerization. Also, improvements were made in the chromatographic system used to characterize starch hydrolysates. Progress is reported on protein removal. The effects of pH, temperature, and ionic strength were examined for the removal of protein from a syrup stream by adsorption on a phenolic resin. Buffered systems, which maintain more stable pH values, were also examined. Mathematical modeling of the results is in progress. The pilot plant facility is complete and in operation. Starch streams containing 1% protein are being produced by the protein extraction process.

  5. Effect of. gamma. -ray irradiation on alcohol production from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.W.; Cho, Y.K.; Ciegler, A.

    1983-11-01

    Cracked corn was irradiated with ..gamma.. rays at 0-100 Mrad and the effects of the irradiation on sugar yield, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, yeast growth, and alcohol production were studied. Gamma irradiation at 50 Mrad or greater produced a considerable amount of reducing sugar but little glucose. At lower dosages, ..gamma.. irradiation significantly increased the susceptibility of corn starch to enzymatic hydrolysis, but dosages of 50 Mrad or greater decomposed the starch molecules as indicated by the reduction in iodine uptake. About 12.5% reducing sugar was produced by amylase treatment of uncooked, irradiated corn. This amount exceeded the level of sugar produced from cooked (gelatinized) corn by the same enzyme treatment. The yeast numbers in submerged cultivation were lower on a corn substrate that was irradiated at 50 Mrad or greater compared to that on an unirradiated control. About the same level of alcohol was produced on uncooked, irradiated (10/sup 5/ - 10/sup 6/ rad) corn as from cooked (121 degrees C for 30 min) corn. Therefore, the conventional cooking process for gelatinization of starch prior to its saccharification can be eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation also eliminated the necessity of sterilization of the medium and reduced the viscosity of high levels of substrate in the fermentation broth. (Refs. 10).

  6. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-04-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch.

  7. Thermomechanical characterization of an amylose-free starch extracted from cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    PubMed

    Pulido Díaz, Adriana; Lourdin, Denis; Della Valle, Guy; Fernández Quintero, Alejandro; Ceballos, Hernán; Tran, Thierry; Dufour, Dominique

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the melting (Tm), glass transition (Tg) and mechanical relaxation (Tα) temperatures of a new waxy cassava starch. Thermal transitions measurements were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamical Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The experimental data showed a high correlation between water volume fraction and melting temperature (Tm) indicating that the Flory-Huggins theory can be used to describe the thermal behavior of this starch. The Tm of waxy cassava starch-water mixes were lower than a waxy corn starch-water reference system, but differences were not statistically significant. The mechanical relaxation temperatures taken at tan δ peaks were found 29-38°C larger than Tg. The Tα and Tg measured for waxy cassava starch exhibited similar properties to the ones of waxy corn starch, implying that waxy cassava starch can be used in food and materials industry.

  8. Ethanol production waste as rubber composite filler: examining the pyrolysis of dried distillers grains and other dry milling byproducts as potential rubber reinforcement materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current push for corn-based ethanol is creating a large surplus of affordable by-products that can potentially serve as filler material for rubber composites. Biomaterial fillers can help replace carbon black and reduce dependence on petroleum. This research examines the reinforcement behavior...

  9. Optimisation of the reaction conditions for the production of cross-linked starch with high resistant starch content.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Kevser; Koksel, Hamit; Ng, Perry K W

    2015-05-01

    The optimum reaction conditions (temperature and pH) for the preparation of cross-linked (CL) corn and wheat starches with maximum resistant starch (RS) content were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM). According to the preliminary results, five levels were selected for reaction temperature (38-70 °C) and pH (10-12) in the main study. RS contents of the CL corn and wheat starch samples increased with increasing temperature and pH, and pH had a greater influence on RS content than had temperature. The maximum RS content (with a maximum p value of 0.4%) was obtained in wheat starch cross-linked at 38 °C and pH 12. In the case of CL corn starch, the optimum condition was 70 °C and pH 12. CL corn and wheat starch samples were also produced separately under the optimum conditions and their RS contents were 80.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These results were also in agreement with the values predicted by RSM.

  10. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn < pigeon pea < plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea < plantain < corn starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain < pigeon pea < corn starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain

  11. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents.

    PubMed

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Curti, Delphine; Austin, Sean; King, Roberto; Lamothe, Lisa; Gloria-Hernandez, Hugo

    2017-10-15

    Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains). Such amylopectin features and amylose content contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties as well as starch digestibility of the flours. Non-starch constituents had additional impacts; proteins delayed starch gelatinization and pasting, especially in sorghum flours, and high levels of soluble fibre retarded starch retrogradation in wheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was restricted by the presence of associated protein matrix and enzyme inhibitors, but accelerated by endogenous amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of physical and chemical preprocessing on the flowability of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Nagle, Nick; Sievers, David A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-12-20

    Continuous and reliable feeding of biomass is essential for successful biofuel production. However, the challenges associated with biomass solids handling are commonly overlooked. In this study, we examine the effects of preprocessing (particle size reduction, moisture content, chemical additives, etc.) on the flow properties of corn stover. Compressibility, flow properties (interparticle friction, cohesion, unconfined yield stress, etc.), and wall friction were examined for five corn stover samples: ground, milled (dry and wet), acid impregnated, and deacetylated. The ground corn stover was found to be the least compressible and most flowable material. The water and acid impregnated stovers had similar compressibilities. Yet, the wet corn stover was less flowable than the acid impregnated sample, which displayed a flow index equivalent to the dry, milled corn stover. The deacetylated stover, on the other hand, was the most compressible and least flowable examined material. However, all of the tested stover samples had internal friction angles >30°, which could present additional feeding and handling challenges. All of the ''wetted'' materials (water, acid, and deacetylated) displayed reduced flowabilities (excluding the acid impregnated sample), and enhanced compressibilities and wall friction angles, indicating the potential for added handling issues; which was corroborated via theoretical hopper design calculations. All of the ''wetted'' corn stovers require larger theoretical hopper outlet diameters and steeper hopper walls than the examined ''dry'' stovers.

  13. The effects of physical and chemical preprocessing on the flowability of corn stover

    DOE PAGES

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Nagle, Nick; Sievers, David A.; ...

    2015-12-20

    Continuous and reliable feeding of biomass is essential for successful biofuel production. However, the challenges associated with biomass solids handling are commonly overlooked. In this study, we examine the effects of preprocessing (particle size reduction, moisture content, chemical additives, etc.) on the flow properties of corn stover. Compressibility, flow properties (interparticle friction, cohesion, unconfined yield stress, etc.), and wall friction were examined for five corn stover samples: ground, milled (dry and wet), acid impregnated, and deacetylated. The ground corn stover was found to be the least compressible and most flowable material. The water and acid impregnated stovers had similar compressibilities.more » Yet, the wet corn stover was less flowable than the acid impregnated sample, which displayed a flow index equivalent to the dry, milled corn stover. The deacetylated stover, on the other hand, was the most compressible and least flowable examined material. However, all of the tested stover samples had internal friction angles >30°, which could present additional feeding and handling challenges. All of the ''wetted'' materials (water, acid, and deacetylated) displayed reduced flowabilities (excluding the acid impregnated sample), and enhanced compressibilities and wall friction angles, indicating the potential for added handling issues; which was corroborated via theoretical hopper design calculations. All of the ''wetted'' corn stovers require larger theoretical hopper outlet diameters and steeper hopper walls than the examined ''dry'' stovers.« less

  14. Development of highly-transparent protein/starch-based bioplastics.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J; Partal, P; Garcia-Morales, M; Gallegos, C

    2010-03-01

    Striving to achieve cost-competitive biomass-derived materials for the plastics industry, the incorporation of starch (corn and potato) to a base formulation of albumen and glycerol was considered. To study the effects of formulation and processing, albumen/starch-based bioplastics containing 0-30 wt.% starch were prepared by thermo-plastic and thermo-mechanical processing. Transmittance measurements, DSC, DMTA and tensile tests were performed on the resulting bioplastics. Optical and tensile properties were strongly affected by starch concentration. However, DMTA at low deformation proved to be insensitive to starch addition. Thermo-mechanical processing led to transparent albumen/starch materials with values of strength at low deformation comparable to commodity plastics. Consequently, albumen biopolymers may become a biodegradable alternative to oil-derived plastics for manufacturing transparent packaging and other plastic stuffs. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  16. Effects of Plastizers on the Structure and Properties of Starch-Clay Nanocomposites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodegradable nanocomposites were successfully fabricated from corn starch and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclays by melt extrusion processing. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and film propertie...

  17. Prececal digestibility of various sources of starch in minipigs with or without experimentally induced exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mösseler, A; Kramer, N; Becker, C; Gregory, P C; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    Low prececal digestibility of starch leads to a higher starch flux into the hindgut, causing a forced microbial fermentation, energy losses, and meteorism. For exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), lack of pancreatic amylase can be compensated mostly by hindgut fermentation of starch. Even in pigs with complete loss of pancreatic secretion, starch digestibility over the entire tract is reaching levels of controls. To optimize diets for human patients with EPI, the proportion of starch that is digested by the ileum is important. Minipigs were fitted with an ileocecal reentrant fistula (n = 8) to determine prececal digestibility of starch. In 5 minipigs the pancreatic duct was ligated (PL) to induce EPI; 3 minipigs served as controls (Con). Various starch sources were tested in a 1-d screening test; therefore, disappearance rate (DR) instead of digestibility was used. Test meals consisted of 169 g DM of a basal diet plus 67.5 g DM of the starch (without thermal treatment; purified; starch content of 89 to 94.5%) and Cr(2)O(3). The test meal contained (% of DM) starch, 67; crude fat, 1.69; CP, 15; crude fiber, 2.0; and Cr(2)O(3), 0.25. In PL, prececal DR of starch was lower than in Con (P < 0.05) for all starch sources. In Con, prececal DR of starch was almost complete (>90%) but was lower (P < 0.05) for potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch (75.4%). In PL, prececal DR of starch was higher (P < 0.05) for wheat (Triticum aestivum) starch (61.2%) than corn (Zea mays) starch (43.0%) and rice (Oryza sativa) starch (29.2%) and intermediate for potato and field pea (Pisum sativum) starch. For patients with EPI, wheat starch seems favorable due to the higher prececal digestibility whereas raw corn and rice starch should be avoided.

  18. Analytical evaluation of current starch methods used in the international sugar industry: Part I.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marsha; Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-08-01

    Several analytical starch methods exist in the international sugar industry to mitigate starch-related processing challenges and assess the quality of traded end-products. These methods use iodometric chemistry, mostly potato starch standards, and utilize similar solubilization strategies, but had not been comprehensively compared. In this study, industrial starch methods were compared to the USDA Starch Research method using simulated raw sugars. Type of starch standard, solubilization approach, iodometric reagents, and wavelength detection affected total starch determination in simulated raw sugars. Simulated sugars containing potato starch were more accurately detected by the industrial methods, whereas those containing corn starch, a better model for sugarcane starch, were only accurately measured by the USDA Starch Research method. Use of a potato starch standard curve over-estimated starch concentrations. Among the variables studied, starch standard, solubilization approach, and wavelength detection affected the sensitivity, accuracy/precision, and limited the detection/quantification of the current industry starch methods the most. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Time-restricted feeding of rapidly digested starches causes stronger entrainment of the liver clock in PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Itokawa, Misa; Hirao, Akiko; Nagahama, Hiroki; Otsuka, Makiko; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Hirao, Kazuko; Hatta, Tamao; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2013-02-01

    Restricting feeding to daytime can entrain circadian clocks in peripheral organs of rodents, and nutrients that rapidly increase the blood glucose level are suitable for inducing entrainment. However, dietetic issues, for example, whether or not the diet comprises heated food, have not been fully explored. We therefore hypothesized that rapidly digested starch causes stronger entrainment than slowly digested starch. The entrainment ability of the liver clock in PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice, blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and acute changes in liver clock gene expression were compared between a β-starch (native)-substituted AIN-93M standard diet and an α-starch (gelatinized)-substituted diet. β-Corn and β-rice starch induced larger phase delays of the liver clock, larger blood glucose increases, and higher Per2 gene expression in the liver compared with β-potato starch. Starch granule size, as examined by electron microscopy, was larger for β-potato starch than for β-corn or β-rice starch. After heating, we obtained gelatinized α-potato, α-corn, and α-rice starch, which showed destruction of the crystal structure and a high level of gelatinization. No difference in the increase of blood glucose or insulin levels was observed between β-corn and α-corn starch, or between β-rice and α-rice starch. In contrast, α-potato starch caused higher levels of glucose and insulin compared with β-potato starch. An α-potato starch-substituted diet induced larger phase delays of the liver clock than did β-potato starch. Therefore, rapidly digested starch is appropriate for peripheral clock entrainment. Dietetic issues (heated vs unheated) are important when applying basic mouse data to humans.

  20. Characterisation, in vitro digestibility and expected glycemic index of commercial starches as uncooked ingredients.

    PubMed

    Romano, Annalisa; Mackie, Alan; Farina, Federica; Aponte, Maria; Sarghini, Fabrizio; Masi, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    In this study native starches as ingredients (corn, rice, wheat, tapioca and potato) were characterized for microstructure, physicochemical, functional and thermal properties, in vitro digestibility and glycemic index. There was a significant variation in the granule shape and size distribution of the starches. Particle size monomodal (corn, tapioca, potato) and bimodal (rice, wheat) distribution was observed amongst the starches. The potato starch showed the biggest size granules while the rice showed the smallest. The examined properties and nutritional characteristics of starches were significantly different. Thermal properties were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). DSC results showed that the transition temperatures (58.8-78.7 °C) and enthalpies of gelatinization (2.3-8.2 J/g) of the starches appeared to be greatly influenced by microstructure and chemical composition (e.g. resistant starch). Nutritional properties such as slowly digestible starch and expected glycemic index values followed the order: rice > wheat > tapioca > corn > potato. In particular, the highest resistant starch was recorded for potato starch.

  1. Role of Glassy and Crystalline Transitions in the Responses of Corn Starches to Heat and High Pressure Treatments: Prediction of solute-induced Barostability from solute-induced Thermostability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to explore the effects of heat and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on glassy and crystalline transitions of starches, and the distinctive contributions of amylopectin and amylose, with respect to: annealing, gelatinization, pasting, and retrogradation, an experimental design with dent and w...

