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Sample records for dss-induced experimental colitis

  1. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor ameliorates DSS induced experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sainathan, Satheesh K.; Hanna, Eyad M.; Gong, Qingqing; Bishnupuri, Kumar S.; Luo, Qizhi; Colonna, Marco; White, Frances V.; Croze, Ed; Houchen, Courtney; Anant, Shrikant; Dieckgraefe, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sargramostim, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a hematopoietic growth factor, stimulates cells of the intestinal innate immune system. Clinical trials show that Sargramostim induces clinical response and remission in patients with active Crohn's disease. To study the mechanism, we examined the effects of GM-CSF in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis model. We hypothesized that GM-CSF may work through effects on dendritic cells (DCs). Methods Acute colitis was induced in Balb/c mice by administration of DSS in drinking water. Mice were treated with daily GM-CSF or PBS. To probe the role of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in the response to GM-CSF, we further examine the effects of monoclonal antibody 440c, which is specific for a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectin expressed on pDCs. Results GM-CSF ameliorates acute DSS-induced colitis; resulting in significantly improved clinical parameters and histology. Microarray analysis showed reduced expression of pro-inflammatory genes including TNFα and IL1β; results further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and serum Bio-plex analysis. GM-CSF treatment significantly expands pDCs and type 1 IFN production. Administration of mAb 440c completely blocked the therapeutic effect of GM-CSF. GM-CSF is also effective in RAG1−/− mice, demonstrating activity independent effects on T and B cells. IFN-β administration mimics the therapeutic effect of GM-CSF in DSS-treated mice. GM-CSF increases systemic and mucosal type 1 IFN expression and exhibits synergy with pDC activators, such as microbial CpG DNA. Conclusions GM-CSF is effective in the treatment of DSS colitis in a mechanism involving the 440c+ plasmacytoid DC population. PMID:17932977

  2. Curcumin prevents the development of dextran sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Yasuyuki; Andoh, Akira; Inatomi, Osamu; Yagi, Yuhki; Bamba, Shigeki; Araki, Yoshio; Hata, Kazunori; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2007-11-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic natural product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric). We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. BALB/c mice were fed a chow containing either 3.5% (wt/wt) DSS or 3.5% DSS + 2.0% (wt/wt) curcumin. The body weight loss was more apparent in DSS-treated mice than in DSS + curcumin-treated mice. The disease activity index, histological colitis score, and MPO activity were all significantly higher in DSS-treated mice than in DSS plus curcumin-treated mice. Microscopically, mucosal edema, cellular infiltration, and epithelial disruption were much more severe in DSS-treated mice than in DSS + curcumin-treated mice. In DSS + curcumin-treated mice, NF-kappaB activation was blocked in the mucosa. In conclusion, the development of DSS-induced colitis was significantly attenuated by curcumin. Being a nontoxic natural dietary product, curcumin could be useful in treatment of IBD patients.

  3. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor ameliorates DSS-induced experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Sainathan, Satheesh K; Hanna, Eyad M; Gong, Qingqing; Bishnupuri, Kumar S; Luo, Qizhi; Colonna, Marco; White, Frances V; Croze, Ed; Houchen, Courtney; Anant, Shrikant; Dieckgraefe, Brian K

    2008-01-01

    Sargramostim, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a hematopoietic growth factor, stimulates cells of the intestinal innate immune system. Clinical trials show that sargramostim induces clinical response and remission in patients with active Crohn's disease. To study the mechanism, we examined the effects of GM-CSF in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis model. We hypothesized that GM-CSF may work through effects on dendritic cells (DCs). Acute colitis was induced in Balb/c mice by administration of DSS in drinking water. Mice were treated with daily GM-CSF or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To probe the role of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in the response to GM-CSF, we further examined the effects of monoclonal antibody 440c, which is specific for a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectin expressed on pDCs. GM-CSF ameliorates acute DSS-induced colitis, resulting in significantly improved clinical parameters and histology. Microarray analysis showed reduced expression of proinflammatory genes including TNF-alpha and IL1-beta; the results were further confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and serum Bio-plex analysis. GM-CSF treatment significantly expands pDCs and type 1 IFN production. Administration of mAb 440c completely blocked the therapeutic effect of GM-CSF. GM-CSF is also effective in RAG1(-/-) mice, demonstrating activity-independent effects on T and B cells. IFN-beta administration mimics the therapeutic effect of GM-CSF in DSS-treated mice. GM-CSF increases systemic and mucosal type 1 IFN expression and exhibits synergy with pDC activators, such as microbial cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) DNA. GM-CSF is effective in the treatment of DSS colitis in a mechanism involving the 440c(+) pDC population.

  4. β7-Integrin exacerbates experimental DSS-induced colitis in mice by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon.

    PubMed

    Schippers, A; Muschaweck, M; Clahsen, T; Tautorat, S; Grieb, L; Tenbrock, K; Gaßler, N; Wagner, N

    2016-03-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is pivotal for the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and controlled by the specificity and interactions of chemokines and adhesion molecules. Interactions of the adhesion molecules α4β7-integrin and mucosal addressin cell-adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) promote the accumulation of pathogenic T-cell populations in the inflamed intestine. We aimed to elucidate the significance of β7-integrin expression on innate immune cells for the pathogenesis of IBD. We demonstrate that β7-integrin deficiency protects recombination-activating gene-2 (RAG-2)-deficient mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and coincides with decreased numbers of colonic effector monocytes. We also show that β7-integrin is expressed on most CD11b(+)CD64(low)Ly6C(+) bone marrow progenitors and contributes to colonic recruitment of these proinflammatory monocytes. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CD115(+) wild-type (WT) monocytes partially restored the susceptibility of RAG-2/β7-integrin double-deficient mice to DSS-induced colitis, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of β7-integrin-expressing monocytes for the development of DSS colitis. We also reveal that genetic ablation of MAdCAM-1 ameliorates experimental colitis in RAG-2-deficient mice as well. In summary, we demonstrate a previously unknown role of α4β7-integrin-MAdCAM-1 interactions as drivers of colitis by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon.

  5. β7-Integrin exacerbates experimental DSS-induced colitis in mice by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon

    PubMed Central

    Schippers, A; Muschaweck, M; Clahsen, T; Tautorat, S; Grieb, L; Tenbrock, K; Gaßler, N; Wagner, N

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is pivotal for the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and controlled by the specificity and interactions of chemokines and adhesion molecules. Interactions of the adhesion molecules α4β7-integrin and mucosal addressin cell-adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) promote the accumulation of pathogenic T-cell populations in the inflamed intestine. We aimed to elucidate the significance of β7-integrin expression on innate immune cells for the pathogenesis of IBD. We demonstrate that β7-integrin deficiency protects recombination-activating gene-2 (RAG-2)-deficient mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and coincides with decreased numbers of colonic effector monocytes. We also show that β7-integrin is expressed on most CD11b+CD64lowLy6C+ bone marrow progenitors and contributes to colonic recruitment of these proinflammatory monocytes. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CD115+ wild-type (WT) monocytes partially restored the susceptibility of RAG-2/β7-integrin double-deficient mice to DSS-induced colitis, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of β7-integrin-expressing monocytes for the development of DSS colitis. We also reveal that genetic ablation of MAdCAM-1 ameliorates experimental colitis in RAG-2-deficient mice as well. In summary, we demonstrate a previously unknown role of α4β7-integrin–MAdCAM-1 interactions as drivers of colitis by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon. PMID:26349655

  6. Beneficial role of the probiotic mixture Ultrabiotique on maintaining the integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier in DSS-induced experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Ryma; Abdelouhab, Katia; Rafa, Hayet; Soufli, Imene; Raissi-Kerboua, Djamila; Djeraba, Zineb; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2013-06-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases which include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease has not yet been clarified. Several hypotheses suggest a change in composition of gut microflora along with an impaired mucosal barrier that lead to excessive mucosal immunologic responses. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) contributes greatly to the tissue injury caused by chronic inflammation. Evidence indicates that the mucus layer covering the epithelium is altered during UC and experimental colitis. Our aim in this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of probiotic during DSS-induced colitis by modulating the immune system and colonic mucus production. For that purpose, the probiotic formulation Ultrabiotique(®) (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium breve) was administered daily for 7 d to mice with colitis. Probiotic supplementation improved clinical symptoms and histological alterations observed during DSS induced colitis. Ultrabiotique(®) treatment down regulated the NO production by peritoneal macrophages of DSS-treated mice and enhanced mucus production in both DSS-treated and healthy mice. In conclusion, the modification of microflora by the Ultrabiotique(®) played a beneficial role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier and promoted tissue repair.

  7. MALT1 inhibitors prevent the development of DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice via inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Hang, Nan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xuefeng; Shen, Yan; Cao, Jingsong; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2016-05-24

    Mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1), a paracaspase and essential regulator for nuclear factor kB (NF-κB) activation, plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Suppression of MALT1 protease activity with small molecule inhibitors showed promising efficacies in subtypes of B cell lymphoma and improvement in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. However, whether MALT1 inhibitors could ameliorate colitis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the pharmacological effect of two specific MALT1 inhibitors MI-2 and mepazine on the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice, followed by mechanistic analysis on NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Treatment with MI-2 and mepazine dose-dependently attenuated symptoms of colitis in mice, evidenced by reduction in the elevated disease activity index, the shortening of colon length as well as the histopathologic improvement. Moreover, protein and mRNA levels of DSS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in colon, including TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-17A and IFN-γ, were markedly suppressed by MALT1 inhibitors. The underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of MALT1 inhibitors in DSS-induced colitis may be attributed to its inhibition on NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. The in vitro study showed that MALT1 inhibitors decreased production of IL-1β/IL-18 in phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells and bone marrow derived macrophage via suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of the protease activity of MALT1 might be a viable strategy to treat inflammatory bowel disease and the NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB activation are critical components in MALT1 signaling cascades in this disease model.

  8. MALT1 inhibitors prevent the development of DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice via inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Hang, Nan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xuefeng; Shen, Yan; Cao, Jingsong; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1), a paracaspase and essential regulator for nuclear factor kB (NF-κB) activation, plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Suppression of MALT1 protease activity with small molecule inhibitors showed promising efficacies in subtypes of B cell lymphoma and improvement in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. However, whether MALT1 inhibitors could ameliorate colitis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the pharmacological effect of two specific MALT1 inhibitors MI-2 and mepazine on the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice, followed by mechanistic analysis on NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Treatment with MI-2 and mepazine dose-dependently attenuated symptoms of colitis in mice, evidenced by reduction in the elevated disease activity index, the shortening of colon length as well as the histopathologic improvement. Moreover, protein and mRNA levels of DSS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in colon, including TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-17A and IFN-γ, were markedly suppressed by MALT1 inhibitors. The underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of MALT1 inhibitors in DSS-induced colitis may be attributed to its inhibition on NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. The in vitro study showed that MALT1 inhibitors decreased production of IL-1β/IL-18 in phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells and bone marrow derived macrophage via suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of the protease activity of MALT1 might be a viable strategy to treat inflammatory bowel disease and the NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB activation are critical components in MALT1 signaling cascades in this disease model. PMID:27105502

  9. The sinomenine enteric-coated microspheres suppressed the TLR/NF-κB signaling in DSS-induced experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Huifang; Tian, Liang; Zhao, Zihan; Chen, Shuping; Zhao, Qiaoyun; Hong, Junbo; Xie, Yong; Zhou, Nanjin; Fu, Yingjun

    2017-09-01

    Sinomenine is a pure alkaloid with immunosuppressive effects that is extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. We studied the therapeutic effects of sinomenine on inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we randomly divided mice into the following ten groups: Control group; DSS-induced colitis group; Salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP)-treated group; Chitosan-treated group; low-, medium-, and high-dose sinomenine-treated and sinomenine enteric-coated microspheres-treated groups. We recorded changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI), and colon pathology, measured TLR4, MyD88, SIGIRR, NF-κB p65 protein levels and inflammatory serum cytokine levels. Except for the Control group, the weight of mice in each group decreased, the DAI of the DSS-induced colitis group was significantly higher than the other groups, and the DAIs of the sinomenine- and sinomenine enteric-coated microspheres-treated groups were significantly lower than that of the SASP-treated group. TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65 and proinflammatory cytokine expressions decreased dose dependently in the sinomenine and sinomenine enteric-coated microspheres-treated groups and were generally lower in the sinomenine enteric-coated microspheres groups. However, SIGIRR and anti-inflammatory IL-10 expressions exhibited the opposite pattern. Based on the superior therapeutic effect, sinomenine enteric-coated microspheres might regulate TLR/NF-κB signaling and would be beneficial for an effective and safe therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, Benoit; Aitken, Jesse D.; Malleshappa, Madhu; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mainly comprised of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease are complex and multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. For the past 20 years, to study human IBD mechanistically, number of murine models of colitis has been developed. These models are indispensable tools to decipher underlying mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis as well as to evaluate number potential therapeutics. Among various chemical induced colitis models, DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human ulcerative colitis. This model has both advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered when employed. The current protocol aimed to extensively describe the DSS-induced colitis model, focusing on its detailed protocol as well as factors that could affect DSS-induced pathology. PMID:24510619

  11. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  12. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:27293323

  13. Deoxyschizandrin Suppresses DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-feng; Yang, Yan; Su, Xin; Xu, Da-yan; Yan, Yu-li; Gao, Qiao; Duan, Ming-hua

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Deoxyschizandrin as one of the most important component of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill plays an immunomodulatory role in a variety of diseases, yet its role in ulcerative colitis remains to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of deoxyschizandrin in DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Patients and Methods: In the present study, an inflammation model of cells was constructed to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of deoxyschizandrin. Then a mouse model with Dextran sulfate sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis was constructed, and the effects of deoxyschizandrin on mouse colon inflammation, apoptosis, and CD4 T lymphocyte infiltration in ulcerative colitis were examined. Result: Deoxyschizandrin could improve the symptoms of ulcerative colitis, determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and histopathological scores. Moreover, deoxyschizandrin reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, suppressed CD4 T cell infiltration, and effectively inhibited apoptosis in the colon of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis mice. Conclusion: In summary, deoxyschizandrin can effectively rescue the symptoms of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammation. T cell infiltration and apoptosis in the colon, suggesting that deoxyschizandrin could be a potential drug in treating ulcerative colitis. PMID:27976641

  14. The role of CXCR3 in DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Chami, Belal; Yeung, Amanda W S; van Vreden, Caryn; King, Nicholas J C; Bao, Shisan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of disorders that are characterized by chronic, uncontrolled inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Although the aetiopathogenesis is poorly understood, it is widely believed that IBD stems from a dysregulated immune response towards otherwise harmless commensal bacteria. Chemokines induce and enhance inflammation through their involvement in cellular trafficking. Reducing or limiting the influx of these proinflammatory cells has previously been demonstrated to attenuate inflammation. CXCR3, a chemokine receptor in the CXC family that binds to CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, is strongly overexpressed in the intestinal mucosa of IBD patients. We hypothesised that CXCR3 KO mice would have impaired cellular trafficking, thereby reducing the inflammatory insult by proinflammatory cell and attenuating the course of colitis. To investigate the role of CXCR3 in the progression of colitis, the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was investigated in CXCR3-/- mice over 9 days. This study demonstrated attenuated DSS-induced colitis in CXCR3-/- mice at both the macroscopic and microscopic level. Reduced colitis correlated with lower recruitment of neutrophils (p = 0.0018), as well as decreased production of IL-6 (p<0.0001), TNF (p = 0.0038), and IFN-γ (p = 0.0478). Overall, our results suggest that CXCR3 plays an important role in recruiting proinflammatory cells to the colon during colitis and that CXCR3 may be a therapeutic target to reduce the influx of proinflammatory cells in the inflamed colon.

  15. Impact of basal diet on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Boussenna, Ahlem; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Joubert-Zakeyh, Juliette; Pereira, Bruno; Fraisse, Didier; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Texier, Odile; Felgines, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis is a widely used model for inflammatory bowel disease. However, various factors including nutrition may affect the development of this colitis. This study aimed to compare and characterize the impact of purified and non-purified basal diets on the development of DSS-induced colitis in the rat. Wistar rats were fed a non-purified or a semi-synthetic purified diet for 21 days. Colitis was then induced in half of the rats by administration of DSS in drinking water (4% w/v) during the last 7 days of experimentation. At the end of the experimental period, colon sections were taken for histopathological examination, determination of various markers of inflammation (myeloperoxidase: MPO, cytokines) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, glutathione peroxidase: GPx and glutathione reductase: GRed activities), and evaluation of the expression of various genes implicated in this disorder. DSS ingestion induced a more marked colitis in animals receiving the purified diet, as reflected by higher histological score and increased MPO activity. A significant decrease in SOD and CAT activities was also observed in rats fed the purified diet. Also, in these animals, administration of DSS induced a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, various genes implicated in inflammation were over-expressed after ingestion of DSS by rats fed the purified diet. These results show that a purified diet promotes the onset of a more severe induced colitis than a non-purified one, highlighting the influence of basal diet in colitis development.

  16. A lactic acid bacterium isolated from kimchi ameliorates intestinal inflammation in DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Soo; Joe, Inseong; Rhee, Paul Dong; Jeong, Choon-Soo; Jeong, Gajin

    2017-04-01

    Some species of lactic acid bacteria have been shown to be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, a strain of lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus paracasei LS2) was isolated from the Korean food, kimchi, and was shown to inhibit the development of experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). To investigate the role of LS2 in IBD, mice were fed DSS in drinking water for seven days along with LS2 bacteria which were administered intragastrically to some of the mice, while phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was administered to others (the controls). The administration of LS2 reduced body weight loss and increased survival, and disease activity indexes (DAI) and histological scores indicated that the severity of colitis was significantly reduced. The production of inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity also decreased. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the number of Th1 (IFN-γ) population cells was significantly reduced in the LS2-administered mice compared with the controls. The administration of LS2 induced the increase of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells, which are responsible for IL-10. Numbers of macrophages (CD11b(+) F4/80(+)), and neutrophils (CD11b(+) Gr-1(+)) among lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) were also reduced. These results indicate that LS2 has an anti-inflammatory effect and ameliorates DSS-induced colitis.

  17. Initial gut microbiota structure affects sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wu, Yanqiu; Hu, Yingxin; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Chenhong

    2017-08-15

    The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is a widely applied mouse model, but controversial results have been obtained from experiments using the same mouse strain under the same conditions. Because the gut microbiota play an important role in DSS-induced colitis, it is essential to evaluate the influence of the initial gut microbiota in this model. Here, we identified significant variations in the initial gut microbiota of different batches of mice and found that the initial intestinal microbiota had a profound influence on DSS-induced colitis. We performed three independent trials using the same C57BL/6J mouse model with DSS treatment and used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyze the gut microbiota. We found that the structure and composition of the gut microbiota in mice with severe colitis, as compared with mice with milder colon damage, had unique features, such as an increase in Akkermansia bacteria and a decrease in Barnesiella spp. Moreover, these varied gut bacteria in the different trials also showed different responses to DSS treatment. Our work suggests that, in studies using mouse models, the gut microbiota must be considered when examining mechanisms of diseases, to ensure that comparable results are obtained.

  18. A recombinant cystatin from Ascaris lumbricoides attenuates inflammation of DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Coronado, S; Barrios, L; Zakzuk, J; Regino, R; Ahumada, V; Franco, L; Ocampo, Y; Caraballo, L

    2017-03-10

    Helminthiasis may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Information about immunomodulators from Ascaris lumbricoides is scarce, but could be important considering the co-evolutionary relationships between helminths and humans. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant cystatin from A. lumbricoides on an acute model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. From an A. lumbricoides cDNA library, we obtained a recombinant cystatin (rAl-CPI). Protease activity inhibition was demonstrated on cathepsin B and papain. Immunomodulatory effects were evaluated at two intraperitoneal doses (0.5 and 0.25 μg/G) on mice with DSS-induced colitis. Body weight, colon length, Disease Activity Index (DAI), histological inflammation score, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, gene expression of cytokines and cytokines levels in colon tissue were analysed. Treatment with rAl-CPI significantly reduced DAI, MPO activity and inflammation score without toxic effects. Also, IL-10 and TGF-B gene overexpression was observed in rAl-CPI-treated group compared to DSS-exposed control and healthy mice. Furthermore, a reduction in IL-6 and TNF-A expression was found, and this was confirmed by the levels of these cytokines in colonic tissue. In conclusion, rAl-CPI reduces inflammation in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, probably by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing pro-inflammatory ones.

  19. PKC iota in the intestinal epithelium protects against DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Shelly R.; Li, Shuhua; Shahid, Muhammad W.; Wallace, Michael B.; Leitges, Michael; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The integrity of the intestinal epithelium is critical for the absorption and retention of fluid and nutrients. The intestinal epithelium also provides a barrier between the intestinal bacteria and the body's immune surveillance. Therefore, intestinal epithelial barrier function is critically important, and disruption of the intestinal epithelium results in rapid repair of the damaged area. Methods We evaluated the requirement for protein kinase C iota (PKCι) in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and response to epithelial damage using a well-characterized mouse model of colitis. Mice were analyzed for the clinical, histological and cellular effects of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment. Results Knock out of the mouse PKCι gene (Prkci) in the intestinal epithelium (Prkci KO mice) had no effect on normal colonic homeostasis, however, Prkci KO mice were significantly more sensitive to DSS-induced colitis and death. After withdrawal of DSS, Prkci KO mice exhibited a continued increase in apoptosis, inflammation and damage to the intestinal microvasculature, and a progressive loss of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression, a regulatory peptide important for intestinal wound healing. Knockdown of PKCι expression in HT-29 cells reduced wound healing and TFF3 expression, while addition of exogenous TFF3 restored wound healing in PKCι-depleted cells. Conclusions Expression of PKCι in the intestinal epithelium protects against DSS-induced colitis. Our data suggest that PKCι reduces DSS-induced damage by promoting intestinal epithelial wound healing through the control of TFF3 expression. PMID:21744423

  20. rSj16 Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting the PPAR-α Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Xie, Hui; Xu, Lian; Liao, Qi; Wan, Shuo; Yu, Zilong; Lin, Datao; Zhang, Beibei; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Sun, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies and animal model experiments have shown that parasites have significant modulatory effects on autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recombinant Sj16 (rSj16), a 16-kDa secreted protein of Schistosoma japonicum (S.japonicum) produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli), has been shown to have immunoregulatory effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of rSj16 on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: DSS-induced colitis mice were treated with rSj16. Body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity levels, colon lengths, macroscopic scores, histopathology findings, inflammatory cytokine levels and regulatory T cell (Treg) subset levels were examined. Moreover, the differential genes expression after treated with rSj16 were sequenced, analyzed and identified. Results: rSj16 attenuated clinical activity of DSS-induced colitis mice, diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production, up-regulated immunoregulatory cytokine production and increased Treg percentages in DSS-induced colitis mice. Moreover, DSS-induced colitis mice treated with rSj16 displayed changes in the expression levels of specific genes in the colon and show the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR-α) signaling pathway. PPAR-α activation diminished the therapeutic effects of rSj16 in DSS-induced colitis mice, indicating that the PPAR-α signaling pathway plays a crucial role in DSS-induced colitis development. Conclusions: rSj16 has protective effects on DSS-induced colitis, effects mediated mainly by PPAR-α signaling pathway inhibition. The findings of this study suggest that rSj16 may be useful as a therapeutic agent and that PPAR-α may be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of IBD.

  1. rSj16 Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting the PPAR-α Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifu; Xie, Hui; Xu, Lian; Liao, Qi; Wan, Shuo; Yu, Zilong; Lin, Datao; Zhang, Beibei; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Sun, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies and animal model experiments have shown that parasites have significant modulatory effects on autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recombinant Sj16 (rSj16), a 16-kDa secreted protein of Schistosoma japonicum (S.japonicum) produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli), has been shown to have immunoregulatory effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of rSj16 on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: DSS-induced colitis mice were treated with rSj16. Body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity levels, colon lengths, macroscopic scores, histopathology findings, inflammatory cytokine levels and regulatory T cell (Treg) subset levels were examined. Moreover, the differential genes expression after treated with rSj16 were sequenced, analyzed and identified. Results: rSj16 attenuated clinical activity of DSS-induced colitis mice, diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production, up-regulated immunoregulatory cytokine production and increased Treg percentages in DSS-induced colitis mice. Moreover, DSS-induced colitis mice treated with rSj16 displayed changes in the expression levels of specific genes in the colon and show the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR-α) signaling pathway. PPAR-α activation diminished the therapeutic effects of rSj16 in DSS-induced colitis mice, indicating that the PPAR-α signaling pathway plays a crucial role in DSS-induced colitis development. Conclusions: rSj16 has protective effects on DSS-induced colitis, effects mediated mainly by PPAR-α signaling pathway inhibition. The findings of this study suggest that rSj16 may be useful as a therapeutic agent and that PPAR-α may be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of IBD. PMID:28912887

  2. Exosomes released by granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Ke; Tian, Xinyu; Ma, Jie; Ma, Bin; Xu, Huaxi; Lu, Liwei; Wang, Shengjun

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been described in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but their role in the disease remains controversial. We sought to define the effect of granulocytic MDSC-derived exosomes (G-MDSC exo) in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. G-MDSC exo-treated mice showed greater resistance to colitis, as reflected by lower disease activity index, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration damage. There was a decrease in the proportion of Th1 cells and an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) from G-MDSC exo-treated colitis mice. Moreover, lower serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in G-MDSC exo-treated colitis mice. Interestingly, inhibition of arginase (Arg)-1 activity in G-MDSC exo partially abrogated the spontaneous improvement of colitis. In addition, G-MDSC exo could suppress CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in vitro and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and these abilities were associated with Arg-1 activity. Moreover, G-MDSC exo promoted the expansion of Tregs in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that G-MDSC exo attenuate DSS-induced colitis through inhibiting Th1 cells proliferation and promoting Tregs expansion. PMID:26885611

  3. Effects of methanolic extract from leaves of Rubus imperialis in DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Boeing, Thaise; Barp, Cristiane; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of Rubus imperialis, a berry known as "amora-branca", in colitis dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced in mice. Animals were treated orally with vehicle (water), 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or methanolic extract from leaves of R. imperialis (MERI, 100 mg/kg), once a day during seven days. The disease activity index (DAI) was observed daily. Colons were collected for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis. The administration of MERI exacerbated colitis, as indicated by DAI heightened weight loss and increased histological colonic injury. MERI also decreased the colon mucin levels and increased colonic TNF content. The colonic levels of reduced glutathione and the superoxide dismutase activity in colitic group treated with MERI were decreased. Despite the worsening of colitis, MERI not altered the intestinal transit, body weight, colon length or organs weight in normal mice. Tormentic acid (TA) and 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxyursolic acid (THA), compounds isolated from MERI, reduced the L929 cells viability. Thus, MERI may have aggravated the DSS-induced colitis through intense intestinal mucus barrier impairment, which would lead to inflammatory responses, TA and THA contribute to the intestinal damage verified suggesting caution about the use of R. imperialis preparations, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  4. Eclipta prostrata Improves DSS-Induced Colitis through Regulation of Inflammatory Response in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kee, Ji-Ye; Han, Yo-Han; Park, JinBong; Mun, Jeong-Geon; Joo, Moon-Jung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Kim, Su-Jin; Park, Sang-Hyun; Park, Sung-Joo; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Eclipta prostrata (EP) and its compounds are known to have several pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we demonstrated that EP improves the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis symptoms such as body weight loss, colon length shortening and disease activity index. In DSS-induced colitis tissue, EP controls the protein expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hypoxia inducible factor-1[Formula: see text] (HIF-1[Formula: see text]). In addition, the release of prostaglandin E2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were significantly reduced by EP administration. EP also inhibited COX-2 and HIF-1[Formula: see text] expressions in the tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] stimulated HT-29 cells. These inhibitory effects of EP occurred by reducing the phosphorylation of I[Formula: see text]B and the translocation of the nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B (NF-[Formula: see text]B). Additionally, we found through HPLC analysis that wedelolactone, which is an inhibitor of NF-[Formula: see text]B transcription, was contained in water extract of EP. These results indicate that EP can improve colitis symptoms through the modulation of immune function in intestinal epithelial cells and suggests that EP has the potential therapeutic effect to intestinal inflammation.

  5. Dietary squalene supplementation improves DSS-induced acute colitis by downregulating p38 MAPK and NFkB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; Rosillo, Maria Ángeles; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2015-02-01

    Squalene is a polyunsaturated triterpene, which has exhibited anticancer and antioxidant activities among others. We investigated dietary squalene supplementation effect on an acute colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were fed from weaning with squalene at 0.02% and 0.1%. After 4 weeks, mice were exposed to 3% DSS for 5 days developing acute colitis. After DSS removal (5 days), colons were histological and biochemically processed. Our results showed that dietary squalene treatment exerts anti-inflammatory action in DSS-induced acute colitis. Western blot revealed that squalene downregulated COX-2 (where COX is cyclooxygenase) and inducible nitric oxide synthase system by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, preventing an increase in the cytokines levels. Under our experimental conditions, STAT3 and FOXP3 (where FOXP3 is forkhead box P3) were not modified and the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and/or detoxifying enzymes, Nrf2 (where Nrf2 is nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2), was reduced in DSS-induced colitis. However, any change could be observed after squalene supplementation. Squalene was able to improve the oxidative events and returned proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways. However, supplementary studies are needed in order to provide a basis for developing a new dietary supplementation strategy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via a TLR4-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Dou, Wei; Zhang, Eryun; Sun, Aning; Ding, Lili; Wei, Xiaohui; Chou, Guixin; Mani, Sridhar; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Paeonia lactiflora Pall is one of the most well-known herbs in China, Korea, and Japan for more than 1,200 years. Paeoniflorin, the major bioactive component of peony root, has recently been reported to have anticolitic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. The present study was to explore the possible mechanism of paeoniflorin in attenuating dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Pre- and coadministration of paeoniflorin significantly reduced the severity of colitis and resulted in downregulation of several inflammatory parameters in the colon, including the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and the mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators (MCP-1, Cox2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17). The decline in the activation of NF-κB p65, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK correlated with a decrease in mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 or TLR5 expression. In accordance with the in vivo results, paeoniflorin downregulated TLR4 expression, blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, and reduced the production of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Transient transfection assay performed in LPS-stimulated human colon cancer HT-29 cells indicated that paeoniflorin inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. TLR4 knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrated a requirement for TLR4 in paeoniflorin-mediated downregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, for the first time, the present study indicates that paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via decreasing the expression of TLR4 and suppressing the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

  7. Excretory/Secretory Products from Trichinella spiralis Adult Worms Ameliorate DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunyun; Zhan, Bin; Gu, Yuan; Cheng, Yuli; Zhu, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Background Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. Methods and Findings Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES) intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells) and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17) in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. Conclusions Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24788117

  8. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodi; Yang, Yaping; Wang, Yunyun; Zhan, Bin; Gu, Yuan; Cheng, Yuli; Zhu, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES) intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells) and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17) in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  9. TLR-independent anti-inflammatory function of intestinal epithelial TRAF6 signalling prevents DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Vlantis, Katerina; Polykratis, Apostolos; Welz, Patrick-Simon; van Loo, Geert; Pasparakis, Manolis; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-06-01

    The gut microbiota modulates host susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, but the cell types and the signalling pathways orchestrating this bacterial regulation of intestinal homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the function of intestinal epithelial toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis. We applied an in vivo genetic approach allowing intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of the critical TLR signalling adaptors, MyD88 and/or TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), as well as the downstream ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 in order to reveal the IEC-intrinsic function of these TLR signalling molecules during DSS colitis. Mice lacking TRAF6 in IECs showed exacerbated DSS-induced inflammatory responses that ensued in the development of chronic colon inflammation. Antibiotic pretreatment abolished the increased DSS susceptibility of these mice, showing that epithelial TRAF6 signalling pathways prevent the gut microbiota from driving excessive colitis. However, in contrast to epithelial TRAF6 deletion, blocking epithelial TLR signalling by simultaneous deletion of MyD88 and TRIF specifically in IECs did not affect DSS-induced colitis severity. This in vivo functional comparison between TRAF6 and MyD88/TRIF deletion in IECs shows that the colitis-protecting effects of epithelial TRAF6 signalling are not triggered by TLRs. Intestinal epithelial TRAF6-dependent but MyD88/TRIF-independent and, thus, TLR-independent signalling pathways are critical for preventing propagation of DSS-induced colon inflammation by the gut microbiota. Moreover, our experiments using mice with dual MyD88/TRIF deletion in IECs unequivocally show that the gut microbiota trigger non-epithelial TLRs rather than epithelial TLRs to restrict DSS colitis severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. TLR-independent anti-inflammatory function of intestinal epithelial TRAF6 signalling prevents DSS-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vlantis, Katerina; Polykratis, Apostolos; Welz, Patrick-Simon; van Loo, Geert; Pasparakis, Manolis; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The gut microbiota modulates host susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, but the cell types and the signalling pathways orchestrating this bacterial regulation of intestinal homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the function of intestinal epithelial toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis. Design We applied an in vivo genetic approach allowing intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of the critical TLR signalling adaptors, MyD88 and/or TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), as well as the downstream ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 in order to reveal the IEC-intrinsic function of these TLR signalling molecules during DSS colitis. Results Mice lacking TRAF6 in IECs showed exacerbated DSS-induced inflammatory responses that ensued in the development of chronic colon inflammation. Antibiotic pretreatment abolished the increased DSS susceptibility of these mice, showing that epithelial TRAF6 signalling pathways prevent the gut microbiota from driving excessive colitis. However, in contrast to epithelial TRAF6 deletion, blocking epithelial TLR signalling by simultaneous deletion of MyD88 and TRIF specifically in IECs did not affect DSS-induced colitis severity. This in vivo functional comparison between TRAF6 and MyD88/TRIF deletion in IECs shows that the colitis-protecting effects of epithelial TRAF6 signalling are not triggered by TLRs. Conclusions Intestinal epithelial TRAF6-dependent but MyD88/TRIF-independent and, thus, TLR-independent signalling pathways are critical for preventing propagation of DSS-induced colon inflammation by the gut microbiota. Moreover, our experiments using mice with dual MyD88/TRIF deletion in IECs unequivocally show that the gut microbiota trigger non-epithelial TLRs rather than epithelial TLRs to restrict DSS colitis severity. PMID:25761602

  11. Allicin Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Ismail, Salmiah; Saadatdoust, Zeinab; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of allicin (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) in an experimental murine model of UC by administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water to BALB/c mice. DSS-induced mice presented reduced body weight, which was improved by allicin administration. We noted increases in CD68 expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and Malonaldehyde (MDA) and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-17, and decrease in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in DSS-induced mice. However, allicin treatment significantly decreased CD68, MPO, MDA, and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the enzymic antioxidants significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, allicin was capable of reducing the activation and nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby preventing degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB and inducing inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB-p65 in the colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that allicin exerts clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of the NF-κB and IL-6/p-STAT3(Y705) pathways.

  12. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in DSS-induced acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Kou, Jinhua; Liu, Weijian; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2016-01-01

    Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. However, the effect of alpinetin on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of alpinetin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In vivo, DSS-induced mice colitis model was established by giving mice drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. Alpinetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered once a day by intraperitoneal injection 3 days before DSS treatment. In vitro, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 macrophages were treated with alpinetin and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that alpinetin significantly attenuated diarrhea, colonic shortening, histological injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) production in mice. In vitro, alpinetin markedly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that alpinetin had protective effects on DSS-induced colitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for colitis treatment. PMID:27321991

  13. Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis through Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhe-Qi; Wei, Wei; Han, Bin-Ze; Chen, Xiong-Wen; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) ameliorates inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether activation of CB2R could suppress the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice, LPS/DSS challenge for 24 h increased the expression of the components of NLRP3 inflammasome NLRP3, Casp-1 p20/Casp-1 p45 ratio, proIL-1β and IL-1β and also enhanced autophagy (LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin-1 and SQSTM1). Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with HU 308, a selective CB2R agonist, attenuated LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but further enhanced autophagy. In comparison with wild-type (WT) control, peritoneal macrophages from CB2R knockout (KO) mice had more robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuated autophagy upon LPS/DSS challenge. Knockdown autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) with a siRNA in peritoneal macrophages attenuated the inhibitory effects of HU 308 on LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vitro. In vivo, HU308 treatment attenuated DSS-induced colitis mice associated with reduced colon inflammation and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in wild-type mice. In CB2R KO mice, DSS-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were more pronounced than those in WT control. Finally, we demonstrated that AMPK-mTOR-P70S6K signaling pathway was involved in this CB2R-mediated process. We conclude that activation of CB2R ameliorates DSS-induced colitis through enhancing autophagy that may inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. PMID:27611972

  14. Deoxycholic Acid Triggers NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Aggravates DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shengnan; Gong, Zizhen; Zhou, Jiefei; Tian, Chunyan; Gao, Yanhong; Xu, Congfeng; Chen, Yingwei; Cai, Wei; Wu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    A westernized high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). High-level fecal deoxycholic acid (DCA) caused by HFD contributes to the colonic inflammatory injury of IBD; however, the mechanism concerning the initiation of inflammatory response by DCA remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the role and mechanism of DCA in the induction of inflammation via promoting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here, we, for the first time, showed that DCA dose-dependently induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and highly pro-inflammatory cytokine-IL-1β production in macrophages. Mechanistically, DCA-triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting cathepsin B release at least partially through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2. Colorectal instillation of DCA significantly increased mature IL-1β level in colonic tissue and exacerbated DSS-induced colitis, while in vivo blockage of NLRP3 inflammasome or macrophage depletion dramatically reduced the mature IL-1β production and ameliorated the aggravated inflammatory injury imposed by DCA. Thus, our findings show that high-level fecal DCA may serve as an endogenous danger signal to activate NLRP3 inflammasome and contribute to HFD-related colonic inflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome may represent a new potential therapeutical target for treatment of IBD. PMID:27965665

  15. Induction of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by Pre-treatment with Poly(I:C) May Enhance the Efficacy of MSC Treatment in DSS-induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Da-Bin; Lim, Ji-Young; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Gyeongsin

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used experimentally for treating inflammatory disorders, partly owing to their immunosuppressive properties. The goal of the study was to determine whether TLR ligands can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived MSCs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Mice (C57BL6) were administered with 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days and injected with MSCs on days 1 and 3 following DSS ingestion. Our results demonstrated that among various TLR ligands, MSCs treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], which is a TLR3 ligand, more profoundly induced IDO, which is a therapeutically relevant immunosuppressive factor, without any observable phenotype change in vitro. The poly(I:C)-treated MSCs attenuated the pathologic severity of DSS-induced murine colitis when injected i.p. but not i.v. In summary, preconditioning MSCs with poly(I:C) might improve their efficacy in treating DSS-induced colitis, and this effect at least partly depends on the enhancement of their immunosuppressive activity through increasing their production of IDO. PMID:28035211

  16. 4-Hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist alleviates the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Keiko; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Iseki, Mioko; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Yamanoue, Yu; Itoh, Toshimasa; Nishii, Yasuho; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2008-03-14

    (5E,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-4-Hydroxy-5,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (4-OHDHA) is a potential agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and antidiabetic agent as has been previously reported. As PPAR{gamma} agonists may also have anti-inflammatory functions, in this study, we investigated whether 4-OHDHA has an inhibitory effect on expression of inflammatory genes in vitro and whether 4-OHDHA could relieve the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. 4-OHDHA inhibited production of nitric oxide and expression of a subset of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2/iNOS) and interleukin 6 (Il6) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. In addition, 4-OHDHA-treated mice when compared to control mice not receiving treatment recovered better from the weight loss caused by DSS-induced colitis. Changes in disease activity index (DAI) of 4-OHDHA-treated mice were also more favorable than for control mice and were comparable with mice treated with a typical anti-inflammatory-drug, 5-aminosalichylic acid (5-ASA). These results suggest that 4-OHDHA has potentially clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of inflammatory gene expression.

  17. Effect of acute and chronic DSS induced colitis on plasma eicosanoid and oxylipin levels in the rat.

    PubMed

    Willenberg, Ina; Ostermann, Annika I; Giovannini, Samoa; Kershaw, Olivia; von Keutz, Anne; Steinberg, Pablo; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-07-01

    Eicosanoids and oxylipins are potent lipid mediators involved in the regulation of inflammation. In order to evaluate their role and suitability as biomarkers in colitis, we analyzed their systemic levels in the acute and chronic phase of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis. Male Fischer 344 rats were treated in three cycles with 4% DSS in the drinking water (4 days followed by 10 days recovery) and blood was drawn 3 days prior to the first DSS treatment and on days 4, 11, 32 and 39. Histopathological evaluation of the colon tissue after 42 days showed that the animals developed a mild to severe chronic colitis. Consistently, prostaglandin levels were massively (twofold) elevated in the colonic tissue. LC-MS based targeted metabolomics was used to determine plasma oxylipin levels at the different time points. In the acute phase of inflammation directly after DSS treatment, epoxy-fatty acid (FA), dihydroxy-FA and hydroxy-FA plasma concentrations were uniformly elevated. With each treatment cycle the increase in these oxylipin levels was more pronounced. Our data suggest that in the acute phase of colitis release of polyunsaturated FAs from membranes in the inflamed tissue is reflected by a uniform increase of oylipins formed in different branches of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, during the recovery phases the systemic oxylipin pattern is not or only moderately altered and does not allow to evaluate the onset of chronic inflammation in the colon.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygenation during DSS-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice Include Changes in Gene Expression of HIF-1α, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Antioxidative Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species have an indispensable role in regulating cell signalling pathways, including transcriptional control via hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Hyperbaric oxygenation treatment (HBO2) increases tissue oxygen content and leads to enhanced ROS production. In the present study DSS-induced colitis has been employed in BALB/c mice as an experimental model of gut mucosa inflammation to investigate the effects of HBO2 on HIF-1α, antioxidative enzyme, and proinflammatory cytokine genes during the colonic inflammation. Here we report that HBO2 significantly reduces severity of DSS-induced colitis, as evidenced by the clinical features, histological assessment, impaired immune cell expansion and mobilization, and reversal of IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 gene expression. Gene expression and antioxidative enzyme activity were changed by the HBO2 and the inflammatory microenvironment in the gut mucosa. Strong correlation of HIF-1α mRNA level to GPx1, SOD1, and IL-6 mRNA expression suggests involvement of HIF-1α in transcriptional regulation of these genes during colonic inflammation and HBO2. This is further confirmed by a strong correlation of HIF-1α with known target genes VEGF and PGK1. Results demonstrate that HBO2 has an anti-inflammatory effect in DSS-induced colitis in mice, and this effect is at least partly dependent on expression of HIF-1α and antioxidative genes. PMID:27656047

  19. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum K68 ameliorates DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c mice via the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Wenn; Su, Yu-Wen; Ong, Wei-Kee; Cheng, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2011-12-01

    Many different kinds of fermented food are consumed daily in Taiwan, such as stinky tofu, suan-tsai, and fu-tsai. We have previously reported the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at different stages of fermentation in the production of suan-tsai and fu-tsai. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of Lactobacillus plantarum K68 (K68) isolated from fu-tsai were evaluated. K68 significantly inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and stimulated interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Additionally, orally administered K68 ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in BALB/c mice. Both the disease activity index (DAI) and histological scores (HIS) showed that the severity of UC was significantly reduced by oral administration of K68. Furthermore, the production of pro inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly reduced in K68-administered group. Colonic mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), were also reduced in the K68-administered group. These results suggest that K68 exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities that ameliorate DSS-induced experimental colitis.

  20. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E; Terrazas, César A; Reyes, Jose L; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins.

  1. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E.; Terrazas, César A.; Reyes, Jose L.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I.; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E.; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins. PMID:26090422

  2. Serotonin-Exacerbated DSS-Induced Colitis Is Associated with Increase in MMP-3 and MMP-9 Expression in the Mouse Colon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Menglu; Gao, Lei; Chen, Pan; Feng, Dandan; Jiang, Yalin; Chang, Yongchao; Jin, Jianjun; Chu, Fong-Fong; Gao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. 5-HT enhances dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis and is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play roles in the process of intestinal inflammation. Aims. To examine whether 5-HT induces MMPs expression in mouse colon to enhance DSS-induced colitis. Materials and Methods. C57BL/6J (B6) mice were treated with either low-dose (1.0 mg/kg) or high-dose (2.0 mg/kg) 5-HT by enema, low-dose (1.0%) or high-dose (2.5%) DSS, or combined low-dose (1.0%) DSS and (1.0 mg/kg) 5-HT. Mouse colitis was analyzed. MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) mRNA were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in mouse colon and in human Caco-2 cells and neutrophils. MMP-3 and MMP-9 protein levels were quantified from immunohistochemistry (IHC) images of mouse colons. Results. 5-HT exacerbated DSS-induced colitis, low-dose 5-HT induces both MMP-3 and MMP-9, and high-dose 5-HT only increased MMP-3 mRNA expression in mouse colon. Mouse colon MMP-3 and MMP-9 protein levels were also elevated by 5-HT treatment. The MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA levels were increased in the inflamed colon. 5-HT induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 mRNA expression in Caco-2 and human neutrophils, respectively, in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 expression in mouse colon; these elevated MMPs may contribute to DSS-induced colitis.

  3. Na-H Exchanger Isoform-2 (NHE2) Mediates Butyrate-dependent Na+ Absorption in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced Colitis*

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M.; Nanda Kumar, Navalpur S.; Tse, Chung M.; Binder, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) occurs primarily as a result of reduced Na+ absorption. Although colonic Na+ absorption is mediated by both epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and Na-H exchangers (NHE), inhibition of NHE-mediated Na+ absorption is the primary cause of diarrhea in UC. As there are conflicting observations reported on NHE expression in human UC, the present study was initiated to identify whether NHE isoforms (NHE2 and NHE3) expression is altered and how Na+ absorption is regulated in DSS-induced inflammation in rat colon, a model that has been used to study UC. Western blot analyses indicate that neither NHE2 nor NHE3 expression is altered in apical membranes of inflamed colon. Na+ fluxes measured in vitro under voltage clamp conditions in controls demonstrate that both HCO3−-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na+ absorption are inhibited by S3226 (NHE3-inhibitor), but not by HOE694 (NHE2-inhibitor) in normal animals. In contrast, in DSS-induced inflammation, butyrate-, but not HCO3−-dependent Na+ absorption is present and is inhibited by HOE694, but not by S3226. These observations indicate that in normal colon NHE3 mediates both HCO3−-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na+ absorption, whereas DSS-induced inflammation activates NHE2, which mediates butyrate-dependent (but not HCO3−-dependent) Na+ absorption. In in vivo loop studies HCO3−-Ringer and butyrate-Ringer exhibit similar rates of water absorption in normal rats, whereas in DSS-induced inflammation luminal butyrate-Ringer reversed water secretion observed with HCO3−-Ringer to fluid absorption. Lumen butyrate-Ringer incubation activated NHE3-mediated Na+ absorption in DSS-induced colitis. These observations suggest that the butyrate activation of NHE2 would be a potential target to control UC-associated diarrhea. PMID:26350456

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of Aster glehni via inhibition of NF-κB activation in mice with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Jin, Bo-Ram; Cheon, Se-Yun; Nugroho, Agung; Roh, Seong-Soo; An, Hyo-Jin

    2017-07-19

    Although Aster glehni has been reported to prevent diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, insomnia, and cardiovascular disease, the anti-inflammatory effect of Aster glehni in colonic tissue remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanism of an ethanol extract of Aster glehni (AG) in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. AG significantly attenuated DSS-induced DAI scores, which implied that it suppressed diarrhea, gross bleeding, and the infiltration of immune cells. AG administration also effectively prevented shortening of the colon length and enlargement of the spleen size. Histological examinations indicated that AG suppressed colonic damage and the thickness of the muscle layer induced by DSS. In addition, AG inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and the protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Administration with AG suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) including the nuclear translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit, phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of AG are mainly related to the inhibition of the expressions of inflammatory mediators via NF-κB inactivation, and support its possible therapeutic application in colitis.

  5. Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Stephen D; Vogel, Megan E; Kindel, Tammy L; Smith, Darcey L H; Idelman, Gila; Avissar, Uri; Kakarlapudi, Ganesh; Masnovi, Michelle E

    2015-11-15

    Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression.

  6. Deficiency in Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) skews inflamed yet incompetent innate leukocytes in vivo during DSS-induced septic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Na; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Keqiang; Yuan, Ruoxi; Lee, Christina; Geng, Shuo; Kowalski, Elizabeth; Guo, Wen; Xiong, Huabao; Li, Mingsong; Li, Liwu

    2016-01-01

    Functionally compromised neutrophils contribute to adverse clinical outcomes in patients with severe inflammation and injury such as colitis and sepsis. However, the ontogeny of dysfunctional neutrophil during septic colitis remain poorly understood. We report that the dysfunctional neutrophil may be derived by the suppression of Toll-interacting-protein (Tollip). We observed that Tollip deficient neutrophils had compromised migratory capacity toward bacterial product fMLF due to reduced activity of AKT and reduction of FPR2, reduced potential to generate bacterial-killing neutrophil extra-cellular trap (NET), and compromised bacterial killing activity. On the other hand, Tollip deficient neutrophils had elevated levels of CCR5, responsible for their homing to sterile inflamed tissues. The inflamed and incompetent neutrophil phenotype was also observed in vivo in Tollip deficient mice subjected to DSS-induced colitis. We observed that TUDCA, a compound capable of restoring Tollip cellular function, can potently alleviate the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In humans, we observed significantly reduced Tollip levels in peripheral blood collected from human colitis patients as compared to blood samples from healthy donors. Collectively, our data reveal a novel mechanism in Tollip alteration that underlies the inflamed and incompetent polarization of neutrophils leading to severe outcomes of colitis. PMID:27703259

  7. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles exacerbate DSS-induced colitis: role of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pedro A; Morón, Belen; Becker, Helen M; Lang, Silvia; Atrott, Kirstin; Spalinger, Marianne R; Scharl, Michael; Wojtal, Kacper A; Fischbeck-Terhalle, Anne; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle; Hausmann, Martin; Kraemer, Thomas; Rogler, Gerhard

    2017-07-01

    Western lifestyle and diet are major environmental factors playing a role in the development of IBD. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used as food additives or in pharmaceutical formulations and are consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. We investigated the effects of TiO2 in the development of colitis and the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain receptor, pyrin domain containing (NLRP)3 inflammasome. Wild-type and NLRP3-deficient mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis were orally administered with TiO2 nanoparticles. The proinflammatory effects of TiO2 particles in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages were also studied, as well as the ability of TiO2 crystals to traverse IEC monolayers and accumulate in the blood of patients with IBD using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles worsened acute colitis through a mechanism involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Importantly, crystals were found to accumulate in spleen of TiO2-administered mice. In vitro, TiO2 particles were taken up by IECs and macrophages and triggered NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 assembly, caspase-1 cleavage and the release of NLRP3-associated interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. TiO2 also induced reactive oxygen species generation and increased epithelial permeability in IEC monolayers. Increased levels of titanium were found in blood of patients with UC having active disease. These findings indicate that individuals with a defective intestinal barrier function and pre-existing inflammatory condition, such as IBD, might be negatively impacted by the use of TiO2 nanoparticles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles exacerbate DSS-induced colitis: role of the NLRP3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Pedro A; Morón, Belen; Becker, Helen M; Lang, Silvia; Atrott, Kirstin; Spalinger, Marianne R; Scharl, Michael; Wojtal, Kacper A; Fischbeck-Terhalle, Anne; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle; Hausmann, Martin; Kraemer, Thomas; Rogler, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Objective Western lifestyle and diet are major environmental factors playing a role in the development of IBD. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used as food additives or in pharmaceutical formulations and are consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. We investigated the effects of TiO2 in the development of colitis and the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain receptor, pyrin domain containing (NLRP)3 inflammasome. Design Wild-type and NLRP3-deficient mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis were orally administered with TiO2 nanoparticles. The proinflammatory effects of TiO2 particles in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages were also studied, as well as the ability of TiO2 crystals to traverse IEC monolayers and accumulate in the blood of patients with IBD using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles worsened acute colitis through a mechanism involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Importantly, crystals were found to accumulate in spleen of TiO2-administered mice. In vitro, TiO2 particles were taken up by IECs and macrophages and triggered NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 assembly, caspase-1 cleavage and the release of NLRP3-associated interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. TiO2 also induced reactive oxygen species generation and increased epithelial permeability in IEC monolayers. Increased levels of titanium were found in blood of patients with UC having active disease. Conclusion These findings indicate that individuals with a defective intestinal barrier function and pre-existing inflammatory condition, such as IBD, might be negatively impacted by the use of TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:26848183

  9. Budesonide-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers reduce inflammation in murine DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Beloqui, Ana; Coco, Régis; Alhouayek, Mireille; Solinís, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia; Muccioli, Giulio G; Préat, Véronique

    2013-10-01

    The challenge for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the delivery of the drug to the site of inflammation. Because nanoparticles have the ability to accumulate in inflamed regions, the aim of the present study was to evaluate nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) as nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for the treatment of IBD. Budesonide (BDS) was chosen as a candidate anti-inflammatory drug. BDS-loaded NLCs (BDS-NLC) produced by high-pressure homogenization had a size of 200 nm and a negative zeta potential. BDS-NLCs reduced the TNF-α secretion by activated macrophages (J774 cells). BDS-NLCs were more active in a murine model of dextran sulfate-induced colitis when compared with Blank-NLCs or a BDS suspension: BDS-NLCs decreased neutrophil infiltration, decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in the colon and improved the histological scores of the colons. These data suggest that NLCs could be a promising alternative to polymeric nanoparticles as a targeted drug delivery system for IBD treatment.

  10. MAG-EPA reduces severity of DSS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Morin, Caroline; Blier, Pierre U; Fortin, Samuel

    2016-05-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease characterized by diffuse inflammation of the intestinal mucosa of the large bowel. Omega-3 (ω3) fatty acid supplementation has been associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines involved in UC pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the preventive and therapeutic potential of eicosapentaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-EPA) in an in vivo rats model of UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). DSS rats were untreated or treated per os with MAG-EPA. Morphological, histological, and biochemical analyses were performed following MAG-EPA administrations. Morphological and histological analyses revealed that MAG-EPA pretreatment (12 days pre-DSS) and treatment (6 days post-DSS) exhibited strong activity in reducing severity of disease in DSS rats. Following MAG-EPA administrations, tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were markedly lower compared with rats treated only with DSS. MAG-EPA per os administration decrease neutrophil infiltration in colon tissues, as depicted by myelohyperoxidase activity. Results also revealed a reduced activation of NF-κB pathways correlated with a decreased expression of COX-2 in colon homogenates derived from MAG-EPA-pretreated and treated rats. Tension measurements performed on colon tissues revealed that contractile responses to methacholine and relaxing effect induced by sodium nitroprusside were largely increased following MAG-EPA treatment. The combined treatment of MAG-EPA and vitamin E displayed an antagonistic effect on anti-inflammatory properties of MAG-EPA in DSS rats.

  11. Oral administration of fermented wild ginseng ameliorates DSS-induced acute colitis by inhibiting NF-κB signaling and protects intestinal epithelial barrier

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Myeong A; Woo, Jong Kyu; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Yeong Su; Choi, Seungho; Jang, Young Saeng; Lee, Taek Hwan; Jung, Kyung Hoon; Kang, Dong Kyu; Hurh, Byung Seok; Kim, Dae Eung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been widely used for therapeutic and preventive purposes for thousands of years. However, orally administered ginseng has very low bioavailability and absorption in the intestine. Therefore, fermented ginseng was developed to enhance the beneficial effects of ginseng in the intestine. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of fermented wild ginseng (FWG). We found that FWG significantly alleviated the severity of colitis in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, and decreased expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in colonic tissue. Moreover, we observed that FWG suppressed the infiltration of macrophages in DSS-induced colitis. FWG also attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus. Our data indicate that FWG contains anti-inflammatory activity via NF-κB inactivation and could be useful for treating colitis. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(7): 419-425] PMID:25936779

  12. TLR2 and interleukin-10 are involved in Bacteroides fragilis-mediated prevention of DSS-induced colitis in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Chih; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hung, Shao-Wen; Huang, Wen-Ching; Huang, Yen-Te; Chuang, Hsiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis (BF) are Gram-negative anaerobe symbionts present in the colon. Recent studies have reported the beneficial role of BF in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, stimulating host immunologic development, and preventing infectious colitis caused by pathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies showed that monocolonization of germ-free mice with BF significantly reduced colon inflammations and damage. In order to investigate the Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and interleukin 10 (IL-10) molecular signaling pathways involved in BF-mediated prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The wild-type (WT), TLR4, TLR2, and IL-10 knockout (-/-) germ-free mice grown were with or without BF colonization for 28 days, and then administered 1% DSS in drinking water for 7 day to induce acute ulcerative colitis. We compared phenotypes such as weight loss, disease activity, intestinal histological scores, and immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells. Unlike WT and TLR4-/- mice, the severity of DSS-colitis did not improve in TLR2-/- animals after BF colonization. The BF enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 expression and inhibited pro-inflammatory-related tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and IL-6 mRNA expression in both WT and TLR4-/- mice. In contrast, the failed to up-regulated IL-10 and down-regulated the TNF-α and IL-6 in BF colonization TLR2-/- mice. In addition, we further perform IL-10-/- mice to clarify whether the BF through TLR2 /IL-10 pathway to alleviate DSS-colitis. There were no significant differences in colitis severity and pro-inflammatory related genes expression in the IL-10-/- mice with or without BF colonization. These results indicate the disease-preventing effects of BF in acute DSS-induced colitis may occur through the TLR2/IL-10 signal pathway.

  13. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC) grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-(COX-)2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), and NF- κ B in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-)induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF- κ B proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF- α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day) than in DSS-treated mice (P < 0.05 versus DSS). This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF- κ B signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs.

  14. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC) grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-(COX-)2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-)induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF-κB proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day) than in DSS-treated mice (P < 0.05 versus DSS). This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs. PMID:23818935

  15. Lactobacillus curvatus WiKim38 isolated from kimchi induces IL-10 production in dendritic cells and alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung-Gang; Noh, Eui-Jeong; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Green; Choi, Joo-Hee; Lee, Mo-Eun; Song, Jung-Hee; Chang, Ji-Yoon; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Probiotics such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have healthpromoting effects by immune modulation. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus curvatus WiKim38, which was newly isolated from baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi. The ability of L. curvatus WiKim38 to induce cytokine production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying L. curvatus Wikim38-mediated IL-10 production, Western blot analyses and inhibitor assays were performed. Moreover, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of L. curvatus WiKim38 were examined in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. L. curvatus WiKim38 induced significantly higher levels of IL-10 in BMDCs compared with that induced by LPS. NF-κB and ERK were activated by L. curvatus WiKim38, and an inhibitor assay revealed that these pathways were required for L. curvatus WiKim38-induced production of IL-10 in BMDCs. An in vivo experiment showed that oral administration of L. curvatus WiKim38 increased the survival rate of mice with DSS-induced colitis and improved clinical signs and histopathological severity in colon tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that L. curvatus Wikim38 may have health-promoting effects via immune modulation, and may thus be applicable for therapy of various inflammatory diseases.

  16. ZnO nanoparticles act as supportive therapy in DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice by maintaining gut homeostasis and activating Nrf2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinquan; Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Cai, Chengxu; Yang, Xu; Chai, Zhifang; Feng, Weiyue

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are widespread inflammatory diseases that cause debilitating health problems including cancer. In this study, we show that ZnO nanoparticle (ZnONP) treatment has markedly dose-dependent effects on the remission of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. We demonstrate the mechanism involves the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities of ZnONPs to suppress ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) production; increase GSH level; suppress proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The ZnONP treatment is able to activate the Nrf2 pathway in the cellular antioxidant defense system. The novel finding is that ZnONP combined with mesalazine (5-ASA) can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of 5-ASA in the treatment of DSS-induced colitis. Lastly, we found that ZnONP treatment can restore the changes in special colonic bacteria of DSS-mice while the drug 5-ASA cannot. These results indicate that ZnONPs can act as a medical additive for the therapy of IBD. PMID:28233796

  17. Hyaluronan Synthase 3 Null Mice Exhibit Decreased Intestinal Inflammation and Tissue Damage in the DSS-Induced Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Sean P.; Obery, Dana R.; de la Motte, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) overproduction is a hallmark of multiple inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hyaluronan can act as a leukocyte recruitment molecule and in the most common mouse model of intestinal inflammation, the chemically induced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis model, we previously determined that changes in colon distribution of HA occur before inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that, during a pathologic challenge, HA promotes inflammation. In this study, we tested the progression of inflammation in mice null for the hyaluronan synthase genes (HAS1, HAS3, or both HAS1 and HAS3) in the DSS-colitis model. Our data demonstrate that both the HAS1/HAS3 double and the HAS3 null mice are protected from colitis, compared to wild-type and HAS1 null mice, as determined by measurement of weight loss, disease activity, serum IL-6 levels, histologic scoring, and immunohistochemistry. Most notable is the dramatic increase in submucosal microvasculature, hyaluronan deposition, and leukocyte infiltration in the inflamed colon tissue of wild-type and HAS1 null mice. Our data suggest, HAS3 plays a crucial role in driving gut inflammation. Developing a temporary targeted therapeutic intervention of HAS3 expression or function in the microcirculation may emerge as a desirable strategy toward tempering colitis in patients undergoing flares of IBD. PMID:26448758

  18. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil polyphenols: hydroxytyrosyl acetate and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylglycol on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, Ma Ángeles; González-Benjumea, Alejandro; Marset, Azucena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has exhibited an improvement in a model of DSS-induced colitis. However, other phenolic compounds present such as hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) need to be explored to complete the understanding of the overall effects of EVOO on inflammatory colon mucosa. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of both HTy-Ac and DHPG dietary supplementation in the inflammatory response associated to colitis model. Six-week-old mice were randomized in four dietary groups: sham and control groups received standard diet, and other two groups were fed with HTy-Ac and DHPG, respectively, at 0.1%. After 30 days, all groups except sham received 3% DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by a regime of 5 days of water. Acute inflammation was evaluated by Disease Activity Index (DAI), histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic expression of iNOS, COX-2, MAPKs, NF-kB and FOXP3 were determined by western blotting. Only HTy-Ac-supplemented group showed a significant DAI reduction as well as an improvement of histological damage and MPO. COX-2 and iNOS protein expression were also significantly reduced. In addition, this dietary group down-regulated JNK phosphorylation and prevented the DSS-induced nuclear translocation level of p65. However, no significant differences were observed in the FOXP3 expression. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that HTy-Ac exerts an antiinflammatory effect on acute ulcerative colitis. We concluded that HTy-Ac supplement might provide a basis for developing a new dietary strategy for the prevention of ulcerative colitis.

  19. The ANXA1 released from intestinal epithelial cells alleviate DSS-induced colitis by improving NKG2A expression of Natural Killer cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Z; Zuo, D; Yang, J; Fan, H

    2016-09-09

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises when intestinal immune homeostasis is broken, the maintenance of such homeostasis is principally controlled by cross talk between commensal bacteria, mucosal immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IECs can prevent the contact between luminal bacteria with immune cells through the formation of a physical barrier and the expression of antimicrobial peptides to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. During Colitis the IECs can express increased ANXA1, which is important for regeneration of intestinal mucosa and function as a potent anti-inflammatory protein. Natural Killer (NK) cells can also suppress the progression of colitis. It is uncertain about the effect of the cross-talk between injured IECs and recruited NK cells during colitis. In this study, the expression of ANXA1 in IECS from DSS treated mice was increased, and more NK cells were recruited to intestinal mucosa. In addition, the expression of NKG2A was upregulated when co-cultured with NK cells. The results further proved that overexpression of NKG2A in NK cells was important for inhibiting the recruitment and activity of neutrophils to alleviate DSS-induced colitis. Here, we provide a new anti-inflammation mechanism about ANXA1 secreted from injured IECs, where ANXA1 can stimulate the expression of NKG2A in NK cells that affect the recruitment and activity of neutrophils necessary for pathology of colitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysing the effect of I1 imidazoline receptor ligands on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Ágnes; Tóth, Viktória E; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Balogh, Mihály; Lázár, Bernadette; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Gyires, Klára; Zádori, Zoltán S

    2017-02-01

    Imidazoline receptors (IRs) have been recognized as promising targets in the treatment of numerous diseases; and moxonidine and rilmenidine, agonists of I1-IRs, are widely used as antihypertensive agents. Some evidence suggests that IR ligands may induce anti-inflammatory effects acting on I1-IRs or other molecular targets, which could be beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). On the other hand, several IR ligands may stimulate also alpha2-adrenoceptors, which were earlier shown to inhibit, but in more recent studies to rather aggravate colitis. Hence, this study aimed to analyse for the first time the effect of various I1-IR ligands on intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by adding dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) to the drinking water for 7 days. Mice were treated daily with different IR ligands: moxonidine and rilmenidine (I1-IR agonists), AGN 192403 (highly selective I1-IR ligand, putative antagonist), efaroxan (I1-IR antagonist), as well as with the endogenous IR agonists agmatine and harmane. It was found that moxonidine and rilmenidine at clinically relevant doses, similarly to the other IR ligands, do not have a significant impact on the macroscopic and histological signs of DSS-evoked inflammation. Likewise, colonic myeloperoxidase and serum interleukin-6 levels remained unchanged in response to these agents. Thus, our study demonstrates that imidazoline ligands do not influence significantly the severity of DSS-colitis in mice and suggest that they probably neither affect the course of IBD in humans. However, the translational value of these findings needs to be verified with other experimental colitis models and human studies.

  1. Effects of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion on the miRNA Expression Profiles in Colon from Rats with DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Ma, Zhe; Cui, Yun-hua; Dong, Hong-sheng; Dou, Chuan-zi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This study explored the mechanism of herb-partitioned moxibustion (HM) on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) from the miRNA perspective. Methods. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups [normal control (NC) group, UC model (UC) group, and herb-partitioned moxibustion (UCHM) group]. The UC and UCHM groups were administered 4% DSS for 7 days. The UCHM group received HM at the Tianshu (bilateral, ST25). The effect of HM on UC was observed and the miRNA expression profile in the colon tissues was analyzed. Results. Compared with the UC group, the body weights were significantly higher in the UCHM group on day 14 (P < 0.001); the macroscopic colon injury scores and microscopic histopathology scores in the UCHM group decreased (P < 0.05); and there were 15 differentially expressed miRNAs in the UCHM group. The changes in miR-184 and miR-490-5p expression levels on the UC were reversed by HM intervention. Validation using qRT-PCR showed that two miRNAs expression trend was consistent with the sequencing results. Conclusion. HM at ST25 might regulate miR-184 and miR-490-5p expression, act on the transcription of their target genes to regulate inflammatory signaling pathways, and attenuate inflammation and tissue injury in the colons of rats with DSS-induced UC. PMID:28246536

  2. Ethanol Extract of Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybeans Attenuates Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Colitis by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs. PMID:23841050

  3. Ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans attenuates dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs.

  4. Chloroform fraction of Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung epidermis suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages and DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Cho, Young-Wuk; An, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Dae Sik; Jeong, Jin-Cheol; Kwon, Oh-Keun; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the antiinflammatory effects of the chloroform fraction of the peel of 'Jayoung' (CFPJ), a color-fleshed potato, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. CFPJ inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcription level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing the translocation of NF-κB depending on degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α). Furthermore, CFPJ attenuated the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases3/6 (MKK3/6) and of p38. In colitis model, CFPJ significantly reduced the severity of colitis and the productions and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in colonic tissue. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CFPJ are associated with the suppression of NF-κB and p38 activation in macrophages, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of colitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS‑G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]‑glutarimide (DTCM‑G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS‑Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer‑aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti‑inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the

  6. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    EL-SALHY, MAGDY; UMEZAWA, KAZUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS-G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecyl thiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS-Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti-inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the clinical manifestation of

  7. GL-V9, a new synthetic flavonoid derivative, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 expression via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Sun, Yang; Ding, Youxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Shaoliang; Li, Zhiyu; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-09-22

    GL-V9, a new synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in our previous studies. Uncontrolled overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative damage of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of GL-V9 against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. GL-V9 also inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. Moreover, GL-V9 inhibited ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, but enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity. GL-V9 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production in serum and colon as well. Mechanically, GL-V9 could increase Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a to suppress DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress. Furthermore, GL-V9 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production and increased the antioxidant defenses in the mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7 by promoting Trx-1 expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway, suggesting that GL-V9 might be a potential effective drug for colitis.

  8. GL-V9, a new synthetic flavonoid derivative, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 expression via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Youxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Shaoliang; Li, Zhiyu; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-01-01

    GL-V9, a new synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in our previous studies. Uncontrolled overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative damage of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of GL-V9 against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. GL-V9 also inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. Moreover, GL-V9 inhibited ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, but enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity. GL-V9 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production in serum and colon as well. Mechanically, GL-V9 could increase Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a to suppress DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress. Furthermore, GL-V9 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production and increased the antioxidant defenses in the mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7 by promoting Trx-1 expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway, suggesting that GL-V9 might be a potential effective drug for colitis. PMID:26327408

  9. Severity of DSS-induced colitis is reduced in Ido1-deficient mice with down-regulation of TLR-MyD88-NF-kB transcriptional networks.

    PubMed

    Shon, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Young-Kwan; Shin, Ji Hee; Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2015-11-27

    Indoleamine 2,3 -dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyzes L-tryptophan to kynurenine in the first and rate-limiting step of tryptophan metabolism. IDO1 is expressed widely throughout the body, with especially high expression in colonic intestinal tissues. To examine the role of IDO1 in the colon, transcriptome analysis was performed in both Ido1(-/-) and Ido1(+/+) mice. Gene set enrichment analysis identified the Inflammatory Response as the most significant category modulated by the absence of IDO1. This observation prompted us to further investigate the function of IDO1 in the development of tissue inflammation. By using DSS-induced experimental colitis mice models, we found that the disease in Ido1(-/-) mice was less severe than in Ido1(+/+) mice. Pharmacological inhibition of IDO1 by L-1MT attenuated the severity of DSS-colitis as well. Transcriptome analyses revealed that pathways involving TLR and NF-kB signaling were significantly down-regulated by the absence of IDO1. Furthermore, dramatic changes in TLR and NF-kB signaling resulted in substantial changes in the expression of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Numbers of inflammatory cells in colon and peripheral blood were reduced in IDO1 deficiency. These findings suggest that IDO1 plays important roles in producing inflammatory responses and modulating transcriptional networks during the development of colitis.

  10. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 against DSS-induced colitis is dependent on bacterial preparation and timing of administration.

    PubMed

    Hayes, C L; Natividad, J M M; Jury, J; Martin, R; Langella, P; Verdu, E F

    2014-03-01

    Probiotics have been proposed as a therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, but variations in strains, formulations, and protocols used in clinical trials have hindered the creation of guidelines for their use. Thus, preclinical insight into the mechanisms of specific probiotic strains and mode of administration would be useful to guide future clinical trial design. In this study, live, heat inactivated (HI), and spent culture medium preparations of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 were administered to specific pathogen free C57BL/6 mice before or during colitis, as well as before colitis reactivation. Five days of 3.5% dextran sulphate sodium in drinking water was used to induce colitis. Pretreatment with live B. breve reduced disease severity, myeloperoxidase activity, microscopic damage, cytokine production, interleukin (IL)-12/IL-10 ratio, and lymphocyte infiltration in the colon. B. breve did not attenuate on-going colitis. After acute colitis, disease symptoms were normalised sooner with live and HI B. breve treatment; however, reactivation of colitis was not prevented. These findings indicate that the efficacy of a probiotic to modulate intestinal inflammation is dependent on the formulation as well as state of inflammation when administered. Overall, live B. breve was most efficacious in preventing acute colitis. Live and HI B. breve also promoted recovery from diarrhoea and colon bleeding after a bout of acute colitis.

  11. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 α has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosengarten, Marina; Hadad, Nurit; Solomonov, Yulia; Lamprecht, Sergio; Levy, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Colitis, an inflammation of the colon, is a well-characterized massive tissue injury. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 α (cPLA2 α) upregulation plays an important role in the development of several inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to define the role of cPLA2 α upregulation in the development of colitis. We used a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Immunoblotting analysis showed that cPLA2 α and NF-κB were upregulated and activated in the colon from day 2 of colitis induction. This molecular event preceded the development of the disease, as determined by Disease Activity Index score, body weight, colon length, and the expression of colonic inflammatory markers, including neutrophil infiltration detected by myeloperoxidase and by NIMP-R14, ICAM-1, COX-2, iNOS upregulation and LTB4 and TNF-α secretion. Prevention of cPLA2 α upregulation and activity in the colon by i.v. administration of specific antisense oligonucleotides against cPLA2 α 1 day prior and every day of exposure to dextran sulfate sodium significantly impeded the development of the disease and prevented NF-κB activation, neutrophils infiltration into the colonic mucosa, and expression of proinflammatory proteins in the colon. Our results demonstrate a critical role of cPLA2 α upregulation in inflammation and development of murine colitis.

  12. Pregnancy specific glycoprotein 1 (PSG1) activates TGF-β and prevents dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Sandra M.; Sulkowski, Gisela; Tirado-González, Irene; Warren, James; Freitag, Nancy; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rifkin, Daniel; Fuss, Ivan; Strober, Warren; Dveksler, Gabriela S.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-βs) are secreted from cells as latent complexes and the activity of TGF-βs is controlled predominantly through activation of these complexes. Tolerance to the fetal allograft is essential for pregnancy success; TGF-β1 and -β2 play important roles in regulating these processes. Pregnancy-specific β-glycoproteins (PSGs) are present in the maternal circulation at high concentration throughout pregnancy and have been proposed to have anti-inflammatory functions. We found that recombinant and native PSG1 activate TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in vitro. Consistent with these findings, administration of PSG1 protected mice from DSS-induced colitis, reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the number of T regulatory cells. The PSG1-mediated protection was greatly inhibited by the co-administration of neutralizing anti-TGF-β Ab. Our results indicate that proteins secreted by the placenta directly contribute to the generation of active TGF-β and identify PSG1 as one of the few known biological activators of TGF-β2. PMID:23945545

  13. Accelerated dysbiosis of gut microbiota during aggravation of DSS-induced colitis by a butyrate-producing bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianpeng; Wu, Yanqiu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Guojun; Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Chenhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria (BPB) are potential probiotic candidates for inflammatory bowel diseases as they are often depleted in the diseased gut microbiota. However, here we found that augmentation of a human-derived butyrate-producing strain, Anaerostipes hadrus BPB5, significantly aggravated colitis in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-treated mice while exerted no detrimental effect in healthy mice. We explored how the interaction between BPB5 and gut microbiota may contribute to this differential impact on the hosts. Butyrate production and severity of colitis were assessed in both healthy and DSS-treated mice, and gut microbiota structural changes were analysed using high-throughput sequencing. BPB5-inoculated healthy mice showed no signs of colitis, but increased butyrate content in the gut. In DSS-treated mice, BPB5 augmentation did not increase butyrate content, but induced significantly more severe disease activity index and much higher mortality. BPB5 didn’t induce significant changes of gut microbiota in healthy hosts, but expedited the structural shifts 3 days earlier toward the disease phase in BPB5-augmented than DSS-treated animals. The differential response of gut microbiota in healthy and DSS-treated mice to the same potentially beneficial bacterium with drastically different health consequences suggest that animals with dysbiotic gut microbiota should also be employed for the safety assessment of probiotic candidates. PMID:27264309

  14. Helicobacter pylori DNA decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine production by dendritic cells and attenuates DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Jay; Owyang, Stephanie Y.; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Cole, Tyler; Zhang, Min; Liu, Maochang; Erb-Downward, John; Rubenstein, Joel H.; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Recently there has been emerging epidemiological data to suggest Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may protect against certain chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism for the observed inverse association between H. pylori and IBD has not been described. Methods The frequency of immunoregulatory (IRS) to immunostimulatory (ISS) sequences within the genome of various bacteria was calculated using MacVector software. The induction of type I IFN and IL-12 responses by DNA-pulsed murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) was analyzed by cytokine production. The effect of H. pylori DNA on E. coli DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12 was assessed. The in vivo significance of H. pylori DNA suppression was assessed in a DSS-model of colitis. The systemic levels of type I IFN were assessed in H. pylori-colonized and non-colonized patients. Results We showed that H. pylori DNA has a significantly elevated IRS:ISS ratio. In vitro experiments revealed the inability of H. pylori DNA to stimulate type I IFN or IL-12 production from mouse BMDCs or human pDCs. Additionally, H. pylori DNA was able to suppress E. coli-DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12. Administration of H. pylori DNA prior to the induction of DSS colitis significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis as compared to E. coli DNA or vehicle control in both an acute and chronic model. Finally, the systemic levels of type I IFN were found to be lower in H. pylori-colonized patients versus non-colonized controls. Conclusions Overall, our study indicates that H pylori DNA has the ability to down-regulate pro-inflammatory responses from DCs and this may in part explain the inverse association between H. pylori and IBD. PMID:21471567

  15. Ceramide synthase 2 deficiency aggravates AOM-DSS-induced colitis in mice: role of colon barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Stephanie; Scholich, Klaus; Weigert, Andreas; Thomas, Dominique; Schmetzer, Julia; Trautmann, Sandra; Wegner, Marthe-Susanna; Radeke, Heinfried H; Filmann, Natalie; Brüne, Bernhard; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard; Grösch, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Loss of intestinal barrier functions is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis. The molecular mechanisms are not well understood, but likely involve dysregulation of membrane composition, fluidity, and permeability, which are all essentially regulated by sphingolipids, including ceramides of different chain length and saturation. Here, we used a loss-of-function model (CerS2(+/+) and CerS2(-/-) mice) to investigate the impact of ceramide synthase 2, a key enzyme in the generation of very long-chain ceramides, in the dextran sodium salt (DSS) evoked model of UC. CerS2(-/-) mice developed more severe disease than CerS2(+/+) mice in acute DSS and chronic AOM/DSS colitis. Deletion of CerS2 strongly reduced very long-chain ceramides (Cer24:0, 24:1) but concomitantly increased long-chain ceramides and sphinganine in plasma and colon tissue. In naive CerS2(-/-) mice, the expression of tight junction proteins including ZO-1 was almost completely lost in the colon epithelium, leading to increased membrane permeability. This could also be observed in vitro in CerS2 depleted Caco-2 cells. The increase in membrane permeability in CerS2(-/-) mice did not manifest with apparent clinical symptoms in naive mice, but with slight inflammatory signs such as an increase in monocytes and IL-10. AOM/DSS and DSS treatment alone led to a further deterioration of membrane integrity and to severe clinical symptoms of the disease. This was associated with stronger upregulation of cytokines in CerS2(-/-) mice and increased infiltration of the colon wall by immune cells, particularly monocytes, CD4(+) and Th17(+) T-cells, and an increase in tumor burden. In conclusion, CerS2 is crucial for the maintenance of colon barrier function and epithelial integrity. CerS2 knockdown, and associated changes in several sphingolipids such as a drop in very long-chain ceramides/(dh)-ceramides, an increase in long-chain ceramides/(dh)-ceramides, and sphinganine in the colon, may

  16. An entirely automated method to score DSS-induced colitis in mice by digital image analysis of pathology slides

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Cleopatra; Jeet, Surinder; Beyer, Joseph; Guerrero, Steve; Lesch, Justin; Wang, Xiaoting; DeVoss, Jason; Diehl, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The DSS (dextran sulfate sodium) model of colitis is a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Microscopic symptoms include loss of crypt cells from the gut lining and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the colon. An experienced pathologist requires several hours per study to score histological changes in selected regions of the mouse gut. In order to increase the efficiency of scoring, Definiens Developer software was used to devise an entirely automated method to quantify histological changes in the whole H&E slide. When the algorithm was applied to slides from historical drug-discovery studies, automated scores classified 88% of drug candidates in the same way as pathologists’ scores. In addition, another automated image analysis method was developed to quantify colon-infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells in immunohistochemical stains of serial sections of the H&E slides. The timing of neutrophil and macrophage infiltration had the highest correlation to pathological changes, whereas T and B cell infiltration occurred later. Thus, automated image analysis enables quantitative comparisons between tissue morphology changes and cell-infiltration dynamics. PMID:23580198

  17. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strain HTF-F and Its Extracellular Polymeric Matrix Attenuate Clinical Parameters in DSS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Oriana; Khan, M. Tanweer; Schwarzer, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomas; Srutkova, Dagmar; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Stolte, Ellen H.; Kozakova, Hana; Flint, Harry J.; Samsom, Janneke N.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Wells, Jerry M.

    2015-01-01

    A decrease in the abundance and biodiversity of intestinal bacteria within the Firmicutes phylum has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the anti-inflammatory bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant species in healthy human colon, is underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165, the biofilm forming strain HTF-F and the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) isolated from strain HTF-F. For this purpose, the immunomodulatory properties of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM were studied in vitro using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Then, the capacity of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM of HTF-F to suppress inflammation was assessed in vivo in the mouse dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis model. The F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM had anti-inflammatory effects on the clinical parameters measured in the DSS model but with different efficacy. The immunomodulatory effects of the EPM were mediated through the TLR2-dependent modulation of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine production in antigen presenting cells, suggesting that it contributes to the anti-inflammatory potency of F. prausnitzii HTF-F. The results show that F. prausnitzii HTF-F and its EPM may have a therapeutic use in IBD. PMID:25910186

  18. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strain HTF-F and Its Extracellular Polymeric Matrix Attenuate Clinical Parameters in DSS-Induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Oriana; Khan, M Tanweer; Schwarzer, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomas; Srutkova, Dagmar; Duncan, Sylvia H; Stolte, Ellen H; Kozakova, Hana; Flint, Harry J; Samsom, Janneke N; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Wells, Jerry M

    2015-01-01

    A decrease in the abundance and biodiversity of intestinal bacteria within the Firmicutes phylum has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the anti-inflammatory bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant species in healthy human colon, is underrepresented in the microbiota of IBD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165, the biofilm forming strain HTF-F and the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) isolated from strain HTF-F. For this purpose, the immunomodulatory properties of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM were studied in vitro using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Then, the capacity of the F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM of HTF-F to suppress inflammation was assessed in vivo in the mouse dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis model. The F. prausnitzii strains and the EPM had anti-inflammatory effects on the clinical parameters measured in the DSS model but with different efficacy. The immunomodulatory effects of the EPM were mediated through the TLR2-dependent modulation of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine production in antigen presenting cells, suggesting that it contributes to the anti-inflammatory potency of F. prausnitzii HTF-F. The results show that F. prausnitzii HTF-F and its EPM may have a therapeutic use in IBD.

  19. Suppressive effect of berberine on experimental dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tie; Yang, Zhen; Lv, Chuan-Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of berberine was evaluated in murine model of acute experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Berberine, given orally at 40, 20, 10 mg/kg for 10 days, ameliorated all the supposed inflammatory symptoms of the induced colitis, such as body weightloss, blood hemoglobin reduction, high myeloperoxidase levels, and malondialdehyde content-inflamed mucosa. Furthermore, the cytokine production of splenic lymphocytes was analyzed. The results showed the IFN-γ and IL-12 were increased, but IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased in DSS-induced colitis,when those were compared with the normal control. But the administration of berberine to DSS-induced colitis mice showed lower production of IFN-γ and IL-12 and higher production of IL-4 and IL-10 than the DSS-induced colitis mice. The results suggest that the protective effects of berberine against the DSS-induced colitis may be associated with the regulation of cytokine production.

  20. High-dose wogonin exacerbates DSS-induced colitis by up-regulating effector T cell function and inhibiting Treg cell.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weiming; Yin, Min; Wu, Keyan; Lu, Guotao; Deng, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Li; Jia, Xiaoqing; Ding, Yanbing; Gong, Weijuan

    2017-02-01

    Wogonin exerts anti-tumour activities via multiple mechanisms. We have identified that high-dose wogonin (50 or 100 mg/kg) could inhibit the growth of transplanted tumours by directly inducing tumour apoptosis and promoting DC, T and NK cell recruitment into tumour tissues to enhance immune surveillance. However, wogonin (20-50 μM) ex vivo prevents inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB and Erk signalling of macrophages and epithelial cells. It is elusive whether high-dose wogonin promotes or prevents inflammation. To investigate the effects of high-dose wogonin on murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), mice were co-treated with DSS and various doses of wogonin. Intraperitoneal administration of wogonin (100 mg/kg) exacerbated DSS-induced murine colitis. More CD4(+) CD44(+) and CD8(+) CD44(+) cells were located in the inflamed colons in the wogonin (100 mg/kg) treatment group than in the other groups. Frequencies of CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(-) and CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) cells in the colons and spleen respectively, were reduced by wogonin treatment. Ex vivo stimulations with high-dose wogonin (50-100 μg/ml equivalent to 176-352 μM) could synergize with IL-2 to promote the functions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. However, regulatory T cell induction was inhibited. Wogonin stimulated the activation of NF-κB and Erk but down-regulated STAT3 phosphorylation in the CD4(+) T cells. Wogonin down-regulated Erk and STAT3-Y705 phosphorylation in the regulatory T cells but promoted NF-κB and STAT3-S727 activation. Our study demonstrated that high-dose wogonin treatments would enhance immune activity by stimulating the effector T cells and by down-regulating regulatory T cells. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. Preventive rather than therapeutic treatment with high fiber diet attenuates clinical and inflammatory markers of acute and chronic DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Ana Letícia Malheiros; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos; de Oliveira, Marina Chaves; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; da Cunha Sousa, Larissa Fonseca; Dos Santos Martins, Flaviano; Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Vieira, Angelica Thomaz; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with important impact on global health. Prebiotic and probiotic strategies are thought to be useful in the context of experimental IBD. Here, we compared the effects of preventive versus therapeutic treatment with a high fiber diet (prebiotic) in combination or not with Bifidobacterium longum (probiotic) in a murine model of chronic colitis. Colitis was induced by adding dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to drinking water for 6 days (acute colitis) or for 5 cycles of DSS (chronic colitis). Administration of the high fiber diet protected from acute colitis. Protection was optimal when diet was started 20 days prior to DSS. A 5-day pretreatment with acetate, a short-chain fatty acid, provided partial protection against acute colitis. In chronic colitis, pretreatment with the high fiber diet attenuated clinical and inflammatory parameters of disease. However, when the treatment with the high fiber diet started after disease had been established, overall protection was minimal. Similarly, delayed treatment with acetate or B. longum did not provide any protection even when the probiotic was associated with the high fiber diet. Preventive use of a high fiber diet or acetate clearly protects mice against acute and chronic damage induced by DSS in mice. However, protection is lost when therapies are initiated after disease has been established. These results suggest that any therapy aimed at modifying the gut environment (e.g., prebiotic or probiotic strategies) should be given early in the course of disease.

  2. Deficient Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Leads to Severe Chronic DSS-Induced Colitis in Ncf1/p47phox-Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Sousa, Tiago; Ladeirinha, Ana Filipa; Santiago, Ana Raquel; Carvalheiro, Helena; Raposo, Bruno; Alarcão, Ana; Cabrita, António; Holmdahl, Rikard; Carvalho, Lina; Souto-Carneiro, M. Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Background Colitis is a common clinical complication in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired oxidative burst. Existing experimental data from NADPH-oxidase knockout mice propose contradictory roles for the involvement of reactive oxygen species in colitis chronicity and severity. Since genetically controlled mice with a point-mutation in the Ncf1 gene are susceptible to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, we tested whether they presented increased predisposition to develop chronic colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in Ncf1-mutant and wild-type mice by a 1st 7-days cycle of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), intercalated by a 7-days resting period followed by a 2nd 7-days DSS-cycle. Cytokines were quantified locally in the colon inflammatory infiltrates and in the serum. Leukocyte infiltration and morphological alterations of the colon mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Clinical scores demonstrated a more severe colitis in Ncf1-mutant mice than controls, with no recovery during the resting period and a severe chronic colitis after the 2nd cycle, confirmed by histopathology and presence of infiltrating neutrophils, macrophages, plasmocytes and lymphocytes in the colon. Severe colitis was mediated by increased local expression of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A) and phosphorylation of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Serological cytokine titers of those inflammatory cytokines were more elevated in Ncf1-mutant than control mice, and were accompanied by systemic changes in functional subsets of monocytes, CD4+T and B cells. Conclusion This suggests that an ineffective oxidative burst leads to severe chronic colitis through local accumulation of peroxynitrites, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes and systemic immune deregulation similar to CGD. PMID:24873968

  3. Deficient production of reactive oxygen species leads to severe chronic DSS-induced colitis in Ncf1/p47phox-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Sousa, Tiago; Ladeirinha, Ana Filipa; Santiago, Ana Raquel; Carvalheiro, Helena; Raposo, Bruno; Alarcão, Ana; Cabrita, António; Holmdahl, Rikard; Carvalho, Lina; Souto-Carneiro, M Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Colitis is a common clinical complication in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired oxidative burst. Existing experimental data from NADPH-oxidase knockout mice propose contradictory roles for the involvement of reactive oxygen species in colitis chronicity and severity. Since genetically controlled mice with a point-mutation in the Ncf1 gene are susceptible to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, we tested whether they presented increased predisposition to develop chronic colitis. Colitis was induced in Ncf1-mutant and wild-type mice by a 1st 7-days cycle of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), intercalated by a 7-days resting period followed by a 2nd 7-days DSS-cycle. Cytokines were quantified locally in the colon inflammatory infiltrates and in the serum. Leukocyte infiltration and morphological alterations of the colon mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Clinical scores demonstrated a more severe colitis in Ncf1-mutant mice than controls, with no recovery during the resting period and a severe chronic colitis after the 2nd cycle, confirmed by histopathology and presence of infiltrating neutrophils, macrophages, plasmocytes and lymphocytes in the colon. Severe colitis was mediated by increased local expression of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A) and phosphorylation of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Serological cytokine titers of those inflammatory cytokines were more elevated in Ncf1-mutant than control mice, and were accompanied by systemic changes in functional subsets of monocytes, CD4+ T and B cells. This suggests that an ineffective oxidative burst leads to severe chronic colitis through local accumulation of peroxynitrites, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes and systemic immune deregulation similar to CGD.

  4. Preventive and therapeutic effects of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis by regulation of antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Ji-Hong; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Eun Ok; Um, Byung-Hun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory disorder caused by hyperactivation of effector immune cells that produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. The aims of our study were to determine whether orally administered blueberry extract (BE) could attenuate or prevent the development of experimental colitis in mice and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Female Balb/C mice (n=7) were randomized into groups differing in treatment conditions (prevention and treatment) and dose of BE (50 mg/kg body weight). Acute ulcerative colitis was induced by oral administration of 3% dextran sodium sulfate for 7 days in drinking water. Colonic mucosal injury was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. BE significantly decreased disease activity index and improved the macroscopic and histological score of colons when compared to the colitis group (P<.05). BE markedly attenuated myeloperoxidase accumulation (colitis group 54.97±2.78 nmol/mg, treatment group 30.78±1.33 nmol/mg) and malondialdehyde in colon and prostaglandin E2 level in serum while increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase (colitis group 11.94±1.16 U/ml, BE treatment group 16.49±0.39 U/ml) compared with the colitis group (P<.05). mRNA levels of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase cytokines were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BE attenuates the expression of COX-2 and IL-1β in colonic tissue. Moreover, BE reduced the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) by immunofluorescence analysis. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of BE at colorectal sites is a result of a number of mechanisms: antioxidation, down-regulation of the expression of inflammatory mediators and inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB.

  5. An adenosine A3 receptor agonist inhibits DSS-induced colitis in mice through modulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tianhua; Tian, Ting; Feng, Xiao; Ye, Shicai; Wang, Hao; Wu, Weiyun; Qiu, Yumei; Yu, Caiyuan; He, Yanting; Zeng, Juncheng; Cen, Junwei; Zhou, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The role of the adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) in experimental colitis is controversial. The A3AR agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) has been shown to have a clinical benefit, although studies in A3AR-deficient mice suggest a pro-inflammatory role. However, there are no studies on the effect of 2-Cl-IB-MECA and the molecular mechanism of action of A3AR in murine colitis models in vivo. Is it the same as that observed in vitro? The interaction between 2-CL-IB-MECA and A3AR in a murine colitis model and the signaling pathways associated with this interaction remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for the NF-κB signaling pathway and its effect on modifying the activity of proinflammatory factors in A3AR-mediated biological processes. Our results demonstrated that A3AR activation possessed marked effects on experimental colitis through the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:25762375

  6. Microbial Anti-Inflammatory Molecule (MAM) from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Shows a Protective Effect on DNBS and DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice through Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Breyner, Natalia M.; Michon, Cristophe; de Sousa, Cassiana S.; Vilas Boas, Priscilla B.; Chain, Florian; Azevedo, Vasco A.; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean M.

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its supernatant showed protective effects in different chemically-induced colitis models in mice. Recently, we described 7 peptides found in the F. prausnitzii supernatant, all belonging to a protein called Microbial Anti-inflammatory Molecule (MAM). These peptides were able to inhibit NF-κB pathway in vitro and showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in a DiNitroBenzene Sulfate (DNBS)-induced colitis model. In this current proof we tested MAM effect on NF-κB pathway in vivo, using a transgenic model of mice producing luciferase under the control of NF-κB promoter. Moreover, we tested this protein on Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. To study the effect of MAM we orally administered to the mice a Lactococcus lactis strain carrying a plasmid containing the cDNA of MAM under the control of a eukaryotic promoter. L. lactis delivered plasmids in epithelial cells of the intestinal membrane allowing thus the production of MAM directly by host. We showed that MAM administration inhibits NF-κB pathway in vivo. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of MAM in DNBS-induced colitis but also in DSS model. In DSS model MAM was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 immune response while in DNBS model MAM reduced Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune response and increased TGFβ production. PMID:28203226

  7. Microbial Anti-Inflammatory Molecule (MAM) from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Shows a Protective Effect on DNBS and DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice through Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Breyner, Natalia M; Michon, Cristophe; de Sousa, Cassiana S; Vilas Boas, Priscilla B; Chain, Florian; Azevedo, Vasco A; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean M

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its supernatant showed protective effects in different chemically-induced colitis models in mice. Recently, we described 7 peptides found in the F. prausnitzii supernatant, all belonging to a protein called Microbial Anti-inflammatory Molecule (MAM). These peptides were able to inhibit NF-κB pathway in vitro and showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in a DiNitroBenzene Sulfate (DNBS)-induced colitis model. In this current proof we tested MAM effect on NF-κB pathway in vivo, using a transgenic model of mice producing luciferase under the control of NF-κB promoter. Moreover, we tested this protein on Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. To study the effect of MAM we orally administered to the mice a Lactococcus lactis strain carrying a plasmid containing the cDNA of MAM under the control of a eukaryotic promoter. L. lactis delivered plasmids in epithelial cells of the intestinal membrane allowing thus the production of MAM directly by host. We showed that MAM administration inhibits NF-κB pathway in vivo. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of MAM in DNBS-induced colitis but also in DSS model. In DSS model MAM was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 immune response while in DNBS model MAM reduced Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune response and increased TGFβ production.

  8. Endogenous prion protein attenuates experimentally induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gary R; Keenan, Catherine M; Sharkey, Keith A; Jirik, Frank R

    2011-11-01

    Although the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is expressed in the enteric nervous system and lamina propria, its function(s) in the gut is unknown. Because PrP(C) may exert a cytoprotective effect in response to various physiologic stressors, we hypothesized that PrP(C) expression levels might modulate the severity of experimental colitis. We evaluated the course of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in hemizygous Tga20 transgenic mice (approximately sevenfold overexpression of PrP(C)), Prnp(-/-) mice, and wild-type mice. On day 7, colon length, disease severity, and histologic activity indices were determined. Unlike DSS-treated wild-type and Prnp(-/-) animals, PrP(C) overexpressing mice were resistant to colitis induction, exhibited much milder histopathologic features, and did not exhibit weight loss or colonic shortening. In keeping with these results, pro-survival molecule expression and/or phosphorylation levels were elevated in DSS-treated Tga20 mice, whereas pro-inflammatory cytokine production and pSTAT3 levels were reduced. In contrast, DSS-treated Prnp(-/-) mice exhibited increased BAD protein expression and a cytokine expression profile predicted to favor inflammation and differentiation. PrP(C) expression from both the endogenous Prnp locus or the Tga20 transgene was increased in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Considered together, these findings demonstrate that PrP(C) has a previously unrecognized cytoprotective and/or anti-inflammatory function within the murine colon.

  9. Le Carbone, a charcoal supplement, modulates DSS-induced acute colitis in mice through activation of AMPKα and downregulation of STAT3 and caspase 3 dependent apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Mst Rejina; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Rahman, Md Azizur; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Sreedhar, Remya; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kenji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2017-02-01

    Le Carbone (LC) is a charcoal supplement, which contains a large amount of dietary fibers. Several studies suggested that charcoal supplement may be beneficial for stomach disorders, diarrhea, gas and indigestion. But no studies address whether LC intake would suppress inflammation, cell proliferation or disease progression in colitis. In the present study, the effect of LC on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and its possible mechanism of action were examined. A study was designed for 8days, using C57BL/6 female mice that were administered with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7days followed by another 1day consumption of normal water with or without treatment. LC suspension was administered daily for 7days via oral gavage using 5mg/mouse in treatment group and normal group was supplied with drinking water. LC suspension significantly attenuated the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length induced by DSS. The disease activity index, histopathologic changes were significantly reduced by LC treatment. The inflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1β, p-STAT3 and p-NF-κB induced in the colon by DSS were markedly suppressed by LC. The increased activation of AMPKα in the colon was also detected in LC group. Furthermore, the apoptotic marker protein cleaved caspase 3 was down-regulated and anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL were significantly up-regulated by LC treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate the ability of LC to inhibit inflammation, apoptosis and give some evidence for its potential use as adjuvant treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Effects of Guchang Capsule on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoshan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Hong; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Guchang capsule (GC) is a Chinese materia medica standardized product extracted from 15 Chinese traditional medical herbs and it has been clinically used in the treatment of intestinal disease. In this study, in order to extend the research of GC in intestinal disease, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects of GC on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced murine experimental colitis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. GC treatment attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the mortality. Moreover, GC treatment prevented DSS-induced colonic pathological damage; meanwhile it inhibited proinflammatory cytokines production in colon tissues. In vitro, GC significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in macrophage cells, and the expressions of several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) which were reported in regulating NF-κB signaling pathway were obviously affected by adding GC into culture medium. In conclusion, our data suggested that administration of GC exhibits therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis partially through regulating the expression of NF-κB related lncRNAs in infiltrating immune cells. PMID:27313642

  11. Minocycline attenuates experimental colitis in mice by blocking expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.-Y.; Chu, H.-C.; Lin, Y.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Hsieh, T.-Y.; Chang, W.-K.; Chao, Y.-C.; Liao, C.-L.

    2009-05-15

    In addition to its antimicrobial activity, minocycline exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several disease models. However, whether minocycline affects the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease has not been determined. We investigated the effects of minocycline on experimental colitis and its underlying mechanisms. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in mice by treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of minocycline on colonic injury was assessed clinically and histologically. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of mice with minocycline significantly diminished mortality rate and attenuated the severity of DSS-induced acute colitis. Mechanistically, minocycline administration suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitrotyrosine production, inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression, repressed the elevated mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 3, 9, and 13, diminished the apoptotic index in colonic tissues, and inhibited nitric oxide production in the serum of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. In DSS-induced chronic colitis, minocycline treatment also reduced body weight loss, improved colonic histology, and blocked expression of iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs from colonic tissues. Similarly, minocycline could ameliorate the severity of TNBS-induced acute colitis in mice by decreasing mortality rate and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine expression in colonic tissues. These results demonstrate that minocycline protects mice against DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, probably via inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression in intestinal tissues. Therefore, minocycline is a potential remedy for human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  12. Oral Bifidobacterium longum expressing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to fight experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pijin; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhaobing; Huang, Junli; Gong, Yahui; Sun, Hanxiao

    2016-07-01

    The oral delivery of peptides is a highly attractive treatment approach. However, the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract limits its application. Here, we utilize Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to orally deliver a potent anti-inflammatory but short duration peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) against experimental colitis. The aim of our study was to facilitate the efficient oral delivery of α-MSH. We designed a vector of pBDMSH and used it to construct a Bifidobacterium longum expressing α-MSH. We then determined the bioactivity of recombinant Bifidobacterium in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory models of HT-29 cells. Finally, we used Bifidobacterium expressing α-MSH against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis mice. Results based on the myeloperoxidase activity, the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 and the histological injury of colon tissue reveal recombinant Bifidobacterium was efficient in attenuating DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, suggesting an alternative way to use Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to deliver α-MSH for DSS-induced ulcerative colitis therapy.

  13. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Koh, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Young Jun; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sea Hun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21.

  14. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Oh, Sejong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. PMID:26761887

  15. Effect of a Ropy Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain Orally Administered on DSS-Induced Colitis Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Margolles, Abelardo; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gálvez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bifidobacteria, particularly Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, are used in the functional food industry as promising probiotics with purported beneficial effects. We used three isogenic strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis, with different EPS producing phenotypes (mucoid-ropy and non-ropy), in order to determine their capability to survive the murine gastrointestinal tract transit, as well as to evaluate their role in improving clinical outcomes in a chemically-induced colitis model. The three strains were able to survive in the intestinal tract of C57BL/6J mice during the course of the intervention study. Furthermore, the disease activity index (DAI) of the animal group treated with the ropy strain was significantly lower than of the DAI of the placebo group at the end of the treatment. However, no significant differences were found among the three strains. The analysis of several immune parameters, such as TNFα and IL-10 quantified in blood plasma and lymphocyte populations enumerated in mesenteric nodes, showed some significant variations among the four experimental animal groups. Remarkably, a higher capability of the ropy strain to increase regulatory T-cells in mesenteric lymphoid nodes was demonstrated, suggesting a higher ability of this strain to regulate inflammatory responses at mucosal level. Our data indicate that strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis producing EPS that confer a mucoid-ropy phenotype could represent promising candidates to perform further studies targeting intestinal inflammatory processes.

  16. Cortactin deficiency causes increased RhoA/ROCK1-dependent actomyosin contractility, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and disproportionately severe DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Citalán-Madrid, A F; Vargas-Robles, H; García-Ponce, A; Shibayama, M; Betanzos, A; Nava, P; Salinas-Lara, C; Rottner, K; Mennigen, R; Schnoor, M

    2017-01-25

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes a first line of defense of the innate immune system. Epithelial dysfunction is a hallmark of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The actin cytoskeleton controls epithelial barrier integrity but the function of actin regulators such as cortactin is poorly understood. Given that cortactin controls endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that cortactin is also important for epithelial barrier regulation. We found increased permeability in the colon of cortactin-KO mice that was accompanied by reduced levels of ZO-1, claudin-1, and E-cadherin. By contrast, claudin-2 was upregulated. Cortactin deficiency increased RhoA/ROCK1-dependent actomyosin contractility, and inhibition of ROCK1 rescued the barrier defect. Interestingly, cortactin deficiency caused increased epithelial proliferation without affecting apoptosis. KO mice did not develop spontaneous colitis, but were more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium colitis and showed severe colon tissue damage and edema formation. KO mice with colitis displayed strong mucus deposition and goblet cell depletion. In healthy human colon tissues, cortactin co-localized with ZO-1 at epithelial cell contacts. In IBDs patients, we observed decreased cortactin levels and loss of co-localization with ZO-1. Thus, cortactin is a master regulator of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in vivo and could serve as a suitable target for pharmacological intervention in IBDs.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.136.

  17. The complement anaphylatoxin C3a receptor (C3aR) contributes to the inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wende, Elisabeth; Laudeley, Robert; Bleich, André; Bleich, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A; Glage, Silke; Klos, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are a critical public health issue, and as treatment options remain limited, there is a need to unravel the underlying pathomechanisms in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Complement activation was found in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, and the complement anaphylatoxin C5a and its receptor C5aR have been implicated in disease pathogenesis in animal models of bowel inflammation. To further characterize complement-related pathomechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease, we have investigated the role of the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor in acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. For this, colitis was induced in C3a receptor-deficient BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and disease severity was evaluated by clinical and histological examination, and by measuring the mRNA expression or protein levels of inflammatory mediators in the tissue. C3a receptor deficiency was partially protective in BALB/c mice, which had significantly reduced weight loss, clinical and histological scores, colon shortening, and CXCL-1/KC mRNA, myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 tissue levels compared to the corresponding wild type mice. In C57BL/6 mice the differences between wild type and C3a receptor-deficient animals were much smaller and reached no significance. Our data demonstrate that the contribution of C3a receptor to disease pathogenesis and severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice depends on the genetic background. Further studies will be required to clarify whether targeting of C3a receptor, possibly in combination with C5a receptor, might be considered as a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. MD-1 deficiency attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis through modulating the function of colonic lamina propria dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huaqin; Zhang, Guqin; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Shang, Jian; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Available evidence suggests that both dysregulated innate and adaptive immune pathways contribute to the aberrant intestinal inflammatory response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Myeloid Differentiation 1 (MD-1), also known as Lymphocyte Antigen 86 (Ly86), a secreted protein interacting with radioprotective 105 (RP105), plays an important role in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Previous studies showed that MD-1 may be involved in the (patho) physiological regulation of the innate immune system and inflammation. In this study, we reported for the first time that MD-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in both human IBD patients and DSS-treated WT mice. We showed that MD-1(-/-) mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than WT controls as demonstrated by significantly reduced weight loss, disease activity index, colon histological scores, cellular infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators. In addition, mucosal barrier function seemed to be intact in response to the loss of MD-1. Finally, lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) from the colon of MD-1(-/-) mice after DSS exposure not only decreased in number but also significantly down-regulated the expression of surface maturation co-stimulatory molecules MHC-II, CD40 and CD86 compared with those from WT mice. Taken together, our results reveal that MD-1 deficiency is of critical importance in down-regulating induction and progression of DSS colitis, thereby suggesting that MD-1 might be a target for future interventional therapies of IBD.