  2. Flaking corn: processing mechanics, quality standards, and impacts on energy availability and performance of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Owens, F N; Ware, R A

    2002-05-01

    Based on performance of feedlot cattle, steam flaking increases the value of corn by 18%, considerably more than is suggested by tabular values. Tabular values underestimate the energy availability of flaked corn by failing to account for digestibility of the nonstarch OM that is increased by flaking by the same magnitude (10%) as starch. Correcting for improvement in digestibility of nonstarch OM increases the NEg value of steam-flaked corn to 1.70 Mcal/kg, a value very close to values calculated from cattle performance trials. Digestibility of starch from corn grain is limited by the protein matrix that encapsulates starch granules, and by the compact nature of the starch itself. Disruption of the protein matrix (by shear forces on hot grain during flaking) is the first limiting step toward optimizing starch digestion. Five critical production factors influence the quality of steam-flaked corn: steam chest temperature, steaming time, roll corrugation, roll gap, and roll tension. For optimal shear, it is important that rolls be hot and that kernels be hot when flaked. Steam chests should be designed to allow a steaming time of at least 30 min at maximum roller mill capacity producing a flake of 0.31 kg/L (24 lb/bushel). As little as 5% moisture uptake during steaming appears adequate. The rate of flaking and distribution of kernels across the rolls also are critical. Quality standards for steam-flaked corn include measurements of flake thickness, flake density, starch solubility, and enzyme reactivity. Flake density, the most common quality standard, closely associated with starch solubility (r2 = 0.87) and enzyme reactivity (r2 = 0.79), still explains only 63% of the variability in percentage fecal starch and 52% of the variability in starch digestibility. Direct determination of fecal starch can explain 91% of the variability in starch digestion. The NEg value of corn can be predicted from fecal starch: NEg= 1.78 - 0.0184FS. Starch digestion is a Kappa Curve

  3. Fumonisins in Brazilian corn-based foods for infant consumption.

    PubMed

    de Castro, M F P M; Shephard, G S; Sewram, V; Vicente, E; Mendonça, T A; Jordan, A C

    2004-07-01

    A survey of 196 samples of corn-based infant foods from 13 cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, was carried out to investigate the fumonisin contamination in the products. Based on their ingredients, the products were divided into seven groups: infant cereal designated as types A-D, corn meal, corn starch and instant cereal baby food. Although certain infant food samples were free of fumonisin contamination (<20 microg kg(-1); corn starch and infant cereals of type A, B and D), contamination levels in the other products (corn meal, instant corn-based baby food and cereal type C) were of concern, particularly those in corn meal. All samples in these categories contained fumonisins. The mean level for total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 + FB3) in corn meal was 2242 microg kg(-1) (maximum 8039 microg kg(-1)), in instant corn-based baby food was 437 (maximum 1096) microg kg(-1) and in infant cereal type C was 664 (maximum 1753) microg kg(-1).

  4. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  5. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  6. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  7. Factors affecting the alkaline cooking performance of selected corn and sorghum hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dent corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) sample sets representative of commonly grown hybrids and diverse physical attributes were analyzed for nixtamalization performance. The influence of kernel characteristics including hardness, density, starch properties (thermal, pasting...

  8. Milk production and nutrient digestibility by dairy cows when fed exogenous amylase with coarsely ground dry corn.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Steinberg, W; Engstrom, M A

    2011-05-01

    The digestibility of starch provided by coarsely ground corn is often low, which reduces the digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet. We hypothesized that adding exogenous amylase to diets based on coarsely ground dent corn would increase dietary DE resulting in greater milk production. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was measured in a partially replicated Latin square experiment (6 cows and 4 periods) with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets had 26 or 31% starch with or without exogenous amylase (amylase was added to the concentrate mixes at the feed mill). In the low and high starch diets, coarsely ground dry corn (mean particle size=1.42 mm) provided 43 and 62% of total dietary starch (corn silage provided most of the remaining starch). No treatment interactions were observed. High starch diets had greater dry matter (DM), organic matter, and energy digestibility than low starch diets, and diets with amylase had greater neutral detergent fiber digestibility than diets without amylase. Digestibility of starch averaged 88% and was not affected by treatment. A long-term (98-d) lactation study with 48 Holstein cows (74 d in milk) was conducted using 3 of the diets (low starch diets with and without amylase and the high starch diet without amylase). Addition of amylase to a diet with 26% starch did not affect intake, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, or body condition. Cows fed the diet with 31% starch had greater DM and DE intakes; yields of milk, fat, and protein; and feed efficiency than those fed diets with 26% starch. Milk composition was not affected by starch concentration. Adding exogenous amylase to a lower starch diet did not make the diet nutritionally equivalent to a higher starch diet. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual modification of starch via partial enzymatic hydrolysis in the granular state and subsequent hydroxypropylation.

    PubMed

    Karim, A A; Sufha, E H; Zaidul, I S M

    2008-11-26

    The effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the degree of corn and mung bean starch derivatization by propylene oxide was investigated. The starch was enzymatically treated in the granular state with a mixture of fungal alpha-amylase and glucoamylase at 35 degrees C for 16 h and then chemically modified to produce enzyme-hydrolyzed-hydroxypropyl (HP) starch. Partial enzyme hydrolysis of starch in the granular state appeared to enhance the subsequent hydroxypropylation, as judged from the significant increase in the molar substitution. A variable degree of granule modification was obtained after enzyme hydrolysis, and one of the determinants of the modification degree appeared to be the presence of natural pores in the granules. Enzyme-hydrolyzed-HP starch exhibited significantly different functional properties compared to hydroxypropyl starch prepared from untreated (native) starch. It is evident that the dual modification of starch using this approach provides a range of functional properties that can be customized for specific applications.

  10. Determination of amylose content in starch using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mariana R; Alves, Rafael S; Nascimbem, Laura B L R; Stephani, Rodrigo; Poppi, Ronei J; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C

    2010-08-01

    Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and chemometric tools have been used for exploratory analysis of pure corn and cassava starch samples and mixtures of both starches, as well as for the quantification of amylose content in corn and cassava starch samples. The exploratory analysis using principal component analysis shows that two natural groups of similar samples can be obtained, according to the amylose content, and consequently the botanical origins. The Raman band at 480 cm(-1), assigned to the ring vibration of starches, has the major contribution to the separation of the corn and cassava starch samples. This region was used as a marker to identify the presence of starch in different samples, as well as to characterize amylose and amylopectin. Two calibration models were developed based on partial least squares regression involving pure corn and cassava, and a third model with both starch samples was also built; the results were compared with the results of the standard colorimetric method. The samples were separated into two groups of calibration and validation by employing the Kennard-Stone algorithm and the optimum number of latent variables was chosen by the root mean square error of cross-validation obtained from the calibration set by internal validation (leave one out). The performance of each model was evaluated by the root mean square errors of calibration and prediction, and the results obtained indicate that Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy can be used for rapid determination of apparent amylose in starch samples with prediction errors similar to those of the standard method.

  11. Extruded foams prepared from high amylose starch with sodium stearate to form amylose inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch foams were prepared from high amylose corn starch in the presence and absence of sodium stearate and PVOH to determine how the formation of amylose-sodium stearate inclusion complexes and the addition of PVOH would affect foam properties. Low extrusion temperatures were used, and X-ray diffra...

  12. Structure-function properties of starch spherulites grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  13. Structure-function properties of starch graft poly(methyl acrylate)copolymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  14. Conversion of starch from dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for potential conversion of starch to ethanol. Eight varieties of beans with average starch content of 46% (db) were assayed in a laboratory-scaled process based upon the commercial corn dry grind fermentation process. Ethanol yield was 0.43-0....

  15. Effect of Starch Sources and Protein Content on Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 3x3 completely randomized design was used to investigate the extrusion cooking and product characteristics of DDGS, protein levels, and various starch sources in a laboratory scale single screw extruder. Cassava, corn, and potato starches with varying levels of DDGS (20, 30, and 40% wb) were extru...

  16. Heat expanded starch-based compositions.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur K; Holtman, Kevin M; Shey, Justin; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Berrios, Jose; Wood, Delilah; Orts, William J; Imam, Syed H

    2007-05-16

    A heat expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-based compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when heated due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling cooked starch slurries. The samples expanded into a low-density foam by heating 190-210 degrees C for more than 20 s at ambient pressures. Formulations containing starch (50-85%), sorbitol (5-15%), glycerol (4-12%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL, 5-15%), and water (10-20%) were studied. The bulk density was negatively correlated to sorbitol, glycerol, and water content. Increasing the EVAL content increased the bulk density, especially at concentrations higher than 15%. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) increased the bulk density more than EVAL. The bulk density was lowest in samples made of wheat and potato starch as compared to corn starch. The expansion temperature for the starch pellets decreased more than 20 degrees C as the moisture content was increased from 10 to 25%. The addition of EVAL in the formulations decreased the equilibrium moisture content of the foam and reduced the water absorption during a 1 h soaking period.

  17. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Mani, Sudhagar; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-01-01

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of size-controlled starch-based nanoparticles as hydrophobic drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu

    2013-10-01

    Acetylated corn starch was successfully synthesized and optimized by the reaction of native corn starch with acetic anhydride and acetic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The optimal degree of substitution of 2.85 was obtained. Starch-based nanoparticles were fabricated by a simple and novel nanoprecipitation procedure, by the dropwise addition of water to acetone solution of acetylated starch under stirring. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that acetylated starch had some new bands at 1750, 1375 and 1240 cm(-1) while acetylated starch nanoparticles presented the identical peaks as the drug-loaded acetylated starch nanoparticles and the acetylated starch. Wide angle X-ray diffraction indicated that A-type pattern of native starch was completely transformed into the V-type pattern of Acetylated starch and starch-based nanoparticles show the similar type pattern with the acetylated starch. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the different sizes of pores formed on the acetylated starch granules were utterly converted into the uniform-sized spherical nanoparticles after the nanoprecipitation. The encapsulation efficiency and diameter of nanoparticle can be adjusted by the degree of substitution, the volume ratio of nonsolvent to solvent and the weight ratio of acetylated starch to drug. It was also depicted that the release behaviors of drug-loaded nanoparticles depend on the size of nanoparticles and the degree of substitution of the acetylated starch. Release studies prove that the starch-based nanoparticles with uniform size can be used for the encapsulation of hydrophobic drug and attained the sustained and controllable drug release carriers.

  19. Morphometric analysis of polygonal cracking patterns in desiccated starch slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, Yuri; Magome, Jun; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the geometry of two-dimensional polygonal cracking that forms on the air-exposed surface of dried starch slurries. Two different kinds of starches, made from potato and corn, exhibited distinguished crack evolution, and there were contrasting effects of slurry thickness on the probability distribution of the polygonal cell area. The experimental findings are believed to result from the difference in the shape and size of starch grains, which strongly influence the capillary transport of water and tensile stress field that drives the polygonal cracking.

  20. Chemical composition and functional properties of native chestnut starch (Castanea sativa Mill).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Bruno R; Abraão, Ana S; Lemos, André M; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-04-15

    Starch isolation methods can change their physico-chemical and functional characteristics hindering the establishment of a starch-food functionality relation. A simple high yield and soft isolation method was applied for chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) starch consisting in steeping and fruit disintegration in a 25 mM sodium bisulfite solution and purification by sedimentation. Starch integrity, physico-chemical composition, morphology and functional properties were determined, being observed significant differences from previous described methods for chestnut starch isolation. The X-ray pattern was of B-type, with a degree of crystallinity ranging from 51% to 9%, dependent on the starch moisture content. The onset, peak, and conclusion gelatinization temperatures were 57.1°C, 61.9°C and 67.9°C, respectively. Total amylose content was 26.6%, and there was not found any evidence for lipid complexed amylose. Swelling power at 90°C was 19 g/g starch, and the amount of leached amylose was 78% of the total amylose content. Native chestnut starch presents a type B pasting profile similar to corn starch but with a lower gelatinization (56.1°C) and peak viscosity (79.5°C) temperatures, making native chestnut starch a potential technological alternative to corn starch, especially in application where lower processing temperatures are needed.

  1. Thermoplastic starch films reinforced with talc nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Luciana; López, Olivia; López, Cintia; Zaritzky, Noemí; García, M Alejandra; Barbosa, Silvia; Villar, Marcelo

    2013-06-20

    Nanocomposite films of thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) with talc particles were obtained by thermo-compression in order to study the effect of filler on structure, optical, and thermal properties. Talc increased the films rigid phase, thus their cross-sections resulted more irregular. Talc preferential orientation within matrix and good compatibility between particles and TPS was observed by SEM. Slight crystalline structure changes in TPS matrix were measured by XRD and DSC, due to talc nucleating effect. Randomly dispersed talc nanoagglomerates and individual platelets were assessed by TEM. Laminar morphology and nano-sized particles allowed that nanocomposite films were optically transparent. TPS-talc films resulted heterogeneous materials, presenting domains rich in glycerol and others rich in starch. Talc incorporation higher than 3%, w/w increased softening resistance of the nanocomposites as stated by DMA. Relaxation temperatures of glycerol-rich phase shifted to higher values since talc reduces the mobility of starch chains.

  2. Application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried foods because of increasing health concerns from consumers. Oxidized starches have been utilized in many coating applications for their adhesion ability. However, it is not known if they perform similarly in bake-only products. This study investigated the application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets. Oxidized starches were prepared from 7 starches and analyzed for gelatinization and pasting properties. Chicken nuggets were prepared using batter containing wheat flour, oxidized starch, salt, and leavening agents prior to steaming, oven baking, freezing, and final oven baking for sensory evaluation. All nuggets were analyzed for hardness by a textural analyzer, crispness by an acoustic sound, and sensory characteristics by a trained panel. The oxidation level used in the study did not alter the gelatinization temperature of most starches, but increased the peak pasting viscosity of both types of corn and rice starches and decreased that of tapioca and potato starches. There were slight differences in peak force and acoustic reading between some treatments; however, the differences were not consistent with starch type or amylose content. There was no difference among the treatments as well as between the control with wheat flour and the treatments partially replaced with oxidized starches in all sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets evaluated by the trained panel. There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried food, such as chicken nuggets, because of increasing childhood obesity. Oxidized starches are widely used in coating applications for their adhesion ability. This study investigated the source of oxidized starches in steam-baked coated nuggets for their textural and sensorial properties. The findings from this research will provide an understanding of the contributions of starch source and oxidation to the texture and sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets, and future directions to improve

  3. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2017-06-16

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P < 0.01)in both the outer and inner crust. A lower temperature (difference of 10-20 °C) in combination with a higher moisture content (maximum difference of 8%) of bread crust were a result of starch coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of corn processing on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in horses.

    PubMed

    Vervuert, I; Coenen, M; Bothe, C

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different corn processing techniques on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in horses. It was hypothesized that the changes in pre-caecal starch digestibility caused by various types of corn processing would alter the post-prandial glycaemic and/or insulinaemic response. Six horses were fed in random order: untreated, finely ground, steamed, micronized, steam-flaked and popped corn. The total corn intake was adjusted to 630 g starch/horse/day (1.2-1.5 g starch/kg BW/day). During a stabilization period of 10 days, horses also received 6 kg grass hay/horse/day. At blood collection day horses were fed their test diet (exclusively corn), and blood samples were taken at defined times. Corn feeding resulted in a significant increase in mean plasma glucose and insulin concentration, but glucose and insulin peaks as well as areas under the curve (AUC) were not clearly influenced by corn processing. The glycaemic index (in which each test diet's plasma glucose AUC was expressed relative to untreated corn) varied between 91.4 +/- 9.4% (steamed corn) and 108.4 +/- 11.8% (popped corn, treatment n.s.), the insulinaemic index (in which each test diet's plasma insulin AUC was expressed relative to untreated corn) ranged between 98.2 +/- 12.6% (steamed corn) and 121.0 +/- 29.9% (micronized corn, treatment n.s.). However, the well-established improvement in pre-caecal starch digestibility was not reflected by differences in the glucose or insulin responses.