  19. Screening of an anti-inflammatory peptide from Hydrophis cyanocinctus and analysis of its activities and mechanism in DSS-induced acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zengjie; Jiang, Hailong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Ma, Xingyuan; Lu, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Snake has been used for centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine, especially for therapeutic treatment for inflammatory diseases; however, its mechanisms of action and active constituents remain controversial. In our study, a tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) selective binding peptide, Hydrostatin-SN1 (H-SN1), which was screened from a Hydrophis cyanocinctus venom gland T7 phage display library, was shown to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. As a TNFR1 antagonist, it reduced cytotoxicity mediated by TNF-α in L929 fibroblasts and effectively inhibited the combination between TNF-α with TNFR1 in surface plasmon resonance analysis. H-SN1 was also shown to suppress TNFR1–associated signaling pathways as it minimized TNF-α-induced NF-кB and MAPK activation in HEK293 embryonic kidney and HT29 adenocarcinoma cell lines. We next determined the effect of H-SN1 in vivo using a murine model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate, demonstrating that H-SN1 lowered the clinical parameters of acute colitis including the disease activity index and histologic scores. H-SN1 also inhibited TNF/TNFR1 downstream targets at both mRNA and protein levels. These results indicate that H-SN1 might represent a suitable candidate for use in the treatment of TNF-α-associated inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27158082

  20. R-Spondins Are Expressed by the Intestinal Stroma and are Differentially Regulated during Citrobacter rodentium- and DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eugene; Yousefi, Mitra; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    The R-spondin family of proteins has recently been described as secreted enhancers of β-catenin activation through the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that Rspo2 is a major determinant of susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-mediated colitis in mice and recent genome-wide association studies have revealed RSPO3 as a candidate Crohn's disease-specific inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility gene in humans. However, there is little information on the endogenous expression and cellular source of R-spondins in the colon at steady state and during intestinal inflammation. RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to assess the expression of R-spondins at steady state and in two mouse models of colonic inflammation. The cellular source of R-spondins was assessed in specific colonic cell populations isolated by cell sorting. Data mining from publicly available datasets was used to assess the expression of R-spondins in the human colon. At steady state, colonic expression of R-spondins was found to be exclusive to non-epithelial CD45- lamina propria cells, and Rspo3/RSPO3 was the most highly expressed R-spondin in both mouse and human colon. R-spondin expression was found to be highly dynamic and differentially regulated during C. rodentium infection and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, with notably high levels of Rspo3 expression during DSS colitis, and high levels of Rspo2 expression during C. rodentium infection, specifically in susceptible mice. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that in the colon, R-spondins are expressed by subepithelial stromal cells, and that Rspo3/RSPO3 is the family member most implicated in colonic homeostasis. The differential regulation of the R-spondins in different models of intestinal inflammation indicate they respond to specific pathogenic and inflammatory signals that differ in the two models and provides further evidence that this family of proteins plays a key role in linking intestinal

  1. LL202 protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting MAPK/AP-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Hu, Yang; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Na

    2016-01-01

    LL202, a newly-synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to inhibit inflammatory-induced angiogenesis. However, the exact role of LL202 in inflammation along with its mechanism has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of LL202 on intestinal inflammation by establishing dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. LL202 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. The inflammatory cells infiltration, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities were decreased by LL202 in a dose-dependent manner. LL202 reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon of DSS-induced mice as well. Mechanically, LL202 could decrease the expression and nuclear translation of AP-1 to protect against DSS-induced colitis. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced THP-1 cells, LL202 markedly decreased the secretion, mRNA level and protein expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α via inhibiting ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK pathways and the nuclear translocation of AP-1. Furthermore, these findings were confirmed in LPS-induced bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that LL202 could exert its anti-inflammatory effect via inhibiting MAPK/AP-1 signaling, which suggested that LL202 might be a potential effective drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27590510

  2. In Vivo Study of the Efficacy of the Essential Oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Pericarp in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Murine Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zecai; Shen, Peng; Liu, Jiuxi; Gu, Cong; Lu, Xiaojie; Li, Yanxin; Cao, Yongguo; Liu, Bo; Fu, Yunhe; Zhang, Naisheng

    2017-04-26

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp (ZBEO) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice. ZBEO decreased DSS-induced body weight loss, the disease activity index, colon length shortening, colonic pathological damage, and myeloperoxidase activities. The production of pro-inflammatory mediators was significantly alleviated by ZBEO. Further mechanistic analysis showed that ZBEO inhibited inflammation by regulating NF-κB and PPARγ pathways. ZBEO also inhibited NLRP3 activation in colitis in mice. Furthermore, ZBEO contributed to the maintenance of tight junction architecture by regulating the expression of zonula occludens-1 during colitis. Surprisingly, treatment with ZBEO increased levels of the commensal bacteria containing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria but reduced Escherichia coli levels in the feces of mice. These results suggested that supplementation with ZBEO might provide a new dietary strategy for the prevention of ulcerative colitis.

  3. A potential role for regulatory T-cells in the amelioration of DSS induced colitis by dietary non-digestible polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Anita; Belle, Fabiën N; Bastiaans, Jacqueline; de Graaff, Priscilla; Garssen, Johan; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, Arjan P

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction between a disturbed microbial composition, the intestinal mucosal barrier and the mucosal immune system plays an important role in IBD and its chronicity. It has been indicated that due to the altered microbial composition the balance between T regulatory cells (Treg) and T helper cells (Th) 17 is disturbed, leading to an inflammatory state. The present study shows that oral intake of a specific multi fibre mix (MF), designed to match the fibre content of a healthy diet, counteracts IBD-like intestinal inflammation and weight loss in dextran sodium sulphate treated mice. This reduction in inflammation might be brought about, at least in part, by the MF-induced decrease in inflammatory cytokines, increase in IL-10 and the relative increase in Treg cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Moreover, the Treg percentage in the MLN correlates with the percentage of tolerogenic lamina propria derived CD103+RALDH+dendritic cells in the MLN, suggesting that these play a role in the observed effects. In children with CD exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a widely used safe and effective therapy. Optimizing enteral nutritional concepts with the tested fibre mix, know to modulate the gut microbiota composition, SCFA production and inflammatory status (as indicated by the present study) could possibly further improve efficacy in inducing remission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeted 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase adoptive gene therapy ameliorates dss-induced colitis without causing hypercalcemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Baylink, David J; Walter, Michael H; Lau, Kin-Hing William; Meng, Xianmei; Wang, Jun; Cherkas, Andriy; Tang, Xiaolei; Qin, Xuezhong

    2015-02-01

    Systemic 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment ameliorating murine inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) could not be applied to patients because of hypercalcemia. We tested the hypothesis that increasing 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis locally by targeting delivery of the 1α-hydroxylase gene (CYP27B1) to the inflamed bowel would ameliorate IBD without causing hypercalcemia. Our targeting strategy is the use of CD11b(+)/Gr1(+) monocytes as the cell vehicle and a macrophage-specific promoter (Mac1) to control CYP27B1 expression. The CD11b(+)/Gr1(+) monocytes migrated initially to inflamed colon and some healthy tissues in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis mice; however, only the migration of monocytes to the inflamed colon was sustained. Adoptive transfer of Gr1(+) monocytes did not cause hepatic injury. Infusion of Mac1-CYP27B1-modified monocytes increased body weight gain, survival, and colon length, and expedited mucosal regeneration. Expression of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-17a and interferon (IFN)-α) was decreased, while expression of protective Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) was increased, by the treatment. This therapy also enhanced tight junction gene expression in the colon. No hypercalcemia occurred following this therapy. In conclusion, we have for the first time obtained proof-of-principle evidence for a novel monocyte-based adoptive CYP27B1 gene therapy using a mouse IBD model. This strategy could be developed into a novel therapy for IBD and other autoimmune diseases.

  5. 3-(2-Oxo-2-phenylethylidene)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4(11bH)-one (compound 1), a novel potent Nrf2/ARE inducer, protects against DSS-induced colitis via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajing; Wang, Hong; Qian, Chen; Tang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Xiuting; You, Qidong; Hu, Rong

    2016-02-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome is a key component of the inflammatory process and its dysregulation contributes to IBD for its ability to induce IL-1β release. Previously, we reported that a novel small molecular activator of Nrf2, 3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethylidene)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino-[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4(11bH)-one (compound 1) can prevent the development of colorectal adenomas in AOM-DSS models. Here we further investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of compound 1 in DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6 and NLRP3(-/-) mice, and revealed the possible modulation by compound 1 of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β release from macrophages. In C57BL/6 mice, oral administration of compound 1 significantly attenuated DSS-induced colonic pathological damage, remarkably inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and IL-1β secretion in colons. In contrast, mice deficient for NLRP3 were less sensitive to DSS-induced acute colitis, and compound 1 treatment exerted no protective effect on DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in NLRP3(-/-) mice. The protective effect of compound 1 may be attributed to its inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and Nrf2 activation in colons. Furthermore, compound 1, as a small molecular activator of Nrf2, significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in both THP-1 derived macrophages and bone-marrow derived macrophages, as indicated by reduced expression of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1, and lowered IL-1β secretion. Finally, compound 1-induced NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition is through blocking NLRP3 priming step and dependent on Nrf2 activation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that compound 1 might be a potential agent for the treatment of IBD by targeting Nrf2 and NLRP3 inflammasome.

  6. Critical roles of TIPE2 protein in murine experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yunwei; Sun, Honghong; Morrissey, Samantha; Porturas, Thomas; Liu, Suxia; Hua, Xianxin; Chen, Youhai H.

    2014-01-01

    Both commensal bacteria and infiltrating inflammatory cells play essential roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The molecular mechanisms whereby these pathogenic factors are regulated during the disease are not fully understood. We report here that a member of the TNFAIP8 (tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8) family called TIPE2 (TNFAIP8-like 2, or TNFAIP8L2) plays a crucial role in regulating commensal bacteria dissemination and inflammatory cell function in experimental colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Following DSS treatment, TIPE2-deficient mice, or chimeric mice that are deficient in TIPE2 only in their hematopoietic cells, lost less body weight and survived longer than wild type controls. Consistent with this clinical observation, TIPE2-deficient mice exhibited significantly less severe colitis and colonic damage. This was associated with a marked reduction in the colonic expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12. Importantly, the ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in TIPE2−/− mice was also associated with reduced local dissemination of commensal bacteria and a weaker systemic inflammatory response. Combined with our previous report that TIPE2 is a negative regulator of anti-bacterial immunity, these results indicate that TIPE2 promotes colitis by inhibiting mucosal immunity to commensal bacteria. PMID:24973456

  7. Pharmaceutical Activation or Genetic Absence of ClC-2 Alters Tight Junctions During Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Younggeon; Pridgen, Tiffany A; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2015-12-01

    We have previously reported that the ClC-2 chloride channel has an important role in regulation of tight junction barrier function during experimental colitis, and the pharmaceutical ClC-2 activator lubiprostone initiates intestinal barrier repair in ischemic-injured intestine. Thus, we hypothesized that pharmaceutical ClC-2 activation would have a protective and therapeutic effect in murine models of colitis, which would be absent in ClC-2 mice. We administered lubiprostone to wild-type or ClC-2 mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or 2, 4, 5-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. We determined the severity of colitis and assessed intestinal permeability. Selected tight junction proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy, whereas proliferative and differentiated cells were examined with special staining and immunohistochemistry. Oral preventive or therapeutic administration of lubiprostone significantly reduced the severity of colitis and reduced intestinal permeability in both DSS and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Preventive treatment with lubiprostone induced significant recovery of the expression and distribution of selected sealing tight junction proteins in mice with DSS-induced colitis. In addition, lubiprostone reduced crypt proliferation and increased the number of differentiated epithelial cells. Alternatively, when lubiprostone was administered to ClC-2 mice, the protective effect against DSS colitis was limited. This study suggests a central role for ClC-2 in restoration of barrier function and tight junction architecture in experimental murine colitis, which can be therapeutically targeted with lubiprostone.

  8. Therapeutic potential of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yeonsil; Song, Eun Mi; Lee, Ko Eun; Joo, Yang-Hee; Kim, Seong-Eun; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Ha Yeong; Jung, Sung-Ae; Jo, Inho

    2017-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSC) prepared from human tonsillar tissue has been studied in animal models for several diseases such as hepatic injury, hypoparathyroidism, diabetes and muscle dystrophy. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of TMSC in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. TMSC were injected in DSS-induced colitis mice via intraperitoneal injection twice (TMSC[x2]) or four times (TMSC[x4]). Control mice were injected with either phosphate-buffered saline or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Body weight, stool condition and disease activity index (DAI) were examined daily. Colon length, histologic grading, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor α, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10, IL-11 and IL-13, were also measured. Our results showed a significant improvement in survival rates and body weight gain in colitis mice injected with TMSC[x2] or TMSC[x4]. Injection with TMSC also significantly decreased DAI scores throughout the experimental period; at the end of experiment, almost complete reversal of DAI scores to normal was found in colitis mice treated with TMSC[x4]. Colon length was also significantly recovered in colitis mice treated with TMSC[x4]. However, histopathological alterations induced by DSS treatment were not apparently improved by injection with TMSC. Finally, treatment with TMSC[x4] significantly reversed the mRNA levels of IL-1β and IL-6, although expression of all pro-inflammatory cytokines tested was induced in colitis mice. Under our experimental conditions, however, no apparent alterations in the mRNA levels of all the anti-inflammatory cytokines tested were found. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that multiple injections with TMSC produced a therapeutic effect in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis.

  9. Intraluminal Injection of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Spheroids Attenuates Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, Ilse; Barnhoorn, Marieke C; de Jonge-Muller, Eveline S M; Mieremet-Ooms, Marij A C; van der Reijden, Johan J; van der Helm, Danny; Hommes, Daniel W; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Verspaget, Hein W

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, mesenchymal stromal cells [MSCs] emerged as a promising therapeutic option for various diseases, due to their immunomodulatory properties. We previously observed that intraperitoneally injected MSCs in experimental colitis form spherical shaped aggregates. Therefore, we aggregated MSCs in vitro into spheroids and injected them intraluminally in mice with established colitis, to investigate whether these MSC spheroids could alleviate the colitis. We injected 0.5 x 10(6) MSCs in spheroids, 2.0 x 10(6) MSCs in spheroids, or phosphate-buffered saline [PBS] as a treatment control, via an enema in mice with established dextran sulphate sodium [DSS]-induced colitis. Body weight was measured daily and disease activity score was determined at sacrifice. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate mucosal healing. After sacrifice, both systemic and local inflammatory responses were evaluated. Intraluminally injected MSC spheroids alleviated DSS-induced colitis, resulting in significantly less body weight loss and lower disease activity score at sacrifice when a high dose of MSC spheroids was administered. However, the percentage of mucosal lesions in the distal colon and endoscopy scores were not significantly lower after treatment with 2.0 x 10(6) MSCs in spheroids compared with PBS-treated mice. Systemic inflammation marker serum amyloid A [SAA] was significantly reduced after treatment with 2.0 x 10(6) MSCs in spheroids. In addition, local cytokine levels of IFN-ɣ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17a, as well as numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, showed a clear decrease-though not always significant-after intraluminal injection of the MSC spheroids. Intraluminally injected MSC spheroids at least partially attenuate experimental colitis, with fewer phagocytes and proinflammmatory cytokines, when a high dose of MSCs in spheroids was administered. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  10. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Mohebali, Nooshin; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA. PMID:26251571

  11. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute experimental colitis in C57BL/6 mice is mitigated by selenium.

    PubMed

    Sang, Lixuan; Chang, Bing; Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Xun; Lu, Changlong; Wang, Danan

    2016-10-01

    Sodium selenite has been shown to have a protective role in experimental colitis. Th1 and Th17 responses are involved in the pathogenesis of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated whether sodium selenite can suppress Th1/Th17-mediated experimental colitis. Mice were administered sodium selenite (2μg/g body weight) by gavage daily for 30days. Beginning on day 21, mice were administered 2.5% oral DSS for 9days. The mice were sacrificed on day 31. Survival rates, clinical symptoms, colon lengths, and histological changes were determined. Pretreatment with sodium selenite (2μg/g body weight) improved survival rates, colon shortening, body weight loss, disease activity index, and histopathological score in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Pretreatment with sodium selenite restored interleukin-10 and Foxp3 excretion, as well as reducing the levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-17A. Pretreatment with sodium selenite showed therapeutic potential for preventing colitis in mice. This effect may be mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells, expressing anti-inflammatory genes that suppress Th1 and Th17 responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase 9-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability contributes to the severity of experimental DSS colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nighot, Prashant; Al-Sadi, Rana; Guo, Shuhong; Watterson, D. Martin; Ma, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated a pathogenic role for matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) in inflammatory bowel disease. Although loss of epithelial barrier function has been shown to be a key pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, the role of MMP-9 in intestinal barrier function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MMP-9 in intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. Wild-type (WT) and MMP-9−/− mice were subjected to experimental dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis by administration of 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. The mouse colonic permeability was measured in vivo by recycling perfusion of the entire colon using fluorescently labeled dextran. The DSS-induced increase in the colonic permeability was accompanied by an increase in intestinal epithelial cell MMP-9 expression in WT mice. The DSS-induced increase in intestinal permeability and the severity of DSS colitis was found to be attenuated in MMP-9−/− mice. The colonic protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and phospho-MLC was found to be significantly increased after DSS administration in WT mice but not in MMP-9−/− mice. The DSS-induced increase in colonic permeability and colonic inflammation was attenuated in MLCK−/− mice and MLCK inhibitor ML-7-treated WT mice. The DSS-induced increase in colonic surface epithelial cell MLCK mRNA was abolished in MMP-9−/− mice. Lastly, increased MMP-9 protein expression was detected within the colonic surface epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis cases. These data suggest a role of MMP-9 in modulation of colonic epithelial permeability and inflammation via MLCK. PMID:26514773

  13. Dietary α-mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, exacerbates experimental colitis and promotes dysbiosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Berman-Booty, Lisa D.; Galley, Jeffrey D.; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Mace, Thomas; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Bailey, Michael T.; Clinton, Steven K.; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Failla, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. α-Mangostin (α-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, exerts anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in vitro. We evaluated the impact of dietary α-MG on murine experimental colitis and on the gut microbiota of healthy mice. Methods and results Colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Mice were fed control diet or diet with α-MG (0.1%). α-MG exacerbated the pathology of DSS-induced colitis. Mice fed diet with α-MG had greater colonic inflammation and injury, as well as greater infiltration of CD3+ and F4/80+ cells, and colonic myeloperoxidase, than controls. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-6, and serum amyloid A were also greater in α-MG-fed animals than in controls. The colonic and cecal microbiota of healthy mice fed α-MG but no DSS shifted to an increased abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, a profile similar to that found in human UC. Conclusion α-MG exacerbated colonic pathology during DSS-induced colitis. These effects may be associated with an induction of intestinal dysbiosis by α-MG. Our results suggest that the use of α-MG-containing supplements by patients with UC may have unintentional risk. PMID:24668769

  14. In Vivo and In Vitro Study on the Efficacy of Terpinen-4-ol in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mice Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zecai; Shen, Peng; Lu, Xiaojie; Li, Yanxin; Liu, Jiuxi; Liu, Bo; Fu, Yunhe; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Terpinen-4-ol (TER) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and clarify the possible mechanisms. In vivo, an acute colitis model was used to confirm the anti-inflammatory activity and the possible mechanisms of TER in C57BL/6 and NLRP3(-/-) mice. In vitro, we performed further study, using RAW264.7 cells and Caco-2 cells, to confirm the molecular mechanisms of TER on inflammatory response. In C57BL/6 mice, TER alleviated DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI), colon length shortening, colonic pathological damage, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. The production of pro-inflammatory mediators was significantly decreased by TER. Furthermore, TER inhibited NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Surprisingly, TER reduced the plasmatic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration and re-balanced Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Lactobacillus levels. In addition, TER prevented the impairment of colon epithelium barrier by regulating the expression of zonula occludens-1 and occludin. In vitro, the results showed that TER significantly suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, as indicated by decreased expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1, and lowered interleukin-1β secretion. In contrast, mice deficient for NLRP3 were less sensitive to DSS-induced acute colitis, and TER treatment exerted little protective effect on DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in NLRP3(-/-) mice. The protective effect of TER may be largely attributed to its inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in colon. Taken together, our findings showed that TER might be a potential agent for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract ameliorates intestinal inflammation through MAPKs/NF-κB signaling in a murine model of acute experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Medicherla, Kanakaraju; Ketkar, Avanee; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Sudhakar, Godi; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-07-13

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-colitis effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) by using both in vitro LPS-activated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental murine colitis and suggested the underlying possible mechanisms. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was performed to identify the major components present in the RE. The clinical signs, biochemistry, immunoblot, ELISA and histology in colon tissues were assessed in order to elucidate the beneficial effect of RE. RE suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and the expressions of inflammatory proteins in macrophages. Administration of RE (50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) also significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced murine colitis, as assessed by the clinical symptoms, colon length and histology. RE administration prevented the DSS-induced activation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs, attenuated IκBα phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB (p65). RE also suppressed the COX-2 and iNOS expressions, decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines and the myeloperoxidase activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation revealed that RE administration alleviated mucosal damage and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by DSS in the colon tissue. Hence, RE could be used as a new preventive and therapeutic food ingredient or as a dietary supplement for inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the Serpylli herba extract in experimental models of rodent colitis.

    PubMed

    Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Zorrilla, Pedro; Burkard, Natalie; Pischel, Ivo; Sievers, Hartwig; Benedek, Birgit; Feistel, Björn; Walbroel, Bernd; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing interest for alternative options in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that combine efficacy and an adequate safety profile. The intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of Serpylli herba, the officinal drug in the European Pharmacopeia composed by the aerial parts of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum), were evaluated in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis, which are well characterized experimental models with some resemblance to human IBD. S. herba extract exerted an intestinal anti-inflammatory effect in both experimental models of colitis, as evidenced both histologically, since it facilitated the tissue recovery of the damaged colon, and biochemically as showed by the improvement of the different inflammatory markers evaluated, including myeloperoxidase activity, glutathione content, and leukotriene B4 levels as well as the expression of the inducible proteins iNOS and COX-2. This beneficial effect was associated with the reduction in the expression of different cytokines, like TNFα, IL-1β, IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-17, the chemokine MCP-1, and the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, thus ameliorating the altered immune response associated with the colonic inflammation. S. herba extract displays an anti-inflammatory effect on different models of rodent colitis that could be attributed to its immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease in an experimental model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Bunyamin; Songur, Yıldıran; Songur, Necla; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Senol, Altug; Ciris, I Metin; Sutcu, Recep

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may also involve various extra-intestinal organs. Clinical studies have found asymptomatic/symptomatic pulmonary involvement in 1% to 6% of patients with IBD. The present study histopathologically investigated pulmonary involvement in an experimental model of colitis in order to demonstrate pulmonary tissue involvement in IBD and to expose potential etiological factors. It also explored the relation between inflammation and tissue concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The study comprised 24 male Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Acute colitis was induced in two separate groups using either the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) method, while the other two groups were used as controls for each model of colitis. Wallace scoring was used for macroscopic assessment of colitis, and the lungs were histopathologically examined. Concentrations of VEGF and TNF-α in pulmonary tissue were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The number of animals that had alveolar hemorrhage was significantly higher in the TNBS-induced colitis and DSS-induced colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.015 and p = 0.015, respectively). VEGF and TNF-α concentrations in pulmonary tissues were significantly increased in both the TNBS colitis and DSS colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively; and p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively). The present study demonstrated that significant and serious histopathological changes directly associated with colitis occur in the lungs in IBD.

  18. ATG4B/autophagin-1 regulates intestinal homeostasis and protects mice from experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Sandra; Fernández, Álvaro F.; Mariño, Guillermo; Aguirre, Alina; Suárez, María F.; Español, Yaiza; Vega, José A.; Laurà, Rosaria; Fueyo, Antonio; Fernández-García, M. Soledad; Freije, José M.P.; Kroemer, Guido; López-Otín, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The identification of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes by genome-wide association has linked this pathology to autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway that is crucial for cell and tissue homeostasis. Here, we describe autophagy-related 4B, cysteine peptidase/autophagin-1 (ATG4B) as an essential protein in the control of inflammatory response during experimental colitis. In this pathological condition, ATG4B protein levels increase in parallel with the induction of autophagy. Moreover, ATG4B expression is significantly reduced in affected areas of the colon from IBD patients. Consistently, atg4b−/− mice present Paneth cell abnormalities, as well as an increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. atg4b-deficient mice exhibit significant alterations in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators of the immune response to bacterial infections, which are reminiscent of those found in patients with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Additionally, antibiotic treatments and bone marrow transplantation from wild-type mice reduced colitis in atg4b−/− mice. Taken together, these results provided additional evidence for the importance of autophagy in intestinal pathologies and describe ATG4B as a novel protective protein in inflammatory colitis. Finally, we propose that atg4b-null mice are a suitable model for in vivo studies aimed at testing new therapeutic strategies for intestinal diseases associated with autophagy deficiency. PMID:23782979

  19. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Dai, Weiqi; Mao, Yuqing; Li, Sainan; Wang, Jingjie; Li, Huanqing; Guo, Chuanyong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-02-27

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys{sup 3}]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  20. Oroxyloside prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Ding, Youxiang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Li

    2016-04-15

    Oroxyloside, as a metabolite of oroxylin A, may harbor various beneficial bioactivities which have rarely been reported in the previous studies. Here we established the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of oroxyloside in vivo. As a result, oroxyloside attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. Furthermore, oroxyloside inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities as well. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon was also significantly reduced by oroxyloside. We unraveled the underlying mechanisms that oroxyloside inhibited NF-κB pathway by activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) to attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of oroxyloside in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Oroxyloside decreased several LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW264.7 and BMDM. We also found that oroxyloside inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway via activating PPARγ in RAW 264.7 and BMDM. Docking study showed that oroxyloside could bind with PPARγ. GW9662, the inhibitor of PPARγ, and PPARγ siRNA transfection blocked the effect of oroxyloside on PPARγ activation. Our study suggested that oroxyloside prevented DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation. Therefore, oroxyloside may be a promising and effective agent for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  1. MicroRNA-155 promotes the pathogenesis of experimental colitis by repressing SHIP-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhan-Jun; Wu, Jian-Jiong; Jiang, Wei-Liang; Xiao, Jun-Hua; Tao, Kai-Zhong; Ma, Lei; Zheng, Ping; Wan, Rong; Wang, Xing-Peng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To explore the mechanism by which microRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. METHODS A luciferase assay was performed to confirm the binding of miR-155 to the SHIP-1 3’-UTR. MiR-155 mimics, negative controls and SHIP-1 expression/knockdown vectors were established and then utilized in gain- and loss-of-function studies performed in raw264.7 cells and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Thereafter, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model with or without antagomiR-155 treatment was established, and the levels of miR-155 and SHIP-1, as well as the pro-inflammatory capabilities, were measured by western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS MiR-155 directly bound to the 3’-UTR of SHIP-1 mRNA and induced a significant decrease in SHIP-1 expression in both raw264.7 cells and primary BMDMs. MiR-155 markedly promoted cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory secretions including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, whereas these effects could be reversed by the restoration of SHIP-1 expression. In vivo studies showed that antagomiR-155 administration could alleviate DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in Balb/c mice. Moreover, significantly increased SHIP-1 expression, as well as decreased Akt activation and inflammatory response, were observed in the antagomiR-155-treated mice. CONCLUSION MiR-155 promotes experimental colitis by repressing SHIP-1 expression. Thus, the inhibition of miR-155 might be a promising strategy for therapy. PMID:28246471

  2. Experimental Colitis Is Attenuated by Cardioprotective Diet Supplementation That Reduces Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mucosal Damage.

    PubMed

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Citalán Madrid, Alí Francisco; García Ponce, Alexander; Silva Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Betanzos, Abigail; Del Valle Mondragón, Leonardo; Nava, Porfirio; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are multifactorial, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the etiology is still poorly understood but involves altered immune responses, epithelial dysfunction, environmental factors, and nutrition. Recently, we have shown that the diet supplement corabion has cardioprotective effects due to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are also prominent risk factors in IBD, we speculated that corabion also has beneficial effects on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male mice by administration of 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for a period of 3 or 7 days with or without daily gavage feeding of corabion consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. We found that corabion administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Mechanistically, these effects could be explained by reduced neutrophil recruitment, oxidative stress, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and internalization of the junctional proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin leading to less edema formation. Thus, corabion may be a useful diet supplement for the management of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders such as IBD.

  3. Experimental Colitis Is Attenuated by Cardioprotective Diet Supplementation That Reduces Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mucosal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Citalán Madrid, Alí Francisco; García Ponce, Alexander; Silva Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Betanzos, Abigail; Del Valle Mondragón, Leonardo; Nava, Porfirio; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are multifactorial, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the etiology is still poorly understood but involves altered immune responses, epithelial dysfunction, environmental factors, and nutrition. Recently, we have shown that the diet supplement corabion has cardioprotective effects due to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are also prominent risk factors in IBD, we speculated that corabion also has beneficial effects on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male mice by administration of 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for a period of 3 or 7 days with or without daily gavage feeding of corabion consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. We found that corabion administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Mechanistically, these effects could be explained by reduced neutrophil recruitment, oxidative stress, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and internalization of the junctional proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin leading to less edema formation. Thus, corabion may be a useful diet supplement for the management of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders such as IBD. PMID:26881044

  4. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits experimental colitis and colitis-propelled carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gkouskou, K K; Ioannou, M; Pavlopoulos, G A; Georgila, K; Siganou, A; Nikolaidis, G; Kanellis, D C; Moore, S; Papadakis, K A; Kardassis, D; Iliopoulos, I; McDyer, F A; Drakos, E; Eliopoulos, A G

    2016-05-12

    In both humans with long-standing ulcerative colitis and mouse models of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC), tumors develop predominantly in the distal part of the large intestine but the biological basis of this intriguing pathology remains unknown. Herein we report intrinsic differences in gene expression between proximal and distal colon in the mouse, which are augmented during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)/azoxymethane (AOM)-induced CAC. Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes identified discrete biological pathways operating in proximal vs distal intestine and revealed a cluster of genes involved in lipid metabolism to be associated with the disease-resistant proximal colon. Guided by this finding, we have further interrogated the expression and function of one of these genes, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a major component of high-density lipoprotein. We show that ApoA-I is expressed at higher levels in the proximal compared with the distal part of the colon and its ablation in mice results in exaggerated DSS-induced colitis and disruption of epithelial architecture in larger areas of the large intestine. Conversely, treatment with an ApoA-I mimetic peptide ameliorated the phenotypic, histopathological and inflammatory manifestations of the disease. Genetic interference with ApoA-I levels in vivo impacted on the number, size and distribution of AOM/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mechanistically, ApoA-I was found to modulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-κB activation in response to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide with concomitant impairment in the production of the pathogenic cytokine interleukin-6. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel protective role for ApoA-I in colitis and CAC and unravel an unprecedented link between lipid metabolic processes and intestinal pathologies.

  5. Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

  6. Antiinflammatory effect of phytosterols in experimental murine colitis model: prevention, induction, remission study.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects.

  7. Low concentrations of human neutrophil peptide ameliorate experimental murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Kanmura, Shuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ibusuki, Kazunari; Tanoue, Shiroh; Komaki, Yuga; Arima, Shiho; Nasu, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Taguchi, Hiroki; Numata, Masatsugu; Uto, Hirofumi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) not only have antimicrobial properties, but also exert multiple immunomodulatory effects depending on the concentration used. We have previously demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of high-dose HNP-1 (100 µg/day) aggravates murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, suggesting a potential pro-inflammatory role for HNPs at high concentrations. However, the role of low physiological concentrations of HNPs in the intestinal tract remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low concentrations of HNPs on intestinal inflammation. We first examined the effects of the mild transgenic overexpression of HNP-1 in DSS-induced colitis. HNP-1 transgenic mice have plasma HNP-1 levels similar to the physiological concentrations in human plasma. Compared to wild-type mice treated with DSS, HNP-1 transgenic mice treated with DSS had significantly lower clinical and histological scores, and lower colonic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then injected low-dose HNP-1 (5 µg/day) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally into C57BL/6N and BALB/c mice administered DSS. The HNP-1-treated mice exhibited significantly milder colitis with reduced expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with the PBS-treated mice. Finally, we examined the in vitro effects of HNP-1 on the expression of cytokines associated with macrophage activation. Low physiological concentrations of HNP-1 did not significantly affect the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 or IL-10 in colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells activated with heat-killed Escherichia coli, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of HNP-1 on murine colitis may not be exerted by direct action on intestinal macrophages. Collectively, our data demonstrated a biphasic dose-dependent effect of HNP-1 on DSS-induced colitis: an

  8. Low concentrations of human neutrophil peptide ameliorate experimental murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Takuro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Kanmura, Shuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ibusuki, Kazunari; Tanoue, Shiroh; Komaki, Yuga; Arima, Shiho; Nasu, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Taguchi, Hiroki; Numata, Masatsugu; Uto, Hirofumi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) not only have antimicrobial properties, but also exert multiple immunomodulatory effects depending on the concentration used. We have previously demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of high-dose HNP-1 (100 µg/day) aggravates murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, suggesting a potential pro-inflammatory role for HNPs at high concentrations. However, the role of low physiological concentrations of HNPs in the intestinal tract remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low concentrations of HNPs on intestinal inflammation. We first examined the effects of the mild transgenic overexpression of HNP-1 in DSS-induced colitis. HNP-1 transgenic mice have plasma HNP-1 levels similar to the physiological concentrations in human plasma. Compared to wild-type mice treated with DSS, HNP-1 transgenic mice treated with DSS had significantly lower clinical and histological scores, and lower colonic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then injected low-dose HNP-1 (5 µg/day) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally into C57BL/6N and BALB/c mice administered DSS. The HNP-1-treated mice exhibited significantly milder colitis with reduced expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with the PBS-treated mice. Finally, we examined the in vitro effects of HNP-1 on the expression of cytokines associated with macrophage activation. Low physiological concentrations of HNP-1 did not significantly affect the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 or IL-10 in colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells activated with heat-killed Escherichia coli, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of HNP-1 on murine colitis may not be exerted by direct action on intestinal macrophages. Collectively, our data demonstrated a biphasic dose-dependent effect of HNP-1 on DSS-induced colitis: an amelioration at

  9. Non-Hematopoietic β-Arrestin1 Confers Protection Against Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehyung; Lee, Eunhee; Arrollo, David; Lucas, Peter C; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2016-05-01

    β-Arrestins are multifunctional scaffolding proteins that modulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-dependent and -independent cell signaling pathways in various types of cells. We recently demonstrated that β-arrestin1 (β-arr1) deficiency strikingly attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Since DSS-induced colitis is in part dependent on gut epithelial injury, we examined the role of β-arr1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using a colon epithelial cell line, SW480 cells. Surprisingly, we found that knockdown of β-arr1 in SW480 cells enhanced epithelial cell death via a caspase-3-dependent process. To understand the in vivo relevance and potential cell type-specific role of β-arr1 in colitis development, we generated bone marrow chimeras with β-arr1 deficiency in either the hematopoietic or non-hematopoietic compartment. Reconstituted chimeric mice were then subjected to DSS-induced colitis. Similar to our previous findings, β-arr1 deficiency in the hematopoietic compartment protected mice from DSS-induced colitis. However, consistent with the role of β-arr1 in epithelial apoptosis in vitro, non-hematopoietic β-arr1 deficiency led to an exacerbated colitis phenotype. To further understand signaling mechanisms, we examined the effect of β-arr1 on TNF-α-mediated NFκB and MAPK pathways. Our results demonstrate that β-arr1 has a critical role in modulating ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways mediated by TNF-α in IECs. Together, our results show that β-arr1-dependent signaling in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells differentially regulates colitis pathogenesis and further demonstrates that β-arr1 in epithelial cells inhibits TNF-α-induced cell death pathways.

  10. Intestinal Anti-inflammatory Effects of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in DSS-Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fábrega, María-José; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Garrido-Mesa, José; Algieri, Francesca; Badía, Josefa; Giménez, Rosa; Gálvez, Julio; Baldomà, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a probiotic strain with proven efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis. However, the microbial factors that mediate these beneficial effects are not fully known. Gram-negative bacteria release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a direct pathway for delivering selected bacterial proteins and active compounds to the host. In fact, vesicles released by gut microbiota are emerging as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was used to investigate the potential of EcN OMVs to ameliorate mucosal injury and inflammation in the gut. The experimental protocol involved pre-treatment with OMVs for 10 days before DSS intake, and a 5-day recovery period. Oral administration of purified EcN OMVs (5 μg/day) significantly reduced DSS-induced weight loss and ameliorated clinical symptoms and histological scores. OMVs treatment counteracted altered expression of cytokines and markers of intestinal barrier function. This study shows for the first time that EcN OMVs can mediate the anti-inflammatory and barrier protection effects previously reported for this probiotic in experimental colitis. Remarkably, translation of probiotics to human healthcare requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in probiotic-host interactions. Thus, OMVs, as a non-replicative bacterial form, could be explored as a new probiotic-derived therapeutic approach, with even lower risk of adverse events than probiotic administration.

  11. Antioxidative potential of a combined therapy of anti TNFα and Zn acetate in experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Barollo, Michela; Medici, Valentina; D’Incà, Renata; Banerjee, Antara; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Scarpa, Marco; Patak, Surajit; Ruffolo, Cesare; Cardin, Romilda; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether combination therapy with anti-tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) antibody and Zn acetate is beneficial in dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in CD1-Swiss mice with 5% DSS for 7 d. The experimental mice were then randomised into the following subgroups: standard diet + DSS treated (induced colitis group); standard diet + DSS + subcutaneous 25 μg anti-TNFα treated group; Zn acetate treated group + DSS + subcutaneous 25 μg anti-TNFα; standard diet + DSS + subcutaneous 6.25 μg anti-TNFα treated group and Zn acetate treated group + DSS + subcutaneous 6.25 μg anti-TNFα. Each group of mice was matched with a similar group of sham control animals. Macroscopic and histological features were scored blindly. Homogenates of the colonic mucosa were assessed for myeloperoxidase activity as a biochemical marker of inflammation and DNA adducts (8OH-dG) as a measure of oxidative damage. RESULTS: DSS produced submucosal erosions, ulcers, inflammatory cell infiltration and cryptic abscesses which were reduced in both groups of mice receiving either anti-TNFα alone or combined with zinc. The effect was more pronounced in the latter group (vs Zn diet, P < 0.02). Myeloperoxidase activity (vs controls, P < 0.02) and DNA adducts, greatly elevated in the DSS fed colitis group (vs controls, P < 0.05), were significantly reduced in the treated groups, with a more remarkable effect in the group receiving combined therapy (vs standard diet, P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: DSS induces colonic inflammation which is modulated by the administration of anti-TNFα. Combining anti-TNFα with Zn acetate offers marginal benefit in colitis severity. PMID:22039323

  12. Lipid alterations in experimental murine colitis: role of ceramide and imipramine for matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jessica; Liebisch, Gerhard; Hofmann, Claudia; Huy, Christian; Schmitz, Gerd; Obermeier, Florian; Bock, Jürgen

    2009-09-29

    Dietary lipids or pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism are potential therapeutic strategies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we analysed alterations of bioactive lipids in experimental models of colitis and examined the functional consequence of the second messenger ceramide in inflammatory pathways leading to tissue destruction. Chronic colitis was induced by dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) or transfer of CD4(+)CD62L(+) cells into RAG1(-/-)-mice. Lipid content of isolated murine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of MMP-1 in supernatants of Caco-2-IEC and human intestinal fibroblasts from patients with ulcerative colitis were determined by ELISA. Imipramine was used for pharmacologic inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Ceramide increased by 71% in chronic DSS-induced colitis and by 159% in the transfer model of colitis. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) decreased by 22% in both models. No changes were detected for phosphatidylcholine. Generation of ceramide by exogenous SMase increased MMP-1-protein production of Caco-2-IEC up to 7-fold. Inhibition of ASM completely abolished the induction of MMP-1 by TNF or IL-1beta in Caco-2-IEC and human intestinal fibroblasts. Mucosal inflammation leads to accumulation of ceramide and decrease of LPC in the intestinal epithelium. One aspect of ceramide generation is an increase of MMP-1. Induction of MMP-1 by TNF or IL-1beta is completely blocked by inhibition of ASM with imipramine. Therefore, inhibition of ASM may offer a treatment strategy to reduce MMP-1 expression and tissue destruction in inflammatory conditions.

  13. Prevention of Chronic Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulphate Sodium (DSS) in Mice Treated with FR91

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Valter R. M.; Etcheverría, Ignacio; Carrera, Iván; Cacabelos, Ramón; Chacón, Antonio R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main treatments currently used in humans to fight cancer is chemotherapy. A huge number of compounds with antitumor activity are present in nature, and many of their derivatives are produced by microorganisms. However, the search for new drugs still represents a main objective for cancer therapy, due to drug toxicity and resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. In animal models, a short-time oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induces colitis, which exhibits several clinical and histological features similar to ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the pathogenic factors responsible for DSS-induced colitis and the subsequent colon cancer also remain unclear. We investigated the effect of FR91, a standardized lysate of microbial cells belonging to the Bacillus genus which has been previously shown to have significant immunomodulatory effects, against intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice during 5 weeks by oral administration 2% (DSS). Morphological changes in the colonic mucosa were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry methods. Adenocarcinoma and cryptal cells of the dysplastic epithelium showed cathenin-β, MLH1, APC, and p53 expression, together with increased production of IFN-γ. In our model, the optimal dose response was the 20% FR91 concentration, where no histological alterations or mild DSS-induced lesions were observed. These results indicate that FR91 may act as a chemopreventive agent against inflammation in mice DSS-induced colitis. PMID:22619498

  14. Selective alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists worsen disease in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Susanne A; Verstege, Marleen I; van der Zanden, Esmerij P; Deeks, Nigel; Bulmer, David C; Skynner, Michael; Lee, Kevin; Te Velde, Anje A; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2010-05-01

    In various models vagus nerve activation has been shown to ameliorate intestinal inflammation, via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on immune cells. As the alpha7 nAChR has been put forward to mediate this effect, we studied the effect of nicotine and two selective alpha7 nAChR agonists (AR-R17779, (-)-spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2] octane-3,5'-oxazolidin-2'-one and GSK1345038A) on disease severity in two mouse models of experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by administration of 1.5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water or 2 mg 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) intrarectally. Nicotine (0.25 and 2.50 micromol.kg(-1)), AR-R17779 (0.6-30 micromol.kg(-1)) or GSK1345038A (6-120 micromol.kg(-1)) was administered daily by i.p. injection. After 7 (DSS) or 5 (TNBS) days clinical parameters and colonic inflammation were scored. Nicotine and both alpha7 nAChR agonists reduced the activation of NF-kappaB and pro-inflammatory cytokines in whole blood and macrophage cultures. In DSS colitis, nicotine treatment reduced colonic cytokine production, but failed to reduce disease parameters. Reciprocally, treatment with AR-R17779 or GSK1345038A worsened disease and led to increased colonic pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in DSS colitis. The highest doses of GSK1345038A (120 micromol.kg(-1)) and AR-R17779 (30 micromol.kg(-1)) ameliorated clinical parameters, without affecting colonic inflammation. Neither agonist ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. Although nicotine reduced cytokine responses in vitro, both selective alpha7 nAChR agonists worsened the effects of DSS-induced colitis or were ineffective in those of TNBS-induced colitis. Our data indicate the need for caution in evaluating alpha7 nAChR as a drug target in colitis.

  15. Effects of dextran sulfate sodium induced experimental colitis on cytochrome P450 activities in rat liver, kidney and intestine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Huang, Yanjuan; Gao, Xuejiao; Li, Sai; Yan, Zhixiang; Wei, Bin; Yan, Ru

    2017-06-01

    Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced experimental colitis presents a histologic resemblance to human ulcerative colitis (UC). Altered cytochrome P450s (CYPs) have been reported in this model and patients with UC. In this study, six CYPs activities were quantitatively determined in microsomes of liver (RLMs), kidney (RRMs) and intestine (RIMs) from rats with colitis at acute (5% DSS for 7 days, UCA) and remission (7-day DSS treatment followed by 7-day cessation, UCR) phases and compared with normal rats. Generally, CYPs activities varied with isoform, organ, and disease status. Hepatic CYP1A2, 2B1, 2C6/11, 2E1 and 3A1/2 activities were reduced by acute colitis and completely or partially restored after DSS was halted. Although DSS treatment decreased the Vmax of renal CYP2C6/11 and increased that of CYP2D2, their CLint, in vitro were comparable among normal, acute and remission stages. DSS treatment changed the kinetics of CYP3A1/2-mediated nifedipine metabolism in RRMs from biphasic to classical kinetics. Notably, CYP2D2 activity was elevated in liver and kidney in acute UC, while enhanced in liver and decreased in kidney in remission. In intestine, CYP3A1/2 activity was increased in UCA and further enhanced after DSS withdrawal. These findings highlight the necessity of quantifying enzyme activity for precision drug therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential Angiogenic Regulation of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chidlow, John H.; Langston, Will; Greer, James J.M.; Ostanin, Dmitry; Abdelbaqi, Maisoun; Houghton, Jeffery; Senthilkumar, Annamalai; Shukla, Deepti; Mazar, Andrew P.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract with unknown multifactorial etiology that, among other things, result in alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal microvasculature. Clinical observations of increased colon microvascular density during IBD have been made. However, there have been no reports investigating the physiological or pathological importance of angiogenic stimulation during the development of intestinal inflammation. Here we report that the dextran sodium sulfate and CD4+CD45RBhigh T-cell transfer models of colitis stimulate angiogenesis that results in increased blood vessel density concomitant with increased histopathology, suggesting that the neovasculature contributes to tissue damage during colitis. We also show that leukocyte infiltration is an obligatory requirement for the stimulation of angiogenesis. The angiogenic response during experimental colitis was differentially regulated in that the production of various angiogenic mediators was diverse between the two models with only a small group of molecules being similarly controlled. Importantly, treatment with the anti-angiogenic agent thalidomide or ATN-161 significantly reduced angiogenic activity and associated tissue histopathology during experimental colitis. Our findings identify a direct pathological link between angiogenesis and the development of experimental colitis, representing a novel therapeutic target for IBD. PMID:17148665

  17. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    PARK, YOUNG-SOOK; CHUNG, SOOK-HEE; LEE, SEONG-KYU; KIM, JA-HYUN; KIM, JUN-BONG; KIM, TAE-KYUN; KIM, DONG-SHIN; BAIK, HAING-WOON

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n=24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  18. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Sook; Chung, Sook-Hee; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Bong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Shin; Baik, Haing-Woon

    2015-04-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n = 24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  19. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) blockade ameliorates experimental colitis by altering microRNA expression and suppressing inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shamran, Haidar; Singh, Narendra P; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E; Murphy, Angela; Taub, Dennis D; Mishra, Manoj K; Price, Robert L; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Singh, Udai P

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which is thought to result from immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, leads to high morbidity and health care cost. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme crucially involved in the modulation of intestinal physiology through anandamide (AEA) and other endocannabinoids. Here we examined the effects of an FAAH inhibitor (FAAH-II), on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice. Treatments with FAAH-II improved overall clinical scores by reversing weight loss and colitis-associated pathogenesis. The frequencies of activated CD4(+) T cells in spleens, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), Peyer's patches (PPs), and colon lamina propiria (LP) were reduced by FAAH inhibition. Similarly, the frequencies of macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer (NK), and NKT cells in the PPs and LP of mice with colitis declined after FAAH blockade, as did concentrations of systemic and colon inflammatory cytokines. Microarray analysis showed that 26 miRNAs from MLNs and 217 from PPs had a 1.5-fold greater difference in expression after FAAH inhibition. Among them, 8 miRNAs were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to have anti-inflammatory properties. Pathway analysis demonstrated that differentially regulated miRNAs target mRNA associated with inflammation. Thus, FAAH-II ameliorates experimental colitis by reducing not only the number of activated T cells but also the frequency of macrophages, neutrophils, and NK/NKT cell, as well as inflammatory miRNAs and cytokine at effector sites in the colon. These studies demonstrate for the first time that FAAH-II inhibitor may suppress colitis through regulation of pro-inflammatory miRNAs expression.

  20. Vancomycin pre-treatment impairs tissue healing in experimental colitis: Importance of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Cai, Chenwen; Zheng, Qing; Jin, Shuang; Song, Dongjuan; Shen, Jun; Ran, Zhihua

    2017-01-29

    The interplay between luminal microbes and innate immunity during colonic epithelial repair has been well noted. At the same time, antibiotic has widely been used during flare-ups of ulcerative colitis. The possible effects of luminal microbiota disruption caused by antibiotics usage on epithelial repairing have been scarcely discussed. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) embedded in the lamina propria can be modulated by gut microbes, resulting in altered colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 levels, which is considered a prominent molecular axis in tissue repairing after epithelium damage. This study aimed to investigate whether antibiotics could interfere with ILCs-dependent tissue repair. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was established in mice pre-treated with reagent of different antibiotic spectrum. Both morphological and molecular markers of tissue repair after DSS cessation were detected. ILCs population and function status were also recorded. Further attention was paid to the response of dendritic cells after antibiotics treatment, which were claimed to regulate colonic ILC3s in an IL-23 dependent way. Using of vancomycin resulted in delayed tissue repairing after experimental colitis. Both colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 axis and ILC3 population were found decreased in this situation. Vancomycin treatment diminished the upstream IL-23 and producer dendritic cell population. The reduced dendritic cell number may due to inadequate chemokines and colony-stimulating factors supply. Presence of vancomycin-sensitive microbiota is required for the maturation of ILC3-activating dendritic cells hence maintain the sufficient IL-22/pSTAT3 level in the colon during tissue healing. Manipulation of colonic microbiota may help achieve colonic mucosal healing post inflammation and injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Ceramide-CD300f binding suppresses experimental colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Toshihiro; Izawa, Kumi; Isobe, Masamichi; Takahashi, Mariko; Maehara, Akie; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Kaitani, Ayako; Okumura, Ko; Teshima, Takanori; Kitamura, Toshio; Kitaura, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular ATP mediates mast cell-dependent intestinal inflammation via P2X7 purinoceptors. We have previously shown that CD300f (also called the leucocyte mono-immunoglobulin-like receptor 3 (LMIR3)) suppresses immunoglobulin E-dependent and mast cell-dependent allergic responses by binding to ceramide. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of ceramide-LMIR3 interaction in the development of IBD. The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model was used in wild-type (WT), LMIR3(-/-), mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh), Kit(W-sh/W-sh)LMIR3(-/-) or Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice engrafted with WT or LMIR3(-/-) bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). The severity of colitis was determined by clinical and histological criteria. Lamina propria cell populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of chemical mediators from lamina propria cells was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Production of chemical mediators from ATP-stimulated BMMCs in the presence or absence of ceramide was measured by ELISA. The severity of DSS-induced colitis was assessed in mice given either an Fc fusion protein containing an extracellular domain of LMIR3, and anticeramide antibody, or ceramide liposomes. LMIR3 deficiency exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in mice. Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice harbouring LMIR3(-/-) mast cells exhibited more severe colitis than those harbouring WT mast cells. Ceramide-LMIR3 interaction inhibited ATP-stimulated activation of BMMCs. DSS-induced colitis was aggravated by disrupting the ceramide-LMIR3 interaction, whereas it was suppressed by treating with ceramide liposomes. LMIR3-deficient colonic mast cells were pivotal in the exacerbation of DSS-induced colitis in LMIR3(-/-) mice. Ceramide liposomes attenuated DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated activation of colonic mast cells through ceraimide-LMIR3 binding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  2. Ceramide-CD300f binding suppresses experimental colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Matsukawa, Toshihiro; Izawa, Kumi; Isobe, Masamichi; Takahashi, Mariko; Maehara, Akie; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Kaitani, Ayako; Okumura, Ko; Teshima, Takanori; Kitamura, Toshio; Kitaura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Extracellular ATP mediates mast cell-dependent intestinal inflammation via P2X7 purinoceptors. We have previously shown that CD300f (also called the leucocyte mono-immunoglobulin-like receptor 3 (LMIR3)) suppresses immunoglobulin E-dependent and mast cell-dependent allergic responses by binding to ceramide. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of ceramide–LMIR3 interaction in the development of IBD. Design The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model was used in wild-type (WT), LMIR3−/−, mast cell-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh, KitW-sh/W-shLMIR3−/− or KitW-sh/W-sh mice engrafted with WT or LMIR3−/− bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). The severity of colitis was determined by clinical and histological criteria. Lamina propria cell populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of chemical mediators from lamina propria cells was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Production of chemical mediators from ATP-stimulated BMMCs in the presence or absence of ceramide was measured by ELISA. The severity of DSS-induced colitis was assessed in mice given either an Fc fusion protein containing an extracellular domain of LMIR3, and anticeramide antibody, or ceramide liposomes. Results LMIR3 deficiency exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in mice. KitW-sh/W-sh mice harbouring LMIR3−/− mast cells exhibited more severe colitis than those harbouring WT mast cells. Ceramide–LMIR3 interaction inhibited ATP-stimulated activation of BMMCs. DSS-induced colitis was aggravated by disrupting the ceramide–LMIR3 interaction, whereas it was suppressed by treating with ceramide liposomes. Conclusions LMIR3-deficient colonic mast cells were pivotal in the exacerbation of DSS-induced colitis in LMIR3−/− mice. Ceramide liposomes attenuated DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated activation of colonic mast cells through ceraimide–LMIR3 binding. PMID:25673319

  3. Rosmarinic acid suppresses colonic inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced mice via dual inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo-Ram; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Cheon, Se-Yun; Lee, Minho; Hwang, Soonjae; Noh Hwang, Sam; Rhee, Ki-Jong; An, Hyo-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon. Although UC is generally treated with anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants, most of these treatments often prove to be inadequate. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic ester included in various medicinal herbs such as Salvia miltiorrhiz and Perilla frutescens. Although RA has many biological and pharmacological activities, the anti-inflammatory effect of RA in colonic tissue remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism of RA in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In the DSS-induced colitis model, RA significantly reduced the severity of colitis, as assessed by disease activity index (DAI) scores, colonic damage, and colon length. In addition, RA resulted in the reduction of the inflammatory-related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-22, and protein levels of COX-2 and iNOS in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Furthermore, RA effectively and pleiotropically inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation, and subsequently reduced the activity of pro-survival genes that depend on these transcription factors. These results demonstrate that RA has an ameliorative effect on colonic inflammation and thus a potential therapeutic role in colitis. PMID:28383063

  4. Clostridium butyricum, a probiotic derivative, suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshio; Andoh, Akira; Takizawa, Jyou; Takizawa, Wataru; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2004-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that probiotics or short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) exert a therapeutic effect on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In a previous study, we demonstrated that Clostridium butyricum produces high levels of SCFAs in culture. In addition, a yogurt-based additive effectively masked, completely eliminating the unpleasant odor derived from the SCFAs. We recently reported that the oral administration of both high and low dose diets (50% w/w for 17 days and 5% w/w for 16 months, respectively) of the Clostridium butyricum derivative did not cause pathological abnormalities in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of this product against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in rats. Five-week-old male Wistar Hannover GALAS rats were given a mixture of a standard diet containing 3% (w/w) of DSS for 8 days. In the derivative-fed group, Clostridium butyricum derivative (20% w/w) with 0.1% (w/w) additive was also added to their diet. The control-fed group was given tap water (20% w/w) with 0.1% (w/w) additive. After 8 days, a laparotomy was performed, and macroscopic and microscopic inflammation scoring was determined. The Clostridium butyricum derivative effectively prevented bloody diarrhea. In addition, mucosal damage to the derivative-fed group was significantly reduced macroscopically compared to that of the control-fed group. The potential clinical efficacy of the Clostridium butyricum derivative in IBD patients is also discussed.

  5. Long-Term Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Murine Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Oh, Sun-Hee; Jang, Hui Won; Kwon, Ji-Hee; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Chung Hee; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho

    2016-05-23

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have shown beneficial effects in experimental colitis models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the long-term effects of BM-MSCs, particularly in mice with chronic colitis. Chronic colitis was induced by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in a series of three cycles. BMMSCs were injected intravenously into DSS-treated mice three times during the first cycle. On day 33, the therapeutic effects were evaluated with clinicopathologic profiles and histological scoring. Inflammatory mediators were measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Systemic infusion of BM-MSCs ameliorated the severity of colitis, and body weight restoration was significantly promoted in the BMMSC- treated mice. In addition, BM-MSC treatment showed a sustained beneficial effect throughout the three cycles. Microscopic examination revealed that the mice treated with BM-MSCs had fewer inflammatory infiltrates, a lesser extent of inflammation, and less crypt structure damage compared with mice with DSS-induced colitis. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels of interleukin-10 were significantly increased in the inflamed colons of BM-MSC-treated mice compared with DSS-induced colitis mice. Systemic infusion of BM-MSCs at the onset of disease exerted preventive and rapid recovery effects, with long-term immunosuppressive action in mice with repeated DSS-induced chronic colitis.

  6. CD137 Facilitates the Resolution of Acute DSS-Induced Colonic Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Gómez, Julia M.; Chen, Lieping; Schwarz, Herbert; Karrasch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background CD137 and its ligand (CD137L) are potent immunoregulatory molecules that influence activation, proliferation, differentiation and cell death of leukocytes. Expression of CD137 is upregulated in the lamina propria cells of Crohn’s disease patients. Here, the role of CD137 in acute Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice was examined. Methods We induced acute large bowel inflammation (colitis) via DSS administration in CD137−/− and wild-type (WT) mice. Colitis severity was evaluated by clinical parameters (weight loss), cytokine secretion in colon segment cultures, and scoring of histological inflammatory parameters. Additionally, populations of lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were characterized by flow cytometry. In a subset of mice, resolution of intestinal inflammation was evaluated 3 and 7 days after withdrawal of DSS. Results We found that both CD137−/− and WT mice demonstrated a similar degree of inflammation after 5 days of DSS exposure. However, the resolution of colonic inflammation was impaired in the absence of CD137. This was accompanied by a higher histological score of inflammation, and increased release of the pro-inflammatory mediators granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), CXCL1, IL-17 and IFN-γ. Further, there were significantly more neutrophils among the LPMNC of CD137−/− mice, and reduced numbers of macrophages among the IEL. Conclusion We conclude that CD137 plays an essential role in the resolution of acute DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. PMID:24023849

  7. An experimental model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium from acute progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6: correlation between conditions of mice and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Niloofar; Molaei, Mahsa; Mosaffa, Nariman; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Anissian, Ali; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To induce acute colitis progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6 mice by dextran sulfate sodium. Background: Murine models are essential tools to understand IBD pathogenesis. Among different types of chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most common model of IBD, due to its simplicity. Patients and methods: Male C57BL/6 mice 6–8 weeks old, were collected and matched by age with controls. C57BL/6 mice treated with 2 cycles of 3.5% DSS for 4 days and 4 days of pure water between each cycle. After that, mice were sacrificed and the entire colon was removed. Small sections of the colon were fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and sectioned with a microtome. Sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin to analyses the degree of inflammation. Results: After the first cycle oral administration of DSS, mice with severe and visible rectal bleeding and diarrhea entered into the acute phase. After day 4-5, bleeding and diarrhea were improved and mice entered into the chronic phase with peak levels of weight loss. Macroscopically, the inflammation was predominantly located in the distal colon. Microscopically, examination of the distal colon sections showed a decrease number of goblet cells, loss of crypts, signs of surface epithelial regeneration and moderate to severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: In order to achieve an experimental colitis model, our protocol is recommended for future therapies in IBD experimental modeling. PMID:26744614

  8. Nicotine suppresses acute colitis and colonic tumorigenesis associated with chronic colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shusaku; Hamada, Takayuki; Zaidi, Syed Faisal; Oshiro, Momoe; Lee, Jaemin; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2014-11-15

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that frequently progresses to colon cancer. The tumor-promoting effect of inflammation is now widely recognized and understood. Recent studies have revealed that treatment with nicotine ameliorates colitis in humans and experimental murine models, whereas the effect of nicotine on colitis-associated colonic tumorigenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of nicotine on the development of acute colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). The acute colitis model was induced by treatment with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days, whereas the CAC model was induced by a combination of azoxymethane and repeated DSS treatment. Nicotine and a selective agonist of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) reduced the severity of DSS-induced acute colonic inflammation. In addition, the suppressive effect of nicotine on acute colitis was attenuated by an antagonist of α7-nAChR. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited the IL-6 production of CD4 T cells in the DSS-induced inflamed colonic mucosa. We found that nicotine significantly reduced the number and size of colonic tumors in mice with CAC. Nicotine markedly inhibited the elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA as well as phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 expression in the colons of the tumor model mice. These results demonstrate that nicotine suppresses acute colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis, and this effect may be associated with the activation of α7-nAChR. Furthermore, it is presumed that nicotine downregulates the expression of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6/Stat3 and TNF-α, thereby reducing the colonic tumorigenesis associated with chronic colitis.

  9. 3-(3-Pyridylmethylidene)-2-indolinone Reduces the Severity of Colonic Injury in a Murine Model of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun-Ping; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Shou-Guo; Liu, En-Dong; Dong, Lan; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Cao, Peng; Hu, Chun-Ping; Zhao, Ke; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Dong, Xiao-Ming; Ge, Chang-Hui; Yu, Miao; Chen, Hui; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chang-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Nrf2 is the key transcription factor regulating the antioxidant response which is crucial for cytoprotection against extracellular stresses. Numerous in vivo studies indicate that Nrf2 plays a protective role in anti-inflammatory response. 3-(3-Pyridylmethylidene)-2-indolinone (PMID) is a synthesized derivative of 2-indolinone compounds. Our previous study suggested that PMID induces the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway, then protecting against oxidative stress-mediated cell death. However, little is known regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of PMID in severe inflammatory phenotypes. In the present study we determined if PMID treatment protects mice from dextran sodium sulphate- (DSS-) induced colitis. The result suggests that treatment with PMID prior to colitis induction significantly reduced body weight loss, shortened colon length, and decreased disease activity index compared to control mice. Histopathological analysis of the colon revealed attenuated inflammation in PMID pretreated animals. The levels of inflammatory markers in colon tissue and serum were reduced associated with inhibition of NF-κB activation. The expression levels of Nrf2-dependent genes such as HO-1, NQO1, and Nrf2 were increased in PMID pretreated mice. However, PMID pretreatment did not prevent DSS-induced colitis in Nrf2 knockout mice. These data indicate that PMID pretreatment in mice confers protection against DSS-induced colitis in Nrf2-dependent manner, suggesting a potential role of PMID in anti-inflammatory response. PMID:25874026

  10. A fusion protein composed of IL-2 and caspase-3 ameliorates the outcome of experimental inflammatory colitis.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Yuval; Kaminitz, Ayelet; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya; Askenasy, Nadir; Yarkoni, Shai

    2009-09-01

    Targeted depletion of immune cells expressing the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor can exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through elimination of regulatory T (Treg) cells, or ameliorate its course by depletion of cytotoxic cells. To answer this question we used a fusion protein composed of IL-2 and caspase-3 (IL2-cas) in an experimental model of DSS-induced toxic colitis. In a preventive setting, co-administration of DSS with a daily therapeutic dose of IL2-cas for seven days improved all disease parameters. Although CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells were depleted in the mesenteric lymph nodes, a fractional increase in CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T cells was observed in the spleen. Likewise, IL2-cas therapy improved the outcome of established disease in a chronic model of colitis. These data demonstrate that therapies that use IL-2 as a targeting moiety exert a protective effect over the colon under conditions of inflammation. The efficacy of IL-2-targeted therapy is attributed to reduced activity of reactive T cells, which ameliorates the secondary inflammatory infiltration. IL2-cas evolves as a potential therapeutic tool in IBD.

  11. Protective effects of Huangqin Decoction against ulcerative colitis and associated cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunping; Cheng, Xiaolan; Xu, Yuehua; Cai, Xueting; Wang, Min; Yang, Chung S.; Cao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at a high risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Huangqin Decoction (HQD), a traditional Chinese medicinal formula chronicled in the Shang Han Lun, is commonly used to treat gastrointestinal symptoms. However, experimental evidence for supporting the clinical practice is lacking. This study used modern biomedical approaches to investigate the protective/preventive effects of HQD in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute/chronic UC and azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS-induced CRC in mice. HQDs were prepared in 4 different ways: HQD-1 and HQD-2 were prepared in boiling water, whereas HQD-3 and HQD-4 were prepared in heated ethanol (70%). For HQD-1 and HQD-3, the 4 constituent herbs were processed together, whereas for HQD-2 and HQD4, these herbs were processed individually and then combined. The mice were administered 9.1 g/kg HQD via oral gavage daily. HQD-1 significantly inhibited DSS-induced acute UC, whereas HQD-3 and HQD-4 exhibited mild ameliorative effects; but HQD-2 had no protective effect and resulted in a higher mortality rate. This higher mortality rate may be due to the greater abundance of baicalein and wogonin in HQD-2 than HQD-1. Furthermore, HQD-1 protected against DSS-induced chronic UC and significantly inhibited AOM/DSS-induced CRC in mice. HQD-1 also inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and increased antioxidant capacity both in chronic DSS and AOM/DSS treated mice. Overall, HQD-1 inhibits the development of acute/chronic colitis and prevents colitis-associated CRC, possibly by inhibiting inflammation and preventing oxidative stress induced cellular damage. PMID:27557503

  12. Attenuation of experimental colitis in glutathione peroxidase 1 and catalase double knockout mice through enhancing regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ran; Lee, Anbok; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Lim, Woosung; Lee, Hyeon Kook; Moon, Byung-In; Seoh, Ju-Young

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the progression of inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Meanwhile, several studies suggested the protective role of ROS in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and it was recently reported that dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was attenuated in mice with an elevated level of ROS due to deficiency of peroxiredoxin II. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in the prevention of IBD and Treg function was reported to be closely associated with ROS level, but it has been investigated only in lowered levels of ROS so far. In the present study, in order to clarify the relationship between ROS level and Treg function, and their role in the pathogenesis of IBD, we investigated mice with an elevated level of ROS due to deficiency of both glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 and catalase (Cat) for the susceptibility of DSS-induced colitis in association with Treg function. The results showed that DSS-induced colitis was attenuated and Tregs were hyperfunctional in GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. In vivo administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) aggravated DSS-induced colitis and decreased Treg function to the level comparable to WT mice. Attenuated Th17 cell differentiation from naïve CD4+ cells as well as impaired production of IL-6 and IL-17A by splenocytes upon stimulation suggested anti-inflammatory tendency of GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. Suppression of Stat3 activation in association with enhancement of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and FoxP3 expression might be involved in the immunosuppressive mechanism of GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. Taken together, it is implied that ROS level is critical in the regulation of Treg function, and IBD may be attenuated in appropriately elevated levels of ROS.

  13. Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 ameliorates experimental colitis by modulating intestinal permeability, the inflammatory response and clinical signs in a faecal transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Souza, Éricka L; Elian, Samir D; Paula, Laís M; Garcia, Cristiana C; Vieira, Angélica T; Teixeira, Mauro M; Arantes, Rosa M; Nicoli, Jacques R; Martins, Flaviano S

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a group of inflammatory conditions of the gut that include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are live micro-organisms that may be used as adjuvant therapy for patients with IBD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic ingestion of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) in a murine model of colitis. For induction of colitis, mice were given a 3.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution for 7 days in drinking water. EcN administration to mice subjected to DSS-induced colitis resulted in significant reduction in clinical and histopathological signs of disease and preservation of intestinal permeability. We observed reduced inflammation, as assessed by reduced levels of neutrophils, eosinophils, chemokines and cytokines. We observed an increase in the number of regulatory T-cells in Peyer's patches. Germ-free mice received faecal content from control or EcN-treated mice and were then subjected to DSS-induced colitis. We observed protection from colitis in animals that were colonized with faecal content from EcN-treated mice. These results suggest that preventative oral administration of EcN or faecal microbiota transplantation with EcN-containing microbiota ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by modifying inflammatory responsiveness to DSS.

  14. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the seeds of Raphanus sativus L. in experimental ulcerative colitis models.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Cho, Seong-Wan; Kook, Sung-Ho; Chun, Sa-Ra; Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kim, Min-Kook; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-02-17

    Water extract of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) seeds was traditionally used to treat digestive inflammatory complaints in Korean culture. RSL seeds exerted antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-septic functions, suggesting their pharmacological potential for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as inflammatory bowel disease. We evaluated the intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of RSL seed water extract (RWE) in experimental rat models of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)- or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. RWE was characterized by determining the content of sinapic acid as a reference material and then assayed in the DSS and TNBS models of rat colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 10 groups (n=7/group): non-colitic control, DSS or TNBS control, DSS colitis groups treated with RWE (100mg/kg) or mesalazine (25mg/kg), and TNBS colitis groups treated with various doses (10, 40, 70, and 100mg/kg) of RWE or mesalazine (25mg/kg). RWE or mesalazine treatment started the same day of colitis induction and rats were sacrificed 24h after the last treatment followed by histological and biochemical analyses. Oral administration with RWE suppressed intestinal inflammatory damages in both DSS- and TNBS-induced colitic rats. The treatment with 100mg/kg RWE recovered intestinal damages caused by TNBS or DSS to levels similar to that of mesalazine, decreasing the activity of myeloperoxidase activity and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. RWE treatment inhibited malondialdehyde production and glutathione reduction in colon of colitis rats. The administration of RWE at dose of 100mg/kg also suppressed the TNBS- or DSS-stimulated expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inducible nitric oxide, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Furthermore, RWE inhibited p38 kinase and DNA-nuclear factor-κB binding activities, both of which were stimulated in the

  15. Neutralisation of the interleukin-33/ST2 pathway ameliorates experimental colitis through enhancement of mucosal healing in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sedhom, Mamdouh A K; Pichery, Mélanie; Murdoch, Jenna R; Foligné, Benoit; Ortega, Nathalie; Normand, Sylvain; Mertz, Kirsten; Sanmugalingam, Devika; Brault, Lea; Grandjean, Teddy; Lefrancais, Emma; Fallon, Padraic G; Quesniaux, Valérie; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Cathomas, Gieri; Junt, Tobias; Chamaillard, Mathias; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Ryffel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been intrinsically linked to a deregulated cytokine network, but novel therapeutic principles are urgently needed. Here we identify the interleukin (IL)-33 and its receptor ST2 as key negative regulators of wound healing and permeability in the colon of mice. Design Expression of IL-33 and ST2 was determined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and western-blot analysis. Wild-type and St2−/− mice were used in wound healing experiments and in two experimental models of IBD triggered by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid or dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). Neutralisation of ST2 was performed by using a specific blocking antibody. Results Nuclear localisation and enhanced expression of IL-33 in myofibroblasts and enterocytes was linked to disease involvement independently of inflammation, while the expression of ST2 was primarily restricted to the colonic epithelia. In two experimental models of IBD, genetic ablation of ST2 significantly improved signs of colitis, while a sustained epithelial expression of the cyto-protective factor connexin-43 was observed in DSS-treated St2-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, absence of ST2 in non-hematopoietic cells was sufficient to protect against colitis. Consistently, specific inhibition of endogenous ST2-mediated signalling by treatment with neutralising antibody improved DSS-induced colitis. In addition, IL-33 treatment impaired epithelial barrier permeability in vitro and in vivo, whereas absence of ST2 enhanced wound healing response upon acute mechanical injury in the colon. Conclusions Our study unveiled a novel non-hematopoietic function of IL-33 in epithelial barrier function and wound healing. Therefore, blocking the IL-33/ST2 axis may represent an efficient therapy in IBD. PMID:23172891

  16. Suppression of NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages is responsible for the amelioration of experimental murine colitis by the natural compound fraxinellone

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Ouyang, Zi-Jun; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Gong; Guo, Wen-Jie; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xu-Dong; Sun, Yang Xu, Qiang

    2014-11-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects millions of people worldwide. Although the etiology of this disease is uncertain, accumulating evidence indicates a key role for the activated mucosal immune system. In the present study, we examined the effects of the natural compound fraxinellone on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, an animal model that mimics IBD. Treatment with fraxinellone significantly reduced weight loss and diarrhea in mice and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. In addition, the activities of myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase were markedly suppressed, while the levels of glutathione were increased in colitis tissues following fraxinellone treatment. This compound also decreased the colonic levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of fraxinellone in mice with experimental colitis were attributed to its inhibition of CD11b{sup +} macrophage infiltration. The mRNA levels of macrophage-related molecules in the colon, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), were also markedly inhibited following fraxinellone treatment. The results from in vitro assays showed that fraxinellone significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-1β and IL-18 as well as the activity of iNOS in both THP-1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. The mechanisms responsible for these effects were attributed to the inhibitory role of fraxinellone in NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Overall, our results support fraxinellone as a novel drug candidate in the treatment of colonic inflammation. - Highlights: • Fraxinellone, a lactone compound, alleviated DSS induced colitis. • The effects of fraxinellone were attributed to its inhibition on

  17. Potential role for ET-2 acting through ETA receptors in experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Claudino, R F; Leite, D F; Bento, A F; Chichorro, J G; Calixto, J B; Rae, G A

    2017-02-01

    This study attempted to clarify the roles of endothelins and mechanisms associated with ETA/ETB receptors in mouse models of colitis. Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 1.5 mg/animal) or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 3%). After colitis establishment, mice received Atrasentan (ETA receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg), A-192621 (ETB receptor antagonist, 20 mg/kg) or Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) and several inflammatory parameters were assessed, as well as mRNA levels for ET-1, ET-2 and ET receptors. Atrasentan treatment ameliorates TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis. In the TNBS model was observed reduction in macroscopic and microscopic score, colon weight, neutrophil influx, IL-1β, MIP-2 and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) levels, inhibition of adhesion molecules expression and restoration of IL-10 levels. However, A192621 treatment did not modify any parameter. ET-1 and ET-2 mRNA was decreased 24 h, but ET-2 mRNA was markedly increased at 48 h after TNBS. ET-2 was able to potentiate LPS-induced KC production in vitro. ETA and ETB receptors mRNA were increased at 24, 48 and 72 h after colitis induction. Atrasentan treatment was effective in reducing the severity of colitis in DSS- and TNBS-treated mice, suggesting that ETA receptors might be a potential target for inflammatory bowel diseases.

  18. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis alters stress-associated behaviour and neuropeptide gene expression in the amygdala-hippocampus network of mice.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Florian; Hassan, Ahmed Mostafa; Farzi, Aitak; Jain, Piyush; Schuligoi, Rufina; Holzer, Peter

    2015-06-12

    Psychological stress causes disease exacerbation and relapses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Since studies on stress processing during visceral inflammation are lacking, we investigated the effects of experimental colitis as well as psychological stress on neurochemical and neuroendocrine changes as well as behaviour in mice. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS) were used as mouse models of colitis and mild psychological stress, respectively. We measured WAS-associated behaviour, gene expression and proinflammatory cytokine levels within the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus as well as plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in male C57BL/6N mice. Animals with DSS-induced colitis presented with prolonged immobility during the WAS session, which was associated with brain region-dependent alterations of neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor Y1, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. Furthermore, the combination of DSS and WAS increased interleukin-6 and growth regulated oncogene-α levels in the brain. Altered gut-brain signalling in the course of DSS-induced colitis is thought to cause the observed distinct gene expression changes in the limbic system and the aberrant molecular and behavioural stress responses. These findings provide new insights into the effects of stress during IBD.

  19. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis

    PubMed Central

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  20. Interleukin-1β Mediates the Extra-Intestinal Thrombosis Associated with Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hideo; Russell, Janice; Senchenkova, Elena Y.; Almeida Paula, Lidiana D.; Granger, D. Neil

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are associated with an increased risk for thromboembolism, which is often manifested as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, at extra-intestinal sites. Although some of the cytokines that contribute to IBD pathogenesis are also known to alter the coagulation pathway, it remains unclear whether these mediators also contribute to the extra-intestinal thrombosis often associated with IBD. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-1β in enhanced extra-intestinal thrombosis observed in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. IL-1β concentrations were measured in plasma, colon, and skeletal muscle of wild-type (WT) control and colitic mice. Microvascular thrombosis was induced in cremaster muscle microvessels by using a light/dye injury model. The effects of exogenous IL-1β on thrombus formation were determined in control WT mice. DSS-induced thrombogenesis was evaluated in WT mice treated with an IL-1β antibody and in IL-1 receptor-deficient (IL-1r−/−) mice. DSS-induced colonic inflammation in WT mice was associated with enhanced thrombus formation in arterioles. IL-1β concentrations were elevated in inflamed colon and skeletal muscle. Exogenous IL-1β enhanced thrombosis in control mice in a dose-dependent manner. DSS colitic mice treated with the IL-1β antibody as well as IL-1r−/− mice exhibited significantly blunted thrombogenic responses. These findings implicate IL-1β as a mediator of enhanced microvascular thromboses that occur in extra-intestinal tissues during colonic inflammation. PMID:20971730

  1. Probiotic bacteria lactobacillus and bifidobacterium attenuate inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Toumi, R; Soufli, I; Rafa, H; Belkhelfa, M; Biad, A; Touil-Boukoffa, C

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) arises from a dysregulated mucosal immune response to the enteric microbiota in the gut of a genetically susceptible individual. No definitive therapies are available for this inflammatory disorder. Therefore it became imperative to develop new strategies for treating this disease. Probiotics have emerged as a potential new therapeutic strategy for IBD, however their exact mechanisms of action is still poorly defined. In this study, we address the potential effect of a probiotic cocktail (Ultrabiotique®) composed of four live bacterial strains (L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, B. lactis and B.breve) to promote recovery from acute colitis. Probiotic was given to mice by oral gavage after the onset of colitis and the establishment of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal injury. Clinical parameters were monitored daily, histological scores of colitis and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined. In addition, TLR4, NF-κB and iNOS colonic expression were examined. Probiotic treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and histological scores. NO and IFN-γ production in plasma were decreased by probiotic. These results were associated with reduced TLR4, iNOS and NF-кB expression in colonic tissue. In conclusion, probiotic exerted anti-inflammatory effects and contributed to a rapid recovery of DSS-induced acute colitis.

  2. Haematopoietic prolyl hydroxylase-1 deficiency promotes M2 macrophage polarization and is both necessary and sufficient to protect against experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Van Welden, Sophie; De Vos, Martine; Wielockx, Ben; Tavernier, Simon J; Dullaers, Melissa; Neyt, Sara; Descamps, Benedicte; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van den Bossche, Lien; Holvoet, Tom; Baeyens, Ann; Correale, Carmen; D'Alessio, Silvia; Vanhove, Christian; De Vos, Filip; Verhasselt, Bruno; Breier, Georg; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Carmeliet, Peter; Danese, Silvio; Elewaut, Dirk; Laukens, Debby; Hindryckx, Pieter

    2017-03-01

    Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs) regulate the adaptation of cells to hypoxia. Pan-hydroxylase inhibition is protective in experimental colitis, in which PHD1 plays a prominent role. However, it is currently unknown how PHD1 targeting regulates this protection and which cell type(s) are involved. Here, we demonstrated that Phd1 deletion in endothelial and haematopoietic cells (Phd1(f/)(f) Tie2:cre) protected mice from dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, with reduced epithelial erosions, immune cell infiltration, and colonic microvascular dysfunction, whereas the response of Phd2(f/+) Tie2:cre and Phd3(f/)(f) Tie2:cre mice to DSS was similar to that of their littermate controls. Using bone marrow chimeras and cell-specific cre mice, we demonstrated that ablation of Phd1 in haematopoietic cells but not in endothelial cells was both necessary and sufficient to inhibit experimental colitis. This effect relied, at least in part, on skewing of Phd1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. These cells showed an attenuated nuclear factor-κB-dependent response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which in turn diminished endothelial chemokine expression. In addition, Phd1 deficiency in dendritic cells significantly reduced interleukin-1β production in response to LPS. Taken together, our results further support the development of selective PHD1 inhibitors for ulcerative colitis, and identify haematopoietic cells as their primary target. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Repeated predictable stress causes resilience against colitis-induced behavioral changes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ahmed M.; Jain, Piyush; Reichmann, Florian; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Farzi, Aitak; Schuligoi, Rufina; Holzer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS) and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2% in drinking water) decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and SI tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY), a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:25414650

  4. Protective effect of isoquercitrin against acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced rat colitis depends on the severity of tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Cibiček, Norbert; Roubalová, Lenka; Vrba, Jiří; Zatloukalová, Martina; Ehrmann, Jiří; Zapletalová, Jana; Večeřa, Rostislav; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2016-12-01

    Isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) is a flavonoid that exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies. Experimental evidence from rodent models of inflammatory bowel disease is, however, lacking. This study was designed to examine whether isoquercitrin effectively and dose-dependently attenuates acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis. Wistar rats were divided into negative control group (exposed to vehicle only), positive control group (DSS-induced colitis plus vehicle), low isoquercitrin group (DSS pretreated with isoquercitrin 1mg/kg/day) and high isoquercitrin group (DSS with isoquercitrin 10mg/kg/day). Isoquercitrin was administered daily for 14days, and during the last 7days rats drank DSS solution. The effect of isoquercitrin on DSS-induced colitis was assessed clinically (e.g. disease activity index), biochemically (tissue myeloperoxidase activity, local cyclooxygenase-2 expression), using histology (standard hematoxylin-eosin-based histomorphometry, immunohistochemical detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase) and hematology (blood count). Isoquercitrin dose-dependently ameliorated whole colon shortening and mitigated DSS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the descending segment of the organ. However, when different parts of colon were assessed histomorphometrically, the results did not globally support the protective role of this flavonoid. Tissue healing trends observable in the descending colon were not apparent in the rectum, where histological damage was most severe. We surmise that isoquercitrin may be effective in the prevention of acute colitis. Besides being dose-dependent, the potency of orally administered isoquercitrin may depend on the severity of tissue damage and/or on the site of its action. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o

  5. Experimental colitis is exacerbated by concomitant infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Roy, Bishnudeo; Pils, Marina C; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Basler, Tina; Rohde, Manfred; Falk, Christine S; Hornef, Mathias W; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2014-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the human gastrointestinal tract. Although genetic, immunological, environmental, and bacterial factors have been implicated, the pathogenesis is incompletely understood. The histopathological appearance of CD strikingly resembles Johne's disease, a ruminant inflammatory bowel disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), but a causative role of MAP in CD has not been established. In this work, we hypothesized that MAP might exacerbate an already existing intestinal disease. We combined dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis with MAP infection in mice and monitored the immune response and bacterial count in different organs. An increased size of liver and spleen was observed in DSS-treated and MAP-infected animals (DSS + MAP) as compared with DSS-treated uninfected (DSS + PBS) mice. Similarly, DSS treatment increased the number and size of MAP-induced liver granulomas and enhanced the MAP counts in enteric tissue. MAP infection in turn delayed the mucosal healing of DSS-induced tissue damage. Finally, high numbers of MAP were found in mesenteric fat tissue causing large granuloma and necrotic regions. Taken together, we present an in vivo model to study the role of MAP infection in CD. Our results confirm the hypothesis that MAP is able to exacerbate existing intestinal inflammation.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Action of Angiotensin 1-7 in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Khajah, Maitham A.; Fateel, Maryam M.; Ananthalakshmi, Kethireddy V.; Luqmani, Yunus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence to support a role for angiotensin (Ang) 1–7 in reducing the activity of inflammatory signaling molecules such as MAPK, PKC and SRC. Enhanced angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression has been observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) suggesting a role in its pathogenesis, prompting this study. Methods The colonic expression/activity profile of ACE2, Ang 1–7, MAS1-receptor (MAS1-R), MAPK family and Akt were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence. The effect of either exogenous administration of Ang 1–7 or pharmacological inhibition of its function (by A779 treatment) was determined using the mouse dextran sulfate sodium model. Results Enhanced colonic expression of ACE2, Ang1-7 and MAS1-R was observed post-colitis induction. Daily Ang 1–7 treatment (0.01–0.06 mg/kg) resulted in significant amelioration of DSS-induced colitis. In contrast, daily administration of A779 significantly worsened features of colitis. Colitis-associated phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and Akt was reduced by Ang 1–7 treatment. Conclusion Our results indicate important anti-inflammatory actions of Ang 1–7 in the pathogenesis of IBD, which may provide a future therapeutic strategy to control the disease progression. PMID:26963721

  7. Abnormalities in endocrine and immune cells are correlated in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the gut hormones and the immune system has been suggested to serve an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. The aims of the present study were to elucidate the possible abnormalities in the colonic endocrine cells in rats with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, and to determine whether they are correlated with alterations in the immune cells. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Control and DSS-induced colitis. Colonic tissues were harvested via postmortem laparotomy from all of the animals at the end of the experimental period, and fixed and sectioned for histology. The colonic endocrine and immune cells in those tissue samples were immunostained and their densities quantified by computerized image analysis. The densities of chromogranin A, serotonin, peptide YY and oxyntomodulin cells were significantly higher, and those of pancreatic peptide and somatostatin cells were lower in rats with DSS-induced colitis than in the controls. The densities of mucosal leukocytes, T and B lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes, and mast cells were significantly higher than in the controls, and these changes were closely associated with the aforementioned changes in all endocrine cell types. These observations indicate an interaction between intestinal hormones and the immune system as represented by immune cells. PMID:27959399

  8. Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... those caused by a virus, parasite, and food poisoning due to bacteria Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease Lack of blood flow (ischemic colitis) Past radiation to the large bowel Necrotizing enterocolitis in newborns ...

  9. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-04-05

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103(-)CD11c⁺ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103⁺CD11c⁺ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  10. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  11. Analysis of real-time serotonin (5-HT) availability during experimental colitis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Paul P; Barajas-Espinosa, Alma; Neshat, Shadia; Bertrand, Rebecca L; Lomax, Alan E

    2010-03-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)-containing enterochromaffin (EC) cells of the intestine transduce chemical and mechanical stimuli from the intestinal lumen by releasing 5-HT on to afferent nerve terminals. Dysfunctional mucosal 5-HT signaling has been implicated in heightened visceral sensitivity and altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in animal models. Our aim was to characterize the release and uptake of 5-HT in the mouse dextran sulfate sodium (DSS; 5% wt/vol) model of colitis. We made electrochemical recordings and used an ELISA assay to determine mucosal 5-HT release and uptake in untreated mice and mice with DSS-induced colitis. Peak and steady-state 5-HT concentrations were measured before and during blockade of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) with 1 microM fluoxetine. Electrochemical recordings showed that colons from DSS-treated mice had roughly twice the steady-state levels of extracellular 5-HT and compression-evoked 5-HT release compared with untreated mice. Fluoxetine doubled the compression-evoked and steady-state 5-HT levels in control and DSS mice. These data were supported by ELISA assays, which showed enhanced 5-HT release during colitis, by immunohistochemical analyses, which showed increases in EC cell numbers, and by real-time PCR, which identified a decrease in SERT mRNA expression in the mucosa during colitis. These data are the first to demonstrate 5-HT release close to its release site and near its site of action during DSS-colitis. We conclude that DSS-colitis increases 5-HT availability primarily by an increase in the numbers of EC cells and/or of content of 5-HT in these EC cells.

  12. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates experimental colitis in mice: Relevance of NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables. Although studies indicate that fisetin has an anti-inflammatory property, little is known about its effects on intestinal inflammation. The present study investigated the effects of the fisetin on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis, an animal model that resembles human inflammatory bowel disease. Fisetin treatment to DSS-exposed mice significantly reduced the severity of colitis and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. Moreover, fisetin reduced the levels of myeloperoxidase activity, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the expressions of COX-2 and iNOS in the colon tissues. Further studies revealed that fisetin suppressed the activation of NF-κB (p65) by inhibiting IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding activity and attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and the p38, but not ERK and JNK MAPKs in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. In addition, DSS-induced decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly restored by oral fisetin. Furthermore, the results from in vitro studies showed that fisetin significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator release and suppressed the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα with subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that fisetin exerts anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of Akt, p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. Thus, fisetin may be a promising candidate as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute experimental distal colitis alters colonic transit in rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, B S; Dempsey, D T; Yasar, S; Martin, J S; Parkman, H P; Ryan, J P

    1997-04-01

    Data from humans with active distal colitis suggest that the proximal colon exhibits increased contractile activity and delayed transit, whereas the distal colon shows decreased contractile activity and rapid transit. The present study used the acetic acid rat model of experimental colitis to determine the effect of distal colitis on total and regional colonic transit in vivo and on the in vitro contractility of circular smooth muscle from the proximal and distal colon. Distal colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 4% acetic acid; sham control rats received saline enemas. Control and colitic rats were studied 2 days postenemas. Total colon transit was determined by calculating the geometric center of distribution of a radiolabeled marker (51Cr) instilled into the proximal colon. Regional transit was assessed by expressing the radioactivity in the cecum, proximal and distal colon, and excreted stool as a percent of total radioactivity. Muscle strips from the proximal and distal colon were stimulated with 100 microM acetylcholine (ACh) and 60 mM KCl and the tension was expressed as kilograms per square centimeter. Distal colitis was characterized by decreased total colon transit, increased retention of marker in the cecum and proximal colon, and decreased retention of marker in the distal colon. In vitro contractility studies revealed that distal colitis increased proximal colon circular smooth muscle contractility and decreased distal colon circular smooth muscle contractility to both ACh and potassium. Distal colitis is associated with regional differences in colonic circular smooth muscle contractility, which may contribute to delayed transit in the proximal colon and rapid transit in the distal colon.

  14. Immune-protective effect of echinococcosis on colitis experimental model is dependent of down regulation of TNF-α and NO production.

    PubMed

    Khelifi, Lila; Soufli, Imene; Labsi, Moussa; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2017-02-01

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a chronic, endemic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. This disease is endemic in many parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean area, and in particular in Algeria. Helminth parasites have developed complex strategies to modulate the immune responses of their hosts through versatile immune-regulatory mechanisms. These mechanisms may regulate immune responses associated with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Echinococcus granulosus infection on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Our results demonstrated that E. granulosus infection significantly improved the clinical symptoms and histological scores observed during DSS-induced colitis, and also maintained mucus production by goblet cells. Interestingly, this infection reduced Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production and attenuated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression in colonic tissues. Collectively, our data support the hygiene hypothesis and indicate that prior infection with E. granulosus can effectively protect mice from DSS-induced colitis by enhancing immune-regulatory mechanisms.

  15. IL-9 antibody injection suppresses the inflammation in colitis mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Aping; Yang, Hang; Qi, Haili; Cui, Jing; Hua, Wei; Li, Can; Pang, Zhigang; Zheng, Wei; Cui, Guanglin

    2015-12-25

    Diverse T help (Th) cells play a crucial role in the processing and maintaining of chronic inflammation as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Th9, a novel subset of Th cells that primarily produces interleukin (IL)-9, has recently been associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells in inflamed tissues of human and experimental mouse UC, and examined the therapeutic efficiency of anti Th9 cytokine IL-9 in the experimental mouse UC. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells labelled by transcriptional factor PU.1 in both human and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis biopsies. The results showed that increased PU.1 positive Th9 cells were mainly located in the lamina propria in relative with the controls, intraepithelial Th9 cells can also be observed but at low density. Double IHCs revealed that most of PU.1 positive cells were CD3 positive lymphocytes in human UC specimens. Anti-IL-9 antibody injection for 2 weeks reduced the severity of inflammation in DSS induced colitis mice. Our results suggest that The Th9/IL-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of UC. - Highlights: • The density of novel PU.1 positive Th9 cells is significantly increased in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • PU.1 positive Th9 cells are predominately located in the inflamed lamina propria in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • Blocking of Th9 cytokine IL-9 by antibody injection suppresses the severity of inflammation in the bowel in colitis mice. • Novel Th9 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of UC.

  16. Expression of Ecto-nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolases-2 and -3 in the Enteric Nervous System Affects Inflammation in Experimental Colitis and Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Feldbrügge, Linda; Moss, Alan C; Yee, Eric U; Csizmadia, Eva; Mitsuhashi, Shuji; Longhi, Maria Serena; Sandhu, Bynvant; Stephan, Holger; Wu, Yan; Cheifetz, Adam S; Müller, Christa E; Sévigny, Jean; Robson, Simon C; Jiang, Z Gordon

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the enteric nervous system can modulate gut immunity. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases [E-NTPDases] regulate purinergic signalling by sequential phosphohydrolysis of pro-inflammatory extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate [ATP]. Herein, we test the hypothesis that E-NTPDases modulate gut inflammation via neuro-immune crosstalk. We determined expression patterns of NTPDase2 and NTPDase3 in murine and human colon. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulphate [DSS] in genetically engineered mice deficient in NTPDase2 or NTPDase3. We compared plasma adenosine diphosphatase [ADPase] activity from Crohn's patients and healthy controls, and linked the enzyme activity to Crohn's disease activity. NTPDase2 and -3 were chiefly expressed in cells of the enteric nervous system in both murine and human colon. When compared with wild type, DSS-induced colitis was exacerbated in Entpd2, and to a lesser extent, Entpd3 null mice as measured by disease activity score and histology, and marked anaemia was seen in both. Colonic macrophages isolated from Entpd2 null mice displayed a pro-inflammatory phenotype compared with wild type. In human plasma, Crohn's patients had decreases in ADPase activity when compared with healthy controls. The drop in ADPase activity was likely associated with changes in NTPDase2 and -3, as suggested by inhibitor studies, and were correlated with Crohn's disease activity. NTPDase2 and -3 are ecto-enzymes expressed in the enteric nervous system. Both enzymes confer protection against gut inflammation in experimental colitis and exhibit alterations in Crohn's disease. These observations suggest that purinergic signalling modulated by E-NTPDases governs neuro-immune interactions that are relevant in Crohn's disease.

  17. Tissue factor-dependent chemokine production aggravates experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Karla C S; Van 't Veer, Cornelis; Van Den Berg, Yascha; Duitman, Janwillem; Versteeg, Henri H; Aberson, Hella L; Groot, Angelique P; Verstege, Marleen I; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Te Velde, Anje A; Spek, C Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is traditionally known as the initiator of blood coagulation, but TF also plays an important role in inflammatory processes. Considering the pivotal role of coagulation in inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed whether genetic ablation of TF limits experimental colitis. To this end, wild-type and TF-deficient (TFlow) mice were treated with 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 d, and effects on disease severity, cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment were examined. Clinical and histological parameters showed that the severity of colitis was reduced in both heterozygous and homozygous TFlow mice compared with controls. Most notably, edema, granulocyte numbers at the site of inflammation and cytokine levels were reduced in TFlow mice. Although anticoagulant treatment with dalteparin of wild-type mice reduced local fibrin production and cytokine levels to a similar extent as in TFlow mice, it did not affect clinical and histological parameters of experimental colitis. Mechanistic studies revealed that TF expression did not influence the intrinsic capacity of granulocytes to migrate. Instead, TF enhanced granulocyte migration into the colon by inducing high levels of the granulocyte chemoattractant keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC). Taken together, our data indicate that TF plays a detrimental role in experimental colitis by signal transduction-dependent KC production in colon epithelial cells, thereby provoking granulocyte influx with subsequent inflammation and organ damage.

  18. Dietary Supplementation with a Low Dose of Polyphenol-Rich Grape Pomace Extract Prevents Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Boussenna, Ahlem; Joubert-Zakeyh, Juliette; Fraisse, Didier; Pereira, Bruno; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Texier, Odile; Felgines, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from several epidemiological and experimental studies points to a beneficial role of dietary polyphenols in inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of dietary supplementation with various amounts of a polyphenol-rich grape pomace extract (GPE) on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Rats were fed 21 days on a semisynthetic diet enriched with GPE (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%), and acute colitis was induced by DSS (40 g/L in the drinking water) administration during the last 7 days. The low GPE content in the diet (0.1%) attenuated clinical signs and colon shortening and limited DSS-induced histological lesions. GPE 0.1% also attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity and improved superoxide dismutase activity. Higher amounts of GPE in the diet induced only weak and nonsignificant protective effects. These results suggest that consumption of a low amount of polyphenol-rich GPE helps protect against colitis development.

  19. Boswellia serrata resin extract alleviates azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ya-Chun; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Wang, Yu; Pahwa, Manoj; Badmaev, Vladimir; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2017-09-01

    Boswellia serrata (BS) resin is a popular dietary supplement for joint nourishment. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of dietary BS extract and its impact of gut microbiota on azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. Male ICR mice were injected with AOM and 2% DSS via drinking water. The mice were fed with 0.25 or 0.5% BS extract, and colonic tissue were collected at 15 weeks. The main effective components of BS supercritical CO2 extraction were analyzed by LC-MS/MS are boswellic acids. We found that treatment with BS extract significantly reduce the colonic tumor formation. Western blot and histological analysis revealed that dietary BS extract could markedly reduce the inflammation associated protein levels expression. Furthermore, BS extract reduced cell proliferation via inhibiting phosphorylation level of protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and downregulation of cyclin D1. In addition, BS extract also altered the composition of gut microbiota by enhancing the proportion of Clostridiales and reducing the percentage of Bacteroidales. In summary, BS extract decreased the protein levels of inflammative enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in colonic mucosa. It also mediated Akt/GSK3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway and altered the composition of gut microbiota to alleviate tumor growth. Taken together, this study suggests that BS extract has great potential to suppress colon tumorigenesis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Modulation in Natriuretic Peptides System in Experimental Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Ho; Ha, Gi Won; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2016-04-01

    Renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathophysiology of colonic inflammation. However, there are a few reports about modulation of natriuretic peptide system. This study investigates whether a local atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system exists in rat colon and whether ANP plays a role in the regulation of colonic motility in experimental colitis rat model. Experimental colitis was induced by an intake of 5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) dissolved in tap water for 7 days. After rats were killed, plasma hormone concentrations and mRNAs for natriuretic peptide system were measured. Functional analysis of colonic motility in response to ANP was performed using taenia coli. DSS-treated colon showed an increased necrosis with massive infiltration of inflammatory cells. The colonic natriuretic peptide receptor-A mRNA level and particulate guanylyl cyclase activity in response to ANP from colonic tissue membranes were higher, and the mRNA levels of ANP and natriuretic peptide receptor-B were lower in DSS-treated rats than in control rats. ANP decreased the frequency of basal motility in a dose-dependent manner but did not change the amplitude. The inhibitory responses of frequency of basal motility to ANP and 8-bromo-cGMP were enhanced in DSS-treated rat colon. In conclusion, augmentation of inhibitory effect on basal motility by ANP in experimental colitis may be due an increased expression of colonic natriuretic peptide receptor-A mRNA. These data suggest that local natriuretic peptide system is partly involved in the pathophysiology of experimental colitis.

  1. Angiogenesis blockade as a new therapeutic approach to experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Silvio; Sans, Miquel; Spencer, David M; Beck, Ivy; Doñate, Fernando; Plunkett, Marian L; de la Motte, Carol; Redline, Raymond; Shaw, David E; Levine, Alan D; Mazar, Andrew P; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Background Neoangiogenesis is a critical component of chronic inflammatory disorders. Inhibition of angiogenesis is an effective treatment in animal models of inflammation, but has not been tested in experimental colitis. Aim To investigate the effect of ATN‐161, an anti‐angiogenic compound, on the course of experimental murine colitis. Method Interleukin 10‐deficient (IL10−/−) mice and wild‐type mice were kept in ultra‐barrier facilities (UBF) or conventional housing, and used for experimental conditions. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)‐treated mice were used as a model of acute colitis. Mice were treated with ATN‐161 or its scrambled peptide ATN‐163. Mucosal neoangiogenesis and mean vascular density (MVD) were assessed by CD31 staining. A Disease Activity Index (DAI) was determined, and the severity of colitis was determined by a histological score. Colonic cytokine production was measured by ELISA, and lamina propria mononuclear cell proliferation by thymidine incorporation. Result MVD increased in parallel with disease progression in IL10−/− mice kept in conventional housing, but not in IL10−/− mice kept in UBF. Angiogenesis also occurred in DSS‐treated animals. IL10−/− mice with established disease treated with ATN‐161, but not with ATN‐163, showed a significant and progressive decrease in DAI. The histological colitis score was significantly lower in ATN‐161‐treated mice than in scrambled peptide‐treated mice. Inhibition of angiogenesis was confirmed by a significant decrease of MVD in ATN‐161‐treated mice than in ATN‐163‐treated mice. No therapeutic effects were observed in the DSS model of colitis. ATN‐161 showed no direct immunomodulatory activity in vitro. Conclusion Active angiogenesis occurs in the gut of IL10−/− and DSS‐treated colitic mice and parallels disease progression. ATN‐161 effectively decreases angiogenesis as well as clinical severity and histological inflammation in IL10

  2. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-11-13

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF-κB, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-β secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy.

  3. Westernized high-fat diet accelerates weight loss in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice, which is further aggravated by supplementation of heme.

    PubMed

    van der Logt, Elise M J; Blokzijl, Tjasso; van der Meer, Roelof; Faber, Klaas Nico; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    The Western diet, rich in fat and red meat, predisposes for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, little is known about mechanisms involved. Red meat contains high levels of heme, a well-known inducer of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Pharmacological induction of HO-1 ameliorates experimental colitis. We analyzed the effect of a westernized high-fat (HF) diet supplemented with heme on intestinal HO-1 expression and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice were fed chow or HF diets for 2 weeks. In the second week, the HF diet was supplemented with or without 0.5 μmol/g heme. Subsequently, the 3 diet groups were given drinking water with or without 4% DSS to induce colitis. Significant body weight reduction was first observed after 4 days in the chow/DSS mice (-5±3%), whereas this was evident already after 2 days (-6±2%) in HF/DSS mice, showing increased weight loss compared to chow/DSS mice in the following days. Heme supplementation further aggravated DSS-induced weight loss in HF mice (-18±4% vs. -7±5% for HF+heme/DSS vs. HF/DSS, P<.01). Heme increased HO-1 expression in the colon epithelium but decreased villin messenger RNA levels, indicating epithelial damage. In contrast, heme did not affect DSS-induced colon shortening and histological scores of epithelial damage and inflammation. A westernized diet accelerates DSS-induced weight loss in mice, which is further aggravated by heme, despite the induction of HO-1 in the colon epithelium. Our data warrant a detailed analysis of the association of (red) meat-containing diets and the development of IBD.

  4. EP4 Receptor–Associated Protein in Macrophages Ameliorates Colitis and Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Masato; Yasui, Mika; Komekado, Hideyuki; Higuchi, Sei; Fujikawa, Risako; Nakanishi, Yuki; Fukuda, Akihisa; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Kita, Toru; Libby, Peter; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Yokode, Masayuki; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 plays important roles in the maintenance of colonic homeostasis. The recently identified prostaglandin E receptor (EP) 4–associated protein (EPRAP) is essential for an anti-inflammatory function of EP4 signaling in macrophages in vitro. To investigate the in vivo roles of EPRAP, we examined the effects of EPRAP on colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis. In mice, EPRAP deficiency exacerbated colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment. Wild-type (WT) or EPRAP-deficient recipients transplanted with EPRAP-deficient bone marrow developed more severe DSS-induced colitis than WT or EPRAP-deficient recipients of WT bone marrow. In the context of colitis-associated tumorigenesis, both systemic EPRAP null mutation and EPRAP-deficiency in the bone marrow enhanced intestinal polyp formation induced by azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS treatment. Administration of an EP4-selective agonist, ONO-AE1-329, ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in WT, but not in EPRAP-deficient mice. EPRAP deficiency increased the levels of the phosphorylated forms of p105, MEK, and ERK, resulting in activation of stromal macrophages in DSS-induced colitis. Macrophages of DSS-treated EPRAP-deficient mice exhibited a marked increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, relative to WT mice. By contrast, forced expression of EPRAP in macrophages ameliorated DSS-induced colitis and AOM/DSS-induced intestinal polyp formation. These data suggest that EPRAP in macrophages functions crucially in suppressing colonic inflammation. Consistently, EPRAP-positive macrophages were also accumulated in the colonic stroma of ulcerative colitis patients. Thus, EPRAP may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel disease and associated intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:26439841

  5. Detection of DSS-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in mice by non-invasive optical near-infrared (NIR) imaging of cathepsin activity.

    PubMed

    Finnberg, Niklas K; Liu, Yvette; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 1.4 million people of the US population suffer from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) of which the most common conditions are ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). Colonoscopy and small bowel follow through are considered the current gold standard in diagnosing IBD. However, improved imaging and increased diagnostic sensitivity could be beneficial. Optical molecular imaging has the potential to become a powerful and practical tool for early detection, image-guided biopsy, and surgery in diagnosing and treating patients with IBD. Here we used a well characterized chemical model to initiate experimental IBD in mice by feeding with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) containing drinking water in an attempt to investigate the utility of non-invasive infrared (NIR) optical imaging in the detection gastrointestinal (GI) injury. We employed a "smart probe" (ProSense680) cleaved and fluorescently activated in the NIR-spectrum by various forms of secreted cathepsins. This probe has previously been shown to serve as a biomarker for the homing of inflammatory cells to injury. Our investigation suggests that NIR optical imaging can detect cathepsin-dependent probe cleavage non-invasively in animals with DSS-induced IBD. Increased tissue probe-retention and fluorescence was associated with increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, epithelial atrophy and sterilization of the mucosa. Furthermore, using NIR-imaging ex vivo we were able to document regional "hot spots" of inflammatory damage to the large intestine suggesting this method potentially could be coupled with colonoscopy investigation to aid in the sampling and the diagnostics of IBD.

  6. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. METHODS The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. RESULTS Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P < 0.05) recovered the expression of adiponectin. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were increased in the serum of mice with DSS colitis but decreased after melatonin injection. CONCLUSION This study suggested that melatonin modulated adiponectin expression in colonic tissue and melatonin and adiponectin synergistically potentiated anti-inflammatory effects on colitis with sleep deprivation. PMID:27672276

  7. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P < 0.05) recovered the expression of adiponectin. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were increased in the serum of mice with DSS colitis but decreased after melatonin injection. This study suggested that melatonin modulated adiponectin expression in colonic tissue and melatonin and adiponectin synergistically potentiated anti-inflammatory effects on colitis with sleep deprivation.

  8. Impact of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 synthesis capacity on healing in rats with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ağış, Erol R; Savaş, Berna; Melli, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. This study evaluates the role of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 (LXA4) synthesis in an experimental rat model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy controls, DSS-induced colitis with no or vehicle therapy, misoprostol or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy groups. Disease severity and colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis was assessed specifically during the acute phase (day 5), chronic phase (day 15) and healing phases (day 19). Both misoprostol and 5-ASA reduced histopathologic score during the acute phase and reduced disease activity score at the healing phase. In addition, misoprostol reduced histopathologic score and colon weight/length ratio during the healing phase. Only misoprostol therapy increased colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis. Furthermore, LXA4 levels correlated negatively with disease progression (R=-0.953). Collectively, our findings suggest that misoprostol-induced LXA4 synthesis may be favorable for the healing of ulcerative colitis.

  9. A Picrorhiza kurroa Derivative, Picroliv, Attenuates the Development of Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, De-Kui; Yu, Jian-Jie; Li, Yu-Min; Wei, Li-Na; Yu, Yi; Feng, Yan-Hu; Wang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Background. Free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Picroliv, a Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of picroliv on experimental model of UC in mice. Materials and Methods. Picroliv was administrated orally by gavage to mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histology score were observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and SOD, MDA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the expression of cytokine mRNAs was studied by real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and also ELISA. The expression of NF-κB p65 was observed by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Results. A significant improvement was observed in DAI and histological score in mice treated with picroliv, and incerased MPO activity, MDA concentrations, and the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in mice with DSS-induced colitis were significantly reduced while decreased SOD level increased following administration of picroliv. Conclusion. The administration of picroliv leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting administration of picroliv may provide a therapeutic approach for UC. PMID:23125487

  10. Preventive and Therapeutic Euphol Treatment Attenuates Experimental Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Allisson F.; Marcon, Rodrigo; Schmidt, Éder C.; Bouzon, Zenilda L.; Pianowski, Luiz F.; Calixto, João B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli. This plant is widely known in Brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action. Methodology/Principal Findings Colitis was induced in mice either with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of euphol (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) on colonic injury was assessed. Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-Linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Preventive and therapeutic oral administration of euphol attenuated both DSS- and TNBS-induced acute colitis as observed by a significant reduction of the disease activity index (DAI), histological/microscopic damage score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colonic tissue. Likewise, euphol treatment also inhibited colon tissue levels and expression of IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, MCP-1, MIP-2, TNF-α and IL-6, while reducing NOS2, VEGF and Ki67 expression in colonic tissue. This action seems to be likely associated with inhibition of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, euphol decreased LPS-induced MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ, but increased IL-10 secretion from bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. Of note, euphol, at the same schedule of treatment, markedly inhibited both selectin (P- and E-selectin) and integrin (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and LFA-1) expression in colonic tissue. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results clearly demonstrated that orally-administered euphol, both preventive or therapeutic treatment were effective in reducing the severity of colitis in two models of chemically-induced mouse colitis and suggest this plant

  11. Loss of Dok-1 and Dok-2 in mice causes severe experimental colitis accompanied by reduced expression of IL-17A and IL-22

    SciTech Connect

    Waseda, Masazumi; Arimura, Sumimasa; Shimura, Eri; Nakae, Susumu; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2016-09-09

    Appropriate immune responses and mucosal barrier functions are required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Defects in this defense system may lead to inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Downstream of tyrosine kinases 1 (Dok-1) and its closest homolog, Dok-2, are preferentially expressed in immune cells, and play essential roles in the negative regulation of multiple signaling pathways in both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the function of these proteins in intestinal homeostasis remained unclear. Here we show that Dok-1/-2 double knockout (DKO) mice were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared with Dok-1 or Dok-2 single KO and wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice exhibited increased colonic tissue damage accompanied by reduced proliferation of the epithelial cells relative to WT controls, suggesting that Dok-1/-2 DKO mice have defects in the repair of intestinal epithelial lesions. In addition, the levels of the Th17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-22, which have protective roles in DSS-induced colitis, were reduced in DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice compared with WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Dok-1 and Dok-2 negatively regulate intestinal inflammation, apparently through the induction of IL-17A and IL-22 expression. - Highlights: • Dok-1 and Dok-2 play a cooperative role in protection against DSS-induced colitis. • Dok-1/-2 double KO (DKO) mice show extensive ulceration of the colon after DSS treatment. • Proliferation of colonic epithelium is inhibited in DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice. • Expression of IL-17A and IL-22 is reduced in the colon of DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice.