  5. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    PubMed

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-09-17

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  6. Thermal and rheological properties of nixtamalized maize starch.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Montealvo, G; Sánchez-Rivera, M M; Paredes-López, O; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-12-15

    The effect of nixtamalization process on thermal and rheological characteristics of corn starch was studied. Starch of raw sample had higher gelatinization temperature than its raw counterpart, because, the Ca(2+) ions stabilize starch structure of nixtamalized sample; however, the enthalpy values were not different in both samples. The temperature of the phase transition of the retrograded starches (raw and nixtamalized) were not different at the storage times assessed, but the enthalpy values of the above mentioned transition was different, indicating a lower reorganization of the starch structure in the nixtamalized sample. The viscoamylographic profile showed differences between both starches, since raw starch had higher peak viscosity than the nixtamalized sample due to partial gelatinization of some granules during this heat treatment. Rheological test showed that at low temperature (25 degrees C) the raw and nixtamalized starches presented different behaviour; however, the elastic characteristic was more important in the starch gel structure. The nixtamalization process produced changes in thermal and rheological characteristics becoming important in those products elaborated from nixtamalized maize.

  7. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of technologies to use cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production was recognized as an important research focus because cellulose is a more widely-available feedstock than corn starch. Our objective was to compare various corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies to ...

  8. Feasibility study for production of anhydrous alcohol from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The feasibility of establishing a facility to produce fuel grade alcohol from corn to be located within an existing soybean processing plant in Mexico, Missouri has been studied. The alcohol producing industries, technical literature, various available process technologies, and industry consultants were surveyed. A process consisting of dry milling corn, continuous cooking, batch fermentation and azeotropic distillation was selected as the most suitable technique for the MFA's venture. It was determined that a production rate of 6288 bushels of corn per day yielding 5,200,000 gallons per year of fuel grade ethanol plus the capability to up grade an additional 500,000 gallons per year of low grade alcohol from off-site production facilities was the best design for the space and facilities available within the existing Mexico, Missouri soybean plant while economically utilizing existing buildings and plant area to the best advantage. A factored estimate of expected capital costs for the gasohol demonstration plant was made based on surveys of the plant site and furnished plant drawings, approximate prices for major items of process equipment and estimated construction and erection costs. This cost, with a plus or minus 20% accuracy, was determined to be $8,852,000.00. Revenues were estimated based on the selling price of 200 proof fuel grade alcohol and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A number of cases were reviewed to demonstrate the sensitivity of plant operating income to various prices for corn, alcohol and DDGS and to assess the effect of inflation over the useful life of the plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  9. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  10. Handling of co-products in life cycle analysis in an evolving co-product market: A case study with corn stover removal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn stover (cobs and residue) is an important part of the life cycle of corn, either as fuel or as animal feed, but most life cycle analysis (LCA) models treat them separately from starch ethanol. This paper compares four stover and corn grain based ethanol pathways to show how the greenhouse gas (...

  11. Effect of starch sources on extruded aquaculture feed containing DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly growing sectors of agriculture, and is a reliable growth market for the prepared feeds. A Brabender laboratory-scale single screw extruder was used to study the effect of various starch sources (cassava, corn, and potato), DDGS levels (20, 30, and 40% (wb)), an...

  12. Corn insect pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  13. Clearance and metabolism of starch foods in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Birkenfeld, L H

    1999-01-01

    The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth sites from 7 volunteers using absorbent paper points. Samples were analyzed for carbohydrates and organic acids using high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical data for each food were pooled and compared to the results of the sugar food. The amount of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was highest with the potato chips and lowest with the corn flakes. Potato starch contributed more readily to oral lactic acid production than wheat or corn starch. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of oral glucose produced from starch, which occurred via the metabolites maltotriose and maltose. Oral clearance of foods containing cooked starch proceeded significantly slower than that of the sugar food, thus contributing to a prolonged period of lactic acid production.

  14. Simple organocatalytic route for the synthesis of starch esters.

    PubMed

    Tupa, Maribel; Maldonado, Lorena; Vázquez, Analía; Foresti, María L

    2013-10-15

    Starch acetates and starch butyrates with degree of substitution (DS) in the range of 0.06-1.54 were prepared by a simple direct solvent-free organocatalytic methodology of starch acylation. The starch esters synthesized have important applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries, among others. The acylation methodology used involves a non-toxic biobased α-hydroxycarboxylic acid as catalyst, and proceeds with high efficiency in absence of solvents. The effect of reaction time on the advance of starch modification was studied as a simple way to control the level of substitution achieved, when all other reaction parameters were kept constant. Starch esters were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FTIR spectroscopy qualitatively confirmed the esterification of starch by the appearance of bands which are associated with esters groups. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the granular structure of the polysaccharide was preserved upon acylation, although acylated granules had rougher surfaces; and wrinkles, grooves and deformed zones appeared in some granules at high DS. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a gradual reduction in the water content of acylated starches, as well as noticeable changes in their thermal properties at increasing DS. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the acetylation treatment led to lower crystallinity at increasing DS, although characteristic corn starch A-type patterns could be identified even at the highest DS achieved (DS=1.23). Specific bands and weight losses derived from FTIR and TGA data could be very well correlated with the substitution degree achieved in acetylated starches at DS lower/equal than 0.6. The organocatalytic methodology described for the synthesis of starch acetates and butyrates has the potential to be easily extended to the synthesis of other starch esters using a

  15. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 81.9% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); of neutral detergent fibre from 41.0% (control) to 57.8% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 60.0% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (2) improved average daily gain from 786 g (control) to 829 g (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 846 g (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); and numerical increases in feed intake from 1.96 kg/pig/day (control) to 2.01 (Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (3) there was a dose response but no significant differences were observed in enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM.

  16. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Brittany E.; Lawrence, Laurie M.; Hayes, Susan H.; Crum, Andrea; Flythe, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only), HC (high corn), HO (high oats), LC (low corn), LO (low oats), and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings). Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1) before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14). Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW) by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2), and on d 6 (S1) and d 13 (S2) of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P < 0.0001) for all bacteria enumerated. Enumerations from control horses did not change during the sampling period (P > 0.05). All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P < 0.05). Feeding oats resulted in increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC (P < 0.05), while corn had the opposite effects. LW had increased lactobacilli and GPC (P < 0.05). The predominant amylolytic isolates from HC, LC and LW on S2 were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus faecalis, but other species were found in oat fed horses. These results demonstrate that starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota. PMID:27128793

  17. Thermal characterization of starch-water system by photopyroelectric technique and adiabatic scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Orea, A.; Bentefour, E. H.; Jamée, P.; Chirtoc, M.; Glorieux, C.; Pitsi, G.; Thoen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important carbohydrate sources in human nutrition. For the thermal analysis of starch, techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry have been extensively used. As an alternative, we have applied a photopyroelectric (PPE) configuration and adiabatic scanning calorimetry (ASC) to study the thermal properties of starch-water systems. For this study we used nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch with different quantities of distilled water, in order to obtain samples with different moisture content. By using PPE and ASC methods we have measured, for each technique separately, the heat capacity by unit volume (ρcp) at room temperature for a corn flour sample at 90% moisture. The obtained values agree within experimental uncertainty. By using these techniques we also studied the thermal behavior of potato starch, at 80% moisture, in the temperature range where phase transitions occur. In this case the PPE signal phase could be used as a sensitive and versatile monitor for phase transitions.

  18. Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films.

    PubMed

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties. Films made from potato starch constitute a greater barrier for oxygen and water vapour though they have weaker mechanical properties than wheat and corn starch films. Starch species with higher amylose content have lower wettability properties, and better mechanical resistance, which strongly depends on the water content due to the hydrophilic nature of starch films, so they could be used for products with higher water activity, such as cheese, fruits and vegetables. It especially concerns wheat starch systems, and the contact angle indicates less hydrophilic surfaces (above 90°) than those of corn and potato starch films (below 90°). The starch origin influences optical properties and thickness: with more amylose, films are opalescent and thicker; with less, they are transparent and thinner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Starch addition in renneted milk gels: partitioning between curd and whey and effect on curd syneresis and gel microstructure.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2012-12-01

    Milk gels were made by renneting and acidifying skim milk containing 5 different starches, and then compressed by centrifugation to express whey and simulate curd syneresis during the manufacture of low-fat cheese. A series of 17 starches were examined, with 5 starches being selected for in-depth analysis: a modified waxy corn starch (WC), a waxy rice starch (WR), an instant tapioca starch (IT), a modified tapioca starch (MT), and dextrin (DX). Milks containing WC, WR, and DX were given a 72°C heat treatment, whereas those containing IT and MT had a 30-min treatment at 66°C that matched their optimum gelatinization treatments. Curd yields were calculated by weight, estimated starch content in whey was measured gravimetrically by alcohol precipitation, and starch retention in curd was calculated. Curd yields were 13.1% for the control milk (no added starch) and 18.4, 20.7, 21.5, 23.5, and 13.2% for the gels containing starches WC, WR, IT, MT, and DX, respectively. Estimated starch retentions in the curd were, respectively, 71, 90, 90, 21, and 1%. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to determine the location of the starches in the curd and their interaction with the protein matrix. Waxy corn, WR, and IT starches have potential to improve texture of low-fat cheese because they had high retention in the curd and they generated interruptions in the protein matrix network that may have helped limit extensive protein-protein interactions. Modified tapioca starch interfered with formation of the protein structure of the curd and produced a soft noncohesive gel, even though most (79%) of the MT starch was lost in the whey. Few distinct starch particles were present in the MT curd network. Dextrin was not retained in the curd and did not disrupt the protein network, making it unsuitable for use in low-fat cheese.

  20. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Black, L.T.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequent saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variables such as starch concentration (40-70%), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 minutes). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining 1) the Brookfield viscosity, 2) the amount of reducing groups, and 3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction processing conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6 minute residence period in the mixer. Under these conditions, rates and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24 hours with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase). (Refs. 15).

  1. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification.

    PubMed

    Carr, M E; Black, L T; Bagby, M O

    1982-11-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequently saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variable such as starch concentration (40-70 degrees ), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 min). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining (1) the Brookfield viscosity, (2) the amount of reducing groups, and (3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction process conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6-min residence period in the mixture. Under these conditions, rate and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24h with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase).

  2. Troubleshooting fermentation in corn wet milling ethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To convert starch to ethanol, continuous fermentation processes are employed by corn wet milling plants all over world. Contaminations by bacterial microorganisms like Lactobacillus and wild yeasts like Brettanomyces are common and result in lower ethanol yields (Abbott and Ingledew 2005, Skinner an...

  3. Effect of green tea catechins on the postprandial glycemic response to starches differing in amylose content.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Mingzhu; Peng, Shanli; Zhang, Genyi

    2011-05-11

    The effect of tea polyphenols (TPLs), specifically tea catechins, on the postprandial glycemic response to cooked starches differing in amylose contents was investigated. The in vivo test using a mouse model showed a moderate reduction of the postprandial glycemic response to co-cooked normal (containing 27.8% amylose) or waxy corn starch with 10% TPLs (dry weight of starch), while an augmented glycemic response with a delayed blood glucose peak was observed when high amylose corn starch (HAC, containing 79.4% amylose) was used as the starch component. Enzyme kinetics results demonstrated that TPLs noncompetitively inhibit the digestion of waxy or normal corn starch, while the digestion rate of HAC starch was increased in the presence of TPLs, which supports the observed postprandial glycemic responses. Further studies using X-ray powder diffraction showed that the diffraction intensity (area under the diffraction curves) of normal and HAC starch was increased by 45% and 74%, respectively, whereas no change was observed for waxy corn starch. Consistently, dynamic laser light scattering studies using a solution of pure amylose showed an increased hydrodynamic radius of amylose molecules from ∼54 nm to ∼112 nm in the presence of TPLs. These experimental results indicate that there might exist an interaction between TPLs and amylose, which facilitates the association of amylose molecules to form a special nonordered structure that can produce a high and sustained postprandial glycemic response. Thus, a combination of tea polyphenols and specific starches could be used to manipulate postprandial glycemic response for glycemic control and optimal health.

  4. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  5. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants.

  6. Enzymatic method for measuring starch gelatinization in dry products in situ.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun; Han, Jianchun

    2012-05-02

    An enzymatic method based on hydrolysis of starch by amyloglucosidase and measurement of d-glucose released by glucose oxidase-peroxidase was developed to measure both gelatinized starch and hydrolyzable starch in situ of dried starchy products. Efforts focused on the development of sample handling steps (particle size reduction of dry samples followed by a unique mechanical resolubilization step) prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis using native and fully gelatinized flours of corn and rice. The new steps, when optimized, were able to maximize resolubilization of gelatinized/retrograded starch while minimizing solubilization of native starch in dried samples, thus effectively addressing issues of insusceptibility of retrograded starch and susceptibility of native starch to enzymatic attacks and eliminating the need to isolate starch from dry samples before using an enzymatic method. Various factors affecting these and other steps were also investigated, with the objectives to simplify the procedures and reduce errors. Results are expressed as the percentage of the total starch content. The proposed method, verified by measuring mixed samples of native and fully gelatinized flours of five grain species (corn, rice, barley, oat, and wheat) at different ratios, is simple, accurate, and reliable, with a relative standard deviation of less than 5%.

  7. Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) loose-fill foam: preparation, properties and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gordon, S H; Imam, S H

    2004-01-01

    Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) (S-g-PMA) was prepared by ceric ion initiation of methyl acrylate in an aqueous corn starch slurry (prime starch) which maximized the accessibility of the starch for graft polymerization. A new ceric ion reaction sequence was established as starch-initiator-methyl acrylate followed by addition of a small amount of ceric ion solution when the graft polymerization was almost complete to quench the reaction. As a result of this improved procedure, no unreacted methyl acrylate monomer remained, and thus, essentially no ungrafted poly(methyl acrylate) homopolymer was formed in the final grafted product. Quantities of the high purity S-g-PMA so prepared in pilot scale were converted to resin pellets and loose-fill foam by single screw and twin screw extrusion. The use of prime starch significantly improved the physical properties of the final loose-fill foam, in comparison to foam produced from regular dry corn starch. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam had compressive strength and resiliency comparable to expanded polystyrene but higher bulk density. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam also had better moisture and water resistance than other competitive starch-based materials. Studies indicated that the starch portion in S-g-PMA loose-fill foam biodegraded rapidly, whereas poly(methyl acrylate) remained relatively stable under natural environmental conditions.

  8. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches.