  12. Dimethyl Fumarate Reduces Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Casili, Giovanna; Cordaro, Marika; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Paterniti, Irene; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Fumaric acid esters have been proven to be effective for the systemic treatment of psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. We aimed to develop a new treatment for colitis. Methods: We investigated the effect of dimethylfumarate [DMF, 10-30-100mg/kg] on an experimental model of colitis induced by dinitrobenzene sulphuric acid [DNBS]. We also evaluated the therapeutic activity of 7 weeks’ treatment with DMF [30mg/kg] on 9-week-old IL-10KO mice that spontaneously develop a T helper-1 [Th1]-dependent chronic enterocolitis after birth, that is fully established at 8–10 weeks of age. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of DMF [10 μM] was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers [Caco-2] exposed to H2O2. The barrier function was evaluated by the tight junction proteins. Results: The treatment with DMF significantly reduced the degree of haemorrhagic diarrhoea and weight loss caused by administration of DNBS. DMF [30 and 100mg/kg] also caused a substantial reduction in the degree of colon injury, in the rise in myeloperoxidase [MPO] activity, and in the increase in tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-α expression, as well as in the up-regulation of ICAM-1 caused by DNBS in the colon. Molecular studies demonstrated that DMF impaired NF-κB signalling via reduced p65 nuclear translocalisation. DMF induced a stronger antioxidant response as evidenced by a higher expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase. Moreover, DMF protected human intestinal epithelial cells against H2O2-induced barrier dysfunction, restoring ZO-1 occludin expression, via the HO-1 pathway. Conclusions: DMF treatment reduces the degree of colitis caused by DNBS. We propose that DMF treatment may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26690241

  13. Different Effects of Three Selected Lactobacillus Strains in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Wei, Hongyun; Lu, Fanggen; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Deliang; Gu, Li; Ouyang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the changes of different Lactobacillus species in ulcerative colitis patients and to further assess the therapeutic effects of selected Lactobacillus strains on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice. Methods Forty-five active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 45 population-based healthy controls were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and real-time PCR were performed for qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively, of the Lactobacillus species in UC patients. Three Lactobacillus strains from three species were selected to assess the therapeutic effects on experimental colitis. Sixty 8-week-old BALB/c mice were divided into six groups. The five groups that had received DSS were administered normal saline, mesalazine, L. fermentum CCTCC M206110 strain, L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 strain, or L. plantarum NCIMB8826 strain. We assessed the severity of colitis based on disease activity index (DAI), body weight loss, colon length, and histologic damage. Results The detection rate of four of the 11 Lactobacillus species decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the detection rate of two of the 11 Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05) in UC patients. Relative quantitative analysis revealed that eight Lactobacillus species declined significantly in UC patients (P < 0.05), while three Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05). The CCTCC M206110 treatment group had less weight loss and colon length shortening, lower DAI scores, and lower histologic scores (P < 0.05), while the CCTCC M206119 treatment group had greater weight loss and colon length shortening, higher histologic scores, and more severe inflammatory infiltration (P < 0.05). NCIMB8826 improved weight loss and colon length shortening (P < 0.05) with no significant influence on DAI and histologic damage in the colitis model. Conclusions Administration of an L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 supplement aggravated

  14. Different Effects of Three Selected Lactobacillus Strains in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Wei, Hongyun; Lu, Fanggen; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Deliang; Gu, Li; Ouyang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the changes of different Lactobacillus species in ulcerative colitis patients and to further assess the therapeutic effects of selected Lactobacillus strains on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice. Forty-five active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 45 population-based healthy controls were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and real-time PCR were performed for qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively, of the Lactobacillus species in UC patients. Three Lactobacillus strains from three species were selected to assess the therapeutic effects on experimental colitis. Sixty 8-week-old BALB/c mice were divided into six groups. The five groups that had received DSS were administered normal saline, mesalazine, L. fermentum CCTCC M206110 strain, L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 strain, or L. plantarum NCIMB8826 strain. We assessed the severity of colitis based on disease activity index (DAI), body weight loss, colon length, and histologic damage. The detection rate of four of the 11 Lactobacillus species decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the detection rate of two of the 11 Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05) in UC patients. Relative quantitative analysis revealed that eight Lactobacillus species declined significantly in UC patients (P < 0.05), while three Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05). The CCTCC M206110 treatment group had less weight loss and colon length shortening, lower DAI scores, and lower histologic scores (P < 0.05), while the CCTCC M206119 treatment group had greater weight loss and colon length shortening, higher histologic scores, and more severe inflammatory infiltration (P < 0.05). NCIMB8826 improved weight loss and colon length shortening (P < 0.05) with no significant influence on DAI and histologic damage in the colitis model. Administration of an L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 supplement aggravated DSS-induced colitis. L

  15. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from milk kefir grains ameliorates experimental colitis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Hsiao, P J; Hong, W S; Dai, T Y; Chen, M J

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, isolated from and identified in Taiwanese milk kefir grain, has demonstrated immune-modulating activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. The possible mechanisms regarding the cytokine products and intestinal epithelial barrier restoration as well as the putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. In vitro results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 could strengthen the epithelial barrier function in vitro by increasing the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and significantly upregulated the level of the chemokine CCL-20 at both the apical and basolateral sites. The in vivo effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on the regulation of intestinal physiology indicate that this strain could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis with a significant attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening. Production of proinflammatory cytokines was decreased and that of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in the DSS-treated mice given Lb. kefiranofaciens M1. The putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which was involved in probiotic-induced cytokine production in vitro and in attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening in vivo. In this study, the kefir lactobacillus Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 clearly demonstrated an anticolitis effect. Based on these results, Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 has the potential to be applied in fermented dairy products as an alternative therapy for intestinal disorders. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental colitis delays and reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hablot, Julie; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Kokten, Tunay; El Omar, Reine; Netter, Patrick; Bastien, Claire; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Sokol, Harry; Moulin, David

    2017-01-01

    Amongst extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) occurring in IBD patients, rheumatologic manifestations are the most frequent. Understanding the relationships between arthritis and colitis is a prerequisite to improving the management of these patients. Microbiota of patients with IBD or rheumatologic diseases, like spondyloarthritis (SpA) is modified compared to healthy individual. Thus, we have evaluated the impact of colitis in the development of arthritis in mice and we have analyzed microbiota changes. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced at day 0 in DBA1 mice exposed or not to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis between day 14 and day 21. Animals were monitored regularly for arthritis and colitis severity (clinical score, hindpaw edema). Fecal microbiota was studied by 16S rRNA deep sequencing at critical time points (D14, D14, D21 & D41). At day 41, histological scoring of the intestines and ankles were performed at the end of experiment. Induction of colitis slightly delayed arthritis onset (2 ± 1 days of delay) and reduced its severity (5.75 ± 1.62 in arthritis only group vs 4.00 ± 1.48 in arthritis + colitis group (p = 0.02 at day 28) macroscopically and histologically. In contrast, colitis severity was not influenced by arthritis development. Induction of colitis promoted a modification of microbiota composition and a decrease of α-diversity. Fecal microbiota composition was different between "colitis" and "arthritis+colitis" groups during colitis development. Interestingly a milder decrease of bacterial diversity in the "arthritis+colitis" group was observed. Concomitant experimental colitis protects mice against collagen-induced arthritis and this is associated with changes in gut microbiome composition.

  17. Peptidoglycan recognition protein 3 and Nod2 synergistically protect mice from dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xuefang; Zulfiqar, Fareeha; Park, Shin Yong; Núñez, Gabriel; Dziarski, Roman; Gupta, Dipika

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant immune response and changes in the gut microflora are the main causes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrp1, Pglyrp2, Pglyrp3, and Pglyrp4) are bactericidal innate immunity proteins that maintain normal gut microbiome, protect against experimental colitis, and are associated with inflammatory bowel disease in humans. Nod2 is an intracellular bacterial sensor and may be required for maintaining normal gut microbiome. Mutations in Nod2 are strongly associated with Crohn's disease, but the causative mechanism is not understood, and Nod2 role in ulcerative colitis is not known. Because IBD is likely caused by variable multiple mutations in different individuals, in this study we examined the combined role of Pglyrp3 and Nod2 in the development of experimental colitis in mice. We demonstrate that a combined deficiency of Pglyrp3 and Nod2 results in higher sensitivity to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared with a single deficiency. Pglyrp3−/−Nod2−/− mice had decreased survival and higher loss of body weight, increased intestinal bleeding, higher apoptosis of colonic mucosa, elevated expression of cytokines and chemokines, altered gut microbiome, and increased levels of ATP in the colon. Increased sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis in Pglyrp3−/−Nod2−/− mice depended on increased apoptosis of intestinal epithelium, changed gut microflora, and elevated ATP. Pglyrp3 deficiency contributed colitispredisposing intestinal microflora and increased intestinal ATP, whereas Nod2 deficiency contributed higher apoptosis and responsiveness to increased level of ATP. In summary, Pglyrp3 and Nod2 are both required for maintaining gut homeostasis and protection against colitis, but their protective mechanisms differ. PMID:25114103

  18. Impact of novel sorghum bran diets on DSS-induced colitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Repeated bouts of inflammation are known to promote colon cancer. We have reported that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets decrease formation of colon aberrant crypt foci, however, little is known regarding their effect during colonic inflammation. Objective. We hypothesized that sorgh...

  19. B-vitamin deficiency is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Homocysteine (Hcys) is a thrombogenic amino acid produced from methionine (Met) and its increase in IBD patients indicates a disruption of Met metabolism, yet the role of Hcys and Met metabolism in IBD is not well und...

  20. Preventative oral methylthioadenosine is anti-inflammatory and reduces DSS-induced colitis in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a precursor of the methionine salvage pathway and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in various models of acute and chronic inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of MTA in models of intestinal inflammation are not defined. We hypothesiz...

  1. Overexpression of CD97 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells of Transgenic Mice Attenuates Colitis by Strengthening Adherens Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Wobus, Manja; Schneider, Rick; Amasheh, Salah; Sittig, Doreen; Kerner, Christiane; Naumann, Ronald; Hamann, Joerg; Aust, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor CD97 is present in normal colonic enterocytes but overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma. To investigate the function of CD97 in colorectal carcinogenesis, transgenic Tg(villin-CD97) mice overexpressing CD97 in enterocytes were generated and subjected to azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Unexpectedly, we found a CD97 cDNA copy number-dependent reduction of DSS-induced colitis in Tg compared to wild-type (WT) mice that was confirmed by applying a simple DSS protocol. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that overexpression of CD97 strengthened lateral cell-cell contacts between enterocytes, which, in contrast, were weakened in CD97 knockout (Ko) mice. Transepithelial resistance was not altered in Tg and Ko mice, indicating that tight junctions were not affected. In Tg murine and normal human colonic enterocytes as well as in colorectal cell lines CD97 was localized preferentially in E-cadherin-based adherens junctions. CD97 overexpression upregulated membrane-bound but not cytoplasmic or nuclear β-catenin and reduced phospho-β-catenin, labeled for degradation. This was associated with inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and activation of Akt. In summary, CD97 increases the structural integrity of enterocytic adherens junctions by increasing and stabilizing junctional β-catenin, thereby regulating intestinal epithelial strength and attenuating experimental colitis. PMID:20084281

  2. The Flavonoid Luteolin Worsens Chemical-Induced Colitis in NF-κBEGFP Transgenic Mice through Blockade of NF-κB-Dependent Protective Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, Thomas; Kim, Joo-Sung; Jang, Byung Ik; Jobin, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Background The flavonoid luteolin has anti-inflammatory properties both in vivo and in vitro. However, the impact of luteolin on experimental models of colitis is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the therapeutic impact of luteolin, NF-κBEGFP transgenic mice were fed a chow diet containing 2% luteolin- or isoflavone-free control chow (AIN-76), and acute colitis was induced using 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Additionally, development of spontaneous colitis was evaluated in IL-10−/−;NF-κBEGFP transgenic mice fed 2% luteolin chow diet or control chow diet. Interestingly, NF-κBEGFP transgenic mice exposed to luteolin showed worse DSS-induced colitis (weight loss, histological scores) compared to control-fed mice, whereas spontaneous colitis in IL-10−/−;NF-κBEGFP mice was significantly attenuated. Macroscopic imaging of live resected colon showed enhanced EGFP expression (NF-κB activity) in luteolin-fed mice as compared to control-fed animals after DSS exposure, while cecal EGFP expression was attenuated in luteolin-fed IL-10−/− mice. Interestingly, confocal microscopy showed that EGFP positive cells were mostly located in the lamina propria and not in the epithelium. Caspase 3 activation was significantly enhanced whereas COX-2 gene expression was reduced in luteolin-fed, DSS-exposed NF-κBEGFP transgenic mice as assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, luteolin sensitized colonic epithelial HT29 cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation and reduced TNFα-induced C-IAP1, C-IAP2 and COX-2 gene expression. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that while luteolin shows beneficial effects on spontaneous colitis, it aggravates DSS-induced experimental colitis by blocking NF-κB-dependent protective molecules in enterocytes. PMID:17611628

  3. Iloprost reduces colitis induced oxidative stress: An experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Aytaç, Erman; Teksöz, Serkan; Saygılı, Seha; Tortum, Osman Baran; Yavuz, Nihat; Sözer, Volkan; Göksel, Süha; Uzun, Hafize; Seymen, Hakkı Oktay; Göksoy, Ertuğrul

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have a known potent role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Iloprost, a pharmaceutical, is a chemically stable derivative of a naturally- occurring human prostacyclin. Several studies have demonstrated protective effects of iloprost via its antioxidant and its anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of iloprost on oxidant/antioxidant status, as well as the large bowel histopathology in experimental colitis. Forty adult male Wistar-albino rats were randomly divided in to four equal weight-matched groups: sham group (n=10), iloprost administered sham group (n=10), colitis group (n=10), iloprost administered colitis group (n=10). Acetic acid (1 ml of 4% solution) was used to induce colonic inflammation in the rats. Colonic tissue and plasma malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in the iloprost administered colitis group than the colitis group (p<0.01). Tissue glutathione levels of the iloprost administered colitis group were significantly higher than the colitis group (p<0.001). We have demonstrated in this study iloprost to be an antioxidant, as well as iloprost demonstrating protective activity against colitis induced oxidative stress.

  4. RAMP1 suppresses mucosal injury from dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kawashima-Takeda, Noriko; Ito, Yoshiya; Nishizawa, Nobuyuki; Kawashima, Rei; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Watanabe, Masahiko; Majima, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is thought to be involved in the modulation of intestinal motility. CGRP receptor is composed of receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 combined with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) for CGRP. The study investigated the role of CGRP in mice with experimentally induced colitis. The study used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis in mice. The study compared the severity of colitis in wild-type (WT) mice, mice treated with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 ), and RAMP1 knockout ((-/-) ) mice. Pathological changes in the mucosa were assessed, and inflammatory cells and cytokine levels were measured. The severity of inflammation in DSS-induced colitis increased markedly in CGRP8-37 -treated mice and RAMP1(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. RAMP1(-/-) mice showed more severe damage compared with CGRP8-37 -treated mice. The number of periodic acid-Schiff-positive cells decreased in CGRP8-37 -treated mice compared with WT mice and was even further decreased in RAMP1(-/-) mice. RAMP1 was expressed by macrophages, mast cells, and T-cells. RAMP1(-/-) mice exhibited excessive accumulation of macrophages and mast cells into the colonic tissue with increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β as compared with WT mice. Infiltration of T-cells into the colonic mucosa, which was associated with the expression of T helper (Th) cytokines including Th1 (interferon gamma) and Th17 (IL-17), was augmented in RAMP1(-/-) mice. The findings of this study suggest that RAMP1 exerted mucosal protection in DSS-induced colitis via attenuation of recruitment of inflammatory cells and of pro-inflammatory cytokines. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and PPAR-γ on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DSS-induced colorectal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Sferra, Roberta; Speca, Silvia; Vetuschi, Antonella; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Desreumaux, Pierre; Pompili, Simona; Cristiano, Loredana; Gaudio, Eugenio; Flati, Vincenzo; Latella, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is characterized by abnormal production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts. The main progenitor cells of activated myofibroblasts are the fibroblasts and the epithelial cells, the latter through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To evaluate the action of the new PPAR-γ modulator, GED-0507-34 Levo (GED) on the expression of EMT associated and regulatory proteins such as TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, and GSK-3β, in a mouse model of DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis. Chronic colitis and fibrosis were induced by oral administration of 2.5% DSS (w/v) for 6 weeks. GW9662 (GW), a selective PPAR-γ inhibitor, was also administered by intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 1 mg/kg/day combined with GED treatment. All drugs were administered at the beginning of the second cycle of DSS (day 12). 65 mice were randomly divided into five groups (H2O as controls n = 10, H2O+GED n = 10, DSS n = 15, DSS+GED n = 15, DSS+GED+GW n = 15). The colon was excised for macroscopic examination and histological and morphometric analyses. The level of expression of molecules involved in EMT and fibrosis, like TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, GSK-3β and PPAR-γ, was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and Real Time PCR. GED improved the DSS-induced chronic colitis and fibrosis. GED was able to reduce the expression of the main fibrosis markers (α-SMA, collagen I-III and fibronectin) as well as the pivotal pro-fibrotic molecules IL-13, TGF-β and Smad3, while it increased the anti-fibrotic PPAR-γ. All these GED effects were nullified by co-administration of GW with GED. Furthermore, GED was able to normalize the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin and upregulated GSK-3β, that are all known to be involved both in EMT and fibrosis. The DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis was improved by the new PPAR-γ modulator GED-0507-34 Levo through

  6. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and PPAR-γ on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DSS-induced colorectal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Vetuschi, Antonella; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Desreumaux, Pierre; Pompili, Simona; Cristiano, Loredana; Gaudio, Eugenio; Flati, Vincenzo; Latella, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal fibrosis is characterized by abnormal production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts. The main progenitor cells of activated myofibroblasts are the fibroblasts and the epithelial cells, the latter through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Aim To evaluate the action of the new PPAR-γ modulator, GED-0507-34 Levo (GED) on the expression of EMT associated and regulatory proteins such as TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, and GSK-3β, in a mouse model of DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis. Methods Chronic colitis and fibrosis were induced by oral administration of 2.5% DSS (w/v) for 6 weeks. GW9662 (GW), a selective PPAR-γ inhibitor, was also administered by intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 1 mg/kg/day combined with GED treatment. All drugs were administered at the beginning of the second cycle of DSS (day 12). 65 mice were randomly divided into five groups (H2O as controls n = 10, H2O+GED n = 10, DSS n = 15, DSS+GED n = 15, DSS+GED+GW n = 15). The colon was excised for macroscopic examination and histological and morphometric analyses. The level of expression of molecules involved in EMT and fibrosis, like TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, GSK-3β and PPAR-γ, was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and Real Time PCR. Results GED improved the DSS-induced chronic colitis and fibrosis. GED was able to reduce the expression of the main fibrosis markers (α-SMA, collagen I-III and fibronectin) as well as the pivotal pro-fibrotic molecules IL-13, TGF-β and Smad3, while it increased the anti-fibrotic PPAR-γ. All these GED effects were nullified by co-administration of GW with GED. Furthermore, GED was able to normalize the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin and upregulated GSK-3β, that are all known to be involved both in EMT and fibrosis. Conclusions The DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis was improved by the new

  7. Boswellia serrata has beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in a model of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; Fillmann, Henrique Sarubbi; Martins, Maria Isabel Morgan; Meurer, Luise; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2014-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease that involves only the colon and rectum, being characterized by leukocyte infiltrate and superficial ulcers in the intestinal mucosa. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extract from the Boswellia serrata plant in an experimental rat model of acute ulcerative colitis induced by the administration of acetic acid (AA). An extract of B. serrata (34.2 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage for 2 days before and after the induction of colitis with 4 mL of 4% AA. The anal sphincter pressure in the colitis group showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control groups (p < 0.001). The analysis of the values of lipid peroxidation (LPO) obtained by substances that react with thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) showed a significantly increased LPO in the colitis group compared to the control groups (p < 0.001). The nitric oxide levels and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) showed a significant increase in the colitis group compared to control groups (p < 0.01). Both pretreatment and treatment with B. serrata exhibited significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and iNOS and showed improvements in tissue injury and anal sphincter pressure in animals with ulcerative colitis. The B. serrata extract has protective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that inhibit inflammatory mediators in acute experimental colitis.

  8. Moderately Fermentable Potato Fiber Attenuates Signs and Inflammation Associated with Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Allen, Jacob M; Wallig, Matthew A; Woods, Jeffrey A; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-12-01

    Dietary fiber intake leading to short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production could be a strategy to combat intermittent bouts of inflammation during ulcerative colitis. Our objective was to evaluate dietary potato fiber (PF) in attenuating inflammation using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that PF would show anti-inflammatory effects compared with cellulose due in part to SCFA production. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed diets containing either 8% cellulose or 14.5% PF for a 22-d feeding study. Starting on study day 14, mice were provided either distilled water (control) or 2% (wt:vol) DSS in drinking water for 5 d (cellulose+control, n = 17; PF+control, n = 16; cellulose+DSS, n = 17; and PF+DSS, n = 16). Body weights and food and water intakes were collected daily from day 14 through day 22. Distal colon tissue was analyzed for histologic outcomes and changes in gene expression, and cecal contents were analyzed for SCFA concentrations. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, with repeated measures applied where necessary. At day 5 post-DSS induction, cellulose+DSS mice exhibited a 2% reduction (P < 0.05) in body weight compared with PF+DSS and PF+ and cellulose+control mice. PF+DSS mice had greater (P < 0.05) cecal butyrate concentrations [24.5 μmol/g dry matter (DM)] than did cellulose+DSS mice (4.93 μmol/g DM). Mice fed PF+DSS had lower (P < 0.05) infiltration of leukocytes in the distal colon than did mice fed cellulose+DSS (mean histology scores of 1.22 and 2.30, respectively). Furthermore, mice fed cellulose+DSS exhibited 1.42, 11.5, 8.48, and 35.5 times greater (P < 0.05) colon mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfa) and interleukin (Il) 1b, Il6, and Il17a, respectively, and 7.10 times greater (P < 0.05) expression of C-X-C motif ligand 1 (Cxc1) compared with mice fed PF+DSS. These results suggest that PF fed to mice before and during DSS colitis attenuates inflammation, potentially through SCFA production; however

  9. Oral administration of geraniol ameliorates acute experimental murine colitis by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Medicherla, Kanakaraju; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sudhakar, Godi; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is associated with a considerable reduction in the quality of life of patients. The use of phyto-ingredients is becoming an increasingly attractive approach for the management of colitis. Geraniol is a monoterpene with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of geraniol as a complementary and alternative medicine against dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Disease activity indices (DAI) comprising body weight loss, presence of occult blood and stool consistency were assessed for evaluation of colitis symptoms. Intestinal damage was assessed by evaluating colon length and its histology. Pre-treatment with geraniol significantly reduced the DAI score, improved stool consistency (without occult blood) and increased the colon length. The amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and the activity of myeloperoxidase in colon tissue were significantly decreased in geraniol pre-treated mice. Western blot analyses revealed that geraniol interfered with NF-κB signaling by inhibiting NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding, and IκBα phosphorylation, degradation and subsequent increase in nuclear translocation. Moreover, the expressions of downstream target pro-inflammatory enzymes such as iNOS and COX-2 were significantly reduced by geraniol. Pre-treatment with geraniol also restored the DSS-induced decline in antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and attenuated the increase in lipid peroxidation marker, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitrative stress marker, nitrites in colon tissue. Thus, our results suggest that geraniol is a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. The effect of menthol on acute experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi-Pirbaluti, Masoumeh; Motaghi, Ehsan; Bozorgi, Homan

    2017-03-18

    Menthol is an aromatic compound with high antiinflammatory activity. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the effectiveness of menthol on acetic acid induced acute colitis in rats. Animals were injected with menthol (20 and 50 and 80mg/kg, i.p.) 24h prior to induction of colitis for 3 consecutive days. Menthol at medium and higher doses similar to dexamethasone as a reference drug significantly reduced body weight loss, macroscopic damage score, ulcer area, colon weight, colon length and improved hematocrit in rats with colitis. The histopathological examination also confirmed anti-colitic effects of menthol. Menthol also reduced significantly the colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in inflamed colons. Thus, the findings of the current study provide evidence that menthol may be beneficial in patients suffering from acute ulcerative colitis.

  11. Selenium and selenoproteins in inflammatory bowel diseases and experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Speckmann, Bodo; Steinbrenner, Holger

    2014-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake of the essential trace element selenium (Se) is thought to be a risk factor for several chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Biological actions of Se occur through low-molecular weight metabolites and through selenoproteins. Several key selenoproteins including glutathione peroxidases; selenoproteins M, P, and S; and selenium-binding protein 1 have been detected in the intestine. Interestingly, Se and antioxidant selenoproteins are known to modulate differentiation and function of immune cells and contribute to avoid excessive immune responses. This review discusses the role of Se and intestinal selenoproteins in inflammatory bowel diseases, based on data from human, animal, and in vitro studies. In humans, Se deficiency is commonly observed in patients with Crohn's disease. In animal models of experimental colitis, the Se status was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease. While the cause-effect relationship of these observations remains to be clarified, the beneficial outcome of dietary Se supplementation and an optimization of selenoprotein biosynthesis in murine inflammatory bowel disease models have led to investigations of targets and actions of Se in the gastrointestinal tract. The Se status affects gene expression, signaling pathways, and cellular functions in the small and large intestine as well as the gut microbiome composition. This data, particularly from animal experiments, hold promise that adequate dietary Se supply may counteract chronic intestinal inflammation in humans.

  12. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats.

  13. Interleukin 10 gene transfer prevents experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, G; Xing, Z; Hogaboam, C; Gauldie, J; Collins, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of colitis in interleukin 10 (IL-10) deficient mice, together with the known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of this cytokine have prompted consideration of IL-10 as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, studies using hrIL-10 in IBD models have yielded inconsistent results.
AIMS—To examine the therapeutic potential of overexpressing the IL-10 gene before and after the induction of experimental colitis in rats.
METHODS—Gene transfer was achieved by intraperitoneal injection of non-replicating human type 5 adenovirus bearing the IL-10 gene, either 24 hours before or one hour after intrarectal administration of dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in rats. Colonic damage and inflammation was assessed macroscopically and by measuring myeloperoxidase activity and leukotriene B4 concentrations.
RESULTS—Gene transfer increased IL-10 protein in serum for up to six days. IL-10 gene transfer prior to colitis improved colitis macroscopically and histologically, and significantly reduced colonic myeloperoxidase activity and leukotriene B4 concentrations. In contrast, IL-10 gene transfer after the onset of colitis had no beneficial effect.
CONCLUSIONS—Gene therapy using an adenovirus-IL-10 construct was successful in preventing but not in reversing experimental colitis in the rat.


Keywords: gene therapy; colitis; interleukin 10; adenovirus vector; leukotrienes; inflammatory bowel disease; maintenance therapy PMID:10673295

  14. Agaricus bisporus attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Park, Jae Ho; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM) is widely consumed in most countries and is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known regarding its effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are related to dysfunction of intestinal immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBMs in an animal model of DSS-induced colitis. Male, 4-week-old ICR mice (n=10 per group) were fed a normal diet with or without 10% WBM for 4 weeks, and colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. WBMs prevented DSS-induced shortening of colon length (P=.033) and diminished diarrhea (P=.049) and gross bleeding (P=.001), resulting in a decreased disease activity index. Results of histological analysis showed that WBMs suppressed mucosal damage. In addition, WBMs attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity (P=.012) and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (P=.020) in the colon segment. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role for the WBM as an immunomodulator that can prevent and/or treat ulcerative colitis.

  15. Serpin B1 protects colonic epithelial cell via blockage of neutrophil elastase activity and its expression is enhanced in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Mizushima, Katsura; Hirai, Yasuko; Hayashi, Natsuko; Harusato, Akihito; Inoue, Ken; Fukumoto, Kohei; Yamada, Shinya; Handa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2012-05-15

    Serpin B1 is a monocyte neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitor and is one of the most efficient inhibitors of NE. In the present study, we investigated the role of serpin B1 in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis by using clinical samples and an experimental model. The colonic expression of serpin B1 was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis, and immunohistological studies in both normal and inflamed mucosa from patients with ulcerative colitis. Serpin B1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR in the mouse dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model. Young adult mouse colonic epithelial (YAMC) cells were used to determine the role of serpin B1. Serpin B1 gene transfected YAMC cells were treated with H(2)O(2) to measure cell viability. The expression of NE was determined in YAMC cells treated with H(2)O(2). NE-silenced YAMC cells were also treated with H(2)O(2) and then measured for viability. Upregulated expression of serpin B1 in colonic mucosa was confirmed from patients with active ulcerative colitis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that serpin B1 expression was localized not only in inflammatory infiltration cells but also in epithelial cells. Serpin B1 mRNA expression was also increased in colonic mucosa of mouse DSS-induced colitis. Serpin B1-transfected YAMC cells were resistant against the treatment of H(2)O(2). H(2)O(2) treatment significantly induced NE in YAMC cells, and NE-silenced YAMC cells were also resistant against the treatment of H(2)O(2). These results suggest that serpin B1 may be a novel marker of active ulcerative colitis and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Role of metallothioneins as danger signals in the pathogenesis of colitis.

    PubMed

    Devisscher, Lindsey; Hindryckx, Pieter; Lynes, Michael A; Waeytens, Anouk; Cuvelier, Claude; De Vos, Filip; Vanhove, Christian; Vos, Martine De; Laukens, Debby

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are recurrent intestinal pathologies characterized by a compromised epithelial barrier and an exaggerated immune activation. Mediators of immune cell infiltration may represent new therapeutic opportunities. Metallothioneins (MTs) are stress-responsive proteins with immune-modulating functions. Metallothioneins have been linked to IBDs, but their role in intestinal inflammation is inconclusive. We investigated MT expression in colonic biopsies from IBDs and acute infectious colitis patients and healthy controls and evaluated MT's role in experimental colitis using MT knockout mice and anti-MT antibodies. Antibody potential to target extracellular MT and its mechanism was tested in vitro. Biopsies of patients with active colitis showed infiltration of MT-positive cells in a pattern that correlated with the grade of inflammation. MT knockout mice displayed less severe acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis compared to congenic wild-type mice based on survival, weight loss, colon length, histological inflammation and leukocyte infiltration. Chronic DSS-colitis confirmed that Mt1 and Mt2 gene disruption enhances clinical outcome. Blockade of extracellular MT with antibodies reduced F4/80-positive macrophage infiltration in DSS- and trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-colitis, with a tendency towards a better outcome. Whole-body single-photon emission computer tomography of mice injected with radioactive anti-MT antibodies showed antibody accumulation in the colon during colitis and clearance during recovery. Necrotic and not apoptotic cell death resulted in western blot MT detection in HT29 cell supernatant. In a Boyden chamber migration assay, leukocyte attraction towards the necrotic cell supernatant could be abolished with anti-MT antibody, indicating the chemotactic potential of endogenous released MT. Our results show that human colitis is associated with infiltration of MT-positive inflammatory cells. Since antibody

  17. Interleukin 19 reduces inflammation in chemically induced experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yukiko; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Natsuho; Ikeda, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin (IL)-19, a member of the IL-10 family, functions as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Here, we investigated the contribution of IL-19 to intestinal inflammation in a model of T cell-mediated colitis in mice. Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis. IL-19 deficiency aggravated TNBS-induced colitis and compromised intestinal recovery in mice. Additionally, the exacerbation of TNBS-induced colonic inflammation following genetic ablation of IL-19 was accompanied by increased production of interferon-gamma, IL-12 (p40), IL-17, IL-22, and IL-33, and decreased production of IL-4. Moreover, the exacerbation of colitis following IL-19 knockout was also accompanied by increased production of CXCL1, G-CSF and CCL5. Using this model of induced colitis, our results revealed the immunopathological relevance of IL-19 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in intestinal inflammation in mice.

  18. The protective effect of epicatechin on experimental ulcerative colitis in mice is mediated by increasing antioxidation and by the inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, HaiJing; Deng, AnJun; Zhang, ZhiHui; Yu, ZiHan; Liu, Yang; Peng, ShanYing; Wu, LianQiu; Qin, HaiLin; Wang, WenJie

    2016-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease. It is necessary to find out new effective drugs for UC. In our study epicatechin extracted from grape seed by our institute for the first time could treat UC effectively. Then anti-UC mechanisms of epicatechin were elucidated in vivo and in vitro. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute UC mice model was used to evaluate the activity of epicatechin and its properties against UC. Then its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects were evaluated as follows: the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in the colon supernatants were determined by ELISA. NO and MPO were assayed by Griess method and commercial kit respectively. NF-κB were determined by NF-κB-Dependent Reporter Gene Expression Assay and Western Blotting respectively. Antioxidant factors such as SOD, MDA, GSH-Px and CAT were also measured in colon tissues and cell supernatant stimulated by LPS respectively. In C57BL/6J mice model with DSS-induced UC, epicatechin was able to decrease the disease activity index and colon macroscopic damage index scores, reduce body weight loss, and significantly relieve colon contracture and crypt damage. TNF-α, IL-6, NO, MPO and MDA were reduced in the mice administered epicatechin, whereas antioxidant enzymes showed increased activity in epicatechin-treated mice and cell line respectively. Furthermore, inhibition effect on NF-κB activation by epicatechin were demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Epicatechin has inhibitory effect on DSS-induced acute UC. This effect is mainly due to its antioxidant effect and the inhibition of inflammatory molecules related to NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of methylsulfonylmethane on the experimental colitis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Amirshahrokhi, K.; Bohlooli, S.; Chinifroush, M.M.

    2011-06-15

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), naturally occurring in green plants, fruits and vegetables, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. MSM is an organosulfur compound and a normal oxidative metabolite of dimethyl sulfoxide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of MSM in a rat model of experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 1 ml of 5% of acetic acid. Rats were treated with MSM (400 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days. Animals were euthanized and distal colon evaluated histologically and biochemically. Tissue samples were used to measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta}) levels. Results showed that MSM decreased macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage scores caused by administration of acetic acid. MSM treatment also significantly reduced colonic levels of MDA, MPO and IL-1{beta}, while increased the levels of GSH and CAT compared with acetic acid-induced colitis group. It seems that MSM as a natural product may have a protective effect in an experimental ulcerative colitis. - Research Highlights: > Methylsulfonylmethane occurs naturally in some green plants, fruits and vegetables. > Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. > We evaluated the effects of MSM in a rat model of experimental ulcerative colitis. > MSM has protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rat.

  20. IL-33 induces both regulatory B cells and regulatory T cells in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfeng; Xu, Ying; Zhu, Chunyu; Zhao, Jian; Meng, Xinrui; Chen, Siyao; Wang, Tianqi; Li, Xue; Zhang, Li; Lu, Changlong; Liu, Hongsheng; Sun, Xun

    2017-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family. Serum levels of IL-33 are increased in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), suggesting that IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, although its role is not clear. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-33 in the regulation of T-helper (Th) cell and B cell responses in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Here, we showed that IL-33-treated mice were susceptible to DSS-induced colitis as compared with PBS-treated mice. The production of spontaneous inflammatory cytokines production by macrophages or dendritic cells (DC) in MLN significantly increased, and the responses of Th2, regulatory T cells (Treg) and regulatory B cells (Breg) were markedly upregulated, while Th1 responses were significantly downregulated in MLN of IL-33-treated mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that IL-33 contributes to the pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis in mice by promoting Th2 responses, but suppressing Th1 responses, in MLN. Moreover, IL-33 treatment increased Breg and Treg responses in MLN in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Therefore, modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling is implicated as a novel biological therapy for inflammatory diseases associated with Th1 responses.

  1. Preventive Effects of Spirogyra neglecta and a Polysaccharide Extract against Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Taya, Sirinya; Kakehashi, Anna; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan; Gi, Min; Ishii, Naomi; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) results from colonic epithelial barrier defects and impaired mucosal immune responses. In this study, we aimed to investigate the modifying effects of a Spirogyra neglecta extract (SNE), a polysaccharide extract (PE) and a chloroform fraction (CF) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to determine the mechanisms. To induce colitis, ICR mice received 3% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. Seven days preceding the DSS treatment, oral administration of SNE, PE and CF at doses of 50, 25 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight (low dose), 200, 100 and 1 mg/kg body weight (high dose) and vehicle was started and continued for 14 days. Histologic findings showed that DSS-induced damage of colonic epithelial structure and inflammation was attenuated in mice pre-treated with SNE, PE and CF. Furthermore, SNE and PE significantly protected colonic epithelial cells from DSS-induced cell cycle arrest, while SNE, PE and CF significantly diminished apoptosis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that SNE and PE might ameliorate DSS-induced colitis by inducing antioxidant enzymes, restoring impaired mitochondria function, and regulating inflammatory cytokines, proliferation and apoptosis. These results suggest that SNE and PE could prevent DSS-induced colitis in ICR mice by protection against and/or aiding recovery from damage to the colonic epithelium, reducing ROS and maintaining normal mitochondrial function and apoptosis.

  2. Colonization of C57BL/6 Mice by a Potential Probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum Strain under Germ-Free and Specific Pathogen-Free Conditions and during Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Verena; Radulovic, Katarina; Riedel, Christian U.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of at least some probiotics are restricted to live, metabolically active bacteria at their site of action. Colonization of and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract is thus contributing to the beneficial effects of these strains. In the present study, colonization of an anti-inflammatory Bifidobacterium bifidum strain was studied in C57BL/6J mice under germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions as well as during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. B. bifidum S17/pMGC was unable to stably colonize C57BL/6J mice under SPF conditions. Mono-association of GF mice by three doses on consecutive days led to long-term, stable detection of up to 109 colony forming units (CFU) of B. bifidum S17/pMGC per g feces. This stable population was rapidly outcompeted upon transfer of mono-associated animals to SPF conditions. A B. animalis strain was isolated from the microbiota of these re-conventionalized mice. This B. animalis strain displayed significantly higher adhesion to murine CMT–93 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) than to human Caco–2 IECs (p = 0.018). Conversely, B. bifidum S17/pMGC, i.e., a strain of human origin, adhered at significantly higher levels to human compared to murine IECs (p < 0.001). Disturbance of the gut ecology and induction of colitis by DSS-treatment did not promote colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by B. bifidum S17/pMGC. Despite its poor colonization of the mouse GIT, B. bifidum S17/pMGC displayed a protective effect on DSS-induced colitis when administered as viable bacteria but not as UV-inactivated preparation. Collectively, these results suggest a selective disadvantage of B. bifidum S17/pMGC in the competition with the normal murine microbiota and an anti-inflammatory effect that requires live, metabolically active bacteria. PMID:26439388

  3. Colonization of C57BL/6 Mice by a Potential Probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum Strain under Germ-Free and Specific Pathogen-Free Conditions and during Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Verena; Radulovic, Katarina; Riedel, Christian U

    2015-01-01

    The effects of at least some probiotics are restricted to live, metabolically active bacteria at their site of action. Colonization of and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract is thus contributing to the beneficial effects of these strains. In the present study, colonization of an anti-inflammatory Bifidobacterium bifidum strain was studied in C57BL/6J mice under germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions as well as during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. B. bifidum S17/pMGC was unable to stably colonize C57BL/6J mice under SPF conditions. Mono-association of GF mice by three doses on consecutive days led to long-term, stable detection of up to 109 colony forming units (CFU) of B. bifidum S17/pMGC per g feces. This stable population was rapidly outcompeted upon transfer of mono-associated animals to SPF conditions. A B. animalis strain was isolated from the microbiota of these re-conventionalized mice. This B. animalis strain displayed significantly higher adhesion to murine CMT-93 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) than to human Caco-2 IECs (p = 0.018). Conversely, B. bifidum S17/pMGC, i.e., a strain of human origin, adhered at significantly higher levels to human compared to murine IECs (p < 0.001). Disturbance of the gut ecology and induction of colitis by DSS-treatment did not promote colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by B. bifidum S17/pMGC. Despite its poor colonization of the mouse GIT, B. bifidum S17/pMGC displayed a protective effect on DSS-induced colitis when administered as viable bacteria but not as UV-inactivated preparation. Collectively, these results suggest a selective disadvantage of B. bifidum S17/pMGC in the competition with the normal murine microbiota and an anti-inflammatory effect that requires live, metabolically active bacteria.

  4. Phosphorylcholine-tuftsin compound prevents development of dextransulfate-sodium-salt induced murine colitis: implications for the treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami Shor, Dana; Bashi, Tomer; Lachnish, Jordan; Fridkin, Mati; Bizzaro, Giorgia; Barshak, Iris; Blank, Miri; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Improved clinical findings of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) upon treatment with helminthes and their ova were proven in animal models of IBD and in human clinical studies. The immunomodulatory properties of several helminthes were attributed to the phosphorylcholine (PC) molecule. We assessed the therapeutic potential of tuftsin-PC conjugate (TPC) to attenuate murine colitis. Colitis was induced by Dextransulfate-Sodium-Salt (DSS) in drinking water. TPC was given by daily oral ingestion (50 μg/0.1 ml/mouse or PBS) starting at day -2. Disease activity index (DAI) score was followed daily and histology of the colon was performed by H&E staining. Analysis of the cytokines profile in distal colon lysates was performed by immunoblot. Treatment of DSS induced colitis with TPC prevented the severity of colitis, including a reduction in the DAI score, less shortening of the colon and less inflammatory activity in histology. The immunoblot showed that the colitis preventive activity of TPC was associated with downregulation of colon pro-inflammatory IL-1β, TNFα and IL-17 cytokines expression, and enhancement of anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine expression. In the current study, we demonstrated that TPC treatment can prevent significantly experimental colitis induction in naïve mice. We propose the TPC as a novel potential small synthetic molecule to treat colitis.

  5. Huangqin-tang ameliorates dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis by regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis, inflammation and immune response.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Lin, Jiantao; Li, Wenyang; Wu, Zhuguo; He, Zhiwei; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Jian; Ye, Caiguo; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Ding, Congcong; Zheng, Xuebao; Chi, Honggang

    2016-12-16

    Huangqin-tang (HQT) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in China. However, the molecular mechanisms by which HQT protects the colon are unclear. We studied the protective effects of HQT and the underlying mechanisms in an experimental mouse model and in vitro. In vivo, dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced acute and chronic colitis were significantly ameliorated by HQT as gauged by phenotypic, histopathologic and inflammatory manifestations of the disease. Mechanistically, DSS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling was inhibited by HQT. Moreover, HQT-treated mice demonstrated significant changes in cell apoptosis, expression of apoptosis-associated genes such as caspase-3, bax, bcl-2, and intestinal permeability. HQT also increased occluding and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), inhibited cell proliferation (Ki67), and increased regulatory T cells numbers, protein expression of Foxp3 and IL-10 in the colonic tissue. In vitro, HQT down-regulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and supressed the NF-κB signalling pathway in lipopolysaccharides-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our study suggests that HQT plays a critical role in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis, inflammation and immune response in colitis and offers novel therapeutic options in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Huangqin-tang ameliorates dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis by regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis, inflammation and immune response

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ying; Lin, Jiantao; Li, Wenyang; Wu, Zhuguo; He, Zhiwei; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Jian; Ye, Caiguo; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Ding, Congcong; Zheng, Xuebao; Chi, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Huangqin-tang (HQT) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in China. However, the molecular mechanisms by which HQT protects the colon are unclear. We studied the protective effects of HQT and the underlying mechanisms in an experimental mouse model and in vitro. In vivo, dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced acute and chronic colitis were significantly ameliorated by HQT as gauged by phenotypic, histopathologic and inflammatory manifestations of the disease. Mechanistically, DSS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling was inhibited by HQT. Moreover, HQT-treated mice demonstrated significant changes in cell apoptosis, expression of apoptosis-associated genes such as caspase-3, bax, bcl-2, and intestinal permeability. HQT also increased occluding and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), inhibited cell proliferation (Ki67), and increased regulatory T cells numbers, protein expression of Foxp3 and IL-10 in the colonic tissue. In vitro, HQT down-regulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and supressed the NF-κB signalling pathway in lipopolysaccharides-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our study suggests that HQT plays a critical role in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis, inflammation and immune response in colitis and offers novel therapeutic options in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27982094

  7. Jumihaidokuto effectively inhibits colon inflammation and apoptosis in mice with acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, Remya; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Mst Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    Jumihaidokuto, a Japanese kampo medicine, is prescribed in Japan for its anti-inflammatory activity. Here we have examined its beneficial effects against acute colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. We have used C57BL/6 female mice, divided into two groups and received 3% DSS in drinking water during the experimental period (8days). Treatment group mice received 1g/kg/day dose of Jumihaidokuto orally whereas DSS control group received equal volume of distilled water. Normal control group mice received plain drinking water. Jumihaidokuto treatment attenuated the colitis symptoms along with suppression of various inflammatory marker proteins such as IL-1β, IL-2Rα, IL-4, CTGF and RAGE. It has also down-regulated the oxidative stress and apoptotic signaling in the colons of mice with colitis. The present study has confirmed the beneficial effects of Jumihaidokuto on DSS induced acute colitis in mice and suggests that it can be a potential agent for the treatment of colitis.

  8. {alpha}7-nAChR-mediated suppression of hyperexcitability of colonic dorsal root ganglia neurons in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Abdrakhmanova, Galya R; AlSharari, Shakir; Kang, Minho; Damaj, M Imad; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2010-09-01

    Controlled clinical trials of nicotine transdermal patch for treatment of ulcerative colitis have been shown to improve histological and global clinical scores of colitis. Here we report that nicotine (1 microM) suppresses in vitro hyperexcitability of colonic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) (L(1)-L(2)) neurons in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model of acute colonic inflammation. Nicotine gradually reduced regenerative multiple-spike action potentials in colitis mice to a single action potential. Nicotine's effect on hyperexcitability of inflamed neurons was blocked in the presence of an alpha(7)-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, methyllicaconitine, while choline, the alpha(7)-nAChR agonist, induced a similar effect to that of nicotine. Consistent with these findings, nicotine failed to suppress hyperexcitability in colonic DRG neurons from DSS-treated alpha(7) knockout mice. Furthermore, colonic DRG neurons from DSS-treated alpha(7) knockout mice were characterized by lower rheobase (10 +/- 5 vs. 77 +/- 13 pA, respectively) and current threshold (28 +/- 4 vs. 103 +/- 8 pA, respectively) levels than DSS-treated C57BL/J6 mice. An interesting observation of this study is that 8 of 12 colonic DRG (L(1)-L(2)) neurons from control alpha(7) knockout mice exhibited multiple-spike action potential firing while no wild-type neurons did. Overall, our findings suggest that nicotine at low 1 microM concentration suppresses in vitro hyperexcitability of inflamed colonic DRG neurons in a mouse model of acute colonic inflammation via activation of alpha(7)-nAChRs.

  9. Zinc sulphate solution enema decreases inflammation in experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, B W; Wang, H H; Liu, J X; Liu, X G

    1999-11-01

    It has been reported that zinc sulphate contributes an anti-inflammatory action in many animal models; however, the impact of zinc in colitis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of zinc sulphate in experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNB) in rats. Beginning at the first day of TNB colitis, the rats were treated with a zinc sulphate enema once daily for 6 days. The rats were examined 8 days later. The TNB induced severe colitis as evidenced by increased mucosal lesion area, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels. Six days after the application of the zinc sulphate enema, the mucosal lesion area, MPO activity, PGE2 and LTB4 levels all decreased significantly. Mucosal superoxide dismutase activity remained unchanged after zinc treatments. Our data suggest that zinc sulphate enemas have an anti-inflammatory action on experimental colitis.

  10. Effect of Infliximab and Adalimumab on Experimental Colitis Following Orally Supplemented Iron.

    PubMed

    Triantafillidis, John; Vagianos, Costas; Agrogiannis, George; Gikas, Aristofanis; Douvi, Georgia; Syrmos, Nikolaos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Papalois, Apostolos

    2017-02-01

    Orally administered iron can induce colonic inflammation in healthy animals and aggravate experimental colitis. To investigate the influence of the biologic agents infliximab and adalimumab on the severity of TNBS colitis following orally supplemented iron. 204 Wistar rats were allocated into 14 groups. Colitis was induced by TNBS. Iron was administered via a mouth catheter at a dose of 0.027, 0.3, and 3%/kg diet per day, respectively. Infliximab was subcutaneously administered on the 2(nd) and 6(th) day in a dose of 5 mg/kgBW, while adalimumab was administered on the 2(nd) day in a dose of 2 mg/kgBW. On the 8(th) day, all animals were euthanatized. Activity of colitis and extent of tissue damage were assessed histologically. Tissue Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (t-TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (t-MDA) were estimated. In normal rats both agents significantly worsen the degree of inflammation induced by moderate or high iron supplementation despite the disappearance of t-TNF-α, and reduction of t-MDA. In the groups of TNBS colitis and moderate or high iron administration, both agents again significantly worsen the degree of inflammation despite the significant reduction in the t-TNF-α and t-MDA. Adalimumab and infliximab do not ameliorate the inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis aggravated by orally administered iron. These findings might be clinically relevant in patients with active IBD under concurrent treatment with biologic agents and per oral iron.

  11. Sulfate-reducing bacteria stimulate gut immune responses and contribute to inflammation in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Figliuolo, Vanessa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Liliane Martins; Abalo, Alessandra; Nanini, Hayandra; Santos, Angela; Brittes, Nilda M; Bernardazzi, Claudio; de Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira; Vieira, Leda Quercia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; Coutinho, Claudia Mara Lara Melo

    2017-11-15

    The intestinal microbiota is critical for mammalian immune system development and homeostasis. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are part of the normal gut microbiota, but their increased levels may contribute to colitis development, likely in association with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Here, we investigated the effects of SRB in the gut immune response in germ-free mice, and in experimental colitis. After 7days of colonization with Desulfovibrio indonesiensis or with a human SRB consortium (from patients with colitis), germ-free mice exhibited alterations in the colonic architecture, with increased cell infiltration in the lamina propria. SRB colonization upregulated the Th17 and Treg profiles of cytokine production/cell activation, in T cells from mesenteric lymph nodes. These alterations were more pronounced in mice colonized with the human SRB consortium, although D. indonesiensis colonization produced higher levels of H2S. Importantly, the colon of C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by TNBS or oxazolone had increased SRB colonization, and the administration of D. indonesiensis to mice with TNBS-induced colitis clearly exacerbated the alterations in colonic architecture observed in the established disease, and also increased mouse weight loss. We conclude that SRB contribute to immune response activation in the gut and play an important role in colitis development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  13. Exacerbated experimental colitis in TNFAIP8-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Honghong; Lou, Yunwei; Porturas, Thomas; Morrissey, Samantha; Luo, George; Qi, Ji; Ruan, Qingguo; Shi, Songlin; Chen, Youhai H

    2015-06-15

    The TNF-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8 or TIPE) is a risk factor for cancer and bacterial infection, and its expression is upregulated in a number of human cancers. However, its physiologic and pathologic functions are unclear. In this study, we describe the generation of TIPE-deficient mice and their increased sensitivity to colonic inflammation. TIPE-deficient mice were generated by germ line gene targeting and were born without noticeable developmental abnormalities. Their major organs, including lymphoid organs and intestines, were macroscopically and microscopically normal. However, after drinking dextran sodium sulfate-containing water, TIPE-deficient mice developed more severe colitis than wild type mice did, as demonstrated by decreased survival rates, increased body weight loss, and enhanced leukocyte infiltration, bacterial invasion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the colon. Bone marrow chimeric experiments revealed that TIPE deficiency in nonhematopoietic cells was responsible for the exacerbated colitis in TIPE-deficient mice. Consistent with this result, TIPE-deficient intestinal epithelial cells had increased rate of cell death and decreased rate of proliferation as compared with wild type controls. These findings indicate that TIPE plays an important role in maintaining colon homeostasis and in protecting against colitis.

  14. Exacerbated Experimental Colitis In TNFAIP8-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Honghong; Lou, Yunwei; Porturas, Thomas; Morrissey, Samantha; Luo, George; Qi, Ji; Ruan, Qingguo; Shi, Songlin; Chen, Youhai H.

    2015-01-01

    The TNF-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8 or TIPE) is a risk factor for cancer and bacterial infection, and its expression is upregulated in a number of human cancers. However, its physiological and pathological functions are unclear. We describe here the generation of TIPE-deficient mice and their increased sensitivity to colonic inflammation. TIPE-deficient mice were generated by germ line gene targeting and were born without noticeable developmental abnormalities. Their major organs including lymphoid organs and intestines were macroscopically and microscopically normal. However, after drinking dextran sodium sulfate-containing water, TIPE-deficient mice developed more severe colitis than wild type mice, as demonstrated by decreased survival rates, increased body weight loss, and enhanced leukocyte infiltration, bacterial invasion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the colon. Bone marrow chimeric experiments revealed that TIPE deficiency in non-hematopoietic cells was responsible for the exacerbated colitis in TIPE-deficient mice. Consistent with this result, TIPE-deficient intestinal epithelial cells had increased rate of cell death and decreased rate of proliferation as compared to wild type controls. Taken together, these findings indicate that TIPE plays an important role in maintaining colon homeostasis and in protecting against colitis. PMID:25948814

  15. The inflammatory infiltrate in the acute stage of the dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis: B cell response differs depending on the percentage of DSS used to induce it

    PubMed Central

    Stevceva, Liljana; Pavli, Paul; Husband, Alan J; Doe, William F

    2001-01-01

    Background Experimental colitis with features similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has initially been described. A detailed analysis of inflammatory cells has not yet been described. Therefore in this study we characterized the cells involved in the acute phase of the colitis and compared those findings to what is known about human IBD. Methods Colitis was induced in BALB/C and C57Bl6 mice by ingestion of 2.5% and 5% DSS in the drinking water for 8 days. Cells were labelled by immunohistochemical staining with F4/80 and ER-MP20 for macrophages, TIB 120 for MHC Class II presentation, and anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibodies. They were enumerated by using a novel method that employs video image analysis. Immunoglobulin-producing cells were enumerated by immunofluorescent staining for IgA, IgG and IgM and counting by using confocal microscopy. Results Inflammatory infiltrate in the acute phase of the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis consists predominantly of macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils. Neutrophils increase in numbers and crypt abscesses were also seen. Increased macrophage numbers were due to recently recruited monocytes from the peripheral circulation. It does not appear that there are any changes in T cell numbers or distribution. The inflammation induced changes in immunoglobulin-producing cells with IgA-producing cells affected the most. Conclusions The effect on Ig-producing cells depends on the percentage of DSS used to induce colitis. In general, 2.5% DSS induces an increase and 5% DSS a depletion of these cells. PMID:11580872

  16. Eosinophil-mediated signalling attenuates inflammatory responses in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Joanne C; McNamee, Eóin N; Fillon, Sophie A; Hosford, Lindsay; Harris, Rachel; Fernando, Shahan D; Jedlicka, Paul; Iwamoto, Ryo; Jacobsen, Elizabeth; Protheroe, Cheryl; Eltzschig, Holger K; Colgan, Sean P; Arita, Makoto; Lee, James J; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophils reside in the colonic mucosa and increase significantly during disease. Although a number of studies have suggested that eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of GI inflammation, the expanding scope of eosinophil-mediated activities indicate that they also regulate local immune responses and modulate tissue inflammation. We sought to define the impact of eosinophils that respond to acute phases of colitis in mice. Acute colitis was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or oxazolone to C57BL/6J (control) or eosinophil deficient (PHIL) mice. Eosinophils were also depleted from mice using antibodies against interleukin (IL)-5 or by grafting bone marrow from PHIL mice into control mice. Colon tissues were collected and analysed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and reverse transcription PCR; lipids were analysed by mass spectroscopy. Eosinophil-deficient mice developed significantly more severe colitis, and their colon tissues contained a greater number of neutrophils, than controls. This compensatory increase in neutrophils was accompanied by increased levels of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, which attract neutrophils. Lipidomic analyses of colonic tissue from eosinophil-deficient mice identified a deficiency in the docosahexaenoic acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediator 10, 17- dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (diHDoHE), namely protectin D1 (PD1). Administration of an exogenous PD1-isomer (10S, 17S-DiHDoHE) reduced the severity of colitis in eosinophil-deficient mice. The PD1-isomer also attenuated neutrophil infiltration and reduced levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and inducible NO-synthase in colons of mice. Finally, in vitro assays identified a direct inhibitory effect of PD1-isomer on neutrophil transepithelial migration. Eosinophils exert a protective effect in acute mouse colitis, via production of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  17. Preventive effects of Goji berry on dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yifei; Xue, Yansong; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) exerts immune modulation and suppresses inflammation in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that Goji berry had beneficial effects on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice through suppressing inflammation. Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with a standard AIN-93G diet with or without 1% (w/w) Goji berry for 4 weeks. Then, colitis was induced by supplementing 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days, followed by 7 days of remission period to mimic ulcerative colitis symptoms. Goji berry supplementation ameliorated DSS-induced body weight loss, diminished diarrhea and gross bleeding, and resulted in a significantly decreased disease activity index, as well as DSS-associated colon shortening. Moreover, 30% mortality rate caused by DSS-induced colitis was avoided because of Goji berry supplementation. Histologically, Goji berry ameliorated colonic edema, mucosal damage and neutrophil infiltration into colonic intestinal tissue in response to DSS challenge, which was associated with decreased expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2. In conclusion, Goji supplementation confers protective effects against DSS-induced colitis, which is associated with decreased neutrophil infiltration and suppressed inflammation. Thus, dietary Goji is likely beneficial to inflammatory bowel disease patients as a complementary therapeutic strategy.

  18. The matricellular protein CCN1 promotes mucosal healing in murine colitis through IL-6.

    PubMed

    Choi, J S; Kim, K-H; Lau, L F

    2015-11-01

    The matricellular protein CCN1 (CYR61) is known to function in wound healing and is upregulated in colons of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, yet its specific role in colitis is unknown. Here we have used Ccn1(dm/dm) knockin mice expressing a CCN1 mutant unable to bind integrins α6β1 and αMβ2 as a model to probe CCN1 function in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Ccn1(dm/dm) mice exhibited high mortality, impaired mucosal healing, and diminished interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression during the repair phase of DSS-induced colitis compared with wild-type mice, despite having comparable severity of initial inflammation and tissue injury. CCN1-induced IL-6 expression in macrophages through integrin αMβ2 and in fibroblasts through α6β1, and IL-6 promoted intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation. Administration of purified CCN1 protein fully rescued Ccn1(dm/dm) mice from DSS-induced mortality, restored IEC proliferation and enhanced mucosal healing, whereas delivery of IL-6 partially rectified these defects. CCN1 therapy accelerated mucosal healing and recovery from DSS-induced colitis even in wild-type mice. These findings reveal a critical role for CCN1 in restoring mucosal homeostasis after intestinal injury in part through integrin-mediated induction of IL-6 expression, and suggest a therapeutic potential for activating the CCN1/IL-6 axis for treating inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Therapeutic effect of curcumin on experimental colitis mediated by inhibiting CD8+CD11c+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Han, Fei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Xu, Han-Lin; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2017-01-01

    AIM To verify whether curcumin (Cur) can treat inflammatory bowel disease by regulating CD8+CD11c+ cells. METHODS We evaluated the suppressive effect of Cur on CD8+CD11c+ cells in spleen and Peyer’s patches (PPs) in colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Mice with colitis were treated by 200 mg/kg Cur for 7 d. On day 8, the therapeutic effect of Cur was evaluated by visual assessment and histological examination, while co-stimulatory molecules of CD8+CD11c+ cells in the spleen and PPs were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in spleen and colonic mucosa were determined by ELISA. RESULTS The disease activity index, colon weight, weight index of colon and histological score of experimental colitis were obviously decreased after Cur treatment, while the body weight and colon length recovered. After treatment with Cur, CD8+CD11c+ cells were decreased in the spleen and PPs, and the expression of major histocompatibility complex II, CD205, CD40, CD40L and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited. IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared with those in mice with untreated colitis. CONCLUSION Cur can effectively treat experimental colitis, which is realized by inhibiting CD8+CD11c+ cells. PMID:28348486

  20. Therapeutic effect of curcumin on experimental colitis mediated by inhibiting CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Han, Fei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Xu, Han-Lin; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2017-03-14

    To verify whether curcumin (Cur) can treat inflammatory bowel disease by regulating CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells. We evaluated the suppressive effect of Cur on CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells in spleen and Peyer's patches (PPs) in colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Mice with colitis were treated by 200 mg/kg Cur for 7 d. On day 8, the therapeutic effect of Cur was evaluated by visual assessment and histological examination, while co-stimulatory molecules of CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells in the spleen and PPs were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in spleen and colonic mucosa were determined by ELISA. The disease activity index, colon weight, weight index of colon and histological score of experimental colitis were obviously decreased after Cur treatment, while the body weight and colon length recovered. After treatment with Cur, CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells were decreased in the spleen and PPs, and the expression of major histocompatibility complex II, CD205, CD40, CD40L and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited. IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared with those in mice with untreated colitis. Cur can effectively treat experimental colitis, which is realized by inhibiting CD8(+)CD11c(+) cells.

  1. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsui, Toshihito; Sashinami, Hiroshi; Sato, Fuyuki; Kijima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Yoh; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Hakamada, Ken-Ichi; Nakane, Akio

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses IL-10{sup -/-} cell transfer-induced colitis progression. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses Th1- and Th17-related factors in colitis mice. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan enhances Foxp3 expression. -- Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates which are widely distributed in extracellular matrix (ECM). PGs are involved in the construction of ECM, cell proliferation and differentiation. ECM components are involved in transduction of proinflammatory responses, but it is still unknown whether PGs are involved in inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage on the progression of experimental colitis-induced in severe combined immunodeficiency mice by cell transfer from interleukin-10 (IL-10){sup -/-} mice. IL-10{sup -/-} cell-transferred mice showed weight loss, colon shortening and histological appearance of mild colitis. Daily oral administration of PG attenuated the clinical progression of colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Colitis-induced mice showed the elevated expression of IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha}, IL-21, IL-23p19, IL-6, IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor {gamma}t (ROR{gamma}t) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) and oral administration of PG suppressed the expression of these factors. Conversely, expression of Foxp3 that induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells in LPMCs was enhanced by PG administration. These findings suggested that salmon PG attenuated the progression of colitis due to suppression of inflammatory response by enhancement of regulatory T cell induction.

  2. Sodium chloride-enriched Diet Enhanced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Exacerbated Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Ivan; Marafini, Irene; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Di Fusco, Davide; Troncone, Edoardo; Zorzi, Francesca; Laudisi, Federica; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Environmental factors are supposed to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs]. Increased dietary salt intake has been linked with the development of autoimmune diseases, but the impact of a salt-enriched diet on the course of IBD remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether high salt intake alters mucosal cytokine production and exacerbates colitis. Normal intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells [LPMCs] were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] and/or SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38/MAP Kinase. For in vivo experiments, a high dose of NaCl was administered to mice 15 days before induction of trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid [TNBS]-colitis or dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]-colitis. In parallel, mice were given SB202190 before induction of TNBS-colitis. Transcription factors and effector cytokines were evaluated by flow-cytometry and real-time PCR. IL-17A, IL-23R, TNF-α, and Ror-γT were significantly increased in human LPMCs following NaCl exposure, while there was no significant change in IFN-γ, T-bet or Foxp3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38/MAPK abrogated the NaCl-inducing effect on LPMC-derived cytokines. Mice receiving the high-salt diet developed a more severe colitis than control mice, and this effect was preventable by SB202190. Our data indicated that exposure of intestinal mononuclear cells to a high-NaCl diet enhanced effector cytokine production and contributed to the exacerbation of experimental colitis in mice. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Mesenteric Adipose Tissue during Acute Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Mustain, W. Conan; Starr, Marlene E.; Valentino, Joseph D.; Cohen, Donald A.; Okamura, Daiki; Wang, Chi; Evers, B. Mark; Saito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of inflammatory cytokines by mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Animal models of colitis have demonstrated inflammatory changes within MAT, but it is unclear if these changes occur in isolation or as part of a systemic adipose tissue response. It is also unknown what cell types are responsible for cytokine production within MAT. The present study was designed to determine whether cytokine production by MAT during experimental colitis is depot-specific, and also to identify the source of cytokine production within MAT. Methods Experimental colitis was induced in 6-month-old C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (2% in drinking water) for up to 5 days. The induction of cytokine mRNA within various adipose tissues, including mesenteric, epididymal, and subcutaneous, was analyzed by qRT-PCR. These adipose tissues were also examined for histological evidence of inflammation. The level of cytokine mRNA during acute colitis was compared between mature mesenteric adipocytes, mesenteric stromal vascular fraction (SVF), and mesenteric lymph nodes. Results During acute colitis, MAT exhibited an increased presence of infiltrating mononuclear cells and fibrotic structures, as well as decreased adipocyte size. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly increased in MAT but not other adipose tissue depots. Within the MAT, induction of these cytokines was observed mainly in the SVF. Conclusions Acute experimental colitis causes a strong site-specific inflammatory response within MAT, which is mediated by cells of the SVF, rather than mature adipocytes or mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:24386254

  4. The Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Following Experimental Colitis: Role of COX-2 and TNF-Alpha Expression.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelo Jose Dias; Vilegas, Wagner; da Silva, Marcelo Aparecido; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Pastrelo, Mauricio Mercaldi; Ruiz, Pedro Luiz Menin; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive and/or protective action of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (M. caesalpiniifolia) following experimental colitis in rats. The rats were randomized into ten groups (n=10 per group), as follows: G1 - Sham group:; G2 - TNBS group; G3, G4 -colitis and treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. caesalpiniifolia 250 mg/kg/day after and before/after inducing colitis, respectively; G5, G6 - colitis and treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. caesalpiniifolia at 125 mg/kg/day after and before/after inducing colitis respectively; G7,G8 - colitis and treated with ethylacetate fraction of M. caesalpiniifolia at 50 mg/kg/day after and before/after inducing colitis, respectively; G9,G10 - colitis and treated with ethylacetate fraction of M. caesalpiniifolia at 50 mg/kg/day after and before/after inducing colitis, respectively. Rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. caesalpiniifolia for both doses showed lower tissue damage in the distal colon. Ethylacetate fraction was effective at the highest dose only when administrated after inducing colitis. A downregulation of COX-2 was detected to rats suffering colitis and treated with M. caesalpiniifolia at high dose. On the other hand, TNF-alpha immunoexpression decreased in groups treated with M. caesalpiniifolia at low dose after inducing colitis. In summary, our results suggest that M. caesalpiniifolia attenuated the lesions of the colon, reduced inflammation, and modulates the expression of COX-2 and TNF-α during chronic colitis induced by TNBS when using for therapeutic purposes on a dose-dependent manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Etanercept attenuates TNBS-induced experimental colitis: role of TNF-α expression.

    PubMed

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Franco, Marcello

    2011-10-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with gut barrier dysfunction. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role into the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases because its expression is increased in inflamed mucosa of CD patients. Anti-TNF therapy improves significantly mucosal inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Etanercept (ETC), a tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antagonist on the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. A total of 18 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups, as follows: (1) Sham: sham induced-colitis; (2) TNBS: non-treated induced-colitis; (3) ETC control; (4) ETC-treated induced-colitis. Rats from group 4 presented significant improvement either of macroscopic or of histopathological damage in the distal colon. The gene expression of TNF-α mRNA, decreased significantly in this group compared to the TNBS non-treated group. The treatment with etanercept attenuated the colonic damages and reduced the inflammation caused by TNBS. Taken together, our results suggest that ETC attenuates intestinal colitis induced by TNBS in Wistar rats by TNF-α downregulation.

  6. Methyl-deficient diet promotes colitis and SIRT1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Hassan; Hansmannel, Franck; Bressenot, Aude; Battaglia-Hsu, Syue-Fang; Billioud, Vincent; Alberto, Jean Marc; Gueant, Jean Louis; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Methyl donor deficiency (MDD) aggravates experimental colitis in rats and increases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through decreased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in neuronal cells and myocardium. ER stress plays a key role in IBD pathogenesis. We investigated whether the influence of MDD on colitis resulted from an ER stress response triggered by decreased SIRT1 expression. The unfolded protein response (UPR), chaperones proteins, heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) and SIRT1 were examined in rats with MDD and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in a Caco-2 cell model with stable expression of transcobalamin-oleosin (TO) chimera, which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, and in IBD. The effects of SIRT1 activation were studied both in vitro and in vivo. MDD aggravated DSS-induced colitis clinically, endoscopically and histologically. MDD activated ER stress pathways, with increased phosphorylate-PKR-like ER kinase, P-eiF-2α, P-IRE-1α, activating transcription factor (ATF)6, XBP1-S protein and ATF4 mRNA expression levels in rats. This was accompanied by reduced SIRT1 expression level and greater acetylation of HSF1, in relation with a dramatic decrease of chaperones (binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP), heat shock protein (HSP)27 and HSP90). Adding either vitamin B12, S-adenosylmethionine or an SIRT1 activator (SRT1720) reduced the UPR in vitro. In rats, SIRT1 activation by SRT1720 prevented colitis by reducing HSF1 acetylation and increasing expression of BIP, HSP27 and HSP90. Immunohistochemistry showed impaired expression of SIRT1 in the colonic epithelium of patients with IBD. SIRT1 is a master regulator of ER stress and severity of experimental colitis in case of MDD. It could deserve further interest as a therapeutic target of IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. mTOR Inhibition Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing T Cell Proliferation and Balancing TH1/TH17/Treg Profile

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yilin; Wang, Zhengting; Pei, Yaofei; Fan, Rong; Liu, Xiqiang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Sichang; Zhang, Tianyu; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Maochen; Tao, Ran; Zhong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects in models of experimental colitis. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this research, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AZD8055, a potent mTOR inhibitor, on T cell response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, a commonly used animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Severity of colitis is evaluated by changing of body weight, bloody stool, fecal consistency, histology evaluation and cytokine expression. We find that AZD8055 treatment attenuates DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological damage of the colon. And AZD8055 treatment decreases colonic expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-1β,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-a and increases colonic expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10. We show that AZD8055 treatment decreases the percentages of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood of mice. We also find that AZD8055 treatment significantly reduces the number of T helper 1(TH1) cells and TH17 cells and increases regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrates that AZD8055 suppresses the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the differentiation of TH1/TH17 cells and expands Treg cells in vitro. The results suggest that, in experimental colitis, AZD8055 exerts anti-inflammatory effect by regulating T helper cell polarization and proliferation. PMID:27128484

  8. Lactobacillus casei prevents the upregulation of ICAM-1 expression and leukocyte recruitment in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Sandra; Llopis, Marta; Antolín, María; Gironella, Meritxell; Sans, Miquel; Malagelada, Juan Ramon; Piqué, Josep Maria; Guarner, Francisco; Panés, Julián

    2006-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei has been shown to attenuate the severity of experimental colitis. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the effects of L. casei on colitis are related to modulation of leukocyte recruitment into the inflamed intestine. Rats with a colonic segment excluded from fecal transit were surgically prepared. The segment was decontaminated with antibiotics and recolonized with normal flora isolated from the inflamed rat colon, associated or not to L. casei. Control and colitic [2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced] animals were studied. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were characterized in the colonic microcirculation by intravital microscopy, and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression was measured by the radiolabeled antibody technique. Compared with the noninflamed colonic segment, induction of colitis by TNBS provoked a marked increase in the number of leukocytes firmly adherent to the venular wall (0.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.6 leukocytes/100 mum, P < 0.01). Colonization with L. casei significantly reduced the number of adherent leukocytes (1.3 +/- 0.4 leukocytes/100 mum; P < 0.05) but did not affect the increased rolling interactions associated with the induction of colitis. Compared with the noncolitic group, induction of colitis was associated with a marked increase in ICAM-1 expression (117 +/- 4 vs. 180 +/- 3 ng antibody/g tissue) that was abrogated when the colitic segment was colonized by L. casei (117 +/- 3 ng antibody/g tissue, P < 0.05). However, L. casei administration did not modify VCAM-1 upregulation in colitic animals. L. casei attenuates leukocyte recruitment observed in experimental colitis induced by TNBS. This effect is possibly related to abrogation of ICAM-1 upregulation.

  9. IL-9 regulates intestinal barrier function in experimental T cell-mediated colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Katharina; McKenzie, Andrew N; Neurath, Markus F; Weigmann, Benno

    2015-01-01

    As previous studies suggested that IL-9 may control intestinal barrier function, we tested the role of IL-9 in experimental T cell-mediated colitis induced by the hapten reagent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The deficiency of IL-9 suppressed TNBS-induced colitis and led to lower numbers of PU.1 expressing T cells in the lamia propria, suggesting a regulatory role for Th9 cells in the experimental TNBS colitis model. Since IL-9 is known to functionally alter intestinal barrier function in colonic inflammation, we assessed the expression of tight junction molecules in intestinal epithelial cells of TNBS-inflamed mice. Therefore we made real-time PCR analyses for tight junction molecules in the inflamed colon from wild-type and IL-9 KO mice, immunofluorescent stainings and investigated the expression of junctional proteins directly in intestinal epithelial cells of TNBS-inflamed mice by Western blot studies. The results demonstrated that sealing proteins like occludin were up regulated in the colon of inflamed IL-9 KO mice. In contrast, the tight junction protein Claudin1 showed lower expression levels when IL-9 is absent. Surprisingly, the pore-forming molecule Claudin2 revealed equal expression in TNBS-treated wild-type and IL-9-deficient animals. These results illustrate the pleiotropic functions of IL-9 in changing intestinal permeability in experimental colitis. Thus, modulation of IL-9 function emerges as a new approach for regulating barrier function in intestinal inflammation. PMID:25838986

  10. Lactobacillus acidophilus Suppresses Colitis-Associated Activation of the IL-23/Th17 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Linlin; Zou, Yiyou; Peng, Jie; Lu, Fanggen; Yin, Yani; Li, Fujun; Yang, Junwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the modulatory effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the IL-23/Th17 immune axis in experimental colitis. DSS-induced mouse models of UC were to be saline, hormones, and different concentrations of Lactobacillus acidophilus intervention. The expression of interleukin- (IL-) 17, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL-23, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 was examined by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis. And the results showed that administration of L. acidophilus suppressed Th17 cell-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 through downregulation of IL-23 and TGFβ1 expression and downstream phosphorylation of p-STAT3. PMID:25973440

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized triterpenoid-rich fraction isolated from Rubus coreanus on dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and LPS-induced macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Eu-Jin; Choi, Hye-Eun; Seo, Ji-Hyung; An, Hyo-Jin; Park, Hee-Juhn; Cho, Young-Wuk; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2014-12-02

    Rubus coreanus Miquel (Rosaceae), the Korean black raspberry, has traditionally been used to treat inflammatory diseases including diarrhea, asthma, stomach ailment, and cancer. Although previous studies showed that the 19α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoids isolated from Rubus coreanus exerted anti-inflammatory activities, their effects on ulcerative colitis and mode of action have not been explored. This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms involving19α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoid-rich fraction from Rubus coreanus (TFRC) on a mice model of colitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Experimental colitis was induced by DSS for 7 days in ICR mice. Disease activity indices (DAI) took into account body weight, stool consistency, and gross bleeding. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation were observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Pro-inflammatory markers were determined using immunoassays, RT-PCR, and real time PCR. Signaling pathway involving nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation was determined by luciferase assay and Western blotting. In DSS-induced colitis mice, TFRC improved DAIs and pathological characteristics including colon shortening and colonic epithelium injury. TFRC suppressed tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced macrophage infiltration into colonic tissues. In LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, TFRC inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines by down-regulating the activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling. The study demonstrates that TFRC has potent anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colonic injury and LPS-induced macrophage activation, and supports its possible therapeutic and preventive roles in colitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Butyrate and glucose metabolism by colonocytes in experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, M; Krishnan, S; Ramakrishna, B; Mathan, M; Pulimood, A; Murthy, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Impaired colonocyte metabolism of butyrate has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Colonocyte butyrate metabolism was investigated in experimental colitis in mice.
METHODS—Colitis was induced in Swiss outbred white mice by oral administration of 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Colonocytes isolated from colitic and normal control mice were incubated with [14C]butyrate or glucose, and production of 14CO2, as well as of intermediate metabolites (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate), was measured. The effect of different substrate concentrations on oxidation was also examined.
RESULTS—Butyrate oxidation (µmol/h per mg protein; mean (SEM)) was significantly reduced in DSS colitis, values on day 7 of DSS administration being 0.177 (0.007) compared with 0.406 (0.035) for control animals (p<0.001). Glucose oxidation (µmol/h per mg protein; mean (SEM)) on day 7 of DSS administration was significantly higher than in controls (0.06 (0.006) v 0.027 (0.004), p<0.001). Production of β-hydroxybutyrate was decreased and production of lactate increased in DSS colitis compared with controls. Increasing butyrate concentration from 10 to 80 mM enhanced oxidation in DSS colitis (0.036 (0.002) to 0.285 (0.040), p<0.001), although it continued to remain lower than in controls. Surface and crypt epithelial cells showed similar ratios of butyrate to glucose oxidation. When 1 mM DSS was added to normal colonocytes in vitro, it did not alter butyrate oxidation. The initial histological lesion of DSS administration was very patchy and involved crypt cells. Abnormal butyrate oxidation became apparent only after six days of DSS administration, at which time histological abnormalities were more widespread.
CONCLUSIONS—Colonocyte metabolism of butyrate, but not of glucose, is impaired in DSS colitis, and may be important in pathophysiology. Histological abnormalities preceded measurable defects in butyrate

  13. Experimental colitis is ameliorated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Okon, E; Bursztyn, M

    1995-01-01

    Enhanced nitric oxide (NO) generation by stimulated NO synthase (NOS) activity may, through its oxidative metabolism contribute to tissue injury in experimental colitis. In this study the possible amelioration of experimental colitis by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NOS activity, was evaluated. Colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 30 mg trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNB) dissolved in 0.25 ml 50% ethanol or by flushing the colon of capsaicin pretreated rats with 2 ml of 5% acetic acid. In several experiments, L-NAME 0.1 mg/ml was added to the drinking water at the time of colitis induction with TNB or seven days before acetic acid treatment. Rats were killed at various time intervals after induction of colitis. A 10 cm distal colonic segment was isolated, weighed, lesion area measured, and explants organ cultured for 24 hours for determination of NO generation by the Greiss reaction. The rest of the mucosa was scraped for determination of myeloperoxidase and NOS activities and leukotriene generation. In TNB treated rats mean arterial pressure was also determined up to 72 hours after damage induction, with or without cotreatment with nitroprusside. L-NAME significantly decreased the extent of tissue injury in TNB treated rats. Seven days after TNB treatment lesion area was reduced by 55%, colonic weight by 37%, and myeloperoxidase and NOS activity by 59% and 42%, respectively. Acetic acid induced colitis in capsaicin pretreated rats was also significantly decreased by L-NAME. Twenty four hours after acetic acid treatment lesion area was reduced by 61%, colonic weight by 21% and NOS activity by 39%. Mean (SEM) arterial blood pressure in TNB+L-NAME treated rats was 37.6 (8.1) mm Hg higher than in TNB treated rats, an effect that was only partially abolished by nitroprusside. These results show that inhibition of NO synthesis by an L-arginine analogue significantly ameliorates the extent of tissue injury in two

  14. Preparation, characterization and anti-colitis activity of curcumin-asafoetida complex encapsulated in turmeric nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Sreeraj; Amalraj, Augustine; Jude, Shintu; Varma, Karthik; Sreeraj, T R; Haponiuk, Józef T; Thomas, Sabu

    2017-12-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a main form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Asafoetida (ASF) and turmeric have traditionally been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including UC, because ASF is rich in sulfur compounds and turmeric contains curcumin (CUR). Turmeric nanofiber (TNF), the modified cell wall component of turmeric is considered to play important role in the human diet, health and can be used as a carrier agent to encapsulate bioactive components. A novel gut health product (GHP) was formulated by encapsulation of ASF and CUR complex onto TNF. The GHP was characterized by UPLC, GC-MS, FTIR, XRD, SEM with EDS and DSC studies. GHP was evaluated for anti-colitis activity in a rat model of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced UC. Treatment with GHP significantly attenuated the disease activity index, colitis score, histopathological changes and myeloperoxidase activity. GHP has significant protective effects against DSS induced colitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recombinant probiotic therapy in experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gardlik, R; Palffy, R; Celec, P

    2012-01-01

    Recently, high interest has been attracted to the research of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Recombinant probiotic bacteria may represent an interesting way to influence the course of IBD. Their benefits include cheap and simple production and easy manipulation of the genetic material. Several gene therapy and probiotic approaches already showed promising results in the past. The aim of this study was to test the probiotic potential of IL-10-expressing Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in a mouse model of IBD and to compare it with control bacterial strains. The dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of colitis was examined for this purpose. Animals received control probiotic bacteria or modified probiotics (expressing IL-10) via gastric gavage. Body weight, stool consistency, food and water consumption were monitored. At the end of the experiment, the parameters of inflammation, oxidative stress and carbonyl stress were analysed in the samples and statistical analysis was performed. We prepared an anti-inflammatory probiotic Escherichia coli strain that we designated Nissle 1917/pMEC-IL10 and proved its anti-inflammatory properties, which are similar to those of the control probiotic strains Nissle 1917 and Lactococcus lactis/pMEC-IL10 in vivo. The probiotic therapy was successful according to several parameters, including colon length, and oxidative and carbonyl stress. Bacterially produced IL-10 was detected in the plasma. The potential of bacterial anti-inflammatory therapy of IBD using modified probiotics was outlined. The results opened a way for upcoming studies using modified probiotics for therapy of systemic diseases.

  16. Preventive and curative effect of Pistacia lentiscus oil in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Naouar, Mustafa S; Mekki, Lilia Zouiten; Charfi, Lamia; Boubaker, Jalel; Filali, Azza

    2016-10-01

    to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the Pistacia lentiscus oil in experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced in male rats by instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in all groups. The experimental groups consisted of: 5 rats received Lentisc oil 2months before colitis induction (preventive group), 5 rats received the oil on the day of colitis induction (curative group) and 5 control rats. Lentisc oil was extracted from the ripe fruit of the plant by the cold press method and was analyzed by spectro-chromatography. Lentisc oil has been inserted with a standard diet at the dose of 30mg oil/100g of food/rat. The lentisc oil sample is composed mainly by Oleic acid (47.96%), Palmitic acid (27.94%) and Linoleic acid (20.22%).There was a significant difference between control rats and treated rats with lentisc oil concerned body mass (p=0.009), bleeding index (p=0.005 and p=0.018) and diarrhea (p=0.012). Histological examination revealed a clear difference between the control and preventive groups with disappearance of erosion, decreased of cryptitis, irregular crypts and crypt loss in the preventive group. Curative group showed a significant decrease of ulceration, hyperplasia, cryptitis, irregular crypts and crypt loss compared to the control group. There was an attenuation of inflammation in the preventive group compared to the curative group without statistically significant. Lentisc oil administration could provide a protective effect on intestinal inflammation in colitis rats induced by TNBS mainly when it is administered at a young age in preventive mode. This beneficial effect would involve a modification of arachidonic acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-dependent control of murine emotional-affective behaviour in health and colitis by peptide YY and neuropeptide Y

    PubMed Central

    Painsipp, Evelin; Herzog, Herbert; Sperk, Günther; Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are involved in regulating gut and brain function. Because gastrointestinal inflammation is known to enhance anxiety, we explored whether experimental colitis interacts with genetic deletion (knockout) of PYY and NPY to alter emotional-affective behaviour. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Male and female wild-type, NPY (NPY−/−), PYY (PYY−/−) and NPY−/−; PYY−/− double knockout mice were studied in the absence and presence of mild colitis induced by ingestion of dextran sulphate sodium (2%) in drinking water. Anxiety-like behaviour was tested on the elevated plus maze and open field, and depression-like behaviour assessed by the forced swim test. KEY RESULTS In the absence of colitis, anxiety-like behaviour was increased by deletion of NPY but not PYY in a test- and sex-dependent manner, while depression-like behaviour was enhanced in NPY−/− and PYY−/− mice of either sex. The severity of DSS-induced colitis, assessed by colonic myeloperoxidase content, was attenuated in NPY−/− but not PYY−/− mice. Colitis modified anxiety- and depression-related behaviour in a sex-, genotype- and test-related manner, and knockout experiments indicated that NPY and PYY were involved in some of these behavioural effects of colitis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data demonstrate sex-dependent roles of NPY and PYY in regulation of anxiety- and depression-like behaviour in the absence and presence of colitis. Like NPY, the gut hormone PYY has the potential to attenuate depression-like behaviour but does not share the ability of NPY to reduce anxiety-like behaviour. PMID:21410462

  18. Pglyrp-Regulated Gut Microflora Prevotella falsenii, Parabacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides eggerthii Enhance and Alistipes finegoldii Attenuates Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dziarski, Roman; Dowd, Scot E.; Gupta, Dipika

    2016-01-01

    Dysbiosis is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear which specific intestinal bacteria predispose to and which protect from IBD and how they are regulated. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrps) are antibacterial, participate in maintaining intestinal microflora, and modulate inflammatory responses. Mice deficient in any one of the four Pglyrp genes are more sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and stools from Pglyrp-deficient mice transferred to wild type (WT) germ-free mice predispose them to much more severe colitis than stools from WT mice. However, the identities of these Pglyrp-regulated bacteria that predispose Pglyrp-deficient mice to colitis or protect WT mice from colitis are not known. Here we identified significant changes in β-diversity of stool bacteria in Pglyrp-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The most consistent changes in microbiome in all Pglyrp-deficient mice were in Bacteroidales, from which we selected four species, two with increased abundance (Prevotella falsenii and Parabacteroides distasonis) and two with decreased abundance (Bacteroides eggerthii and Alistipes finegoldii). We then gavaged WT mice with stock type strains of these species to test the hypothesis that they predispose to or protect from DSS-induced colitis. P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii all enhanced DSS-induced colitis in both WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora. By contrast, A. finegoldii (which is the most abundant species in WT mice) attenuated DSS-induced colitis both in WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora, similar to the colitis protective effect of the entire normal microflora. These results identify P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii as colitis-promoting species and A. finegoldii as colitis-protective species. PMID

  19. Pglyrp-Regulated Gut Microflora Prevotella falsenii, Parabacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides eggerthii Enhance and Alistipes finegoldii Attenuates Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dziarski, Roman; Park, Shin Yong; Kashyap, Des Raj; Dowd, Scot E; Gupta, Dipika

    2016-01-01

    Dysbiosis is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear which specific intestinal bacteria predispose to and which protect from IBD and how they are regulated. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrps) are antibacterial, participate in maintaining intestinal microflora, and modulate inflammatory responses. Mice deficient in any one of the four Pglyrp genes are more sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and stools from Pglyrp-deficient mice transferred to wild type (WT) germ-free mice predispose them to much more severe colitis than stools from WT mice. However, the identities of these Pglyrp-regulated bacteria that predispose Pglyrp-deficient mice to colitis or protect WT mice from colitis are not known. Here we identified significant changes in β-diversity of stool bacteria in Pglyrp-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The most consistent changes in microbiome in all Pglyrp-deficient mice were in Bacteroidales, from which we selected four species, two with increased abundance (Prevotella falsenii and Parabacteroides distasonis) and two with decreased abundance (Bacteroides eggerthii and Alistipes finegoldii). We then gavaged WT mice with stock type strains of these species to test the hypothesis that they predispose to or protect from DSS-induced colitis. P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii all enhanced DSS-induced colitis in both WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora. By contrast, A. finegoldii (which is the most abundant species in WT mice) attenuated DSS-induced colitis both in WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora, similar to the colitis protective effect of the entire normal microflora. These results identify P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii as colitis-promoting species and A. finegoldii as colitis-protective species.

  20. Preventive Therapy of Experimental Colitis with Selected iron Chelators and Anti-oxidants

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Mostaghel, Elahe; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Iron chelators, such as maltol and kojic acid, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) because iron can develop and aggravate inflammation in IBD. In the present study, the effect of selected iron chelators and anti-oxidants were evaluated on a model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Methods: Colitis was induced with instillation of 75 mg/kg TNBS in 0.25 ml ethanol 50% via the anus in fasted male Wistar rats. The animals were assigned randomly to 12 groups (n = 6) and treated once daily, started 2 hours before colitis induction, with normal saline (5 ml/kg), maltol (70, 140, 280 mg/kg), kojic acid (75, 150, 300 mg/kg), vitamin E (400 mg/kg), deferiprone (L1) (150 mg/kg) and prednisolone (4 mg/kg) orally and deferoxamine (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 5 days. In the sixth day, rats were scarified and colon tissues were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Maltol (280 mg/kg) was able to reduce colon weight / length ratio, ulcer index and total colitis index similar to prednisolone, deferoxamine and deferiprone as positive controls. However, kojic acid and vitamin E could not significantly alleviate macroscopic and/or pathologic features of inflammation in comparison to normal saline. Conclusions: Maltol with the highest test dose was capable to protect against experimentally induced colitis. Kojic acid and vitamin E were not effective in this animal model of colon inflammation. More detailed studies are warranted to explore the mechanisms involved in anti-colitic property of maltol and to explain ineffectiveness of kojic acid and vitamin E. PMID:22826760

  1. Reversal of experimental colitis disease activity in mice following administration of an adenoviral IL-10 vector

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Makoto; Mathis, J Michael; Jennings, Merilyn H; Jordan, Paul; Wang, Yuping; Ando, Tomoaki; Joh, Takashi; Alexander, J Steven

    2005-01-01

    Genetic deficiency in the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with the onset and progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The clinical significance of IL-10 expression is supported by studies showing that immune-augmentation of IL-10 prevents inflammation and mucosal damage in animal models of colitis and in human colitis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating cytokine, has been shown to prevent some inflammation and injury in animal and clinical studies, but the efficacy of IL-10 treatment remains unsatisfactory. We found that intra-peritoneal administration of adenoviral IL-10 to mice significantly reversed colitis induced by administration of 3% DSS (dextran sulfate), a common model of colitis. Adenoviral IL-10 (Ad-IL10) transfected mice developed high levels of IL-10 (394 +/- 136 pg/ml) within the peritoneal cavity where the adenovirus was expressed. Importantly, when given on day 4 (after the induction of colitis w/DSS), Ad-IL10 significantly reduced disease activity and weight loss and completely prevented histopathologic injury to the colon at day 10. Mechanistically, compared to Ad-null and DSS treated mice, Ad-IL10 and DSS-treated mice were able to suppress the expression of MAdCAM-1, an endothelial adhesion molecule associated with IBD. Our results suggest that Ad-IL10 (adenoviral IL-10) gene therapy of the intestine or peritoneum may be useful in the clinical treatment of IBD, since we demonstrated that this vector can reverse the course of an existing gut inflammation and markers of inflammation. PMID:16259632

  2. Gene Expression Patterns in Experimental Colitis in IL-10 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jonathan J.; Holt, Lisa; Sartor, R. Balfour

    2009-01-01

    While others have described gene expression patterns in humans with inflammatory bowel diseases and animals with chemically-induced colitis, a genome-wide comparison of gene expression in genetically susceptible animals that develop spontaneous colitis has not been reported. We used microarray technology to compare gene expression profiles in cecal specimens from specific pathogen-free IL10-deficient (IL10−/−) mice with colitis and normal wild-type (WT) mice. RNA isolated from ceca of IL10−/− and WT mice was subjected to microarray analysis. Results were confirmed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy of selected molecules. Expression of the selected genes in DSS-treated mice with colitis and epithelial cell lines activated with pathophysiologic stimuli was measured by real-time PCR. Histological inflammation of the colon and IL-12/23p40 secretion from intestinal explants were greater in IL10−/− and DSS-treated mice vs. WT and untreated mice. Microarray analysis demonstrated >10-fold induction of the following molecules in the ceca of IL10−/− mice: Mitochondrial ribosomal protein-L33, aquaporin-4, indoleamine-pyrrole-2,3- dioxygenase, and MHC class II with 63, 25, 20, and 12-fold increases, respectively. Cytochrome-P450, pancreatic lipase-related protein-2, and transthyretin were down-regulated in IL10−/− mice. MHC II was increased throughout the colon, and aquaporin-4 was increased in the basolateral aspect of cecal epithelial cells. MHC II mRNA was increased in epithelial cells treated with IFNγ, but not TNF or Toll-like receptor ligands. Although most upregulated genes in experimental colitis are immune-related, aquaporin-4 and mitochondrial ribosomal protein, which have not been previously associated with inflammation, were most highly upregulated. PMID:19133689

  3. Lipid Alterations in Experimental Murine Colitis: Role of Ceramide and Imipramine for Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jessica; Liebisch, Gerhard; Hofmann, Claudia; Huy, Christian; Schmitz, Gerd; Obermeier, Florian; Bock, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary lipids or pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism are potential therapeutic strategies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we analysed alterations of bioactive lipids in experimental models of colitis and examined the functional consequence of the second messenger ceramide in inflammatory pathways leading to tissue destruction. Methodology/Principal Findings Chronic colitis was induced by dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) or transfer of CD4+CD62L+ cells into RAG1−/−-mice. Lipid content of isolated murine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of MMP-1 in supernatants of Caco-2-IEC and human intestinal fibroblasts from patients with ulcerative colitis were determined by ELISA. Imipramine was used for pharmacologic inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Ceramide increased by 71% in chronic DSS–induced colitis and by 159% in the transfer model of colitis. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) decreased by 22% in both models. No changes were detected for phosphatidylcholine. Generation of ceramide by exogenous SMase increased MMP-1-protein production of Caco-2-IEC up to 7-fold. Inhibition of ASM completely abolished the induction of MMP-1 by TNF or IL-1β in Caco-2-IEC and human intestinal fibroblasts. Conclusions/Significance Mucosal inflammation leads to accumulation of ceramide and decrease of LPC in the intestinal epithelium. One aspect of ceramide generation is an increase of MMP-1. Induction of MMP-1 by TNF or IL-1β is completely blocked by inhibition of ASM with imipramine. Therefore, inhibition of ASM may offer a treatment strategy to reduce MMP-1 expression and tissue destruction in inflammatory conditions. PMID:19787068

  4. Validation and optimization of experimental colitis induction in rats using 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Motavallian-Naeini, A.; Andalib, S.; Rabbani, M.; Mahzouni, P.; Afsharipour, M.; Minaiyan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is one of the most common methods for studying inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. Several factors may, however, affect its reproducibility, rate of animal mortality, and macroscopic and histopathological outcomes. Our aim was to validate the main contributing factors to this method and compare the effects of different reference drugs upon remission of resultant colon injuries. TNBS was dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol (50% v/v) and instilled (25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) intracolonically to the male Wistar rats. After determination of optimum dose of TNBS in male rats and assessment of this dose in female rats, they were treated with reference drugs including dexamethasone [1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 2 mg/kg, orally (p.o.)], Asacol (mesalazine, 100 mg/kg, p.o.; 150 mg/kg, enema) and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.; 20 mg/kg, enema) which started 2 h after colitis induction and continued daily for 6 consecutive days. Thereafter, macroscopic and microscopic parameters and clinical features were assessed and compared in different groups. We found that the optimum dose of TNBS for the reproducibility of colonic damage with the least mortality rate was 50 mg/kg. Amongst studied reference drugs, hydrocortisone acetate (i.p.), dexamethasone (i.p. and p.o.) and Asacol (p.o.) significantly diminished the severity of macroscopic and microscopic injuries and could be considered effective for experimental colitis studies in rats . Our findings suggest that optimization of TNBS dose is essential for induction of colitis under the laboratory conditions; and gender exerts no impact upon macroscopic and histological characteristics of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Furthermore, the enema forms of hydrocortisone and Asacol are not appropriate reference drugs. PMID:23181094

  5. Increased expression of transforming growth factor α precursors in acute experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, P; Zeeh, J; Lakshmanan, J; Wu, V; Procaccino, F; Reinshagen, M; McRoberts, J; Eysselein, V

    1997-01-01

    Background and aim—Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor α (TGF-α), members of the EGF family of growth factors, protect rat gastric and colonic mucosa against injury. Having shown previously that exogenously applied EGF protects rat colonic mucosa against injury, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the endogenously expressed ligand mediating the protective effect of EGF/TGF-α in vivo. 
Methods—In an experimental model of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)/ ethanol induced colitis in rats EGF and TGF-α expression was evaluated using a ribonuclease protection assay, northern blot analysis, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. 
Results—TGF-α mRNA increased 3-4 times at 4-8 hours after induction of colitis and returned to control levels within 24 hours. TGF-α immunoreactive protein with a molecular size of about 28kDa representing TGF-α precursors increased markedly after induction of colitis with a peak at 8-12 hours. No fully processed 5.6 kDa TGF-α protein was detected in normal or inflamed colon tissue. Only a weak signal for EGF mRNA expression was detected in the rat colon and no EGF protein was observed by immunohistochemistry or western blot analysis. 
Conclusions—TGF-α precursors are the main ligands for the EGF receptor in acute colitis. It is hypothesised that TGF-α precursors convey the biological activity of endogenous TGF-α peptides during mucosal defence and repair. 

 Keywords: transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α); epidermal growth factor (EGF); precursor molecules; colitis; rat PMID:9301498

  6. Downregulation of FoxC2 Increased Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: Influence of Lymphatic Drainage Function?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Felix; Potepalov, Sergey; Shehzahdi, Romana; Bernas, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Abreo, Fleurette; Traylor, James; Orr, Wayne A.; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although inflammation-induced expansion of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature (lymphangiogenesis) is known to be a crucial event in limiting inflammatory processes, through clearance of interstitial fluid and immune cells, considerably less is known about the impact of an impaired lymphatic clearance function (as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases) on this cascade. We aimed to investigate whether the impaired intestinal lymphatic drainage function observed in FoxC2(+/−) mice would influence the course of disease in a model of experimental colitis. Methods: Acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in wild-type and haploinsufficient FoxC2(+/−) mice, and survival, disease activity, colonic histopathological injury, neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. Functional and structural changes in the intestinal lymphatic vessel network were analyzed, including submucosal edema, vessel morphology, and lymphatic vessel density. Results: We found that FoxC2 downregulation in FoxC2(+/−) mice significantly increased the severity and susceptibility to experimental colitis, as displayed by lower survival rates, increased disease activity, greater histopathological injury, and elevated colonic neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration. These findings were accompanied by structural (dilated torturous lymphatic vessels) and functional (greater submucosal edema, higher immune cell burden) changes in the intestinal lymphatic vasculature. Conclusions: These results indicate that sufficient lymphatic clearance plays a crucial role in limiting the initiation and perpetuation of experimental colitis and those disturbances in the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic vessel network could intensify intestinal inflammation. Future therapies might be able to exploit these processes to restore and maintain adequate lymphatic clearance function in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25822012

  7. Effect of Boswellia serrata on antioxidant status in an experimental model of colitis rats induced by acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; Morgan Martins, Maria Isabel; Tieppo, Juliana; Fillmann, Henrique Sarubbi; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant effect of an extract of the plant Boswellia serrata in an experimental model of acute ulcerative colitis induced by administration of acetic acid (AA) in rats. The extract of B. serrata (34.2 mg/kg/day) was administered orally by gavage for 2 days before and after induction of colitis with AA diluted to 4 % and in a volume of 4 ml. The anal sphincter pressure in the groups treated with B. serrata showed a significant increase compared to the colitis group (P < 0.001). Histological analysis of treated animals showed less edema with preservation of mucosal crypts. Lipid peroxidation showed a significant decrease in the treated groups compared to the colitis group (P < 0.001). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity showed a significant reduction in the treated groups compared to the colitis group (P < 0.001), the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) significantly increased in the treated groups compared to colitis group (P < 0.05), and the same was the result for enzyme activity glutathione (GSH; P < 0.05). The extract of B. serrata has active antioxidant substances that exert protective effects in acute experimental colitis.

  8. Clcn5 Knockout Mice Exhibit Novel Immunomodulatory Effects and Are More Susceptible to Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Philip; Ye, Mei; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Sipes, Jennifer; Nguyen, Thuan; Suhodrev, Maxim; Gonzales, Liberty; Arora, Zubin; Zhang, Ting; Centola, Michael; Guggino, Sandra E.; Li, Xuhang

    2015-01-01

    Although the intracellular Cl−/H+ exchanger Clc-5 is expressed in apical intestinal endocytic compartments, its pathophysiological role in the gastrointestinal tract is unknown. In light of recent findings that CLC-5 is downregulated in active ulcerative colitis (UC), we tested the hypothesis that loss of CLC-5 modulates the immune response, thereby inducing susceptibility to UC. Acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis was induced in Clcn5 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Colitis, monitored by disease activity index, histological activity index, and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly elevated in DSS-induced Clcn5 KO mice compared with those in WT mice. Comprehensive serum multiplex cytokine profiling demonstrated a heightened Th1–Th17 profile (increased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17) in DSS-induced Clcn5 KO mice compared with that in WT DSS colitis mice. Interestingly, Clcn5 KO mice maintained on a high vitamin D diet attenuated DSS-induced colitis. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses of colonic mucosa validated the systemic cytokine patterns and further revealed enhanced activation of the NF-κB pathway in DSS-induced Clcn5 KO mice compared with those in WT mice. Intriguingly, high baseline levels of IL-6 and phospho-IκB were observed in Clcn5 KO mice, suggesting a novel immunopathogenic role for the functional defects that result from the loss of Clc-5. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of Clc-5 1) exhibits IL-6–mediated immunopathogenesis, 2) significantly exacerbated DSS-induced colitis, which is influenced by dietary factors, including vitamin D, and 3) portrays distinct NF-κB–modulated Th1–Th17 immune dysregulation, implying a role for CLC-5 in the immunopathogenesis of UC. PMID:20181886

  9. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-α It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-α and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-α. PMID:23569927

  10. Lessons from probiotic-host interaction studies in murine models of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Claes, Ingmar J J; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), it is known that besides genetic and environmental factors (e.g. diet, drugs, stress), the microbiota play an important role in the pathogenesis. Patients with IBD have an altered microbiota (dysbiosis) and therefore, probiotics, defined as 'live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts can confer a health benefit on the host', have been suggested as nutritional supplements to restore these imbalances. The best response on probiotics among the different types of IBD appears to be in the case of ulcerative colitis. Although probiotics show promise in IBD in both clinical and animal studies, further mechanistic studies are necessary to optimize the use of probiotics as supporting therapy in IBD. Murine models of experimental colitis have been used for decades to study this pathology, and these models have been proven useful to search for new therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this review is to summarize probiotic-host interaction studies in murine models of experimental colitis and to evaluate how these models can further help in understanding these complex interactions. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms behind the beneficial effects will assist in better and possibly more efficient probiotic formulations.

  11. Adenosine Receptor Stimulation by Polydeoxyribonucleotide Improves Tissue Repair and Symptomology in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pallio, Giovanni; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Squadrito, Francesco; Squadrito, Giovanni; Pallio, Socrate; Anastasi, Giuseppe P.; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Macrì, Antonio; Altavilla, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the adenosine receptor pathway has been demonstrated to be effective in improving tissue remodeling and blunting the inflammatory response. Active colitis is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction resulting in extensive tissue damage. Symptomatic improvement requires both control of the inflammatory process and repair and remodeling of damaged tissues. We investigated the ability of an A2A receptor agonist, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), to restore tissue structural integrity in two experimental colitis models using male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first model, colitis was induced with a single intra-colonic instillation of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), 25 mg diluted in 0.8 ml 50% ethanol. After 6 h, animals were randomized to receive either PDRN (8 mg/kg/i.p.), or PDRN + the A2A antagonist [3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX); 10 mg/kg/i.p.], or vehicle (0.8 ml saline solution) daily. In the second model, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was dissolved in drinking water at a concentration of 8%. Control animals received standard drinking water. After 24 h animals were randomized to receive PDRN or PDRN+DMPX as described above. Rats were sacrificed 7 days after receiving DNBS or 5 days after DSS. In both experimental models of colitis, PDRN ameliorated the clinical symptoms and weight loss associated with disease as well as promoted the histological repair of damaged tissues. Moreover, PDRN reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde. All these effects were abolished by the concomitant administration of the A2A antagonist DMPX. Our study suggests that PDRN may represent a promising treatment for improving tissue repair during inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27601997

  12. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) deficiency protects mice against severe forms of experimentally induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bendjelloul, F; Malý, P; Mandys, V; Jirkovská, M; Prokešová, L; Tučková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2000-01-01

    ICAM-1 (CD54), the ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1, is up-regulated during inflammatory reaction on the activated vascular endothelium. To determine its role in intestinal inflammation, we induced acute experimental colitis in mice with a deleted ICAM-1 gene, by feeding them with 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Chronic colitis was elicited by DSS similarly, followed by 2 weeks with water. In the acute phase of inflammation, ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited a significantly lower mortality rate (5%) than control C57Bl/6J mice (35%). Control animals, but not the ICAM-1-deficient mice, exhibited diarrhoea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of large-bowel samples evaluated the intensity of inflammatory changes, and type and extent of mucosal lesions. In the acute phase, 33.3% of samples from ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited mucosal defects (flat and fissural ulcers), predominantly mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrate within the lamina propria mucosae and lower grades of mucosal lesions. Much stronger inflammatory changes were present in control animals, flat ulcers (sometimes multiple) and fissural ulcers being observed in 62.5% of samples. Mucosal inflammatory infiltrate was moderate to severe, typically with higher grades of mucosal lesions. In chronic colitis, smaller inflammatory changes were found in the large bowel. The two mouse strains differed, the chronic colitis being accompanied by an increased serum level of anti-epithelial IgA autoantibodies in C57Bl/6 control mice but not in ICAM-1-deficient mice. These findings provide direct evidence of the participation of ICAM-1 molecule in the development of experimentally induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:10606964

  13. Genetic deletion of IL-25 (IL-17E) confers resistance to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IL-25 is emerging as a key regulator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa because of its ability to promote Th2 while suppressing Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses. We investigated the contribution of endogenous IL-25 to DSS-induced colitis in mice. Mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water ad li...