    PubMed

    Prestes, R C; Silva, L B; Torri, A M P; Kubota, E H; Rosa, C S; Roman, S S; Kempka, A P; Demiate, I M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded as MOD2 (2.5 % of Thermtex) were studied. The following tests were performed: physicochemical characterization (moisture, ash, protein, starch and lipid contents, and water activity); cooling, freezing and reheating losses; texture (texture profile test); color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C and h); microbiological evaluation; sensory evaluation (multiple comparison and preference test); and histological evaluation (light microscopy). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) for ash, protein, cooling loss, cohesiveness or in the preference test for the tested samples. The other evaluated parameters showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Histological study allowed for a qualitative evaluation between the physical properties of the food and its microscopic structure. The best results were obtained for formulation MOD2 (2.5 % Thermtex). The addition of modified starch resulted in a better performance than the native starch in relation to the evaluated technological parameters, mainly in relation to reheating losses, which demonstrated the good interaction between the modified starch in the structure of the product and the possibility of the application of this type of starch in other types of functional meat products.

  9. A low energy continuous reactor separator for the production of ethanol from corn grits/starch and biomass streams. 3rd Quarterly report, October 15, 1994--January 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This project is an attempt to develop and demonstrate an improved reactor for the production of ethanol from starch and ligno-cellulosic streams. Bio-Process Innovations holds a patent of this reactor technology, and is directing the project. A Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) is being built on a pilot plant scale for testing at a small Iowa ethanol plant (Permeate Refining) while bench scale tests on the reactor system are being performed at Purdue University. The project involves two industrial partners, Permeate Refining of Hopkinton, IA who will site and operate the pilot scale unit, and Lamont Sign Co, who are building the pilot scale unit. The CSRS is expected to allow the continuous conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The CSRS unit combines several operations within the confines of the reactor vessel; (1) complex carbohydrates are reduced to simple sugars by enzymatic breakdown; (2) sugars are converted to ethanol by yeast or bacteria; and (3) the ethanol is separated by a stripping gas stream. The ethanol is removed from the stripping gas in an absorber, and then taken to an extractive distillation column. This unit should allow concentrated feeds to be converted to ethanol, and the use of bottoms recycle will be extensively tested to establish the limits of minimizing net bottoms water production leaving the plant. Progress during this quarter is described.

  10. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p < 0.05) by 5.0 and 2.6 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn increased (p < 0.05) by 3.1 percentage unit with enzyme complex addition. As the effect of enzyme complex was the greatest in corn digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p < 0.05) by 16.0, 2.8 and 1.2 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn starch and hull also increased (p < 0.05) by 8.6 and 0.9 percentage unit, respectively, with enzyme complex addition. In conclusion, the enzyme complex increases in vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  11. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of three proteins up-regulated by raw starch in Cytophaga sp.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Rong-Jen; Wen, Yu-Der; Jeang, Chii-Ling

    2008-12-01

    Raw starch-digesting amylases (RSDAs) in many microorganisms convert starch granules into maltodextrins and simple sugars. We cloned and sequenced from Cytophaga sp. an RSDA with an excellent raw starch digestion activity. This RSDA was highly inducible by raw starch, but not by other sugars, suggesting that an unknown signal transduction mechanism is involved in the degradation of raw starch. We used a proteomic approach to investigate the effect of raw starch on protein expression in Cytophaga sp. Using MALDI-TOF MS protein analysis, we have identified three proteins up-regulated by raw starch, i.e., a 60-kDa chaperonin (cpn60), glutaminase, and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). Subsequent time-course studies detected an increased expression of RSDA as well as the highest expression of PPDK occurring 6 h post-incubation with raw corn starch, implying that the latter enzyme may work along with RSDA on the digestion of raw starch. Finding these proteins up-regulated by raw starch may provide an insight into how Cytophaga sp. cells respond to raw starch stimulation.

  13. Analysis of starch in food systems by high-performance size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Simsek, Senay

    2013-02-01

    Starch has unique physicochemical characteristics among food carbohydrates. Starch contributes to the physicochemical attributes of food products made from roots, legumes, cereals, and fruits. It occurs naturally as distinct particles, called granules. Most starch granules are a mixture of 2 sugar polymers: a highly branched polysaccharide named amylopectin and a basically linear polysaccharide named amylose. The starch contained in food products undergoes changes during processing, which causes changes in the starch molecular weight and amylose to amylopectin ratio. The objective of this study was to develop a new, simple, 1-step, and accurate method for simultaneous determination of amylose and amylopectin ratio as well as weight-averaged molecular weights of starch in food products. Starch from bread flour, canned peas, corn flake cereal, snack crackers, canned kidney beans, pasta, potato chips, and white bread was extracted by dissolving in KOH, urea, and precipitation with ethanol. Starch samples were solubilized and analyzed on a high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system. To verify the identity of the peaks, fractions were collected and soluble starch and beta-glucan assays were performed additional to gas chromatography analysis. We found that all the fractions contain only glucose and soluble starch assay is correlated to the HPSEC fractionation. This new method can be used to determine amylose amylopectin ratio and weight-averaged molecular weight of starch from various food products using as low as 25 mg dry samples. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effects of dry method esterification of starch on the degradation characteristics of starch/polylactic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ying Feng; Gu, Jiyou; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Maleic anhydride esterified corn starch was prepared by dry method. Esterified starch/polylactic acid (PLA) biodegradable composite was produced via melt extrusion method with blending maleic anhydride esterified corn starch and PLA. The influence of the dry method esterification of starch on the degradation characteristics of starch/PLA composites was investigated by the natural aging degradation which was soil burial method. Test results of mass loss rate showed that the first 30 days of degradation was mainly starch degradation, and the degradation rate of esterified starch/PLA (ES/PLA) was slower than that of native starch/PLA (NS/PLA). Therefore, the damage degree of ES/PLA on the surface and inside was smaller than that of NS/PLA, and the infrared absorption peak intensities of C-O, C=O and C-H were stronger than that of NS/PLA. With the increasing time of soil burial degradation, the damage degree of NS/PLA and ES/PLA on the exterior and interior were gradually increased, whereas the infrared absorption peak intensities of C-O, C=O and C-H were gradually decreased. The XRD diffraction peak intensity of PLA in composites showed an increased trend at first which was then followed by a decreased one along with the increasing time of soil burial degradation, indicating that the degradation of amorphous regions of PLA was earlier than its crystalline regions. When the soil burial time was the same, the diffraction peak intensity of PLA in ES/PLA was stronger than that of NS/PLA. If the degradation time was the same, T0, Ti and residual rate of thermal decomposition of NS/PLA were larger than those of ES/PLA. The tensile strength and bending strength of composites were decreased gradually with soil burial time increasing. Both the tensile strength and bending strength of ES/PLA were stronger than those of NS/PLA.

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production and corn kernels using different nutrient media

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As the supply of starch grain and sugar cane, currently the main feedstocks for bioethanol production, become limited, lignocelluloses will be sought as alternative materials for bioethanol production. Production of cellulosic ethanol is still cost-inefficient because of the low final ethanol concentration and the addition of nutrients. We report the use of simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production (furfural residue, FR) and corn kernels to compare different nutritional media. The final ethanol concentration, yield, number of live yeast cells, and yeast-cell death ratio were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of integrating cellulosic and starch ethanol. Results Both the ethanol yield and number of live yeast cells increased with increasing corn-kernel concentration, whereas the yeast-cell death ratio decreased in SSCF of FR and corn kernels. An ethanol concentration of 73.1 g/L at 120 h, which corresponded to a 101.1% ethanol yield based on FR cellulose and corn starch, was obtained in SSCF of 7.5% FR and 14.5% corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. SSCF could simultaneously convert cellulose into ethanol from both corn kernels and FR, and SSCF ethanol yield was similar between the organic and mineral-salt media. Conclusions Starch ethanol promotes cellulosic ethanol by providing important nutrients for fermentative organisms, and in turn cellulosic ethanol promotes starch ethanol by providing cellulosic enzymes that convert the cellulosic polysaccharides in starch materials into additional ethanol. It is feasible to produce ethanol in SSCF of FR and corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. It would be cost-efficient to produce ethanol in SSCF of high concentrations of water-insoluble solids of lignocellulosic materials and corn kernels. Compared with prehydrolysis and fed-batch strategy using lignocellulosic materials, addition of starch hydrolysates to cellulosic

  16. Chemical and physical characteristics of corn silages and their effects on in vitro disappearance.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, G; Mertens, D R

    2005-12-01

    Estimating the available energy in corn silage provides a unique challenge because the silage contains variable proportions of grain and stover, each of which can differ in availability due to chemical composition and physical form. The objectives of this study were to investigate relationships among chemical components and their relationships with in vitro disappearance of ground and unground dried silages, and to quantify minimally fragmented starch in corn silage and investigate its impact and that of mean particle size (MPS) on in vitro disappearance of unground silages. Thirty-two corn silages were selected to provide diversity in dry matter, protein, fiber, and MPS. Detergent fibers were highly correlated with each other and with nonfiber carbohydrates, and were used to develop prediction equations between these constituents. Sieves with apertures > or =4.75 mm were used to isolate intact kernels and large kernel fragments, which were collected and analyzed to measure minimally fragmented starch (Starch>4.75). Dividing Starch>4.75 by total starch defined the proportion of minimally fragmented starch (Starch>4.75/Total), which ranged from 9 to 100% with a mean of 52%. Starch>4.75/Total was positively correlated with MPS (r = 0.46). The inverse of Starch>4.75/Total is an index of kernel fragmentation. Silages were prepared as whole material or ground to pass through a 4- or 1-mm screen of a cutter mill. In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) was greater for ground than for whole samples (71.7 and 61.2%, respectively). Increased IVDMD for ground samples was attributed to greater in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and neutral detergent solubles (NDS) disappearances. The IVDMD of ground samples was related to NDF and acid detergent lignin (R2 = 0.80). The IVDMD of whole corn silage was related to acid detergent lignin, Starch>4.75, MPS, and dry matter. When IVDMD was partitioned into in vitro digestible NDS (IVdNDS) and in vitro digestible NDF, the IVd

  17. Effect of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to determine the influence of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods, dietary starch, rumen-digestible starch, and forage NDF concentrations on intake, digestion, and lactation performance by dairy cows using a data set comprising 414 treatment means from 102 peer-reviewed journal reports from 2000 to 2011. Categories for corn processing were dry ground, cracked or rolled corn (DRY), high-moisture shelled or ear corn (ENS), and steam-flaked or -rolled corn (STM); categories for kernel mean particle size were 500 to 1,000, 1,000 to 1,500, 1,500 to 2,000, 3,000 to 3,500, and 3,500 to 4,000 µm for dry corn and <2,000 and ≥2,000 µm for ensiled corn. Dietary starch and forage NDF concentrations were used as continuous variables. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), with treatment as fixed and trial as random effects. Total-tract starch digestibility was reduced and milk fat content was greater for DRY compared with ENS or STM. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was reduced for both DRY and ENS as particle size increased. Increased dietary starch concentrations increased milk yield and protein content, but decreased ruminal and total-tract NDF digestibilities and milk fat content. Dry matter intake, total-tract starch digestibility, and milk protein concentration decreased as forage NDF in the diet increased. Total-tract starch digestibility was positively related to ruminal (percentage of starch intake) and postruminal (percentage of duodenal flow) starch digestibilities.

  18. Effect of the mode of incorporation on the disintegrant properties of acid modified water and white yam starches

    PubMed Central

    Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.; Akinwande, Babatunde L.

    2011-01-01

    Acid modified starches obtained from two species of yam tubers namely white yam – Dioscorearotundata L. and water yam – D. alata L. DIAL2 have been investigated as intra- and extra-granular disintegrants in paracetamol tablet formulations. The native starches were modified by acid hydrolysis and employed as disintegrant at concentrations of 5 and 10% w/w and their disintegrant properties compared with those of corn starch BP. The tensile strength and drug release properties of the tablets, assessed using the disintegration and dissolution (t50 and t80 – time required for 50% and 80% of paracetamol to be released) times, were evaluated. The results showed that the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets decreased with increase in the concentration of the starch disintegrants. The acid modified yam starches showed better disintegrant efficiency than corn starch in the tablet formulations. Acid modification appeared to improve the disintegrant efficiency of the yam starches. Furthermore, tablets containing starches incorporated extragranularly showed faster disintegration but lower tensile strength than those containing starches incorporated intragranularly. This emphasizes the importance of the mode of incorporation of starch disintegrant. PMID:23960789

  19. Effect of the mode of incorporation on the disintegrant properties of acid modified water and white yam starches.

    PubMed

    Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Akinwande, Babatunde L

    2012-04-01

    Acid modified starches obtained from two species of yam tubers namely white yam - Dioscorea rotundata L. and water yam - D. alata L. DIAL2 have been investigated as intra- and extra-granular disintegrants in paracetamol tablet formulations. The native starches were modified by acid hydrolysis and employed as disintegrant at concentrations of 5 and 10% w/w and their disintegrant properties compared with those of corn starch BP. The tensile strength and drug release properties of the tablets, assessed using the disintegration and dissolution (t 50 and t 80 - time required for 50% and 80% of paracetamol to be released) times, were evaluated. The results showed that the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets decreased with increase in the concentration of the starch disintegrants. The acid modified yam starches showed better disintegrant efficiency than corn starch in the tablet formulations. Acid modification appeared to improve the disintegrant efficiency of the yam starches. Furthermore, tablets containing starches incorporated extragranularly showed faster disintegration but lower tensile strength than those containing starches incorporated intragranularly. This emphasizes the importance of the mode of incorporation of starch disintegrant.

  20. Preparation and flocculation properties of cationic starch/chitosan crosslinking-copolymer.

    PubMed

    You, Lijun; Lu, Feifei; Li, Dan; Qiao, Zhongming; Yin, Yeping

    2009-12-15

    A novel flocculant (CATCS) based on corn starch and chitosan was prepared and its flocculation behaviors were studied. The synthesis conditions of CATCS were discussed and the production obtained was characterized using Fourier infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Flocculation properties of the products were evaluated in terms of transmittance, removal of organic contaminant and solid suspending substances. Influences of temperature, pH and flocculant dosage on flocculation efficiency of CATCS were examined. CATCS had better flocculation performance at lower temperature for the wastewater investigated. CATCS showed better flocculation performance than cationic starch and chitosan in 5 g/L kaolin suspension trended to performance well in acidic and alkaline solution. The comparison of the flocculation performance between CATCS, Fe2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide showed CATCS had much efficient flocculation performance. In addition, cationic starch was prepared from corn starch using microwave-assisted method.

  1. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Ai, Yongfeng; Jones, Roger W.; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-01-29

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fit the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.