  14. Adrenal-Derived Hormones Differentially Modulate Intestinal Immunity in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Patrícia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angelica; Banquieri, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are able to modulate immune responses through neuroimmunoendocrine interactions and cortisol secretion that could suppress exacerbated inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, here we evaluated the role of these glands in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice subjected to adrenalectomy, with or without glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. Mice succumbed to colitis without adrenals with a higher clinical score and augmented systemic levels of IL-6 and lower LPS. Furthermore, adrenalectomy negatively modulated systemic regulatory markers. The absence of adrenals resulted in augmented tolerogenic lamina propria dendritic cells but no compensatory local production of corticosterone and decreased mucosal inflammation associated with increased IFN-γ and FasL in the intestine. To clarify the importance of GC in this scenario, GC replacement in adrenalectomized mice restored different markers to the same degree of that observed in DSS group. Finally, this is the first time that adrenal-derived hormones, especially GC, were associated with the differential local modulation of the gut infiltrate, also pointing to a relationship between adrenalectomy and the modulation of systemic regulatory markers. These findings may elucidate some neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms that dictate colitis outcome. PMID:27403034

  15. Vinegar Treatment Prevents the Development of Murine Experimental Colitis via Inhibition of Inflammation and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fengge; Feng, Jiaxuan; Wang, Xinhui; Qi, Zhimin; Shi, Xiaochen; An, Yanan; Zhang, Qiaoli; Wang, Chao; Liu, Mingyuan; Liu, Bo; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-10

    This study investigated the preventive effects of vinegar and acetic acid (the active component of vinegar) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Vinegar (5% v/v) or acetic acid (0.3% w/v) treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index and histopathological scores, attenuated body weight loss, and shortened the colon length in a murine experimental colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Further mechanistic analysis showed that vinegar inhibited inflammation through suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses, the NLRP3 inflammasome, and MAPK signaling activation. Vinegar also inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis in the colitis mouse model. Surprisingly, pretreatment with vinegar for 28 days before DSS induction increased levels of the commensal lactic acid-producing or acetic acid-producing bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, and Enterococcus faecalis, whereas decreased Escherichia coli levels were found in the feces of mice. These results suggest that vinegar supplementation might provide a new dietary strategy for the prevention of UC.

  16. Antepartum Antibiotic Treatment Increases Offspring Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: A Role of the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Munyaka, Peris Mumbi; Eissa, N.; Bernstein, Charles Noah; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Postnatal maturation of the immune system is largely driven by exposure to microbes, and thus the nature of intestinal colonization may be associated with development of childhood diseases that may persist into adulthood. We investigated whether antepartum antibiotic (ATB) therapy can increase offspring susceptibility to experimental colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota. Methods Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were treated with cefazolin at 160 mg/kg body weight or with saline starting six days before due date. At 7 weeks, fecal samples were collected from male offspring after which they received 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. Disease activity index, histology, colonic IL-6, IL-1β and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. The V3-V4 region of colonic and fecal bacterial 16S rRNA was sequenced. Alpha-, beta-diversity and differences at the phylum and genus levels were determined, while functional pathways of classified bacteria were predicted. Results ATB influenced fecal bacterial composition and hence bacterial functional pathways before induction of colitis. After induction of colitis, ATB increased onset of clinical disease, histologic score, and colonic IL-6. In addition, ATB decreased fecal microbial richness, changed fecal and colon microbial composition, which was accompanied by a modification of microbial functional pathways. Also, several taxa were associated with ATB at lower taxonomical levels. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that antepartum antibiotics modulate offspring intestinal bacterial colonization and increase susceptibility to develop colonic inflammation in a murine model of colitis, and may guide future interventions to restore physiologic intestinal colonization in offspring born by antibiotic-exposed mothers. PMID:26605545

  17. Antepartum Antibiotic Treatment Increases Offspring Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: A Role of the Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Munyaka, Peris Mumbi; Eissa, N; Bernstein, Charles Noah; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal maturation of the immune system is largely driven by exposure to microbes, and thus the nature of intestinal colonization may be associated with development of childhood diseases that may persist into adulthood. We investigated whether antepartum antibiotic (ATB) therapy can increase offspring susceptibility to experimental colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were treated with cefazolin at 160 mg/kg body weight or with saline starting six days before due date. At 7 weeks, fecal samples were collected from male offspring after which they received 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. Disease activity index, histology, colonic IL-6, IL-1β and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. The V3-V4 region of colonic and fecal bacterial 16S rRNA was sequenced. Alpha-, beta-diversity and differences at the phylum and genus levels were determined, while functional pathways of classified bacteria were predicted. ATB influenced fecal bacterial composition and hence bacterial functional pathways before induction of colitis. After induction of colitis, ATB increased onset of clinical disease, histologic score, and colonic IL-6. In addition, ATB decreased fecal microbial richness, changed fecal and colon microbial composition, which was accompanied by a modification of microbial functional pathways. Also, several taxa were associated with ATB at lower taxonomical levels. The results support the hypothesis that antepartum antibiotics modulate offspring intestinal bacterial colonization and increase susceptibility to develop colonic inflammation in a murine model of colitis, and may guide future interventions to restore physiologic intestinal colonization in offspring born by antibiotic-exposed mothers.

  18. Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Castro Ochoa, Karla Fabiola; Nava, Porfirio; Silva Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; Schnoor, Michael

    2017-01-05

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing disorders of the intestines. They cause severe problems, such as abdominal cramping, bloody diarrhea, and weight loss, in affected individuals. Unfortunately, there is no cure yet, and treatments only aim to alleviate symptoms. Current treatments include anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs that may cause severe side effects. This warrants the search for alternative treatment options, such as nutritional supplements, that do not cause side effects. Before their application in clinical studies, such compounds must be rigorously tested for effectiveness and security in animal models. A reliable experimental model is the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model in mice, which reproduces many of the clinical signs of ulcerative colitis in humans. We recently applied this model to test the beneficial effects of a nutritional supplement containing vitamins C and E, L-arginine, and ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We analyzed various disease parameters and found that this supplement was able to ameliorate edema formation, tissue damage, leukocyte infiltration, oxidative stress, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to an overall improvement in the disease activity index. In this article, we explain in detail the correct application of nutritional supplements using the DSS colitis model in C57Bl/6 mice, as well as how disease parameters such as histology, oxidative stress, and inflammation are assessed. Analyzing the beneficial effects of different diet supplements may then eventually open new avenues for the development of alternative treatment strategies that alleviate IBD symptoms and/or that prolong the phases of remission without causing severe side effects.

  19. Prebiotic and synbiotic fructooligosaccharide administration fails to reduce the severity of experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Geier, Mark S; Butler, Ross N; Giffard, Philip M; Howarth, Gordon S

    2007-07-01

    Opposing effects of the prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide, have been reported in experimental colitis. We compared the effects of the prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide, alone and in synbiotic combination with Lactobacillus fermentum BR11, on the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. Rats consumed an 18 percent casein-based diet or diet supplemented with 6 percent fructooligosaccharide or maltodextrin for 14 days. The synbiotic group was gavaged 1 ml of L. fermentum BR11 (1x10(9) cfu/ml) twice daily. From Days 7 to 14, colitis was induced via 3 percent dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water. Disease activity was assessed daily, and at killing, gastrointestinal organs were measured, weighed, and examined by quantitative histology, proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry, and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium resulted in an increased colitic disease activity, and an increased colon and cecum weight compared with normal controls. Colon and cecum weights were further increased in dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide (colon: 19 percent; cecum: 48 percent) and dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide/L. fermentum BR11-treated rats (16 and 62 percent) compared with dextran sulfate sodium+vehicle-treatment. Dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide-treated rats displayed an 81 percent increase in colonic myeloperoxidase activity compared with dextran sulfate sodium-treated controls. Histologic damage severity scores increased in dextran sulfate sodium+vehicle, dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide, and dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide/L. fermentum BR11-treated rats compared with normal controls (P<0.05). Crypt depth increased in all treatments compared with normal controls (P<0.01). No protection from dextran sulfate sodium-colitis was accorded by fructooligosaccharide alone or in synbiotic combination with L. fermentum BR11, whereas fructooligosaccharide

  20. The atypical cannabinoid O-1602 protects against experimental colitis and inhibits neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Schicho, Rudolf; Bashashati, Mohammad; Bawa, Misha; McHugh, Douglas; Saur, Dieter; Hu, Huang-Ming; Zimmer, Andreas; Lutz, Beat; Mackie, Ken; Bradshaw, Heather B.; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Sharkey, Keith A.; Storr, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Cannabinoids are known to reduce intestinal inflammation. Atypical cannabinoids produce pharmacological effects via unidentified targets. We were interested whether the atypical cannabinoid O-1602, reportedly an agonist of the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55, reduces disease severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6N and CD1 mice. Methods DSS (2.5% and 4%) was supplied in drinking water for one week while TNBS (4 mg) was applied as a single intrarectal bolus. Results Both treatments caused severe colitis. Injection of O-1602 (5 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced macroscopic and histological colitis scores, and myeloperoxidase activity. The protective effect was still present in cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) double knockout mice and mice lacking the GPR55 gene. To investigate a potential mechanism underlying the protection by O-1602 we performed neutrophil chemotactic assays. O-1602 concentration-dependently inhibited migration of murine neutrophils to keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and the N-formyl-peptide receptor ligand WKYMVm. The inhibitory effect of O-1602 was preserved in neutrophils from CB1/CB2 double knockout and GPR55 knockout mice. No differences were seen in locomotor activity between O-1602-treated and control mice indicating lack of central sedation by this compound. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that O-1602 is protective against experimentally induced colitis and inhibits neutrophil recruitment independently of CB1, CB2 and GPR55 receptors. Thus, atypical cannabinoids represent a novel class of therapeutics that may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:21744421

  1. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

  2. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:28095507

  3. MicroRNA 429 Regulates Mucin Gene Expression and Secretion in Murine Model of Colitis.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ji-Su; Alam, Khondoker Jahengir; Kim, Hun-Soo; Lee, Young-Mi; Yun, Ki-Jung; Chae, Soo-Cheon

    2016-07-01

    miRNAs are non-coding RNAs that play important roles in the pathogenesis of human diseases by regulating target gene expression in specific cells or tissues. We aimed to detect miRNAs related to ulcerative colitis [UC], identify their target molecules, and analyse the correlation between the miRNAs and their target genes in colorectal cells and dextran sulphate sodium [DSS]-induced mouse colitis. UC-associated miRNAs were identified by miRNA microarray analysis using DSS-induced colitis and normal colon tissues. The results were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]. We identified target genes of MIR429, a colitis-associated miRNA, from our screen by comparing the mRNA microarray analysis in MIR429-overexpressed cells with predicted candidate target genes. We constructed luciferase reporter plasmids to confirm the effect of MIR429 on target gene expression. The protein expression of the target genes was measured by western blot,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] analysis, or immunohistochemistry. We identified 37 DSS-induced colitis associated miRNAs. We investigated MIR429 that is down-regulated in DSS-induced colitis, and identified 41 target genes of MIR429. We show that the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate [MARCKS] is a direct target of MIR429. MARCKS mRNA and protein expression levels are down-regulated by MIR429, and MIR429 regulates the expression of MARCKS and MARCKS-mediated mucin secretion in colorectal cells and DSS-induced colitis. In addition, anti-MIR429 up-regulates MARCKS expression in colorectal cell lines. Our findings suggest that MIR429 modulates mucin secretion in human colorectal cells and mouse colitis tissues by up-regulating of MARCKS expression, thereby making MIR429 a candidate for anti-colitis therapy in human UC. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  4. Efficacy profiles for different concentrations of Lactobacillus acidophilus in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Lin; Zou, Yi-You; Lu, Fang-Gen; Li, Fu-Jun; Lian, Guang-Hui

    2013-08-28

    To determine the efficacy profiles of different concentrations of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) for treating colitis using an experimental murine model. Colitis was established in 64 BALB/c mice by adding 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to the drinking water and allowing ad libitum access for 7 d. The mice were then randomly divided into the following control and experimental model groups (n = 8 each; day 0): untreated model control; negative-treatment model control (administered gavage of 1 mL/10 g normal saline); experimental-treatment models C4-C8 (administered gavage of 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) CFU/10 g L. acidophilus, respectively); positive-treatment model control (administration of the anti-inflammatory agent prednisone acetate at 45 μg/10 g). Eight mice given regular water (no DSS) and no subsequent treatments served as the normal control group. Body weight, fecal traits, and presence of fecal occult blood were assessed daily. All animals were sacrificed on post-treatment day 7 to measure colonic length, perform histological scoring, and quantify the major bacteria in the proximal and distal colon. Intergroup differences were determined by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls comparison. All treatments (L. acidophilus and prednisone acetate) protected against colitis-induced weight loss (P < 0.05 vs model and normal control groups). The extent of colitis-induced colonic shortening was significantly reduced by all treatments (prednisone acetate > C4 > C5 > C7 > C8 > C6; P < 0.05 vs untreated model group), and the C6 group showed colonic length similar to that of the normal control group (P > 0.05). The C6 group also had the lowest disease activity index scores among the model groups. The bacterial profiles in the proximal colon were similar between all of the experimental-treatment model groups (all P > 0.05). In contrast, the bacterial profile in the distal colon of the C6 group showed the distinctive features (P < 0

  5. Experimental colitis models: Insights into the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and translational issues.

    PubMed

    Valatas, Vassilis; Bamias, Giorgos; Kolios, George

    2015-07-15

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn׳s disease are characterized by chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology that seems to be the consequence of a genetically driven dysregulated immune response against various local and environmental triggers through a defective epithelial barrier. During the last decades, a large number of animal experimental models of intestinal inflammation have been generated and provided valuable insights into the mechanisms that either maintain mucosal homeostasis or drive intestinal inflammation. Their study enabled the identification of various treatment targets and the development a large pipeline of new drugs, mostly biologics. Safety and therapeutic efficacy of these agents have been evaluated in a large number of clinical trials but only a minority has reached the clinic so far. Translational successes but mostly translational failures have prompted to re-evaluate results of efficacy and safety generated by pre-clinical testing and to re-examine the way to interpret experimental in vivo data. This review examines the contribution of the most popular experimental colitis models to our understanding of the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel diseases and their translational input in drug development and discusses ways to improve translational outcome.

  6. Enterohepatic circulation of bacterial chemotactic peptide in rats with experimental colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, C.H.; Butt, T.J.; Ferry, D.M.; Hunter, J.; Chadwick, V.S.; Broom, M.F.

    1988-04-01

    The association of hepatobiliary disorders with colonic inflammation is well recognized. Although the pathophysiology is obscure, increased permeation of toxic bacterial products across the inflamed gut to the portal circulation might be one mechanism. Potentially toxic metabolites include N-formylated chemotactic peptides that are produced by several species of intestinal bacteria and can be detected in colonic fluid in vivo. To investigate the metabolic fate of one of these low molecular weight proinflammatory peptides, N-formyl L-methionine L-leucine /sup 125/I-L-tyrosine was introduced into colon loops of healthy rats (n = 10) and rats with experimental colitis (n = 15) induced by rectal instillation of 15% (vol/vol) acetic acid. Gut, liver, and blood radioactivity were monitored by external gamma-counting and radioactivity in bile was measured by biliary catheter drainage into a well counter. Bile was processed by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the amount of intact, bioactive peptide excreted over 3 h. After colonic instillation of 1 nmol of peptide, the mean (+/- SEM) biliary excretion of intact peptide was 6.4 +/- 2.0 pmol in normal rats and 49.0 +/- 20 pmol in rats with colitis (p less than 0.01). An enterohepatic circulation of synthetic N-formyl L-methionine L-leucine L-tyrosine has been demonstrated in the rat. Experimental colitis was associated with an eightfold increase in biliary excretion of this proinflammatory bacterial peptide. Proinflammatory bacterial peptides synthesized by colonic bacteria could be important in the pathophysiology of colon inflammation and its frequently associated hepatobiliary complications.

  7. Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Matisz, Chelsea E; Leung, Gabriella; Reyes, Jose Luis; Wang, Arthur; Sharkey, Keith A; McKay, Derek M

    2015-11-01

    Infection with helminth parasites and treatment with worm extracts can suppress inflammatory disease, including colitis. Postulating that dendritic cells (DCs) participated in the suppression of inflammation and seeking to move beyond the use of helminths per se, we tested the ability of Hymenolepis diminuta antigen-pulsed DCs to suppress colitis as a novel cell-based immunotherapy. Bone marrow derived DCs pulsed with H. diminuta antigen (HD-DCs), or PBS-, BSA-, or LPS-DCs as controls, were transferred into wild-type (WT), interleukin-10 (IL-10) knock-out (KO), and RAG-1 KO mice, and the impact on dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis and splenic cytokine production assessed 72 h later. Mice receiving HD-DCs were significantly protected from DNBS-induced colitis and of the experimental groups only these mice displayed increased Th2 cytokines and IL-10 production. Adoptive transfer of HD-DCs protected neither RAG-1 nor IL-10 KO mice from DNBS-colitis. Furthermore, the transfer of CD4(+) splenocytes from recipients of HD-DCs protected naïve mice against DNBS-colitis, in an IL-10 dependent manner. Thus, HD-DCs are a novel anti-colitic immunotherapy that can educate anti-colitic CD4(+) T cells: mechanistically, the anti-colitic effect of HD-DCs requires that the host has an adaptive immune response and the ability to mobilize IL-10.

  8. Nimbolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-КB Pathway in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Macrophages and Alleviates Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Lee, Changhyun; Hwang, Sung Wook; Chun, Jaeyoung; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-10-01

    Nimbolide is a limonoid extracted from neem tree (Azadirachta indica) that has antiinflammatory properties. The effect of nimbolide on the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), macrophages and in murine colitis models was investigated. The IEC COLO 205, the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, and peritoneal macrophages from interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-) ) mice were preconditioned with nimbolide and then stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis model and chronic colitis model in IL-10(-/-) mice were used for in vivo experiments. Nimbolide significantly suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and TNF-α) and inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα and the DNA-binding affinity of NF-κB in IECs and macrophages. Nimbolide ameliorated weight loss, colon shortening, disease activity index score, and histologic scores in dextran sulfate sodium colitis. It also improved histopathologic scores in the chronic colitis of IL-10(-/-) mice. Staining for phosphorylated IκBα was significantly decreased in the colon tissue after treatment with nimbolide in both models. Nimbolide inhibits NF-κB signaling in IECs and macrophages and ameliorates experimental colitis in mice. These results suggest nimbolide could be a potentially new treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Induction of Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase-1 by Immunostimulatory-DNA Limits Severity of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A; Bettonville, Ellen E; McDonald, Keely G; Metz, Richard; Prendergast, George C; Newberry, Rodney D; Stenson, William F

    2010-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses to commensal luminal bacteria. In both human IBD and in experimental models of colitis there is an increased expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). IDO expression has the capacity to exert antimicrobial effects and dampen adaptive immune responses. In the murine TNBS model of colitis, inhibition of this enzyme leads to worsened disease severity suggesting that IDO acts as a natural break in limiting colitis. In this investigation we show that induction of IDO-1 by a TLR-9 agonist, immunostimulatory-DNA (ISS-DNA), critically contributes to its colitis limiting capacities. ISS-DNA induces intestinal expression of IDO-1, but not the recently described paralog enzyme IDO-2. This induction occurred in both epithelial cells and in subsets of CD11c+ and CD11b+ cells of the lamina propria which also increase after ISS-ODN. Signaling required for intestinal IDO-1 induction involves interferon dependent pathways, as IDO-1 was not induced in STAT-1 knockout mice. Using both the TNBS and DSS models of colitis we show the importance of IDO-1s induction in limiting colitis severity. The clinical parameters and histologic correlates of colitis in these models were improved by administration of the TLR-9 agonist; however, when the function of IDO is inhibited, the colitis limiting effects of ISS-ODN were abrogated. These findings support the possibility that targeted induction of IDO-1 is an approach deserving further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for diseases of intestinal inflammation. PMID:20181893

  10. The simultaneous blockade of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 by a non-peptide chemokine receptor antagonist protects mice from dextran sodium sulfate-mediated colitis.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Hirotake; Ueha, Satoshi; Kurachi, Makoto; Matsushima, Kouji; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Blumberg, Richard S; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2005-08-01

    Chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 are involved in the regulation of macrophage- and T cell-mediated immune responses and in the migration and activation of these cells. In order to determine whether blockade of these chemokine receptors modulates intestinal inflammation, we investigated here the effect of a non-peptide chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779 (N,N-dimethyl-N-[4-[[[2-(4-methylphenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-8-yl]carbonyl]amino]benzyl]-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-aminium chloride), in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. C57BL/6 mice were fed 5% DSS in their drinking water for up to 7 days with or without the administration of TAK-779. The severity of inflammation in the colon was assessed by clinical signs and histological examination. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the mucosa was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of cytokine and chemokine mRNAs in tissues was quantitated by reverse transcription-PCR. During DSS-induced colitis, the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages into the colonic mucosa and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines correlated with the severity of intestinal inflammation. The onset of clinical signs and histopathologic features were delayed in animals treated with TAK-779. The expression of CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 mRNAs was inhibited in the TAK-779-treated mice. Consistent with these results, infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into the lamina propria was almost completely inhibited and the expression of colonic IL-1beta and IL-6 was significantly decreased in the TAK-779-treated mice. The blockade of CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 prevents murine experimental colitis by inhibiting the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the mucosa. Therefore, chemokines and their receptors may be therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation modulates CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs and suppression of colitis manifestations in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weigang; Pu, Aimin; Sheng, Baifa; Zhang, Zhicao; Li, Liangzi; Liu, Zhongze; Wang, Qimeng; Li, Xiang; Ma, Yuanhang; Yu, Min; Sun, Lihua; Qiu, Yuan; Yang, Hua

    2017-03-01

    This research is dedicated to investigating the effects and potential mechanism of action of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor on the intestinal mucosal immune system in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced by the administration of 3% DSS to wild-type C57BL/6J mice for 7days. 6-formylindolo(3, 2-b)carbazole (FICZ), an endogenous agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), was given intraperitoneally on a daily basis beginning 2days after the start of DSS administration. The mice were weighed and assessed, and colon tissues were measured. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) were isolated from the colon and examined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. FICZ ameliorated DSS-induced colitis, resulting in a reduced disease activity index and improvement in the histology and length of the colon. Colitis reduced the percentage and number of CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs. FICZ prevented the reduction in the numbers of CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs by upregulating the expression of the IL-15 receptor and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and attenuating the apoptotic rate of CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs. Finally, IL-10 was increased and IFN-γ was decreased in CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs by FICZ administration in DSS-induced colitis. The results suggest that AhR activation ameliorated DSS-induced acute colitis, in a manner that is associated with the local expansion and functions of CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs in acute colitis. The findings indicate that AhR-related ligands might be targeted as novel drug targets for IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ishii, Kenichi; Hosomura, Naohiro; Ogiku, Masahito

    2010-03-01

    The effects of dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) on experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) were investigated in rats. Male Wistar rats were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS and were then fed liquid diets containing MCTs or corn oil (AIN93) as controls. Serum and tissue samples were collected 1 week after TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured. Furthermore, messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In another set of experiments, the protein expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 in the colon was measured 1 week after feeding of liquid diets. To investigate the effects of MCTs on macrophages, RAW246.7 macrophages were incubated with media containing albumin conjugated with MCT or linoleic acid, which is the major component of corn oil. Then, the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was measured. Dietary MCTs blunted significantly the protein levels of TLR-4 in the colon. Furthermore, the expression of TLR-4 was significantly blunted in RAW264.7 cells incubated with MCTs compared with cells incubated with linoleic acid. Induction of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), TNF-alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the colon was attenuated by dietary MCT. Furthermore, MPO activities in the colonic tissue were significantly blunted in animals fed the MCT diets compared with those fed the control diets. As a result, dietary MCTs improved chemically induced colitis significantly. MCTs most likely are useful for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as an anti-inflammatory immunomodulating nutrient.

  13. Targeted epithelial tight junction dysfunction causes immune activation and contributes to development of experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Liping; Shen, Le; Clayburgh, Daniel R.; Nalle, Sam C.; Sullivan, Erika A.; Meddings, Jon B.; Abraham, Clara; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease thought to be caused by alterations in epithelial function, innate and adaptive immunity, and luminal microbiota. The specific role of epithelial barrier function remains undefined, although increased activity of intestinal epithelial myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), which is the primary mechanism of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced barrier dysfunction, occurs in human IBD. We aimed to determine whether in an intact epithelium, primary dysregulation of the intestinal epithelial barrier by pathophysiologically relevant mechanisms can contribute to development of colitis. Methods We developed transgenic (Tg) mice that express constitutively-active MLCK (CA-MLCK) specifically within intestinal epithelia. Their physiology, immune status, and susceptibility to disease were assessed and compared to non-Tg littermate controls. Results CA-MLCK Tg mice demonstrated significant barrier loss, but grew and gained weight normally and did not develop spontaneous disease. CA-MLCK Tg mice did, however, develop mucosal immune activation demonstrated by increased numbers of lamina propria CD4+ lymphocytes, redistribution of CD11c+ cells, increased production of interferon (IFN)-γ and TNF, as well as increased expression of epithelial MHC class I. When challenged with CD4+CD45+ Rbhi lymphocytes, Tg mice developed an accelerated and more severe form of colitis and had shorter survival times than non-Tg littermates. Conclusions Primary pathophysiologically relevant intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction is insufficient to cause experimental intestinal disease but can broadly activate mucosal immune responses and accelerate the onset and severity of immune-mediated colitis. PMID:19027740

  14. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  15. Intravenous vs intraperitoneal mesenchymal stem cells administration: What is the best route for treating experimental colitis?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Fabiany da Costa; Schneider, Natália; Pinto, Fernanda Otesbelgue; Meyer, Fabíola Schons; Visioli, Fernanda; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Lopez, Patrícia Luciana da Costa; Passos, Eduardo Pandolfi; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth Obino; Meurer, Luíse; Paz, Ana Helena

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted intraperitoneally and intravenously in a murine model of colitis. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mouse adipose tissue. MSC cultures were analyzed according to morphology, cellular differentiation potential, and surface molecular markers. Experimental acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water ad libitum from days 0 to 7. Colitis mice were treated with 1 × 106 MSCs via intraperitoneal or intravenous injection on days 2 and 5. The disease activity index was determined daily based on the following parameters: weight loss, stool consistency and presence of blood in the feces and anus. To compare morphological and functional differences in tissue regeneration between different MSC injection modalities, mice were euthanized on day 8, and their colons were examined for length, weight, and histopathological changes. Inflammatory responses were determined by measuring the levels of different serum cytokines using a CBA Th1/Th2/Th17 kit. Apoptotic rates were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP-biotin nick end labeling assay. RESULTS: Intravenous infusion of MSCs was more effective than intraperitoneal treatment (P < 0.001) in reducing the clinical and histopathologic severity of colitis, which includes weight loss, diarrhea and inflammation. An histological evaluation demonstrated decreased colonic inflammation based on reduced crypt loss and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. This therapeutic effect was most likely mediated by the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)]; and by the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4). Intravenous transplantation also induced high levels of IFN that lead to activation of the immunosuppressive activity of the MSCs, which did not occur with

  16. Protective effects of citicoline on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ek, Rauf Onur; Serter, Mukadder; Ergin, Kemal; Cecen, Serpil; Unsal, Cengiz; Yildiz, Yuksel; Bilgin, Mehmet D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline on the development of colitis and antioxidant parameters in rats subjected to tribenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Twenty four Wistar Albino female rats were divided into four subgroups (n=6) (control, colitis control, colitis + 50 mg/kg citicoline, colitis + 250 mg/kg citicoline). Colitis was induced using an enema of TNBS and ethanol; following which citicoline was administrated for 3 days and effects of citicoline was subsequently evaluated. Based on microscopic damage scores, there was no difference between rats of the TNBS-colitis and 50 mg/kg citicoline treated groups, whereas treatment with 250 mg/kg citicoline, caused significant reduction in colon injury compared to that observed in rats of TNBS-colitis group. In terms of the biochemical analyses, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and IL-6 levels in rats from 250 mg/kg citicoline group were significantly different from that TNBS-colitis group. The levels of MPO, MDA, GSH and IL-6 in control rats were also significantly different those of rats in the TNBS-colitis group. Citicoline may have a positive protective effect on the inflammatory bowel disease treatment process and could, therefore, be used as an adjunct therapy in colitis. These effects of citicoline may exist through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism.

  17. The effects of LED rectal irradiation on the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of light emitting diode(LED λ 632.8nm; power 4.0mw)applied directly to the colon on the experimental ulcerative colitis. 34 rats were divided into 3 groups, which was LED treatment group (n=12), model group (n=12), and normal control group (n=10). Given glacial acetic acid (5%) intra-anally so as to be replicated the rat model of ulcerative colitis. LED irradiation was used to curative group, with 30min each time, once per day. The period of treatment was one week. Then the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and content of malondi-aldehyde (MDA) in the blood plasma were detected and the histopathological study in Colonic tissue was performed. The degree of the Colonic tissue injury in curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Comparing with model group, the Content of MDA in LED curative group was reductive and the activity of SOD was increased significantly. We concluded that the LED irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from acetic acid induced damage in rats and the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation of LED.

  18. Central cholinergic activation of a vagus nerve-to-spleen circuit alleviates experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Ji, H; Rabbi, M F; Labis, B; Pavlov, V A; Tracey, K J; Ghia, J E

    2014-03-01

    The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is an efferent vagus nerve-based mechanism that regulates immune responses and cytokine production through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) signaling. Decreased efferent vagus nerve activity is observed in inflammatory bowel disease. We determined whether central activation of this pathway alters inflammation in mice with colitis and the mediating role of a vagus nerve-to-spleen circuit and α7nAChR signaling. Two experimental models of colitis were used in C57BL/6 mice. Central cholinergic activation induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine or a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist treatments resulted in reduced mucosal inflammation associated with decreased major histocompatibility complex II level and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by splenic CD11c⁺ cells mediated by α7nAChR signaling. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory efficacy was abolished in mice with vagotomy, splenic neurectomy, or splenectomy. In conclusion, central cholinergic activation of a vagus nerve-to-spleen circuit controls intestinal inflammation and this regulation can be explored to develop novel therapeutic strategies.

  19. Modulation of Gut Microbiome Composition and Function in Experimental Colitis Treated with Sulfasalazine

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haihui; Chen, Mingyi; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Lin; Liao, Ziqiong; Wang, Mengxia; Ma, Fangli; Liao, Qiongfeng; Xie, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from alterations in intestinal flora and the immune system. Sulfasalazine (SASP) is a sulfa antimicrobial used to treat IBD in clinic for years. However, how SASP affects gut microbes and its potential functions remains unclear. To investigate the relationships of SASP, IBD, and gut microbiome, we used 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce experimental colitis in rats, and analyzed the microbiota in the fecal samples, which come from the control group (treated with ethanol + saline), the model group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + saline) and the SASP group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + SASP), with 16S gene sequencing and followed up a subset sample using shotgun sequencing. The study found that SASP treatment could not only restore the TNBS-induced gut dysbiosis, which was proved by the increasing amount of SCFAs-producing bacteria and lactic acid-producing bacteria as well as the decreasing amount of Proteobacteria, but also modulate the dysregulated function of the TNBS-induced colitis to resemble that of the control group, including an increased capacity for basic metabolism (carbohydrate metabolism, citrate cycle) and a decrease in the oxidative stress (riboflavin, sulfur, cysteine) as well as bacterial pathogenesis (cell motility and secretion, bacterial motility proteins, flagellar assembly). Moreover, a higher proportion of Mycoplasma was observed in the SASP group, which may associate with infertility. In all, the study provides insight into specific microbial clades and pathways linked with SASP treatment to elaborate the mechanism for treatment of IBD. PMID:28936203

  20. Modulation of Gut Microbiome Composition and Function in Experimental Colitis Treated with Sulfasalazine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haihui; Chen, Mingyi; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Lin; Liao, Ziqiong; Wang, Mengxia; Ma, Fangli; Liao, Qiongfeng; Xie, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from alterations in intestinal flora and the immune system. Sulfasalazine (SASP) is a sulfa antimicrobial used to treat IBD in clinic for years. However, how SASP affects gut microbes and its potential functions remains unclear. To investigate the relationships of SASP, IBD, and gut microbiome, we used 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce experimental colitis in rats, and analyzed the microbiota in the fecal samples, which come from the control group (treated with ethanol + saline), the model group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + saline) and the SASP group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + SASP), with 16S gene sequencing and followed up a subset sample using shotgun sequencing. The study found that SASP treatment could not only restore the TNBS-induced gut dysbiosis, which was proved by the increasing amount of SCFAs-producing bacteria and lactic acid-producing bacteria as well as the decreasing amount of Proteobacteria, but also modulate the dysregulated function of the TNBS-induced colitis to resemble that of the control group, including an increased capacity for basic metabolism (carbohydrate metabolism, citrate cycle) and a decrease in the oxidative stress (riboflavin, sulfur, cysteine) as well as bacterial pathogenesis (cell motility and secretion, bacterial motility proteins, flagellar assembly). Moreover, a higher proportion of Mycoplasma was observed in the SASP group, which may associate with infertility. In all, the study provides insight into specific microbial clades and pathways linked with SASP treatment to elaborate the mechanism for treatment of IBD.

  1. Fab’-bearing siRNA TNFα-loaded nanoparticles targeted to colonic macrophages offer an effective therapy for experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Laroui; Emilie, Viennois; Xiao, Bo; Canup, Brandon S.; Duke, Geem; Denning, Timothy L.; Didier, Merlin

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are currently treated by systemic drugs that can have significant side effects. Thus, it would be highly desirable to target TNFα siRNA (a therapeutic molecule) to the inflamed tissue. Here, we demonstrate that TNFα siRNA can be efficiently loaded into nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly (lactic acid) poly (ethylene glycol) block copolymer (PLA-PEG), and that grafting of the Fab’ portion of the F4/80 Ab (Fab’-bearing) onto the NP surface via maleimide/thiol group-mediated covalent bonding improves the macrophage (MP)-targeting kinetics of the NPs to RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Direct binding was shown between MPs and the Fab’-bearing NPs. Next, we orally administered hydrogel (chitosan/alginate)-encapsulated Fab’-bearing TNFα-siRNA-loaded NPs to 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice and investigated the therapeutic effect on colitis. In vivo, the release of TNFα-siRNA-loaded NPs into the mouse colon attenuated colitis more efficiently when the NPs were covered with Fab’-bearing, compared to uncovered NPs. All DSS-induced parameters of colonic inflammation (e.g., weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, and Iκbα accumulation) were more attenuated Fab’-bearing NPs loaded with TNFα siRNA than without the Fab’-bearing. Grafting the Fab’-bearing onto the NPs improved the kinetics of endocytosis as well as the MP-targeting ability, as indicated by flow cytometry. Collectively, our results show that Fab’-bearing PLA-PEG NPs are powerful and efficient nanosized tools for delivering siRNAs into colonic macrophages. PMID:24810114

  2. Fab'-bearing siRNA TNFα-loaded nanoparticles targeted to colonic macrophages offer an effective therapy for experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Laroui, Hamed; Viennois, Emilie; Xiao, Bo; Canup, Brandon S B; Geem, Duke; Denning, Timothy L; Merlin, Didier

    2014-07-28

    Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are currently treated by systemic drugs that can have significant side effects. Thus, it would be highly desirable to target TNFα siRNA (a therapeutic molecule) to the inflamed tissue. Here, we demonstrate that TNFα siRNA can be efficiently loaded into nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly (lactic acid) poly (ethylene glycol) block copolymer (PLA-PEG), and that grafting of the Fab' portion of the F4/80 Ab (Fab'-bearing) onto the NP surface via maleimide/thiol group-mediated covalent bonding improves the macrophage (MP)-targeting kinetics of the NPs to RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Direct binding was shown between MPs and the Fab'-bearing NPs. Next, we orally administered hydrogel (chitosan/alginate)-encapsulated Fab'-bearing TNFα-siRNA-loaded NPs to 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice and investigated the therapeutic effect on colitis. In vivo, the release of TNFα-siRNA-loaded NPs into the mouse colon attenuated colitis more efficiently when the NPs were covered with Fab'-bearing, compared to uncovered NPs. All DSS-induced parameters of colonic inflammation (e.g., weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, and Iκbα accumulation) were more attenuated Fab'-bearing NPs loaded with TNFα siRNA than without the Fab'-bearing. Grafting the Fab'-bearing onto the NPs improved the kinetics of endocytosis as well as the MP-targeting ability, as indicated by flow cytometry. Collectively, our results show that Fab'-bearing PLA-PEG NPs are powerful and efficient nanosized tools for delivering siRNAs into colonic macrophages.

  3. Comparison of selective and non selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors in experimental colitis exacerbation: role of leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Breganó, José Wander; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; El Kadri, Mirian Zebian; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2014-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered one of the most important causes of reactivation of inflammatory bowel disease. With regard to selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, the results are controversial in experimental colitis as well as in human studies. The aim this study is to compare nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effects, selective and non selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, in experimental colitis and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs provoke colitis exacerbation. Six groups of rats: without colitis, with colitis, and colitis treated with celecoxib, ketoprofen, indometacin or diclofenac. Survival rates, hemoglobin, plasmatic albumin, colonic tissue of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, prostaglandin E2, catalase, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, chemiluminescence induced by tert-butil hydroperoxides, and tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 were determined. The groups treated with diclofenac or indometacin presented lower survival rates, hemoglobin and albumin, higher tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 and tissue superoxide dismutase than the group treated with celecoxib. Ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib, concerning to survival rate and albumin. The groups without colitis, with colitis and with colitis treated with celecoxib showed leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase lower levels than the groups treated with nonselective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors. Diclofenac and indometacin presented the highest degree of induced colitis exacerbation with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, celecoxib did not show colitis exacerbation, and ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase can be involved in the exacerbation of experimental colitis by nonselective

  4. Protective Effect of Daikenchuto on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Takaharu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kawasato, Ryo; Shirasawa, Tomohiro; Goto, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Okamoto, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of daikenchuto (TJ-100; DKT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) model mouse and assess its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Methods. We evaluated the effects of DKT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced experimental colitis. First, we assessed the short-term effects of DKT using two groups: 5% DSS group and 5% DSS with DKT group. Colon length; histological scores; and interleukin- (IL-) 10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression profiles were analyzed using real-time PCR. Second, we assessed the long-term effects of DKT, by comparing survival time between 2% DSS and 2% DSS with DKT groups. Results. After 7 days, the colon lengths of DSS + DKT group were longer than those of the DSS group (mean values: 6.11 versus 5.69 cm, p < 0.05). Furthermore, compared to DSS group, the DSS + DKT group maintained significantly higher levels of serum hemoglobin (13.1 versus 10.7 g/dL, p < 0.05) and exhibited significantly higher expression levels of IL-10 (p < 0.05). The 2% DSS + DKT group exhibited significantly longer survival time than the 2% DSS group (70 versus 44 days, p < 0.01). Conclusion. Our results indicate that DKT prevented inflammation in the colon, indicating its potential as a new therapeutic agent for UC. PMID:28210268

  5. Protective Effect of Daikenchuto on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Takaharu; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kawasato, Ryo; Shirasawa, Tomohiro; Goto, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Okamoto, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of daikenchuto (TJ-100; DKT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) model mouse and assess its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Methods. We evaluated the effects of DKT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced experimental colitis. First, we assessed the short-term effects of DKT using two groups: 5% DSS group and 5% DSS with DKT group. Colon length; histological scores; and interleukin- (IL-) 10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression profiles were analyzed using real-time PCR. Second, we assessed the long-term effects of DKT, by comparing survival time between 2% DSS and 2% DSS with DKT groups. Results. After 7 days, the colon lengths of DSS + DKT group were longer than those of the DSS group (mean values: 6.11 versus 5.69 cm, p < 0.05). Furthermore, compared to DSS group, the DSS + DKT group maintained significantly higher levels of serum hemoglobin (13.1 versus 10.7 g/dL, p < 0.05) and exhibited significantly higher expression levels of IL-10 (p < 0.05). The 2% DSS + DKT group exhibited significantly longer survival time than the 2% DSS group (70 versus 44 days, p < 0.01). Conclusion. Our results indicate that DKT prevented inflammation in the colon, indicating its potential as a new therapeutic agent for UC.

  6. The synthetic hydroxyproline-containing collagen analogue (Gly-Pro-Hyp)10 ameliorates acute DSS colitis.

    PubMed

    Heimesaat, M M; Heilmann, K; Kühl, A A; Erben, U; Rühl, M; Fischer, A; Farndale, R W; Bereswill, S; Göbel, U B; Zeitz, M; Somasundaram, R; Freise, C

    2012-09-01

    In experimental models of and humans with intestinal inflammation, increased levels of the matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and -9 in inflamed tissues can be detected. The synthetic collagen analogue (Gly-Pro-Hyp)10, (GPO)10, has been identified as a relevant binding structure for proMMP-2/-9 and promotes enzymatic activity of proMMP-2. Since targeted MMP strategies might offer promising anti-inflammatory treatment options, we for the first time studied in vivo actions exerted by (GPO)10 applying an acute dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis model. Seven-day intraperitoneal (GPO)10 treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and histopathological colonic changes as compared to placebo controls with severe colitis. (GPO)10-treated mice displayed a diminished influx of neutrophils, and T- and B-lymphocytes into their colonic mucosa whereas numbers of regulatory T-cells and regenerative cells were higher as compared to placebo controls. Furthermore, IL-6 secretion was down-regulated in ex vivo colonic biopsies derived from (GPO)10-treated mice whereas higher concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in extra-intestinal compartments such as MLN and spleen could be detected. Strikingly, influx of inflammatory cells into lungs was abolished following (GPO)10 application. We therefore propose (GPO)10 as a promising effective and safe treatment option of intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammatory conditions in humans.

  7. The synthetic hydroxyproline-containing collagen analogue (Gly–Pro–Hyp)10 ameliorates acute DSS colitis

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, M. M.; Heilmann, K.; Kühl, A. A.; Erben, U.; Rühl, M.; Fischer, A.; Farndale, R. W.; Bereswill, S.; Göbel, U. B.; Zeitz, M.; Somasundaram, R.; Freise, C.

    2012-01-01

    In experimental models of and humans with intestinal inflammation, increased levels of the matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and -9 in inflamed tissues can be detected. The synthetic collagen analogue (Gly–Pro–Hyp)10, (GPO)10, has been identified as a relevant binding structure for proMMP-2/-9 and promotes enzymatic activity of proMMP-2. Since targeted MMP strategies might offer promising anti-inflammatory treatment options, we for the first time studied in vivo actions exerted by (GPO)10 applying an acute dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis model. Seven-day intraperitoneal (GPO)10 treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and histopathological colonic changes as compared to placebo controls with severe colitis. (GPO)10-treated mice displayed a diminished influx of neutrophils, and T- and B-lymphocytes into their colonic mucosa whereas numbers of regulatory T-cells and regenerative cells were higher as compared to placebo controls. Furthermore, IL-6 secretion was down-regulated in ex vivo colonic biopsies derived from (GPO)10-treated mice whereas higher concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in extra-intestinal compartments such as MLN and spleen could be detected. Strikingly, influx of inflammatory cells into lungs was abolished following (GPO)10 application. We therefore propose (GPO)10 as a promising effective and safe treatment option of intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammatory conditions in humans. PMID:24688765

  8. Loss of Ca2+-mediated ion transport during colitis correlates with reduced ion transport responses to a Ca2+-activated K+ channel opener

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Christina L; McKay, Derek M

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Epithelial surface hydration is critical for proper gut function. However, colonic tissues from individuals with inflammatory bowel disease or animals with colitis are hyporesponsive to Cl− secretagogues. The Cl− secretory responses to the muscarinic receptor agonist bethanechol are virtually absent in colons of mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Our aim was to define the mechanism underlying this cholinergic hyporesponsiveness. Experimental approach: Colitis was induced by 4% DSS water, given orally. Epithelial ion transport was measured in Ussing chambers. Colonic crypts were isolated and processed for mRNA expression via RT-PCR and protein expression via immunoblotting and immunolocalization. Key results: Expression of muscarinic M3 receptors in colonic epithelium was not decreased during colitis. Short-circuit current (ISC) responses to other Ca2+-dependent secretagogues (histamine, thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid and calcium ionophore) were either absent or severely attenuated in colonic tissue from DSS-treated mice. mRNA levels of several ion transport molecules (a Ca2+-regulated Cl− channel, the intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the Na+/K+-ATPase pump or the Na+/K+/2Cl− co-transporter) were not reduced in colonic crypts from DSS-treated mice. However, protein expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α1 subunits was decreased twofold during colitis. Activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels increased ISC significantly less in DSS colons compared with control, as did the protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Conclusions and implications: Decreased Na+/K+-ATPase expression probably contributes to overall epithelial hyporesponsiveness during colitis, while dysfunctional K+ channels may account, at least partially, for lack of epithelial secretory responses to Ca2+-mediated secretagogues. PMID:19298254

  9. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties.

  10. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. PMID:26713317

  11. Impact of lipoteichoic acid modification on the performance of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Claes, I J J; Lebeer, Sarah; Shen, C; Verhoeven, T L A; Dilissen, E; De Hertogh, G; Bullens, D M A; Ceuppens, J L; Van Assche, G; Vermeire, S; Rutgeerts, P; Vanderleyden, J; De Keersmaecker, S C J

    2010-11-01

    While some probiotic strains might have adjuvant effects in the therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), these effects remain controversial and cannot be generalized. In this study, a dltD mutant of the model probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), having a drastic modification in its lipoteichoic acid (LTA) molecules, was analysed for its effects in an experimental colitis model. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) was used to induce either moderate to severe or mild chronic colitis in mice. Mice received either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), LGG wild-type or the dltD mutant via the drinking water. Macroscopic parameters, histological abnormalities, cytokine and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression were analysed to assess disease activity. LGG wild-type did not show efficacy in the different experimental colitis set-ups. This wild-type strain even seemed to exacerbate the severity of colitic parameters in the moderate to severe colitis model compared to untreated mice. In contrast, mice treated with the dltD mutant showed an improvement of some colitic parameters compared to LGG wild-type-treated mice in both experimental models. In addition, treatment with the dltD mutant correlated with a significant down-regulation of Toll-like receptor-2 expression and of downstream proinflammatory cytokine expression in the colitic mice. These results show that molecular cell surface characteristics of probiotics are crucial when probiotics are considered for use as supporting therapy in IBD.

  12. FoxP3+ T regulatory cells and immunomodulation after Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen immunization in experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hasby, Eiman A; Hasby Saad, Marwa A; Shohieb, Zeinab; El Noby, Kholoud

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effect of Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen immunization on the immunomodulation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis as an experimental model of IBD in comparison to non immunization and healthy control. The study was performed on 180 mice; 25 healthy control, 15 to identify the inflammatory peak of DSS, 25 received DSS for 7 days; 90 infected with S. mansoni cercariae to collect eggs for antigen preparation, and 25 immunized with the prepared antigen then received DSS course. Disease activity index, macroscopic & microscopic inflammatory scores, FoxP3+ T regulatory cell count, myeloperoxidase activity, and Th1/Th2 cytokine profile were compared in studied groups. Immunization induced both FoxP3+ T(regs) and Th2 cytokines to establish a state of immune homeostasis and create a quiescent steadier immune response to DSS. S. mansoni egg antigen succeeded in acting like a prophylactic helminthic therapy as it has a profitable modulatory effect on DSS-induced colitis model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Its Taurine- or Glycine-Conjugated Species Reduce Colitogenic Dysbiosis and Equally Suppress Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van Welden, Sophie; Holvoet, Tom; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby

    2017-04-01

    The promising results seen in studies of secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine or glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis. Daily oral administration of UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), or glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) equally lowered the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss, colonic shortening, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Illumina sequencing demonstrated that bile acid therapy during colitis did not restore fecal bacterial richness and diversity. However, bile acid therapy normalized the colitis-associated increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes Interestingly, administration of bile acids prevented the loss of Clostridium cluster XIVa and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, bacterial species known to be particularly decreased in IBD patients. We conclude that UDCA, which is an FDA-approved drug for cholestatic liver disorders, could be an attractive treatment option to reduce dysbiosis and ameliorate inflammation in human IBD.IMPORTANCE Secondary bile acids are emerging as attractive candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Although bile acids may affect the intestinal microbial community structure, which significantly contributes to the course of these inflammatory disorders, the impact of bile acid therapy on the fecal microbiota during colitis has not yet been considered. Here, we

  14. Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Its Taurine- or Glycine-Conjugated Species Reduce Colitogenic Dysbiosis and Equally Suppress Experimental Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Devisscher, Lindsey; Devriese, Sarah; Van Welden, Sophie; Holvoet, Tom; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Vos, Martine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The promising results seen in studies of secondary bile acids in experimental colitis suggest that they may represent an attractive and safe class of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact mechanism by which bile acid therapy confers protection from colitogenesis is currently unknown. Since the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and exogenous bile acid administration may affect the community structure of the microbiota, we examined the impact of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine or glycine conjugates on the fecal microbial community structure during experimental colitis. Daily oral administration of UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), or glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) equally lowered the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, as evidenced by reduced body weight loss, colonic shortening, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Illumina sequencing demonstrated that bile acid therapy during colitis did not restore fecal bacterial richness and diversity. However, bile acid therapy normalized the colitis-associated increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. Interestingly, administration of bile acids prevented the loss of Clostridium cluster XIVa and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, bacterial species known to be particularly decreased in IBD patients. We conclude that UDCA, which is an FDA-approved drug for cholestatic liver disorders, could be an attractive treatment option to reduce dysbiosis and ameliorate inflammation in human IBD. IMPORTANCE Secondary bile acids are emerging as attractive candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Although bile acids may affect the intestinal microbial community structure, which significantly contributes to the course of these inflammatory disorders, the impact of bile acid therapy on the fecal microbiota during colitis has not yet been considered

  15. Geniposide ameliorates TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats via reducing inflammatory cytokine release and restoring impaired intestinal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Li, Yan-Li; Xu, Ming; Yu, Chang-Chun; Lian, Meng-Qiao; Tang, Ze-Yao; Li, Chuan-Xun; Lin, Yuan

    2017-03-06

    Geniposide is an iridoid glycosides purified from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is known to have antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of geniposide on experimental rat colitis and to reveal the related mechanisms. Experimental rat colitis was induced by rectal administration of a TNBS solution. The rats were treated with geniposide (25, 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) or with sulfasalazine (SASP, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) as positive control for 14 consecutive days. A Caco-2 cell monolayer exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was used as an epithelial barrier dysfunction model. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured to evaluate intestinal barrier function. In rats with TNBS-induced colitis, administration of geniposide or SASP significantly increased the TNBS-decreased body weight and ameliorated TNBS-induced experimental colitis and related symptoms. Geniposide or SASP suppressed inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) release and neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) in the colon. In Caco-2 cells, geniposide (25-100 μmol/L) ameliorated LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction via dose-dependently increasing transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The results from both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that geniposide down-regulated NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and MLCK protein expression, up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1), and facilitated AMPK phosphorylation. Both AMPK siRNA transfection and AMPK overexpression abrogated the geniposide-reduced MLCK protein expression, suggesting that geniposide ameliorated barrier dysfunction via AMPK-mediated inhibition of the MLCK pathway. In conclusion, geniposide ameliorated TNBS-induced experimental rat colitis by both reducing inflammation and modulating the disrupted epithelial barrier function via activating the AMPK signaling pathway..

  16. Effects of parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions on colon morphology and cytokine expression after experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Garib, Ricardo; Garla, Priscila; Torrinhas, Raquel S; Bertevello, Pedro L; Logullo, Angela F; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de los diferentes protocolos de infusión de la emulsion de lípidos de aceite de pescado (Fole) sobre la inflamación aguda en el modelo de colitis en la rata. Material y métodos: Ratas Wistar macho adultas (n = 51) fueron asignados al azar en 5 grupos para recibir infusión parenteral de solución salina (SS) o emulsión de lípidos de aceite de soja (SO), como controles, y Fole compone de: aceite de pescado solo (FO), una mezcla (9:1 v/v) de SO con FO (SO/FO), o 30% de aceite de soja, 30% triglicéridos de cadena media, 25% de aceite de oliva, y 15% de aceite de pescado (SMOF). Después de 72 h de infusión intravenosa, colitis experimental fue inducida con ácido acético. Después de 24 h, las muestras de colon se analizaron para determinar cambios histológicos y citoquinas. Resultados: En relación en el SS grupo, necrosis macroscópica fue menos frecuente en el grupo FO y necrosis histológica fue más frecuente en el grupo de SMOF. Existe una relación directa e inversa de colon interleuquina (IL) -1 e IL-4, respectivamente, con necrosis histológica. En comparación con el grupo SS, en el FO hubo aumento de IL-4 e IFN-gamma y disminución de TNF-alfa, SO/FO disminuyó TNF-alfa, y en el SMOF hubo aumento de IL-1 y la disminución de IL-4. Conclusión: En la colitis inducida por ácido acético, la infusion aislada de Fole compuesto de aceite de pescado por sí solo fue más ventajosa en la atenuacion de la inflamacióndo que la infusión de Fole contiendo otros aceites, y esta diferencia puede ser debida las influencias de su diferente contenido de ácido graso.