  2. Isolation and characterization of starch obtained from Brosimum alicastrum Swarts seeds.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pacheco, E; Moo-Huchin, V M; Estrada-León, R J; Ortiz-Fernández, A; May-Hernández, L H; Ríos-Soberanis, C R; Betancur-Ancona, D

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the Ramon starch was isolated and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Corn starch was used as reference. In general, the proximal composition was similar between starches studied. Ramon starch granules were oval-spherical and rounded with sizes between 6.5 and 15 μm. Starch purity was high (92.57%) with amylose content of 25.36%. The gelatinization temperature was 83.05°C and transition enthalpy was 21.423 J/g. At 90°C, solubility was 20.42%, swelling power 17.64 g water/gstarch and water absorption capacity was 13 gwater/gstarch. The pH, clarity and color (Hue angle) of Ramon starch were higher to those reported for corn starch. The results achieved suggest that Ramon starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures and it is also a promising option for use in the manufacture of biodegradable materials.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of corn for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The integration of enzyme saccharification with fermentation reduces the total time required to produce acceptable levels of ethanol. The use of a more concentrated mash (84.8 L total mash/bu corn) results in a 26.6% increase in ethanol productivity and a 21.4% increase in beer ethanol concentration compared to standard corn mash (96.6 L total mash/bu corn). Thus, the energy requirement and cost of distillation can be reduced. The addition of waste cola syrup at 30 g invert sugar/L total mash gave a 19% increase in ethanol concentration in the final beer and required only a small increase in period of fermentation. Surplus laundry starch can replace 30-50% of the weight of corn normally used in fermentation without influencing ethanol production or the time required for fermentation. Both of these waste materials reduce the unit cost of ethanol and demonstrate the value of such substances in ethanol systems.

  4. Emulsifying properties of chemically deamidated corn (Zea mays) gluten meal.

    PubMed

    Flores, I; Cabra, V; Quirasco, M C; Farres, A; Galvez, A

    2010-06-01

    Corn gluten meal is a by-product of starch production that is readily available. Corn protein isolates have limited applications due to their hydrophobic nature, low solubility and limited functionality as emulsifiers. In this study, a mild acidic treatment of corn gluten meal was performed in order to achieve deamidation of asparagine and glutamine residues and modify the interfacial behavior of this byproduct. A 0.1 N HCl treatment for 6 h at 70 °C rendered a deamidation degree of 20.4%, which increased the emulsification activity index of corn gluten meal from 6.8 to 16.8 m(2)/g protein, with a remarkable increase in emulsion stability from 0 to 90.6% oil retention. Proteins participating in the emulsion were separated by SDS-PAGE and the main polypeptides were identified as alpha and beta-zeins. After deamidation, protein dissociation and unfolding due to the obtained negative charges resulted in enhanced functionality.

  5. Purification and characterization of a thermostable raw starch digesting amylase from a Streptomyces sp. isolated in a milling factory.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takahiro; Ohno, Toshihisa; Ohisa, Naganori

    2005-06-01

    A raw starch utilizing microbe was isolated from mud in a milling factory. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and morphological properties of the strain indicated that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. A strongly raw starch digesting amylase was purified from the culture supernatant of the strain by chromatographic procedures. The specific activity of the enzyme was 11.7 U/mg, molecular mass 47 kDa, optimum pH 6.0, and optimum temperature 50 to 60 degrees C. The enzyme showed sufficient activity even at 70 degrees C. It was activated by calcium, cobaltous, and magnesium ions, and inhibited by copper, nickel, zinc, and ferrous ions. It formed maltose mainly from raw and gelatinized starch, and glycogen. No products were formed from glucose, maltose, maltotriose, pullulan, or cyclodextrins (CDs). The enzyme digested raw wheat, rice, and waxy rice starch rapidly, and raw corn, waxy corn, sweet potato, tapioca, and potato starch normally.

  6. Production and Characteristics of Raw-Starch-Digesting α-Amylase from a Protease-Negative Aspergillus ficum Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Shinsaku; Teramoto, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Mutational experiments were carried out to decrease the protease productivity of Aspergillus ficum IFO 4320 by using N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. A protease-negative mutant, M-33, exhibited higher α-amylaseactivity than the parent strain under submerged culture at 30°C for 24 h. About 70% of the total α-amylase activity in the M-33 culture filtrate was adsorbed onto starch granules. The electrophoretically homogeneous preparation of raw-starch-adsorbable α-amylase (molecular weight, 88,000), acid stable at pH 2, showed intensive raw-starch-digesting activity, dissolving corn starch granules completely. The preparation also exhibited a high synergistic effect with glucoamylase I. A mutant, M-72, with higher protease activity produced a raw cornstarch-unadsorbable α-amylase. The purified enzyme (molecular weight, 54,000), acid unstable, showed no digesting activity on raw corn starch and a lower synergistic effect with glucoamylase I in the hydrolysis of raw corn starch. The fungal α-amylase was therefore divided into two types, a novel type of raw-starch-digesting enzyme and a conventional type of raw-starch-nondigesting enzyme. Images PMID:16347204

  7. Plasma modification of starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Plasma is a medium of unbound negative and positive particles with the overall electrical charge being roughly zero. Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging green technology with great potential to improve the quality and microbial safety of various food materials. Starch is a major component of many food products and is an important ingredient for food and other industries. There has been increasing interest in utilizing plasma to modify the functionalities of starch through interactions with reactive species. This mini-review summarises the impact of plasma on composition, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, and uses of starch. Structure-function relationships of starch components as affected by plasma modifications are discussed. Effect of plasma on the properties of wheat flour, which is a typical example of starch based complex food systems, is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilise plasma to improve the functionalities of starch are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. And so can plants with high starch contents. [Cereal grains conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-08

    Researchers at Miles Laboratories are looking into the hydrolysis of starch using two enzymes - alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, as high concentrations of starch like those found in cereal grains can be converted into ethanol by way of sugars. It is estimated that to produce 1 gallon of ethanol requires about 56 lb of corn and with 85% fermentation efficiency, the enzyme cost per gallon of ethanol would be 6-7 cents.

  9. Nutrient digestibility of diets with different fiber to starch ratios when fed to lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Beckman, J L; Weiss, W P

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine whether increasing the dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF):starch ratio affected NDF digestibility when diets were formulated to have equal in situ NDF digestibility. Six lactating Holstein cows were fed 1 of 3 diets in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. All diets had 41.5% of the dry matter (DM) as corn silage but the concentration of corn grain varied from 23.3 to 34.8% and the NDF:starch ratios were 0.74, 0.95, and 1.27. As corn grain increased, the concentration of a mixture of 54% soyhulls and 46% cottonseed hulls decreased. The soyhull:cottonseed hull mixture had the same in situ NDF digestibility as the corn silage. All diets had 18% forage NDF but starch concentration varied from 25.4 to 33.3% and NDF varied from 24.7 to 32.2%. Intake tended to increase as the NDF:starch ratio increased. Total tract digestibility (measured by total collection of feces and urine) of dry matter and energy decreased linearly as the NDF:starch ratio increased, but NDF digestibility was not affected by treatment. Retention of N increased linearly as the NDF:starch ratio increased. As dietary NDF:starch ratio increased, ruminal pH was not affected, but the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) decreased and the VFA profile was altered by diet. Consistent with the observed changes in ruminal VFA, milk fat percentage increased with increasing dietary NDF:starch. Intake of digestible energy and output of energy in milk and body weight change was not affected by treatment.

  10. Fermentation Methods for Protein Enrichment of Cassava and Corn with Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Edgard; Jouanneau, Françoise; Bertrand, Jean-Claude; Raphael, Alain; Janssens, Jacques; Lebeault, Jean Michel

    1980-01-01

    Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an α-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either animal fodder or human food. The fact that no extra enzymes are required to hydrolyze starch results in a particularly efficient way of improving the nutritional value of amylaceous products, through a single-step fermentation process. PMID:16345495

  11. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA.

  12. Physical and mechanical properties of LDPE incorporated with different starch sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Kormin, Faridah; Dalour Hossen Beg, Mohammad; Bijarimi Mat Piah, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In this study it was investigated the incorporation of different starches, such as sago starch, corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch and wheat starch, in low-density polyethylene matrix (LDPE) to enhanced mechanical properties and to obtain partially biodegradable product with the aim to reduce the plastics wastes in the environment. For comparison, virgin LDPE, LDPE with different sources of starch blends were prepared and characterized under the same conditions. The starches were mixed to the LDPE using a twin screw extruder to guarantee the homogeneity of the formulations. The compound were shaping processed by injection moulding. The characterization of those compounds was done by physical (density, MFI), mechanical (Universal tensile machine). The addition of starch to LDPE reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength, whereas the elastic modulus, flexural modulus and flexural strength increased. LDPE/SS show the good mechanical behavior compared to other formulation. The physical and mechanical properties were evident when 5 and 30 wt% were added. Water uptake increased with increased starch content and immersion time. The time taken for the composites to equilibrate was about one month even when they were immersed completely in water.

  13. Starch nanoparticles: a review.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2010-05-10

    Starch is a natural, renewable, and biodegradable polymer produced by many plants as a source of stored energy. It is the second most abundant biomass material in nature. The starch structure has been under research for years, and because of its complexity, an universally accepted model is still lacking (Buleon, A.; et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85-112). However, the predominant model for starch is a concentric semicrystalline multiscale structure that allows the production of new nanoelements: (i) starch nanocrystals resulting from the disruption of amorphous domains from semicrystalline granules by acid hydrolysis and (ii) starch nanoparticles produced from gelatinized starch. This paper intends to give a clear overview of starch nanoparticle preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Recent studies have shown that they could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging, continuously looking for innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems, is being investigated. Therefore, recently, starch nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop biocomposites by blending starch nanoparticles with different biopolymeric matrices. To our knowledge, this topic has never been reviewed, despite several published strategies and conclusions.

  14. Hot-melt extrusion of sugar-starch-pellets.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi-Wah; Rein, Hubert

    2015-09-30

    Sugar-starch-pellets (syn. sugar spheres) are usually manufactured through fluidized bed granulation or wet extrusion techniques. This paper introduces hot-melt extrusion (HME) as an alternative method to manufacture sugar-starch-pellets. A twin-screw extruder coupled with a Leistritz Micro Pelletizer (LMP) cutting machine was utilized for the extrusion of different types (normal-, waxy-, and high-amlyose) of corn starch, blended with varying amounts of sucrose. Pellets were characterized for their physicochemical properties including crystallinity, particle size distribution, tensile strength, and swelling expansion. Furthermore, the influence of sugar content and humidity on the product was investigated. Both sucrose and water lowered the Tg of the starch system allowing a convenient extrusion process. Mechanical strength and swelling behavior could be associated with varying amylose and amylopectin. X-ray powder diffractometric (XRPD) peaks of increasing sucrose contents appeared above 30%. This signified the oversaturation of the extruded starch matrix system with sucrose. Otherwise, had the dissolved sucrose been embedded into the molten starch matrix, no crystalline peak could have been recognized. The replacement of starch with sucrose reduced the starch pellets' swelling effect, which resulted in less sectional expansion (SEI) and changed the surface appearance. Further, a nearly equal tensile strength could be detected for sugar spheres with more than 40% sucrose. This observation stands in good relation with the analyzed values of the commercial pellets. Both techniques (fluidized bed and HME) allowed a high yield of spherical pellets (less friability) for further layering processes. Thermal influence on the sugar-starch system is still an obstacle to be controlled.

  15. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  16. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  17. Blue maize: morphology and starch synthase characterization of starch granule.

    PubMed

    Utrilla-Coello, Rubi G; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Martinez-Salgado, Jose L; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Perez, Luis A

    2009-03-01

    The use of pigmented maize varieties has increased due to their high anthocyanins content, but very few studies are reported about the starch properties of these grains. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch granules from pigmented blue maize and carry out the morphological, physicochemical, and biochemical characterization studies. The proximate composition of starch granules showed high protein contents, after purification, the blue maize starch presented lower protein amount than starch from white maize (control). Although the purity of starch granules was increased, the damaged starch (determined for the Maltase cross absence) was also increased. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of some pores and channels in the blue maize starch. The electrophoretic protein profiles showed differences in the bands that correspond to the enzymes involved in the starch biosynthesis; these differences could explain the variation in morphological characteristics of blue maize starches against starch from white maize.

  18. Effects of ground, steam-flaked, and steam-rolled corn grains on performance of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Yu, P; Huber, J T; Santos, F A; Simas, J M; Theurer, C B

    1998-03-01

    Five types of processed corn were compared to determine the effects of processing on lactational performance and nutrient digestibilities in dairy cows. Forty lactating Holstein cows averaging 160 +/- 60 d in milk were randomly divided into five groups on the basis of pretreatment milk yields and were fed diets containing 40% corn grain for 56 d. Treatments were 1) finely ground corn, 2) coarsely ground corn, 3) steam-flaked corn at a low density, 4) steam-flaked corn at a medium density, and 5) steam-rolled corn. Cows fed the diet containing steam-flaked corn at a medium density had a higher milk yield (37.1 kg/d) than did cows fed the diets containing coarsely ground corn, steam-flaked corn at a low density, or steam-rolled corn; cows fed the diet containing finely ground corn had an intermediate milk yield (35.5 kg/d). Efficiency of feed utilization was greater, and dry matter intake was lower, for cows fed the diet containing finely ground corn than for cows fed the other diets. The fat content of milk was higher for cows fed the diets containing coarsely ground corn and steam-rolled corn than for cows fed the diet containing steam-flaked corn at a medium density. Milk protein and SNF contents and yields of protein, lactose, and SNF did not differ among diets. Apparent starch digestibilities in the total digestive tract were lower for diets containing coarsely ground corn (87.4%) and steam-rolled corn (91.3%) than for the other diets (X = 96.3%). Milk yield was highest for cows fed the diet containing steam-flaked corn with a medium density. Fine grinding resulted in the greatest efficiency of feed utilization.

  19. Corn silage management: effects of hybrid, chop length, and mechanical processing on digestion and energy content.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chop length and mechanical processing of two hybrids of whole plant corn on digestion and energy content of the total mixed ration (TMR). The experimental designs in experiments 1 and 2 were 6 x 6 and 4 x 4 Latin squares, respectively. In the first experiment, Pioneer hybrid 3845 was harvested at three theoretical lengths of cut: 11.1, 27.8, and 39.7 mm. At each chop length, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. In the second experiment, Pioneer hybrid Quanta was harvested at two theoretical lengths of cut: 27.8 and 39.7 mm, with and without mechanical processing. In both experiments, the increase in the theoretical length of cut of corn silage increased the average length of cut and tended to increase the percentage of particles greater than 19 mm and lower the percentage of particles between 8 and 19 mm. In experiment 1, apparent total tract dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibilities were lower for cows fed diets containing corn silage harvested at a short chop length (11.1 mm) than for corn silage harvested at a long chop length (39.7 mm). The lower total tract digestibility of nutrients may have contributed to the lower TDN, metabolizable energy (percentage of digestible energy), and NEL concentration of diets containing the short chop length corn silage (experiment 1). In experiment 2, total tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed medium chop (27.8 mm) corn silage diets, and total tract NDF digestibility was greater for cows fed long chop (39.7 mm) corn silage diets. The opposing effect of total tract starch and fiber digestibilities between chop lengths may have contributed to the lack of difference in energy content of the diets in experiment 2. The TDN and NEL concentrations of the processed corn silage diets were greater than the unprocessed corn silage diets in

  20. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  1. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  2. Gluten-free bread formulated with Prosopis ruscifolia (vinal) seed and corn flours.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, C; Sánchez, H; Freyre, M; Osella, C

    2010-05-01

    Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) is a wild leguminous tree found widely in the north of Argentina. Like other Prosopis, vinal can grow under extreme temperatures, in poor soils and can tolerate high saline conditions. Taking into account the high protein and gums contents of vinal seeds, a gluten-free bread was developed including them and corn flour. A central composite design involving vinal seed flour/corn starch ratio (X1) and corn flour/corn starch ratio (X2) was used, and second-order models for specific volume (Y1) and bread score (Y2), evaluated by an expert panel, were employed to generate response surfaces. In the optimum zone of response surfaces, a product with higher protein content (5.2 g/100 g) than gluten-free breads found in local commercial markets was obtained. Also, an interesting antioxidant activity (115 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g) was found in optimized gluten-free bread.

  3. Distribution of aflatoxins in product and by-products during glucose production from contaminated corn.

    PubMed

    Aly, Soher E

    2002-10-01

    Aflatoxins are known to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. A positive correlation has been established between the consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and the increased incidence of liver cancer worldwide. A survey of Egyptian corn and corn-based products and by-products shows that the majority of the samples had higher limits of aflatoxin. We have conducted experiments to determine the fate and distribution of aflatoxin during wet-milling process fractions and investigate the aflatoxin destruction during starch conversion to glucose syrup. The present results showed that about half of the aflatoxin content (48.1%) in the infected corn grain was found to be lost in steep liquor, depending upon the aflatoxin type, arranged in the order G1 > G2 > B1 > B2. After wet-milling aflatoxins were distributed into starch, gluten, fiber, and germ. Gluten, fiber, and germ were the most highly contaminated fractions. The loss of aflatoxin during process of starches reached 54.4% in steep water and water process. Although the gluten fraction represents only 9.6% of corn, the higher percentage (25.3%) of aflatoxin was found in this fraction, the fiber and germ account for nearly 29% of the milled corn and contain 11.6% of the aflatoxin. On the other hand, 8.7% of the total aflatoxins in start corn was found in starch fraction which accounts 61% of the milled corn. Aflatoxins G1 and G2 were found lost in higher concentrations compared to the aflatoxin B1 and B2. A higher percentage of AfG1 (86.35%) and AfG2 (78.36%) and a lower percentage of AfB1 (16.3%) and AfB2 (14.7%) were found in starch fraction. The conversion percent of contaminated starch was 89.5% compared with control starch. It can be concluded that aflatoxins were destroyed during starch conversion. Consequently, glucose syrup produced from contaminated starch was found aflatoxin-free.

  4. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  5. Toughening polylactide with polyether-block-amide and thermoplastic starch acetate: Influence of starch esterification degree.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linyao; Zhao, Guiyan; Feng, Yulin; Yin, Jinghua; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Native corn starch was esterified with acetic anhydride and plasticized with glycerol to give the thermoplastic starch acetate (TPSA). TPSA was blended with polylactide (PLA) and polyether-block-amide-graft-glycidyl methacrylate (PEBA-g-GMA) to obtain biodegradable PLA/PEBA-g-GMA/TPSA blends with high notched impact resistance and low cost. Compared with PLA/PEBA-g-GMA blends, as much as 9 wt% expensive PEBA-g-GMA elastomer could be substituted by the slightly acetylated thermoplastic starch while retaining high impact strength. The mechanical properties depended on the esterification degree of starch acetate. The impact strength, tensile strength and elongation at break increased to the peak value with increasing the esterification degree from 0 to 0.04, thereafter they decreased on further increasing the esterification degree. The morphological results showed that the TPSA particles were smaller and more uniform at the optimum esterification degree of 0.04, leading to the peak value of the mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gelatinization kinetic of waxy starches under pressure according to ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, Hélène; Guyon, Claire; de Lamballerie, Marie; Lebail, Alain

    2010-12-01

    High pressure is a potential technology for the texturization of food products at ambient temperature. In this area, waxy starches are particularly interesting because they gelatinize quickly under sufficient pressure. However, gelatinization may be influenced by other components in the food matrix. Here, we investigate the influence of increasing ionic strength on gelatinization rate and kinetics at 500 MPa for waxy corn and waxy rice starches. We show that increasing ionic strength strongly retards and inhibits starch gelatinization under pressure and leads to heterogeneous gels with remnant granules.

  7. Influence of processing method on comparative digestion of white corn versus conventional steam-flaked yellow dent corn in finishing diets for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Bermúdez, R M; Cervantes, M; Corona, L; Dávila-Ramos, H; López-Soto, M A; May, D; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2011-01-01

    Four Holstein steers (137 ± 2 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the influence of processing method on comparative digestion of white corn. Treatments consisted of a basal finishing diet containing 80% corn grain (DM basis) as 1) dry-rolled white corn (DRWC), 2) steam-flaked white corn (SFWC) with 0.36 kg/L flake density (SFWC36), 3) SFWC, 0.31 kg/L flake density (SFWC31), and 4) steam-flaked yellow corn (SFYC) with 0.31 kg/L flake density (SFYC31). Characteristics of ruminal, postruminal, and apparent total tract digestion of OM, starch, and N were similar (P ≥ 0.08) for SFYC31 and SFWC31 treatments. Decreasing flake density of white corn (from 0.36 to 0.31 kg/L) did not affect (P = 0.22) ruminal OM digestion, but increased (1.9%, P = 0.07) apparent total tract OM digestion. Compared with dry rolling, steam flaking white corn increased ruminal (9.4%, P = 0.05), postruminal (14.4%, P < 0.01), and apparent total tract OM digestion (8.2%, P < 0.01), reflecting corresponding increases in ruminal (13.3%, P < 0.01), postruminal (43%, P < 0.01), and apparent total tract (12.3%, P < 0.01) starch digestion. Apparent postruminal and apparent total-tract N digestion also were greater (6.5 and 5.6%, respectively, P = 0.04) for SFWC than for DRWC. The DE value of SFWC and SFYC diets was similar, averaging 3.39 Mcal/kg. The DE value of SFWC was greater (8.1%, P < 0.01) than that of DRWC. Ruminal pH (4 h postprandial) averaged 5.74 and was not affected (P ≥ 0.48) by dietary treatments. Compared with dry rolling, steam flaking markedly enhances the feeding value of white corn, with optimal flake density being less than 0.36 kg/L. Although white corn has greater vitreous endosperm content, characteristics of ruminal starch digestion and undegradable intake protein are similar to conventional yellow dent corn when processed to a similar flake density (0.31 kg/L). However, postruminal and apparent total

  8. Corn silage management II: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on digestion and energy content.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of maturity and mechanical processing of two hybrids of whole plant corn on starch, fiber, and ether extract digestibilities and energy content of the total mixed ration fed to lactating Holstein cows. In the first experiment, Pioneer hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length of cut of 6.4 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing. In the second experiment, Pioneer hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with and without mechanical processing. The theoretical length of cut was 12.7 mm. The measured TDN and NEL concentrations were lower for diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 1 and greater for diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 2, compared with diets containing unprocessed corn silage. The lower energy content for diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 1 can be explained by the lower total tract NDF, ether extract, and CP digestibilities. The greater energy content for diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 2 can be attributed to greater total tract starch and NDF digestibilities for cows fed processed corn silage diets. In experiment 2, diets containing processed corn silage (1.59 Mcal/kg) had approximately 2.6% more energy available per kilogram of DM consumed compared with diets containing unprocessed corn silage (1.55 Mcal/kg). For hybrid Quanta in experiment 2, the TDN and NEL concentrations of diets containing corn silage harvested at two-thirds ML were greater than at other maturities.

  9. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles composition, and lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David J; Moreau, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the compositional difference between grain sorghum and corn impact ethanol yields and coproduct value when grain sorghum is incorporated into existing corn ethanol facilities. Fermentation properties of corn and grain sorghum were compared utilizing two fermentation systems (conventional thermal starch liquefaction and native starch hydrolysis). Fermentation results indicated that protease addition influenced the fermentation rate and yield for grain sorghum, improving yields by 1-2% over non-protease treated fermentations. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles produced from sorghum had a statistically significant higher yields and significantly higher protein content relative to corn. Lipid analysis of the Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles showed statistically significant differences between corn and sorghum in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and free fatty acid levels. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants.

  11. Acrylic bone cement and starch: Botanical variety impact on curing parameters and degradability.

    PubMed

    Aubrun-Fillâtre, Céline; Monchau, Francine; Hivart, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Acrylic bone cements are a conventional solution to heal bone defects. Starch is often added to the cement to improve its degradability and resorbability. The most used botanical variety is corn starch; few studies or applications deal with other varieties. This study focuses on classical formulations based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate but incorporating different starches: waxy maize, corn, amylo maize, wheat, pea or potato, with or without enzyme (α-amylase). A thermocouple is used to determine the curing parameters: setting time and maximal temperature. The water uptake depends on the cement immersion time in a biological fluid and it is studied through sample mass variation analysis. The weight loss is determined after immersion (function of the time) and drying. Starch botanical variety and enzyme presence do not impact curing parameters and water uptake but strongly influence degradability. Water uptake involves advantageous swelling in situ filling the defect. This study shows that starch accessibility by the enzyme explains this impact. Grain spatial configuration, specific surface area and starch distribution in cement give a complementary explanation of the well-known influence of the ratio amylopectin/amylose. Acrylic cements incorporating starch can be classified according to their degradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of cyclodextrins by CGTase from Bacillus clausii using different starches as substrates.

    PubMed

    Alves-Prado, H F; Carneiro, A A J; Pavezzi, F C; Gomes, E; Boscolo, M; Franco, C M L; da Silva, R

    2008-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligasaccharides composed by D-glucose monomers joined by alpha-1,4-D glicosidic linkages. The main types of CDs are alpha-, beta- and gamma-CDs consisting of cycles of six, seven, and eight glucose monomers, respectively. Their ability to form inclusion complexes is the most important characteristic, allowing their wide industrial application. The physical property of the CD-complexed compound can be altered to improve stability, volatility, solubility, or bio-availability. The cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an enzyme capable of converting starch into CD molecules. In this work, the CGTase produced by Bacillus clausii strain E16 was used to produce CD from maltodextrin and different starches (commercial soluble starch, corn, cassava, sweet potato, and waxy corn starches) as substrates. It was observed that the substrate sources influence the kind of CD obtained and that this CGTase displays a beta-CGTase action, presenting a better conversion of soluble starch at 1.0%, of which 80% was converted in CDs. The ratio of total CD produced was 0:0.89:0.11 for alpha/beta/gamma. It was also observed that root and tuber starches were more accessible to CGTase action than seed starch under the studied conditions.

  13. Production of Cyclodextrins by CGTase from Bacillus clausii Using Different Starches as Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Prado, H. F.; Carneiro, A. A. J.; Pavezzi, F. C.; Gomes, E.; Boscolo, M.; Franco, C. M. L.; da Silva, R.

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligasaccharides composed by d-glucose monomers joined by α-1,4-d glicosidic linkages. The main types of CDs are α-, β- and γ-CDs consisting of cycles of six, seven, and eight glucose monomers, respectively. Their ability to form inclusion complexes is the most important characteristic, allowing their wide industrial application. The physical property of the CD-complexed compound can be altered to improve stability, volatility, solubility, or bio-availability. The cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an enzyme capable of converting starch into CD molecules. In this work, the CGTase produced by Bacillus clausii strain E16 was used to produce CD from maltodextrin and different starches (commercial soluble starch, corn, cassava, sweet potato, and waxy corn starches) as substrates. It was observed that the substrate sources influence the kind of CD obtained and that this CGTase displays a β-CGTase action, presenting a better conversion of soluble starch at 1.0%, of which 80% was converted in CDs. The ratio of total CD produced was 0:0.89:0.11 for α/β/γ. It was also observed that root and tuber starches were more accessible to CGTase action than seed starch under the studied conditions.

  14. Influence of oxidized starch on the properties of thermoplastic starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Xiu-Li; Zhao, Guo-Ming; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    Thermoplastic starch was prepared by adding oxidized starches and glycerol together into starch. The addition of oxidized starch improved the rheological properties and also increased the toughness of thermoplastic starch. Compared with TPS30, the elongation at break increased from 126.8% to 152.5% when 5wt% OS 117% was added. Good compatibility of thermoplastic starch between the matrix and oxidized starch was confirmed by SEM. The addition of oxidized starch lowered the storage modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg) of thermoplastic starch, decreasing Tg from 34.1 to 30°C when 10 wt% OS117% was added. The thermal stability of blending was improved by adding oxidized starches, i.e. when 5 wt% OS70% was added, T5% increased from 134 to 156°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does viscosity or structure govern the rate at which starch granules are digested?

    PubMed

    Hardacre, Allan K; Lentle, Roger G; Yap, Sia-Yen; Monro, John A

    2016-01-20

    The rates of in vitro digestion of incompletely or fully gelatinised potato and corn starch were measured at 37 °C over 20 min in a rheometer fitted with cup and vane geometry at shear rates of 0.1, 1 and 10 s(-1). Shear rate did not influence the rate of starch digestion provided it was close to physiological levels. However, rates of digestion were significantly reduced when shear rates were below the physiological range (0.1 s(-1)) or when gelatinisation was incomplete. At physiological shear rates the relationship between starch digestion and viscosity was sigmoid in form and following a short initial slow phase a rapid decline in viscosity occurred as starch was digested and the structural integrity of the granules was lost. Conversely, when shear rate was reduced below physiological levels or gelatinisation was incomplete, digestion was hindered, granule integrity was maintained and the relationship between starch and viscosity became linear.

  16. [Scanning electron microscope observation on endosperm starch grain characters in multiplasmic maize].

    PubMed

    Li, J L; Jia, J L; Liu, M; Zhao, S M; Liu, Y N; Zeng, M Q; Li, S R

    1999-01-01

    In this article, endosperm starch grains of eleven lines in multiplasmic maize were studied by scanning electron microscope. The results show that different cytoplasm has different effects on the characters of starch grain. The starch grains of three sweet corn cytoplasmic lines (su1, sh2, btl) are mainly spherical and packed tightly, which means they have some degree of similarity. While the grains of four cytolasmic male sterility lines (T, S, C, 21A) are mostly irregular and packed loosely except (T) Mo17, in which grains are tightly packed. The average diameter of these eleven varieties is ranged from 9.78 microns to 14.69 microns. Through the study of endosperm starch grain shape and size, we tried to explore the relationship between the property of starches and the quality of seeds. And this will significantly prompt the development of maize genetics and breeding.

  17. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  18. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Edna C; Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J; Singh, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production [1]. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day). These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer®) and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process was found to be cost

  19. A novel process for direct production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from native starches using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    PubMed

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kobayashi, Genta

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a new approach for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production has been proposed. Direct fermentation of native starches (uncooked process) was investigated by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Even the process was carried out under suboptimal condition for activity of GSHE, the production of ABE was similar with that observed in conventional process or cooked process in terms of final solvent concentration (21.3 ± 0.4 to 22.4 ± 0.4 g/L), butanol concentration (17.5 ± 0.4 to 17.8 ± 0.3 g/L) and butanol yield (0.33 to 0.37 g/g). The production of solvents was significantly dependent on the source of starches. Among investigated starches, corn starch was more susceptible to GSHE while cassava starch was the most resistant to this enzyme. Fermentation using native corn starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.47 g/L h, which was about 15 % higher than that achieved in cooked process. On the contrary, uncooked process using cassava and wheat starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.30 and 0.37 g/L h, which were respectively about 30 % lower than those obtained in cooked process. No contamination was observed during all trials even fermentation media were prepared without sterilization. During the fermentation using native starches, no formation of foam is observed. This uncooked process does not require cooking starchy material; therefore, the thermal energy consumption for solvent production would remarkably be reduced in comparison with cooked process.

  20. Influence of mechanical processing on utilization of corn silage by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bal, M A; Wu, Z; Moreira, V R; Shaver, R D; Satter, L D; Shinners, K J; Walgenbach, R P

    2000-11-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the influence of mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by lactating dairy cows. Total mixed rations contained either unprocessed or processed corn silage harvested between 1/4 and 3/4 milk line. In trial 1, 12 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated double switchback design with 21-d periods. Intake of dry matter (DM) was increased 1.2 kg/d by processing, but milk yield was unaffected. Processing did not affect apparent total-tract DM digestibility, but processing tended to lower starch and corn excretion in feces and reduced concentration of sieved corn kernel particles in feces. In trial 2, 42 Holstein cows were used in an 18-wk randomized complete-block design. Intake of DM and milk yield were unaffected by processing, but milk fat percent was increased 0.35 percentage units by processing. Processing tended to increase total-tract digestibility of starch, but reduced organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. In trial 3, 30 Holstein cows were used in a 15-wk randomized complete block design. There was no influence of mechanical processing on intake or lactation performance in this trial. Despite indications of increased starch digestion in two trials and increased DM intake in one trial, effects of processing corn silage on lactation performance were minimal with corn silage at the maturity and moisture contents used in these trials.

  1. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Stefan W; Belz, Markus C E; Heitmann, Mareile; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-21

    Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato) was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system.

  2. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Stefan W.; Belz, Markus C. E.; Heitmann, Mareile; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.

    2016-01-01

    Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato) was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system. PMID:28231125

  3. Phenolic acids in some cereal grains and their inhibitory effect on starch liquefaction and saccharification.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Amin; Li, Jihong; Vasanthan, Thava; Bressler, David C

    2012-08-29

    The presence of phenolic acids in cereal grain is thought to influence starch hydrolysis during liquefaction and saccharification of grain flours in the bioethanol industry. As a basis for remodeling starch hydrolysis systems and understanding inhibition mechanisms, the composition and concentration of phenolic acids in whole grain flours of triticale, wheat, barley, and corn were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic acid contents (sum of nine phenolic acids) in the four grains were 1.14, 1.70, 0.90, and 1.25 mg/g, respectively, with more than 90% found in the bound form. Ferulic, coumaric, and protocatechuic acids were the major phenolic acids in triticale and wheat. Gallic acid was also rich in triticale. Ferulic, coumaric, hydroxybenzoic, and gallic acids were predominant in barley. In corn, ferulic, coumaric, gallic, and syringic acids were abundant. On the basis of these profiles, pure phenolic acids were added individually and collectively to isolated starches at amounts either equivalent to or 3 times those in the whole grains for hydrolysis. The degree of starch hydrolysis with α-amylase and amyloglucosidase decreased up to 8% when individual phenolic acids were present in cooked starch slurry. The decreases were more pronounced when phenolic acids were added collectively (4-5% with α-amylase and 9-13% with sequential α-amylase and amyloglucosidase). The study of a phenolic acid-starch-enzyme model system indicated that the interactions of phenolic acid-enzyme and phenolic acid-starch significantly contributed to the inhibitory effect of starch hydrolysis. Heating facilitated the interactions. Phenolic acids thus play a significant role in the resistance of starch to enzyme and/or the loss of enzyme activity during starch hydrolysis.

  4. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  5. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  6. The effect of an exogenous protease on the fermentation and nutritive value of high-moisture corn.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Windle, M C; Walker, N

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if treating high-moisture corn at harvest with an exogenous protease could accelerate the increase in in vitro ruminal starch degradation that is normally found with advancing times of ensiling. Ground high-moisture corn (HMC; 73% dry matter) was untreated or treated with an exogenous protease to achieve a final concentration of 2,000 mg of protease/kg of fresh corn. Corn was ensiled in laboratory-scale bags (approximately 500 g) that were evacuated of air, heat-sealed, and stored at 22 to 23°C for 70 and 140 d. Samples of freshly treated corn samples were collected to represent d 0 samples. Treatment of HMC with protease did not affect the gross populations of lactic acid bacteria or yeasts throughout the ensiling period. Treatment of HMC with protease resulted in higher concentrations of lactic acid and ethanol after 70 but not 140 d of ensiling. Concentrations of crude protein, water-soluble carbohydrates, and starch were unaffected by treatment with protease within each sampling day. After 70 or 140 d of ensiling, HMC that was treated with protease had higher concentrations of soluble protein (as a % of crude protein) and NH3-N, and had lower concentrations of prolamin protein, compared with untreated corn. In vitro rumen degradability (7-h incubation) of starch was greater in protease-treated versus untreated corn at all sampling days but the difference was more pronounced after 70 and 140 d compared with d 0. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N were positively correlated with in vitro starch degradation. Conversely, the concentrations of prolamin protein in HMC were negatively correlated with in vitro starch degradation. Treating HMC with an exogenous protease could be a method to obtain greater potential for ruminal starch fermentation after a relatively short period of ensiling. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  8. Influence of endosperm vitreousness and kernel moisture at harvest on site and extent of digestion of high-moisture corn by feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Szasz, J I; Hunt, C W; Szasz, P A; Weber, R A; Owens, F N; Kezar, W; Turgeon, O A

    2007-09-01

    Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus-Jersey crossbred steers (450 kg of BW) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square to evaluate the effect of kernel vitreousness and moisture on intake and digestibility of high-moisture corn. Arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial, diets included a floury (FLO) or a vitreous (VIT) endosperm corn hybrid harvested at 28.1% (DRY), 31.2% (MID), or 35.7% (WET) kernel moisture content. Diet DM consisted of 88.25% high-moisture corn, 6% chopped alfalfa hay, 2% corn gluten meal, 0.75% urea, and 3% supplement. Supplement was included to ensure that the diets contained a minimum (DM basis) of 0.6% Ca, 0.6% K, 0.2% S, 33 mg/kg of monensin, and 11 mg/kg of tylosin. Geometric mean diameter of lyophilized high-moisture corn tended to be less (P = 0.06) for VIT than for FLO, and the calculated particle surface area was 15.8% greater (P = 0.03). An interaction of vitreousness with the quadratic effect of moisture was noted (P < 0.001), such that fraction a and effective degradation for starch tended to be greater for the vitreous hybrid at the least and greatest moisture content but lower for the vitreous hybrid at the intermediate moisture content. Intake and ruminal disappearance of DM, OM, and starch were not influenced by vitreousness or moisture, with ruminal starch disappearance averaging 90.9%. Intestinal starch digestion measured as a percentage of starch entering the intestines averaged 91% and was greater (P < 0.05) for VIT than FLO corn. Averaged across moisture levels, total tract starch digestibility was greater (P < 0.003) for VIT than FLO. Compared with FLO kernels, VIT kernels appeared to be more brittle and therefore shattered more readily when rolled, particularly at the driest kernel moisture level. Furthermore, increased surface area of smaller particles may have been responsible for the greater starch utilization from VIT corn. In contrast with the results from other in situ and in vivo trials with dry-rolled corn grain, in which

  9. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  10. Effects of cyclodextrin glycosiltransferase modified starch and cyclodextrins on plasma glucose and lipids metabolism in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential functional and nutritional benefits of granular starch treated with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and the released cyclodextrins (CDs) were explored in in vivo studies. The metabolic effects of diets in the C57BL/6J mouse containing native and enzymatically modified corn st...

  11. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced 3 worldwide by industry. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a 4 dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soybean oil on SAE 5 1010 steel. Electrochemical Impedance ...

  12. Effect of the storage conditions on mechanical properties and microstructure of biodegradabel baked starch foams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baked foam films were prepared from four sources of starch: corn, potato, tapioca and chayotextle, and stored at relative moisture conditions of 0 to 75% and at temperatures of 4 and 65 °C. Then, the structural and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated. The results showed that the source...

  13. Effect of amylopectin on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous dispersions of normal and high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. Partial conversion of complexed sodium palmitate to palmitic acid by addition of acetic acid led to the formation of gels. Bl...

  14. Effects of particle size distribution, compositional and color properties of ground corn on quality of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2009-10-01

    Oftentimes, corn processors believe that ground corn (raw material) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are interrelated in certain quality parameters. Yet, previous studies, although rather limited, have not established this relationship. In this study, six ground corn samples and their resulting DDGS were analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), using a series of six selected US standard sieves: Nos. 8, 12, 18, 35, 60, and 100, and a pan. The original sample and sieve sized fractions were measured for contents of moisture, protein, oil, ash and starch, and surface color. Total carbohydrate (CHO) and total non-starch CHO were also calculated. Results show that the geometric mean diameter (d(gw)) of particles varied with individual corn and DDGS samples, and that d(gw) of DDGS was larger than that of corn (0.696 vs. 0.479 mm, average values), indicating that during conversion of corn to DDGS, certain particles became enlarged. For d(gw) and mass frequency of individual particle size classes, the relationship between ground corn and DDGS varied, but PSD of the whole sample was well correlated between them (r=0.807). Upon conversion from corn to DDGS, on an average, protein was concentrated 3.59 times; oil, 3.40 times; ash, 3.32 times; and total non-starch CHO, 2.89 times. There were some positive correlations in contents of protein and non-starch CHO and in L value between corn and DDGS. Yet, variations in nutrients and color attributes were larger in DDGS than in corn. For either corn or DDGS, these variations were larger in sieved fractions than in the whole fraction. Raw material, processing method and addition of yeasts are among major factors considered for causing larger variations in these attributes among DDGS. The study partially supports the common belief by processors that quality attributes of corn affect those of DDGS.

  15. Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M

    2010-03-24

    When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift.

  16. β-Cyclodextrin Production by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from an Alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 Using Different Starch Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Ujjval B.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an important member of α-amylase family which can degrade the starch and produce cyclodextrins (CDs) as a result of intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization). β-Cyclodextrin production was carried out using the purified CGTase enzyme from an alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 with different starches in raw as well as gelatinized form. Cyclodextrin production was confirmed using thin layer chromatography. Six different starch substrates, namely, soluble starch, potato starch, sago starch, corn starch, corn flour, and rice flour, were tested for CD production. Raw potato starch granules were found to be the best substrate giving 13.46 gm/L of cyclodextrins after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Raw sago starch gave 12.96 gm/L of cyclodextrins as the second best substrate. To achieve the maximum cyclodextrin production, statistical optimization using Central Composite Design (CCD) was carried out with three parameters, namely, potato starch concentration, CGTase enzyme concentration, and incubation temperature. Cyclodextrin production of 28.22 (gm/L) was achieved with the optimized parameters suggested by the model which are CGTase 4.8 U/L, starch 150 gm/L, and temperature 55.6°C. The suggested optimized conditions showed about 15% increase in β-cyclodextrin production (28.22 gm/L) at 55.6°C as compared to 24.48 gm/L at 60°C. The degradation of raw potato starch granules by purified CGTase was also confirmed by microscopic observations. PMID:27648307

  17. Current models for starch synthesis and the sugary enhancer1 (se1) mutation in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jennifer A; Juvik, John A

    2004-06-01

    Among the desirable quality traits essential for commercial production of fresh or processed sweet corn, kernel sugar content is universally important. In sweet corn genotypes the primary kernel sugar is sucrose, which is elevated at the expense of starch, particularly amylopectin. Sweet corn mutations have been traditionally divided into two classes. Generally speaking, class one mutations affect cytosolic reactions early in the process of starch synthesis, before starch is synthesized, and class two mutations affect reactions within the amyloplast directly involving starch granule assembly. Two widely used but previously unclassified mutations are sugary1 (su1) and sugary enhancer1 (se1). The se1 gene is a recessive modifier of su1; therefore, both genes require mutual discussion. This review provides current information about the su1 and se1 maize endosperm mutations and describes evidence further supporting previous suggestions that they fit criteria for categorization as class two mutants [Science 151 (1966) 341]. Information on the genetics and phenotype of se1 will be summarized and the hypothesized role of the se1 gene product discussed within the context of current models for starch synthesis in Zea mays L.

  18. Nutritional Performance of Cattle Grazing during Rainy Season with Nitrogen and Starch Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, Ísis; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Batista, Erick Darlisson; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Dos Reis, William Lima Santiago; de Oliveira Franco, Marcia

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogen and starch on the nutritional performance of grazing cattle during the rainy season. Five rumen cannulated Nellore steers, averaging 211 kg of body weight (BW), were used. Animals grazed on five signal grass paddocks. Five treatments were evaluated: control (forage only), ruminal supplementation with nitrogen at 1 g of crude protein (CP)/kg BW, ruminal supplementation with starch at 2.5 g/kg BW, supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and starch (2.5 g/kg BW), and supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and a mixture of corn starch and nitrogenous compounds (2.5 g/kg BW), thereby resulting in an energy part of the supplement with 150 g CP/kg of dry matter (DM). This last treatment was considered an additional treatment. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 ×5 Latin square design following a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement (with or without nitrogen, with or without starch, and the additional treatment). Nitrogen supplementation did not affect (p>0.10) forage intake. Starch supplementation increased (p<0.10) total intake but did not affect (p<0.10) forage intake. There was an interaction between nitrogen and starch (p<0.10) for organic matter digestibility. Organic matter digestibility was increased only by supplying starch and nitrogen together. Nitrogen balance (NB) was increased (p<0.10) by the nitrogen supplementation as well as by starch supplementation. Despite this, even though a significant interaction was not observed (p>0.10), NB obtained with nitrogen plus starch supplementation was greater than NB obtained with either nitrogen or starch exclusive supplementation. Supplementation with starch and nitrogen to beef cattle grazing during the rainy season can possibly improve digestion and nitrogen retention in the animal..

  19. Nutritional Performance of Cattle Grazing during Rainy Season with Nitrogen and Starch Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Ísis; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Batista, Erick Darlisson; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; dos Reis, William Lima Santiago; de Oliveira Franco, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogen and starch on the nutritional performance of grazing cattle during the rainy season. Five rumen cannulated Nellore steers, averaging 211 kg of body weight (BW), were used. Animals grazed on five signal grass paddocks. Five treatments were evaluated: control (forage only), ruminal supplementation with nitrogen at 1 g of crude protein (CP)/kg BW, ruminal supplementation with starch at 2.5 g/kg BW, supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and starch (2.5 g/kg BW), and supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and a mixture of corn starch and nitrogenous compounds (2.5 g/kg BW), thereby resulting in an energy part of the supplement with 150 g CP/kg of dry matter (DM). This last treatment was considered an additional treatment. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 ×5 Latin square design following a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement (with or without nitrogen, with or without starch, and the additional treatment). Nitrogen supplementation did not affect (p>0.10) forage intake. Starch supplementation increased (p<0.10) total intake but did not affect (p<0.10) forage intake. There was an interaction between nitrogen and starch (p<0.10) for organic matter digestibility. Organic matter digestibility was increased only by supplying starch and nitrogen together. Nitrogen balance (NB) was increased (p<0.10) by the nitrogen supplementation as well as by starch supplementation. Despite this, even though a significant interaction was not observed (p>0.10), NB obtained with nitrogen plus starch supplementation was greater than NB obtained with either nitrogen or starch exclusive supplementation. Supplementation with starch and nitrogen to beef cattle grazing during the rainy season can possibly improve digestion and nitrogen retention in the animal.. PMID:26954147

  20. Corn silage management III: effects of hybrid, maturity, and processing on nitrogen metabolism and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of maturity and mechanical processing of two hybrids of whole plant corn silage on DM and OM digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, ruminal fermentation, and milk production and composition in lactating Holstein cows. In the first experiment, Pioneer hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with (1-mm roll clearance) and without (15.9-mm roll clearance) mechanical processing using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an on-board kernel processor. In the second experiment, Pioneer hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with and without mechanical processing. The theoretical length-of-cut was 12.7 mm. Total tract DM and OM digestibilities were lower for cows fed diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 1, and tended to be lower for cows fed diets containing unprocessed corn silage in experiment 2. Ruminal acetate concentrations were greater and ruminal propionate concentrations were lower 2 and 6 h after feeding for cows fed diets containing corn silage harvested at physiological maturity in experiment 2. This was due to decreased digestion of starch at advanced maturities in experiment 2. Ruminal pH tended to decline rapidly after feeding for cows fed hybrid Quanta (2 h) compared to hybrid 3845 (5 h) corn silage based diets. Ruminal acetate concentrations decreased and ruminal propionate concentrations increased 2 and 6 h after feeding for cows fed diets containing hybrid Quanta corn silage compared to hybrid 3845 corn silage. This was related to a greater starch concentration in the corn silage, greater starch intake, and increased rate of starch digestion for cows fed hybrid Quanta corn silage-based diets. Microbial nitrogen flow was lower and feed nitrogen flow was greater for

  1. Impact of corn vitreousness and processing on site and extent of digestion by feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Corona, L; Owens, F N; Zinn, R A

    2006-11-01

    Eight cannulated Holstein steers (average BW: 251 kg) were used in 2 simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin squares in a split-plot arrangement to test the effects of processing method [dry-rolled (DR) vs. steam-flaked (SF); main plot] and vitreousness (V, %; subplot) of yellow dent corn (V55, V61, V63, and V65) on site of digestion of diets containing 73.2% corn grain. No vitreousness x processing method interactions were detected for ruminal digestion, but ruminal starch digestion was 14.4% lower (P < 0.01) for DR than for SF corn. Interactions were detected between vitreousness and processing method for postruminal (P < 0.10) and total tract digestion (P < 0.05). With DR, vitreousness tended to decrease (linear effect, P < 0.10) postruminal OM and starch digestion. With SF, vitreousness did not affect (P > or = 0.15) postruminal digestion of OM and starch. Postruminal N digestion tended to decrease (linear effect, P = 0.12) as vitreousness increased. Postruminal digestion was greater for SF than for DR corn OM (25.7%, P < 0.05), starch (94.3%, P < 0.10), and N (10.7%, P < 0.01). Steam flaking increased total tract digestion of OM (11%, P < 0.05), starch (16%, P < 0.01), and N (8.4%, P < 0.05) but decreased total tract ADF digestion (26.7%, P < 0.01). With DR, total tract starch digestion was lower for V65 (cubic effect, P < 0.10) than for the other hybrids. With SF, total tract starch digestion was not affected (P > or = 0.15) by vitreousness. Fecal starch and total tract starch digestion were inversely related (starch digestion, % = 101 - 0.65 x fecal starch, %; r2 = 0.94, P < 0.01). Ruminal pH was greater for steers fed DR than for steers fed SF corn (6.03 vs. 5.62, P < 0.05). Steam flaking decreased (P < 0.01) the ruminal molar proportion of acetate (24%), acetate:propionate molar ratio (55%), estimated methane production (37.5%), and butyrate (11.3%, P < 0.05). There was a vitreousness x processing interaction (P < 0.01) for acetate:propionate. For DR, acetate

  2. Whole linted cottonseed as a forage substitute fed with ground or steam-flaked corn: digestibility and performance.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, D I; Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    2002-08-01

    Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design. The objective was to evaluate any potential interactions in site of nutrient digestion when neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from cottonseed was incrementally substituted for forage NDF (FNDF) from alfalfa silage and when starch availability was varied by feeding ground (G) or steam-flaked (SF) corn. Iso-NDF diets were forage control with G corn (21% FNDF), 5% whole cottonseed (WCS) with G or SF corn (18% FNDF), 10% WCS with G or SF corn (15% FNDF), and 15% WCS with G corn (12% FNDF). Ruminal or total tract digestibilities of organic matter (OM) or nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) were unaffected, but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis decreased as WCS increased. Ruminal NDF digestibility was not affected despite a linear decrease in pH, but postruminal NDF digestibility decreased with increasing WCS. Ruminal digestibilities of OM and NSC were higher for SF than G corn but did not affect efficiency of microbial N synthesis. Dry matter intake increased quadratically with increasing level of WCS but decreased when SF replaced G corn. Milk yield did not differ across treatments. Milk fat percentage was affected quadratically and milk protein increased linearly with increasing WCS. Milk fat percentage decreased but milk protein was not affected when SF replaced G corn. Lack of an interaction between corn source and level of WCS substitution suggests that WCS was equally effective in maintaining ruminal fermentation and digestibility in diets varying in ruminal starch availability.

  3. Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Bothast, R J; Schlicher, M A

    2005-04-01

    Ethanol has been utilized as a fuel source in the United States since the turn of the century. However, it has repeatedly faced significant commercial viability obstacles relative to petroleum. Renewed interest exists in ethanol as a fuel source today owing to its positive impact on rural America, the environment and United States energy security. Today, most fuel ethanol is produced by either the dry grind or the wet mill process. Current technologies allow for 2.5 gallons (wet mill process) to 2.8 gallons (dry grind process) of ethanol (1 gallon = 3.785 l) per bushel of corn. Valuable co-products, distillers dried grains with solubles (dry grind) and corn gluten meal and feed (wet mill), are also generated in the production of ethanol. While current supplies are generated from both processes, the majority of the growth in the industry is from dry grind plant construction in rural communities across the corn belt. While fuel ethanol production is an energy-efficient process today, additional research is occurring to improve its long-term economic viability. Three of the most significant areas of research are in the production of hybrids with a higher starch content or a higher extractable starch content, in the conversion of the corn kernel fiber fraction to ethanol, and in the identification and development of new and higher-value co-products.

  4. Physicochemical properties of Venezuelan breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) starch.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia Mariela; Padilla, Fanny C

    2004-12-01

    Artocarpus altilis, seedless variety, is a fruit-producing plant which is cultived in Margarita Island, Venezuela, and is consumed by the inhabitants of the region. Its chemical composition and physical characteristics were determined. The chemical (AOAC and AACC methods), physicochemical, morphometric characteristics, viscoamylographic properties and digestibility in vitro of starch from Artocarpus were studied. The starch yield was 18.5 g/100 g (dw)w with a purity of 98.86%, 27.68 and 72.32% of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed irregular-rounded granules. Swelling power, water absorption and solubility values were determined and found to be higher than that of corn and amaranth starch. The amylographic study showed a gelatinization temperature at 73.3 degrees C, with high stability during heating and cooling cycles. Artocarpus starch could also be categorized in the group of mixed short chain branched/long chain branched glucan starches, this agrees with digestibility results that showed a high degree of digestibility in vitro. These results might be advantageous in medical and food use.

  5. Developing gelatin-starch blends for use as capsule materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nuozi; Liu, Hongsheng; Yu, Long; Liu, Xingxun; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Ling; Shanks, Robert

    2013-01-30

    Blends of gelatin with up to 50% hydroxypropylated high amylose (80%) corn starch were developed as capsule materials. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as both a plasticizer and a compatibilizer in the blends. In order to prepare hard capsules for pharmaceutical applications using the well-established method of dipping stainless steel mold pins into solution, solutions with higher solids concentrations (up to 30%) were developed. The solutions, films and capsules of the different gelatin-starch blends were characterized by viscosity, transparency, tensile testing, water contact angle and SEM. The linear microstructure of the high amylose starch, and the flexible and more hydrophilic hydroxylpropylene groups grafted onto the starch improved the compatibility between the gelatin and starch. SEM revealed a continuous phase of gelatin on the surface of films from all blends. The water contact angle of pure gelatin and the different blends were similar, indicating a continuous phase of gelatin. By optimizing temperature and incubation time to control viscosity, capsules of various blends were successfully developed. PEG increased the transparency and toughness of the various blends.

  6. Glycemic index of starch affects nitrogen retention in grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Drew, M D; Schafer, T C; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-04-01

    Three studies were performed to examine the effect of starch and protein digestion rates on N retention in grower pigs. In Exp. 1, the glycemic index (GI) of corn, a malting barley, and a slow-rumen-degradable barley (SRD-barley) were measured using 6 barrows (BW = 18.0 ± 0.5 kg). The GI of malting barley was greater (P < 0.05) than that of SRD-barley (71.1 vs. 49.4), and the GI of both barley cultivars was less (P < 0.05) than that of corn (104.8). In Exp. 2, the standardized ileal digestibility of AA and DE content of the 3 ingredients were determined using 5 ileal-cannulated barrows (BW = 20.7 ± 2.3). The apparent total-tract energy digestibility values of corn (86.1%) and malting barley (85.7%) were greater (P < 0.05) than that of SRD-barley (82.3%). The standardized ileal digestibility of Lys was 94.0, 92.6, and 92.4% for corn, malting barley, and SRD-barley, respectively, and did not differ among grains. In Exp. 3, 6 diets were formulated to equal DE (3.40 Mcal/kg), standardized ileal digestibility of Lys (8.6 g/kg), starch (424.9 g/kg), and digestible CP (180.0 g/kg) using the values obtained in Exp. 2. Three GI [high (corn), medium (malting barley), and low (SRD-barley)] and 2 rates of protein digestion [rapid (soy protein hydrolysate) and slow (soy protein isolate)] were tested in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with 36 barrows (BW = 32.2 ± 2.5 kg). Pigs were fed 3.0 times the maintenance energy requirement daily in 2 meals for 2 wk and were housed in metabolic crates to collect feces and urine separately. At the end of the study, intestinal contents were collected from 4 equal-length segments of the small intestine. The percentage of unabsorbed CP in segment 1 relative to dietary CP was greater (P < 0.05) for the soy protein isolate diet than for the soy protein hydrolysate diet (170.3 vs. 116.5%). The percentages of unabsorbed starch in segments 1 and 2 were greater (P < 0.05) for the SRD-barley diet than for the malting barley or corn diet. Nitrogen

  7. Corn silage management: effects of hybrid, maturity, chop length, and mechanical processing on rate and extent of digestion.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Hunt, C; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2003-10-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, chop length, maturity, and mechanical processing of corn silage on dry matter and nutrient disappearance in the rumen. Corn silage that had not been dried or ground was incubated in macro in situ bags (30 x 35 cm) for 8, 16, 24,48, and 96 h. Experiments la and 2 evaluated the effects of maturity and mechanical processing for two corn silage hybrids harvested at two theoretical lengths-of-cut. Experiments 3 through 5 evaluated the effects of chop length and mechanical processing for two corn silage hybrids harvested at two-thirds milkline. The hybrid with low neutral fiber (NDF) concentrations had greater dry matter and starch disappearance than the hybrid with high NDF concentrations. The effect of chop length on nutrient disappearance was variable across experiments 3 through 5. Processing improved dry matter disappearance in experiments la, 2 (two-thirds milkline and blackline), 3, 4, and 5 at the majority of ruminal incubation timepoints. Starch disappearance was greater for unprocessed corn silage in experiment la (hard dough and two-thirds milkline) and was greater for processed corn silage in experiments 2 and 5. However, there was no consistent trend in starch disappearance between processed and unprocessed corn silage in experiments 3 and 4. This can be partially explained by the high disappearance of starch (experiment 3, > or = 98% and experiment 4, > or = 94%) by 24 h of ruminal incubation. Minimal differences were detected in NDF disappearance between processed and unprocessed corn silage across maturities. In experiments 2 and 5, crude protein disappearance was improved due to processing at some incubation timepoints. Rate of dry matter, starch (one-third milkline and two-thirds milkline), and NDF disappearance tended to increase when corn silage was mechanically processed in experiment 2. Dry matter, starch, and crude protein disappearance tended to be greater for corn silage harvested

  8. Size-controlled starch nanoparticles prepared by self-assembly with different green surfactant: The effect of electrostatic repulsion or steric hindrance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-05-15

    To study the control effect of surfactants in the process of formation of starch nanoparticles by self-assembly, different surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), and sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) were added during the fabrication of waxy corn starch nanoparticles (WCSNPs) and potato starch nanoparticles (PSNPs), and their characteristics were determined and compared. The results showed that WCSNPs with SDS and Tween 80 had smaller particle size (28-35 nm and 15-24 nm, respectively) than that of WCSNPs (50-120 nm). The surfactants significantly increased the dispersion and thermal stability of nanoparticles. Short-chain amylose debranched from waxy corn starch had a lower degree of polymerization than that debranched from potato starch and were easier to retrograde, resulting in higher gelatinization enthalpy of WCSNPs. However, PSNPs were smaller in size and achieved better stability than WCSNPs due to stronger electrostatic repulsion caused by a higher absolute value of zeta potential.

  9. Effect of illumination with the visible polarized and nonpolarized light on alpha-amylolysis of starches of different botanical origin.

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, Maciej; Chaczatrian, Gohar

    2003-12-17

    The alpha-amylolysis of potato, corn, waxy corn, and amaranthus starches with porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase upon illumination with visible polarized and nonpolarized light was studied. Samples were illuminated f