  17. Role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension during experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Wim; De Man, Joris G; De Schepper, Heiko U; Bult, Hidde; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2013-01-05

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptor antagonists and their synergism on the visceromotor responses during experimental colitis in rats. Colitis was induced in rats by a TNBS/ethanol enema at day 0 and was assessed at day 3 using endoscopy, histology and a myeloperoxidase assay. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension (10-80 mmHg) was evaluated in conscious rats before (control condition) and 3 days after 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) administration (colitis condition). At day 3, visceromotor responses were assessed before and after treatment with a TRPV1 (BCTC) or TRPA1 (TCS-5861528) receptor antagonist either alone or in combination and either after intraperitoneal or intrathecal administration. Endoscopy, microscopy and myeloperoxidase activity indicated severe colonic tissue damage 3 days after TNBS administration. Colorectal distension-evoked visceromotor responses demonstrated a 2.9-fold increase during acute colitis (day 3) compared to control conditions. Intraperitoneal and intrathecal administration of BCTC or TCS-5861528 partially reversed the colitis-induced increase in visceromotor responses compared to control conditions (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal blockade of TRPA1 plus TRPV1 further decreased the enhanced visceromotor responses at high distension pressures (40-80 mmHg) compared to blockade of either TRPV1 or TRPA1 alone. This synergistic effect was not seen after combined intrathecal blockade of TRPA1 plus TRPV1. The present study demonstrates that in the rat, TRPV1 and TRPA1 play a pivotal role in visceral hypersensitivity at the peripheral and spinal cord level during acute TNBS colitis. Target interaction, however, is presumably mediated via a peripheral site of action.

  18. Assessment of colon and bladder crosstalk in an experimental colitis model using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Towner, R A; Smith, N; Saunders, D; Van Gordon, S B; Tyler, K R; Wisniewski, A B; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B; Hurst, R E

    2015-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of two chronic remitting-relapsing inflammatory disorders in the colon referred to as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD). Inflammatory bowel disease affects about 1.4 million Americans. 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is a widely used model of experimental intestinal inflammation with characteristic transmural and segmental lesions that are similar to CD. Here, we report on the use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to monitor in vivo bladder permeability changes resulting from bladder crosstalk following colon TNBS exposure, and TNBS-induced colitis. Changes in MRI signal intensities and histology were evaluated for both colon and bladder regions. Uptake of contrast agent in the colon demonstrated a significant increase in signal intensity (SI) for TNBS-exposed rats (p < 0.01) compared to controls. In addition, a significant increase in bladder SI for colon TNBS-exposed rats (p < 0.001) was observed compared to saline controls. Histological damage within the colon was observed, however, bladder histology indicated a normal urothelium in rats with TNBS-induced colitis, despite increased permeability seen by CE-MRI. Contrast-enhanced MRI was able to quantitatively measure inflammation associated with TNBS-induced colitis, and assess bladder crosstalk measured as an increase in urothelial permeability. Although CE-MRI is routinely used to assess inflammation with IBD, currently there is no diagnostic test to assess bladder crosstalk with this disease, and our developed method may be useful in providing crosstalk information between organ and tissue systems in IBD patients, in addition to colitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Qing Hua Chang Yin exerts therapeutic effects against ulcerative colitis through the inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiao; Zhou, Fan; Gao, Youliang; Xie, Bingying; Hu, Guanghong; Fang, Wenyi; Peng, Jun; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    The activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway has been implicated as a key mediator in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC); therefore, it has become an attractive target for the treatment of UC. Qing Hua Chang Yin (QHCY) is a traditional Chinese formula, which has been used for many years to clinically treat conditions associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as UC. However, the precise mechanisms behind its anti-inflammatory effects remain largely unknown. In this study, using the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of QHCY against UC and elucidated the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that the administration of QHCY profoundly ameliorated DSS-induced clinical manifestations, colon shortening and histological damage in the mice with colitis. In addition, treatment with QHCY significantly decreased the DSS-induced secretion of serum amylase. Moreover, QHCY significantly inhibited the DSS-induced expression of TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), the phosphorylation of IκB and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Taken together, our findings suggest that the suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of QHCY against UC.

  20. Cutting edge: IL-23 cross-regulates IL-12 production in T cell-dependent experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christoph; Dornhoff, Heike; Neufert, Clemens; Fantini, Massimo C; Wirtz, Stefan; Huebner, Sabine; Nikolaev, Alexei; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Galle, Peter R; Karow, Margaret; Neurath, Markus F

    2006-09-01

    Although IL-12 and IL-23 share the common p40 subunit, IL-23, rather than IL-12, seems to drive the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and arthritis, because IL-23/p19 knockout mice are protected from disease. In contrast, we describe in this study that newly created LacZ knockin mice deficient for IL-23 p19 were highly susceptible for the development of experimental T cell-mediated TNBS colitis and showed even more severe colitis than wild-type mice by endoscopic and histologic criteria. Subsequent studies revealed that dendritic cells from p19-deficient mice produce elevated levels of IL-12, and that IL-23 down-regulates IL-12 expression upon TLR ligation. Finally, in vivo blockade of IL-12 p40 in IL-23-deficient mice rescued mice from lethal colitis. Taken together, our data identify cross-regulation of IL-12 expression by IL-23 as novel key regulatory pathway during initiation of T cell dependent colitis.

  1. Berberine promotes recovery of colitis and inhibits inflammatory responses in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells in DSS-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Shi, Yan; Cao, Hanwei; Liu, Liping; Washington, M. Kay; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Israel, Dawn A.; Cao, Hailong; Wang, Bangmao; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from dysregulation of intestinal mucosal immune responses to microflora in genetically susceptible hosts. A major challenge for IBD research is to develop new strategies for treating this disease. Berberine, an alkaloid derived from plants, is an alternative medicine for treating bacterial diarrhea and intestinal parasite infections. Recent studies suggest that berberine exerts several other beneficial effects, including inducing anti-inflammatory responses. This study determined the effect of berberine on treating dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis in mice. Berberine was administered through gavage to mice with established DSS-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, proinflammatory cytokine production, and signaling pathways in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells were determined. Berberine ameliorated DSS-induced body weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, shortening of the colon, injury, and inflammation scores. DSS-upregulated proinflammatory cytokine levels in the colon, including TNF, IFN-γ, KC, and IL-17 were reduced by berberine. Berberine decreased DSS-induced disruption of barrier function and apoptosis in the colon epithelium. Furthermore, berberine inhibited proinflammatory cytokine production in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells in DSS-treated mice and promoted apoptosis of colonic macrophages. Activation of signaling pathways involved in stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, including MAPK and NF-κB, in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells from DSS-treated mice was decreased by berberine. In summary, berberine promotes recovery of DSS-induced colitis and exerts inhibitory effects on proinflammatory responses in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells. Thus berberine may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:22173918

  2. Suppression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Radon Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon. PMID:23365486

  3. Effects of Malva sylvestris and Its Isolated Polysaccharide on Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Rezaei, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Malva sylvestris is an edible plant that is consumed as a herbal supplement for its antiulcer and colon cleansing properties in traditional Persian medicine. This study was designed to evaluate its effects on ulcerative colitis, which is a chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of acetic acid solution. Rats in different groups received aqueous, n-hexane, or ethanolic fractions of the plant before induction of colitis. Isolated polysaccharide of plant was also tested in 2 groups before and after induction of colitis. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of colitis showed that the aqueous fraction was very effective in preventing the inflammation and efficacy was lower for ethanolic and n-hexane fractions. Polysaccharide was effective in reducing signs of inflammation, especially as pretreatment. These beneficial effects provide evidences that this plant can be suggested for patients with this disease to improve their health condition or to reduce adverse effects of their medication.

  4. Protective Effect of Baicalin Against Experimental Colitis via Suppression of Oxidant Stress and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Cao, Xu; Zhang, Ru; Li, Ying-xue; Xu, Zheng-lei; Zhang, Ding-guo; Wang, Li-sheng; Wang, Jian-yao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is a bioactive ingredient extracted from the root of Scutellariae radix, which is used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC). Objective: We investigated the activity of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rats, including the attenuation of oxidant stress and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: The severity of colitis was assessed by disease activity index. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by their corresponding kits. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to study whether experimental colitis was associated with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis and the effect of baicalin on IEC apoptosis. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry assay were applied to determine the protein expressions. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the colon of UC rats treated with baicalin was determined by ROS assay kit. Results: Baicalin remarkably upregulated the activities of CAT, GSH-PX, and SOD and decreased the content of MDA in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. The TUNEL-positive cells in rats treated baicalin were remarkably reduced. Both Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry assay indicated that baicalin significantly decreased the expressions of transforming growth factor beta-1, Bax protein and upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein. In addition, the expressions of total and cleaved caspase-3, total and cleaved caspase-9 protein, Fas, and FasL in vitro were downregulated by the treatment with baicalin. Baicalin of different doses reduced the generation of ROS in UC rats. Conclusion: Taken together, these evidences provide scientific basics for the application of baicalin in the treatment of UC and suggest that baicalin exerts its effect via suppression of oxidant stress and

  5. Supplementation of the diet with Salecan attenuates the symptoms of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mengyi; Wang, Zhongqiu; Chen, Jinping; Zhan, Yibei; Wang, Tao; Xia, Lin; Wang, Shiming; Hua, Zichun; Zhang, Jianfa

    2014-05-28

    As a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, Salecan has an excellent toxicological profile and exerts multiple physiological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of a Salecan diet in the well-defined dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of experimental murine colitis and to elucidate the mechanism involved in its effects with special attention being paid to its effect on the production of TNF-α, a primary mediator involved in the inflammatory response. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet supplemented with either 4 or 8 % Salecan for 26 d and DSS was administered to induce acute colitis during the last 5 d of the experimental period. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters as well as mRNA expression of TNF-α and Dectin-1 were evaluated. The results indicated that the dietary incorporation of Salecan attenuated the severity of DSS colitis as evidenced by the decreased disease activity index, reduced severity of anaemia, attenuated changes in colon architecture and reduced colonic myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with the down-regulation of TNF-α mRNA levels, which might derive from its ability to increase Dectin-1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Salecan contributes to the reduction of colonic damage and inflammation in mice with DSS-induced colitis and holds promise as a new, effective nutritional supplement in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2012-01-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-γ expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ► JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ► JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of rosuvastatin by regulation of oxidative stress in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Kak; Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, Eui Joo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Dong Kyun; Kwon, Kwang An; Chung, Jun-Won; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Kim, Yoon Jae

    2017-07-07

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of rosuvastatin by regulation of oxidative stress in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. An acute colitis mouse model was induced by oral administration of 5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 d. In the treated group, rosuvastatin (0.3 mg/kg per day) was administered orally before and after DSS administration for 21 d. On day 21, mice were sacrificed and the colons were removed for macroscopic examination, histology, and Western blot analysis. In the in vitro study, IEC-6 cells were stimulated with 50 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and then treated with or without rosuvastatin (2 μmol/L). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory mediators, and apoptotic markers were measured. In DSS-induced colitis mice, rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index and histological damage score compared to untreated mice (P < 0.05). Rosuvastatin also attenuated the DSS-induced increase of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and NADPH oxidase-1 expression in colon tissue. Multiplex ELISA analysis revealed that rosuvastatin treatment reduced the DSS-induced increase of serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-17, and G-CSF levels. The increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-7, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in the DSS group were attenuated by rosuvastatin treatment. In vitro, rosuvastatin significantly reduced the production of ROS, inflammatory mediators and apoptotic markers in TNF-α-treated IEC-6 cells (P < 0.05). Rosuvastatin had the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in DSS-induced colitis model. Therefore, it might be a candidate anti-inflammatory drug in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Probiotic yeasts: Anti-inflammatory potential of various non-pathogenic strains in experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Foligné, Benoît; Dewulf, Joëlle; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Pignède, Georges; Pot, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the in vitro immunomodulation capacity of various non-pathogenic yeast strains and to investigate the ability of some of these food grade yeasts to prevent experimental colitis in mice. METHODS: In vitro immunomodulation was assessed by measuring cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12p70, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor and interferon γ] released by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after 24 h stimulation with 6 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces ssp.) and with bacterial reference strains. A murine model of acute 2-4-6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-colitis was next used to evaluate the distinct prophylactic protective capacities of three yeast strains compared with the performance of prednisolone treatment. RESULTS: The six yeast strains all showed similar non-discriminating anti-inflammatory potential when tested on immunocompetent cells in vitro. However, although they exhibited similar colonization patterns in vivo, some yeast strains showed significant anti-inflammatory activities in the TNBS-induced colitis model, whereas others had weaker or no preventive effect at all, as evidenced by colitis markers (body-weight loss, macroscopic and histological scores, myeloperoxidase activities and blood inflammatory markers). CONCLUSION: A careful selection of strains is required among the biodiversity of yeasts for specific clinical studies, including applications in inflammatory bowel disease and other therapeutic uses. PMID:20440854

  9. Electroacupuncture ameliorates experimental colitis induced by TNBS through activation of interleukin-10 and inhibition of iNOS in mice.

    PubMed

    Goes, Annya Costa Araujo de Macedo; Pinto, Francisco Maxwell Martins; Fernandes, Guilherme Cardoso; Barbosa, Jessica Sales; Correia, Emanuela Santos; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Guimaraes, Sergio Botelho; Lima Júnior, Roberto Cesar Pereira; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras

    2014-12-01

    To study the anti-inflammatory actions of electroacupuncture (EAc) on an experimental colitis model in mice. Thirty-eight male Swiss mice, divided in five groups, were subjected to induction of colitis by TNBS in 50% ethanol. Saline (SAL) and ethanol (ETNL) groups served as controls. TNBS+EAc and TNBS+ dexamethasone subgroups were treated with EAc 100Hz and dexamethasone (DEXA) 1 mg/Kg/day, respectively. After three days, a colon segment was obtained for quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, immunohistochemistry for iNOS, malondialdehyde (MDA) and cytokines (IL-1β and IL-10). Neutrophilic activity, assayed as MPO activity, was significantly higher in the TNBS colitis group than that in the saline control group. TNBS+EAc group showed suppression of IL-10 in the colon. EAc treatment significantly reduced the concentration of MDA and the expression of iNOS, as compared to the other groups. Electroacupuncture 100Hz applied to acupoint ST-36 promotes an anti-inflammatory action on the TNBS-induced colitis, mediated by increase of IL-10 and decrease of iNOS expression.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of acute stress on experimental colitis is mediated by cholecystokinin-B receptors.

    PubMed

    Gülpinar, Mehmet Ali; Ozbeyli, Dilek; Arbak, Serap; Yeğen, Berrak C

    2004-05-21

    We aimed to investigate the effects of electric shock (ES) on the course of experimental colitis and the involvement of possible central and peripheral mechanisms. In Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 190) colitis was induced by intracolonic administration 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The effects of ES (0.3-0.5 mA) or the central administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF; astressin, 10 microg/kg) or cholecystokinin (CCKB; 20 microg/kg) receptor antagonists and peripheral glucocorticoid receptor (RU-486; 10 mg/kg) or ganglion (hexamethonium; 15 mg/kg) blockers on TNBS-induced colitis were studied by the assessment of macroscopic score, histological analysis and tissue myeloperoxidase activity. ES reduced all colonic damage scores (p < 0.05-0.01), while central CRF (p < 0.05-0.001) and CCKB receptor (p < 0.05-0.01) blockers or peripheral hexamethonium (p < 0.05-0.01) and RU-486 (p < 0.05) reversed stress-induced improvement. ES demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on colitis, which appears to be mediated by central CRF and CCK receptors with the participation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system.

  11. Colitis and Colitis-Associated Cancer Are Exacerbated in Mice Deficient for Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1▿

    PubMed Central

    Gommeaux, Julien; Cano, Carla; Garcia, Stéphane; Gironella, Meritxell; Pietri, Sylvia; Culcasi, Marcel; Pébusque, Marie-Josèphe; Malissen, Bernard; Dusetti, Nelson; Iovanna, Juan; Carrier, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) is an antiproliferative and proapoptotic protein involved in cell stress response. To address its physiological roles in colorectal cancer and colitis, we generated and tested the susceptibility of Trp53inp1-deficient mice to the development of colorectal tumors induced by injection of the carcinogen azoxymethane followed by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis. Trp53inp1-deficient mice showed an increased incidence and multiplicity of tumors compared to those of wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, acute colitis induced by DSS treatment was more severe in Trp53inp1-deficient mice than in WT mice. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis more efficiently in WT mice than in Trp53inp1-deficient mice, suggesting a higher oxidative load in the latter. Consistently, we demonstrated by electron spin resonance and spin trapping that colons derived from deficient mice produced more free radicals than those of the WT during colitis and that the basal blood level of the antioxidant ascorbate was decreased in Trp53inp1-deficient mice. Collectively, these results indicate that the oxidative load is higher in Trp53inp1-deficient mice than in WT mice, generating a more-severe DSS-induced colitis, which favors development of colorectal tumors in Trp53inp1-deficient mice. Therefore, TP53INP1 is a potential target for the prevention of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:17242209

  12. Impaired removal of Vβ8(+) lymphocytes aggravates colitis in mice deficient for B cell lymphoma-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim).

    PubMed

    Leucht, K; Caj, M; Fried, M; Rogler, G; Hausmann, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the role of B cell lymphoma (BCL)-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) for lymphocyte homeostasis in intestinal mucosa. Lymphocytes lacking Bim are refractory to apoptosis. Chronic colitis was induced in Bim-deficient mice (Bim(-/-) ) with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Weight loss and colonoscopic score were increased significantly in Bim(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. As Bim is induced for the killing of autoreactive cells we determined the role of Bim in the regulation of lymphocyte survival at mucosal sites. Upon chronic dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, Bim(-/-) animals exhibited an increased infiltrate of lymphocytes into the mucosa compared to wild-type mice. The number of autoreactive T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ8(+) lymphocytes was significantly higher in Bim(-/-) mice compared to wild-type controls. Impaired removal of autoreactive lymphocytes in Bim(-/-) mice upon chronic DSS-induced colitis may therefore contribute to aggravated mucosal inflammation.

  13. Interleukin-19 contributes as a protective factor in experimental Th2-mediated colitis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Matsuo, Yukiko; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Mariko; Azuma, Naoki; Teramoto, Midori; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-19 is a member of the IL-10 family, and IL-10 plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease. We have previously shown that IL-19 knockout mice are more susceptible to innate-mediated colitis. Next, we ask whether IL-19 contributes to T cells-mediated colitis. Here, we investigated the role of IL-19 in a mouse model of Th2 cell-mediated colitis. Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using a Th2-mediated colitis induced by oxazolone. The colitis was evaluated by analyzing the body weight loss and histology of the colon. Lymph node cells were cultured in vitro to determine cytokine production. IL-19 knockout mice exacerbated oxazolone-induced colitis by stimulating the transport of inflammatory cells into the colon, and by increasing IgE production and the number of circulating eosinophil. The exacerbation of oxazolone-induced colonic inflammation following IL-19 knockout mice was accompanied by an increased production of IL-4 and IL-9, but no changes in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13 in lymph node cells. IL-19 plays an anti-inflammatory role in the Th2-mediated colitis model, suggesting that IL-19 may represent a potential therapeutic target for reducing colonic inflammation.

  14. Treatment of experimental colitis in mice with LMP-420, an inhibitor of TNF transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Laura P; Cianciolo, George

    2008-01-01

    Background LMP-420 is a boronic acid-containing purine nucleoside analogue that transcriptionally inhibits TNF production but is non-cytotoxic to TNF-producing cells. Methods This study investigated the efficacy of LMP-420 as an anti-inflammatory agent in acute and chronic colitis induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to mice and in chronic colitis following piroxicam administration to IL-10-deficient mice. The severity of colon inflammation was assessed histologically. TNF levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results Administration of DSS for 7 days resulted in severe acute colitis that was associated with a marked increase in stool and colon tissue TNF levels. Initiation of therapy with intraperitoneal (i.p.) LMP-420 on day 4 of DSS exposure decreased colonic TNF to near normal levels on day 7. However, neither i.p. nor oral treatment with LMP-420 affected the development or severity of acute DSS colitis. Initiation of LMP-420 therapy after 3 cycles of DSS administration to establish chronic colitis also had no effect on the severity of chronic colitis. Analysis of colonic TNF combined with longitudinal analysis of TNF and TNF receptor (TNF-RII) levels in stool during the development of chronic DSS colitis demonstrated that the initially elevated colonic TNF levels returned to normal despite intense on-going inflammation in mice with chronic colitis. RAG-2-/- mice deficient in T and B cells also developed severe ongoing colitis in response to 3 cycles of DSS, but showed marked differences vs. wild type mice in stool TNF and TNF-RII in response to DSS exposure. Systemic and oral LMP-420 treatment for 16 days decreased colonic TNF levels in IL-10-deficient mice with chronic colitis, with a trend to decreased histologic inflammation for oral LMP-420. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that short-term treatment with a transcriptional inhibitor of TNF production can decrease systemic and local colonic levels of TNF but may not

  15. Extracellular vesicles derived from gut microbiota, especially Akkermansia muciniphila, protect the progression of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chil-Sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Jae Gyu; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis.

  16. Altered prejunctional modulation of intestinal cholinergic and noradrenergic pathways by α2-adrenoceptors in the presence of experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Blandizzi, Corrado; Fornai, Matteo; Colucci, Rocchina; Baschiera, Fabio; Barbara, Giovanni; Giorgio, Roberto De; Ponti, Fabrizio De; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Tacca, Mario Del

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of intestinal inflammation on: (1) the control of intestinal neurotransmission and motility by prejunctional α2-adrenoceptors and (2) the expression of intestinal α2-adrenoceptors. Experimental colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (DNBS) to rats. UK-14,304 inhibited atropine-sensitive electrically evoked contractions of ileal and colonic longitudinal muscle preparations. UK-14,304 acted with similar potency, but higher efficacy, on tissues from DNBS-treated animals; its effects were antagonized with greater potency by phentolamine than rauwolscine. Electrically induced [3H]noradrenaline release from ileal preparations was reduced in the presence of colitis. Tritium outflow was decreased by UK-14,304 and stimulated by rauwolscine or phentolamine: these effects were enhanced in preparations from animals with colitis. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assay demonstrated the protein expression of α2A-adrenoceptors in mucosal and muscular tissues isolated from ileum and colon. The induction of colitis increased α2A-adrenoceptor expression in both ileal and colonic muscular layers, without concomitant changes in mucosal tissues. Induction of colitis reduced gastrointestinal propulsion of a charcoal suspension in vivo. In this setting, the gastrointestinal transit was inhibited by intraperitoneal (i.p.) UK-14,304 and stimulated by i.p. rauwolscine. After pretreatment with guanethidine, the stimulant action of rauwolscine no longer occurred, and UK-14,304 exerted a more prominent inhibitory effect that was antagonized by rauwolscine. The present results indicate that, in the presence of intestinal inflammation, prejunctional α2-adrenoceptors contribute to an enhanced inhibitory control of cholinergic and noradrenergic transmission both at inflamed and noninflamed distant sites. Evidence was obtained that such modulatory actions depend on an increased

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of Chang-An-Shuan on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hong; Liu, Feng-Bin; Li, Hai-Wen; Hou, Jiang-Tao; Li, Pei-Wu

    2017-06-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), denominated by Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is often associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloody stool. The standard protocols for treating colitis conditions are not satisfactory; thus, complementary and alternative medicines have been increasingly accepted by IBD sufferers worldwide. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of Chang-An-Shuan (CAS), a 6-herb Chinese medicinal formula, on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats and the underlying mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with rectal gavage of 2.5% TNBS in 50% ethanol for the induction of experimental colitis which is considered as a model for Crohn's disease. Upon the TNBS induction, rats were given CAS at 0.5 g/kg/day or 5 g/kg/day for 10 days. The application of salicylazosulfapyridine (0.5 g/kg/day) was served as a positive reference drug for the colitis condition. The efficacy and mechanistic action of CAS were evaluated by means of histopathological and biochemical approaches such as histological staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Oral administration of CAS at 5 g/kg/day, but not 0.5 g/kg/day, significantly ameliorated the severity of TNBS-induced colitis as evidenced by the reduced loss of body weight, alleviated diarrhea and decreased bloody stool. While lowering the disease activity index, the administration of CAS lessened mucosal lesions thus mucosal integrity of the colitis rats was notably improved. Further, the CAS treatment also significantly suppressed the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α while enhancing the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the TNBS-treated rats. Importantly, the ameliorative effect of CAS was related to an inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by downregulating

  18. Dietary tryptophan alleviates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis through aryl hydrocarbon receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Jahidul; Sato, Shoko; Watanabe, Kouichi; Watanabe, Takaya; Ardiansyah; Hirahara, Keisuke; Aoyama, Yukihide; Tomita, Shuhei; Aso, Hisashi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis is the typical progression of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Amino acids, particularly tryptophan, have been reported to exert a protective effect against colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), but the precise underlying mechanisms remain incompletely clarified. Tryptophan metabolites are recognized to function as endogenous ligands for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), which is a critical regulator of inflammation and immunity. Thus, we conducted this study to investigate whether dietary tryptophan supplementation protects against DSS-induced colitis by acting through Ahr. Female wild-type (WT) and Ahr-deficient (knockout; KO) mice (10-12 weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed either a control or 0.5% tryptophan diet. The tryptophan diet ameliorated DSS-induced colitis symptoms and severity in WT mice but not in KO mice, and the diet reduced the mRNA expression of Il-6, Tnfα, Il-1β and the chemokines Ccl2, Cxcl1 and Cxcl2 in the WT groups. Furthermore, Il-22 and Stat3 mRNA expression in the colon was elevated in WT mice fed with the tryptophan diet, which mainly protected epithelial layer integrity, and Ahr also modulated immune homeostasis by regulating Foxp3 and Il-17 mRNA expression. These data suggest that tryptophan-containing diet might ameliorate DSS-induced acute colitis and regulate epithelial homeostasis through Ahr. Thus, tryptophan could serve as a promising preventive agent in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy.

  20. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy. PMID:26642326

  1. Glabridin, a functional compound of liquorice, attenuates colonic inflammation in mice with dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, H-S; Oh, S-M; Kim, J-K

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by detrimental immune reactivity in the gut, and the imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactivity. The aims of this study were to determine whether oral administration of glabridin, a functional component of liquorice, could ameliorate dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, as well as to understand the possible underlying mechanisms. Acute experimental colitis was induced in BALB/c mice by treatment with 5% DSS for 7 days. Glabridin (10 or 50 mg/kg/day) was given for 7 days. Treatment with glabridin significantly attenuated mortality, loss of body weight, shortening of the colon and severe clinical symptoms. This was associated with a remarkable amelioration of the disruption of the colonic architecture, a significant reduction in colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E2, and proinflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that glabridin-mediated anti-inflammatory action on colorectal sites may be a useful therapeutic approach to IBD. PMID:18005263

  2. The Algal Meroterpene 11-Hydroxy-1′-O-Methylamentadione Ameloriates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zbakh, Hanaa; Talero, Elena; Avila, Javier; Alcaide, Antonio; de los Reyes, Carolina; Zubía, Eva; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex class of immune disorders. Unfortunately, a treatment for total remission has not yet been found, while the use of natural product-based therapies has emerged as a promising intervention. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the algal meroterpene 11-hydroxy-1′-O-methylamentadione (AMT-E) in a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. AMT-E was orally administered daily (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg animal) to DSS treated mice (3% w/v) for 7 days. AMT-E prevented body weight loss and colon shortening and effectively attenuated the extent of the colonic damage. Similarly, AMT-E increased mucus production and reduced myeloperoxidase activity (marker for anti-inflammatory activity). Moreover, the algal meroterpene decreased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 levels, and caused a significant reduction of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Our results demonstrate the protective effects of AMT-E on experimental colitis, provide an insight of the underlying mechanisms of this compound, and suggest that this class of marine natural products might be an interesting candidate for further studies on the prevention/treatment of IBD. PMID:27527191

  3. Phylotype-level 16S rRNA analysis reveals new bacterial indicators of health state in acute murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Berry, David; Schwab, Clarissa; Milinovich, Gabriel; Reichert, Jochen; Ben Mahfoudh, Karim; Decker, Thomas; Engel, Marion; Hai, Brigitte; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias; Rauch, Isabella; Strobl, Birgit; Wagner, Michael; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim; Loy, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Human inflammatory bowel disease and experimental colitis models in mice are associated with shifts in intestinal microbiota composition, but it is unclear at what taxonomic/phylogenetic level such microbiota dynamics can be indicative for health or disease. Here, we report that dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis is accompanied by major shifts in the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota of STAT1−/− and wild-type mice, as determined by 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (gene) amplicons, metatranscriptomics and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of selected phylotypes. The bacterial families Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Deferribacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae increased in relative abundance in DSS-treated mice. Comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis at maximum possible phylogenetic resolution identified several indicator phylotypes for DSS treatment, including the putative mucin degraders Akkermansia and Mucispirillum. The analysis additionally revealed strongly contrasting abundance changes among phylotypes of the same family, particularly within the Lachnospiraceae. These extensive phylotype-level dynamics were hidden when reads were grouped at higher taxonomic levels. Metatranscriptomic analysis provided insights into functional shifts in the murine intestinal microbiota, with increased transcription of genes associated with regulation and cell signaling, carbohydrate metabolism and respiration and decreased transcription of flagellin genes during inflammation. These findings (i) establish the first in-depth inventory of the mouse gut microbiota and its metatranscriptome in the DSS colitis model, (ii) reveal that family-level microbial community analyses are insufficient to reveal important colitis-associated microbiota shifts and (iii) support a scenario of shifting intra-family structure and function in the phylotype-rich and phylogenetically diverse Lachnospiraceae in DSS-treated mice

  4. Fermented herbal formula KIOM-MA-128 protects against acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Gun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Park, Kwang-Il; Ma, Jin-Yeul

    2017-07-05

    Colitis is a well-known subtype of inflammatory bowel disease and is caused by diverse factors. Previous research has shown that KIOM-MA elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects on various diseases. KIOM-MA-128, our novel herbal formula, was generated from KIOM-MA using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated whether KIOM-MA-128 has protective activity in a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colitis was induced by DSS administered to ICR mice in drinking water. KIOM-MA-128 (125 or 250 mg/kg) was orally administered once per day. The body weights of the mice were measured daily, and colonic endoscopies were performed at 5 and 8 days. Colon length as well as histological and cytokine changes were observed at the end of drug administration. KIOM-MA-128 has pharmacological activity in an acute colitis model. KIOM-MA-128 reduced the loss of body weight and disease activity index (DAI) and inhibited the abnormally short colon lengths and the colonic damage in this mouse model of acute colitis. Moreover, KIOM-MA-128 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and maintained the integrity of the tight junctions during DSS-induced colitis. The results indicated that KIOM-MA-128 protects against DSS-induced colitis in mice and suggested that this formula might be a candidate treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  5. Curcumin Suppressed Activation of Dendritic Cells via JAK/STAT/SOCS Signal in Mice with Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Lu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role as initiators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and are regulated by the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway. As a potent anti-inflammatory compound, curcumin represents a viable treatment alternative or adjunctive therapy in the management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanism of curcumin treated IBD on DCs is not completely understood. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of curcumin treated experimental colitis by observing activation of DCs via JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway in colitis mice. Experimental colitis was induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. After 7 days treatment with curcumin, its therapeutic effect was verified by decreased colonic weight, histological scores, and remitting pathological injury. Meanwhile, the levels of major histocompatibility complex class II and DC costimulatory molecules (CD83, CD28, B7-DC, CD40, CD40 L, and TLR2) were inhibited and followed the up-regulated levels of IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ, and down-regulated GM-CSF, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-23, and TGF-β1. A key finding was that the phosphorylation of the three members (JAK2, STAT3, and STAT6) of the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway was inhibited, and the three downstream proteins (SOCS1, SOCS3, and PIAS3) from this pathway were highly expressed. In conclusion, curcumin suppressed the activation of DCs by modulating the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway to restore immunologic balance to effectively treat experimental colitis.

  6. Curcumin Suppressed Activation of Dendritic Cells via JAK/STAT/SOCS Signal in Mice with Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Lu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role as initiators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and are regulated by the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway. As a potent anti-inflammatory compound, curcumin represents a viable treatment alternative or adjunctive therapy in the management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanism of curcumin treated IBD on DCs is not completely understood. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of curcumin treated experimental colitis by observing activation of DCs via JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway in colitis mice. Experimental colitis was induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. After 7 days treatment with curcumin, its therapeutic effect was verified by decreased colonic weight, histological scores, and remitting pathological injury. Meanwhile, the levels of major histocompatibility complex class II and DC costimulatory molecules (CD83, CD28, B7-DC, CD40, CD40 L, and TLR2) were inhibited and followed the up-regulated levels of IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ, and down-regulated GM-CSF, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-23, and TGF-β1. A key finding was that the phosphorylation of the three members (JAK2, STAT3, and STAT6) of the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway was inhibited, and the three downstream proteins (SOCS1, SOCS3, and PIAS3) from this pathway were highly expressed. In conclusion, curcumin suppressed the activation of DCs by modulating the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway to restore immunologic balance to effectively treat experimental colitis. PMID:27932984

  7. PPARα-dependent exacerbation of experimental colitis by the hypolipidemic drug fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yunpeng; Jiang, Changtao; Tanaka, Naoki; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Brocker, Chad N.; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Bredell, Bryce X.; Shah, Yatrik M.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrates, such as fenofibrate, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonists and have been used for several decades as hypolipidemic agents in the clinic. However, contradictory observations exist on the role of fibrates in host response to acute inflammation, with unclear mechanisms. The role of PPARα in colitis was assessed using fenofibrate and Ppara-null mice. Wild-type or Ppara-null mice were subjected to acute colitis under three distinct protocols, dextran sulfate sodium, trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, and Salmonella Typhi. Serum and colon lipidomics were analyzed to characterize the metabolic profiles by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Messenger RNAs of PPARα target genes and genes involved in inflammation were determined by qunatitative PCR analysis. Fenofibrate treatment exacerbated inflammation and tissue injury in acute colitis, and this was dependent on PPARα activation. Lipidomics analysis revealed that bioactive sphingolipids, including sphingomyelins (SM) and ceramides, were significantly increased in the colitis group compared with the control group; this was further potentiated following fenofibrate treatment. In the colon, fenofibrate did not reduce the markedly increased expression of mRNA encoding TNFα found in the acute colitis model, while it decreased hydrolysis and increased synthesis of SM, upregulated RIPK3-dependent necrosis, and elevated mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which were possibly related to the exacerbated colitis. PMID:25035112

  8. ADOA3R as a therapeutic target in experimental colitis: proof by validated high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jorge; Yu, Jun Ge; Suntres, Zacharias; Bozarov, Andrey; Cooke, Helen; Javed, Najma; Auer, Herbert; Palatini, Jeff; Hassanain, Hamdy H; Cardounel, Arturo J; Javed, Asad; Grants, Iveta; Wunderlich, Jacqueline E; Christofi, Fievos L

    2006-08-01

    Adenosine A3 receptors (ADOA3Rs) are emerging as novel purinergic targets for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Our goal was to assess the protective effect of the ADOA3R agonist N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) on gene dysregulation and injury in a rat chronic model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)--induced colitis. It was necessary to develop and validate a microarray technique for testing the protective effects of purine-based drugs in experimental inflammatory bowel disease. High-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis of gene dysregulation was assessed in colons from normal, TNBS-treated (7 days), and oral IB-MECA-treated rats (1.5 mg/kg b.i.d.) using a rat RNU34 neural GeneChip of 724 genes and SYBR green polymerase chain reaction. Analysis included clinical evaluation, weight loss assessment, and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging/spin-trap monitoring of free radicals. Remarkable colitis-induced gene dysregulation occurs in the most exceptional cluster of 5.4% of the gene pool, revealing 2 modes of colitis-related dysregulation. Downregulation occurs in membrane transporter, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and channel genes. Upregulation occurs in chemokine, cytokine/inflammatory, stress, growth factor, intracellular signaling, receptor, heat shock protein, retinoid metabolism, neural, remodeling, and redox-sensitive genes. Oral IB-MECA prevented dysregulation in 92% of these genes, histopathology, gut injury, and weight loss. IB-MECA or adenosine suppressed elevated free radicals in ex vivo inflamed gut. Oral IB-MECA blocked the colitis-induced upregulation (colitis and treatment with IB-MECA for >90% of genes tested (33 of 37 genes). We conclude that our validated high

  9. Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    Ulcerative colitis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Ulcerative colitis (UL-sur-uh-tiv koe-LIE-tis) is an inflammatory ... and ulcers (sores) in your digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of your large intestine ( ...

  10. Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Winston, John H; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K

    2013-08-15

    Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observed significant decline in ChAT, nNOS, and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 protein and mRNA levels. In DSS colitis, ChAT and PGP9.5 were significantly upregulated while nNOS levels did not change. The nNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio decreased significantly in DSS- but not in TNBS-induced colitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of either ChAT (31 vs. 33%)- or nNOS (37 vs. 41%)-immunopositive neurons per ganglia or the mean number of neurons per ganglia (55 ± 5 vs. 59 ± 5, P > 0.05). Incubation of the distal colon muscularis externae in vitro with different types of inflammatory mediators showed that cytokines decreased ChAT and nNOS expression, whereas H₂O₂, a component of oxidative stress, increased their expression. NF-κB inhibitor MG-132 did not prevent the IL-1β-induced decline in either ChAT or nNOS expression. These findings showed that TNBS- and DSS-induced inflammation differentially regulates the expression of two critical proteins expressed in the colonic myenteric neurons. These differences are likely due to the exposure of the myenteric plexus neurons to different combinations of Th1-type inflammatory mediators and H₂O₂ in each model.

  11. The influence of LED rectal irradiation on IL-1α and IL-4 of experimental ulcerative colitis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. In this paper, the influence of IL-1α and IL-4 on the experimental ulcerative colitis by light emitting diode ( LED ) (λ: 632.8nm; power: 4.0mw) applied to colon directly were studied. Making 30 rats into 3 groups: LED curative group, model group, normal control group. There were 10 rats of each group. We used glacial acetic acid (5%) and trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) (1%) intra-anally to replicate the rat model of ulcerative colitis. After a week treatment with administrating LED rectal irradiation to curative group, 30mm each time, once per day, the histopathological studies in colonic tissue were performed, and the expression and distribution of IL-lα and IL-4 in colonic tissues were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The extent of the Colonic tissue injury in LED curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Compared with model group, the content of MDA in LED curative group was reductived and the activity of SOD was increased significantly, and the expression and distribution of IL-lα in LED curative group was depressed significantly, however the expression and distribution of IL-4 in LED curative group was increased obviously. This results show that the LED rectal irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats, and suggest that the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation and immunomodulation of LED.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of dual nociceptin and opioid receptor agonist, BU08070, in experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Marta; Ben Haddou, Tanila; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sałaga, Maciej; Jarmuż, Agata; Padysz, Milena; Kordek, Radzisław; Spetea, Mariana; Husbands, Stephen M.; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous opioid and nociceptin systems are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract where they seem to play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis. The aim of our study was to assess whether activation of nociceptin (NOP) and μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by a mixed NOP/MOP receptor agonist, BU08070, induces anti-inflammatory response in experimental colitis. The anti-inflammatory effect of BU08070 (1 mg/kg i.p.) was characterized in the mouse model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, based on the assessment of the macroscopic and microscopic total damage scores and determination of MPO activity and TNF-α level in the colon. The effect of BU08070 on cell viability and NF-κB was characterized in THP-1 Blue cell line. The antinociceptive activity of BU08070 was examined in mustard oil-induced mouse model of abdominal pain. A potent anti-inflammatory effect of BU08070 (1 mg/kg i.p.) was observed as indicated by decrease in macroscopic damage score (1.88±0.39 vs. 5.19±0.43 units in TNBS alone treated mice), MPO activity (2.29±0.37 vs. 9.64±2.55 units) and TNF-α level in the colon (35.85±2.45 vs. 49.79±3.81 pg/ml). The anti-inflammatory effect of BU08070 was reversed by selective NOP and MOP receptor antagonists. BU08070 produced concentration-dependent inhibition of TNF-α and LPS-induced NF-κB activation. BU08070 exerted antinociceptive action in mice with experimental colitis. In conclusion, BU08070 significantly reduced the severity of colitis in TNBS-treated mice compared with controls. These results suggest that BU08070 is a potential therapeutic agent for IBD therapy. PMID:26404500

  13. Korean Solar Salt Ameliorates Colon Carcinogenesis in an AOM/DSS-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Yeung-Ju; Park, Eui Seong; Park, Kun-Young

    2017-06-01

    The effects of Korean solar salt on an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer C57BL/6 mouse model were studied. Korean solar salt samples (SS-S, solar salt from S salt field; SS-Yb, solar salt from Yb salt field), nine-time-baked bamboo salt (BS-9x, made from SS-Yb), purified salt (PS), and SS-G (solar salt from Guérande, France) were orally administered at a concentration of 1% during AOM/DSS colon cancer induction, and compared for their protective effects during colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. SS-S and SS-Yb suppressed colon length shortening and tumor counts in mouse colons. Histological evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining also revealed suppression of tumorigenesis by SS-S. Conversely, PS and SS-G did not show a similar suppressive efficacy as Korean solar salt. SS-S and SS-Yb promoted colon mRNA expression of an apoptosis-related factor and cell-cycle-related gene and suppressed pro-inflammatory factor. SS-Yb baked into BS-9x further promoted these anti-carcinogenic efficacies. Taken together, the results indicate that Korean solar salt, especially SS-S and SS-Yb, exhibited anti-cancer activity by modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related gene expression during colon carcinogenesis in mice, and bamboo salt baked from SS-Yb showed enhanced anti-cancer functionality.

  14. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.

  15. Acute experimental colitis decreases colonic circular smooth muscle contractility in rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, B S; Martin, J S; Dempsey, D T; Parkman, H P; Thomas, R M; Ryan, J P

    1997-10-01

    Distal colitis decreases the contractility of the underlying circular smooth muscle. We examined how time after injury and lesion severity contribute to the decreased contractility and how colitis alters the calcium-handling properties of the affected muscle. Distal colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Contractile responses to acetylcholine, increased extracellular potassium, and the G protein activator NaF were determined for circular muscle strips from sham control and colitic rats at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 postenemas. Acetylcholine stimulation of tissues from day 3 colitic rats was performed in a zero calcium buffer, in the presence of nifedipine, and after depletion of intracellular stores of calcium. The colitis was graded macroscopically as mild, moderate, or severe. Regardless of agonist, maximal decrease in force developed 2 to 3 days posttreatment, followed by a gradual return to control by day 14. The inhibitory effect of colitis on contractility increased with increasing severity of inflammation. Limiting extracellular calcium influx had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from colitic rats; intracellular calcium depletion had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from control animals. The data suggest that both lesion severity and time after injury affect the contractile response of circular smooth muscle from the inflamed distal colon. Impaired utilization of intracellular calcium may contribute to the decreased contractility.

  16. Swimming attenuates inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in a rat model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced chronic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-shan; Liu, Qin-qin; Wang, Li-feng; Yang, An-gang; Gao, Chun-fang; Li, Jun-tang

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular physical exercise suppresses chronic inflammation. However, the potential inhibitory effects of swimming on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis, and its underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, rats were orally administered DSS to induce chronic colitis, and subsequently treated with or without swimming exercise. A 7-week swimming program (1 or 1.5 hours per day, 5 days per week) ameliorated DSS-caused colon shortening, colon barrier disruption, spleen enlargement, serum LDH release, and reduction of body weight gain. Swimming for 1.5 hours per day afforded greater protection than 1 hour per day. Swimming ameliorated DSS-induced decrease in crypt depth, and increases in myeloperoxidase activity, infiltration of Ly6G+ neutrophils and TNF-a- and IFN-?-expressing CD3+ T cells, as well as fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin. Swimming inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and decreased the protein expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-?B p65 and cyclooxygenase 2, whereas it elevated interleukin-10 levels. Swimming impeded the generation of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide; however, it boosted glutathione levels, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Additionally, swimming decreased caspase-3 activity and expression of apoptosis-inducing factor, cytochrome c, Bax, and cleaved-caspase-3, but increased Bcl-2 levels. Overall, these results suggest that swimming exerts beneficial effects on DSS-induced chronic colitis by modulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PMID:28030847

  17. Ablation of Doublecortin-Like Kinase 1 in the Colonic Epithelium Exacerbates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    May, Randal; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Madhoun, Mohammad; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M.; An, Guangyu; Schlosser, Michael J.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1), a microtubule-associated kinase, marks the fifth lineage of intestinal epithelial cells called tuft cells that function as tumor stem cells in Apc mutant models of colon cancer. In order to determine the role of Dclk1 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colonic inflammation both intestinal epithelial specific Dclk1 deficient (VillinCre;Dclk1f/f) and control (Dclk1f/f) mice were fed 3% DSS in drinking water for 9 days, allowed to recover for 2 days, and killed. The clinical and histological features of DSS-induced colitis were scored and immunohistochemical, gene expression, pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and immunoblotting analyses were used to examine epithelial barrier integrity, inflammation, and stem and tuft cell features. In DSS-induced colitis, VillinCre;Dclk1f/f mice demonstrated exacerbated injury including higher clinical colitis scores, increased epithelial barrier permeability, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, decreased levels of Lgr5, and dysregulated Wnt/b-Catenin pathway genes. These results suggest that Dclk1 plays an important role in regulating colonic inflammatory response and colonic epithelial integrity. PMID:26285154

  18. Hydrogen sulfide from a NaHS source attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Xi-shuang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), derived from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that NaHS injection markedly decreased rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and histological injury in DSS-challenged mice. NaHS (20 μmol/L) reversed DSS-induced inhibition in cell viability in Caco-2 cells and alleviated pro-inflammation cytokine expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory function for H2S. It was also found that H2S may regulate cytokine expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that H2S alleviated DSS-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro and that the signal mechanism might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide from a NaHS source attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Xi-shuang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), derived from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that NaHS injection markedly decreased rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and histological injury in DSS-challenged mice. NaHS (20 μmol/L) reversed DSS-induced inhibition in cell viability in Caco-2 cells and alleviated pro-inflammation cytokine expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory function for H2S. It was also found that H2S may regulate cytokine expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that H2S alleviated DSS-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro and that the signal mechanism might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26984841

  20. Enteral diets enriched with medium-chain triglycerides and N-3 fatty acids prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ogiku, Masahito; Tsuchiya, Masato; Ishii, Kenichi; Hara, Michio

    2010-11-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and N-3 fatty acids on chemically induced experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed liquid diets enriched with N-6 fatty acid (control diets), N-3 fatty acid (MCT- diets), and N-3 fatty acid and MCT (MCT+ diets) for 2 weeks and then were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS. Serum and tissue samples were collected 5 days after ethanol or TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity was measured in colonic tissues. Furthermore, protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colonic tissues. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the colon by TNBS enema was markedly attenuated by the MCT+ diet among the 3 diets studied. Furthermore, the induction of chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 also was blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets. As a result, MPO activities in the colonic tissue also were blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets compared with those fed the control diets or the MCT- diets. Furthermore, the MCT+ diet improved chemically induced colitis significantly among the 3 diets studied. Diets enriched with both MCTs and N-3 fatty acids may be effective for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as antiinflammatory immunomodulating nutrients.

  1. Histomorphometric evaluation of experimentally induced colitis with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid in rats

    PubMed Central

    RABAU, MICHA; EYAL, AMI; DAYAN, DAN

    1996-01-01

    Colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid (TNB) in rats and a histomorphometric study was performed as a possible scoring system for disease activity. The affected colon was examined 10, 20, 40 and 60 days after TNB administration. Quantitative microscopic analysis was performed on the following histologic parameters: necrosis, mucosal epithelium, muscularis fibres, inflammation, granulation tissue and fibrosis. Clinically, the rats were sick, especially on days 10 and 20 after TNB injection. Concomitantly, a peak necrosis score involving the full thickness of the colonic wall was recorded on day 10. The inflammatory reaction was most intense 20 days after TNB injection. After 60 days, marked epithelial regeneration was seen and most of the inflammatory reaction had subsided. A good correlation was found between clinical features and quantitative histomorphometric characteristics of colitis. The criteria described allow a precise description and quantification of the inflammatory and healing process of TNB-induced colitis in rats. PMID:8943736

  2. Deficiency of Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Aggravates Mouse Experimental Colitis by Increased NFκB Activity in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hamers, Anouk A. J.; van Dam, Laura; Teixeira Duarte, José M.; Vos, Mariska; Marinković, Goran; van Tiel, Claudia M.; Meijer, Sybren L.; van Stalborch, Anne-Marieke; Huveneers, Stephan; te Velde, Anje A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor Nur77, also referred to as NR4A1 or TR3, plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Nur77 is crucial in regulating the T helper 1/regulatory T-cell balance, is expressed in macrophages and drives M2 macrophage polarization. In this study we aimed to define the function of Nur77 in inflammatory bowel disease. In wild-type and Nur77-/- mice, colitis development was studied in dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced models. To understand the underlying mechanism, Nur77 was overexpressed in macrophages and gut epithelial cells. Nur77 protein is expressed in colon tissues from Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis patients and colons from colitic mice in inflammatory cells and epithelium. In both mouse colitis models inflammation was increased in Nur77-/- mice. A higher neutrophil influx and enhanced IL-6, MCP-1 and KC production was observed in Nur77-deficient colons after DSS-treatment. TNBS-induced influx of T-cells and inflammatory monocytes into the colon was higher in Nur77-/- mice, along with increased expression of MCP-1, TNFα and IL-6, and decreased Foxp3 RNA expression, compared to wild-type mice. Overexpression of Nur77 in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW macrophages resulted in up-regulated IL-10 and downregulated TNFα, MIF-1 and MCP-1 mRNA expression through NFκB repression. Nur77 also strongly decreased expression of MCP-1, CXCL1, IL-8, MIP-1α and TNFα in gut epithelial Caco-2 cells. Nur77 overexpression suppresses the inflammatory status of both macrophages and gut epithelial cells and together with the in vivo mouse data this supports that Nur77 has a protective function in experimental colitis. These findings may have implications for development of novel targeted treatment strategies regarding inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:26241646

  3. Beneficial effect of butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and L-carnitine combination in preference to each in experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Moeinian, Mahsa; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Mozaffari, Shilan; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Baeeri, Maryam; Navaea-Nigjeh, Mona; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the beneficial effect of the combination of butyrate, Lactobacillus casei, and L-carnitine in a rat colitis model. METHODS: Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral butyrate, L-carnitine, Lactobacillus casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups included negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic, histopathological examinations, and biomarkers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interlukin-1β (IL-1β), myeloperoxidase (MPO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and ferric reduced ability of plasma (FRAP) were determined in the colon. RESULTS: The combination therapy exhibited a significant beneficial effect in alleviation of colitis compared to controls. Overall changes in reduction of TNF-α (114.66 ± 18.26 vs 171.78 ± 9.48 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05), IL-1β (24.9 ± 1.07 vs 33.06 ± 2.16 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05), TBARS (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 0.49 ± 0.04 μg/mg protein, P < 0.01), MPO (15.32 ± 0.4 vs 27.24 ± 3.84 U/mg protein, P < 0.05), and elevation of FRAP (23.46 ± 1.2 vs 15.02 ± 2.37 μmol/L, P < 0.05) support the preference of the combination therapy in comparison to controls. Although the monotherapies were also effective in improvement of colitis markers, the combination therapy was much better in improvement of colon oxidative stress markers including FRAP, TBARS, and MPO. CONCLUSION: The present combination is a suitable mixture in control of experimental colitis and should be trialed in the clinical setting. PMID:25152589

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of anti-inflammatory properties of silver nanoparticle suspensions in experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Krzysztof; Zatorski, Hubert; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta; Śmiech, Magdalena; Kordek, Radzisław; Tymczyna, Leszek; Banach, Marcin; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of newly developed silver nanoparticle aqueous suspensions NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 in the mouse models mimicking ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 were synthesized in aqueous medium with the involvement of tannic acid. To elucidate their anti-inflammatory activity, semi-chronic mouse models of inflammation induced by dextrane sulfate sodium addition to drinking water and intracolonic (i.c.) administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid were used. NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 (500 mg/dm3, 100 μl/animal, i.c., once daily) significantly ameliorated colitis in dextrane sulfate sodium- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced mouse models of colonic inflammation, as indicated by reduced macroscopic, ulcer and microscopic scores. The anti-inflammatory effect was dependent on the shape and diameter of silver nanoparticles, as indicated by weaker effect of NanoAg1 than NanoAg2. In addition, administration of NanoAg2, but not NanoAg1, modulated colonic microbiota, as indicated by reduced number of Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, and increased number of Lactobacillus sp. Summarizing, NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 after administered i.c. effectively alleviate colitis in experimental models of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in mice. Therefore, NanoAg1 and NanoAg2 administered i.c. have the potential to become valuable agents for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage. PMID:24914296

  6. Orally Administered Enoxaparin Ameliorates Acute Colitis by Reducing Macrophage-Associated Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh; Stewart, Niall; Peterson, Gregory M.; Gueven, Nuri; Patel, Rahul P.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. The currently available treatments are not effective in all patients, can be expensive and have potential to cause severe side effects. This prompts the need for new treatment modalities. Enoxaparin, a widely used antithrombotic agent, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and therefore we evaluated its therapeutic potential in a mouse model of colitis. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Mice were treated once daily with enoxaparin via oral or intraperitoneal administration and monitored for colitis activities. On termination (day 8), colons were collected for macroscopic evaluation and cytokine measurement, and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Oral but not intraperitoneal administration of enoxaparin significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. Oral enoxaparin-treated mice retained their body weight and displayed less diarrhea and fecal blood loss compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon weight in enoxaparin-treated mice was significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and edema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice showed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and the presence of edema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral enoxaparin. Reduced number of macrophages in the colon of oral enoxaparin-treated mice was accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Oral enoxaparin significantly reduces the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis in mice and could therefore represent a novel therapeutic option for the management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:26218284

  7. The Unfolded Protein Response and Chemical Chaperones Reduce Protein Misfolding and Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    CAO, STEWART SIYAN; ZIMMERMANN, ELLEN M.; CHUANG, BRANDY–MENGCHIEH; SONG, BENBO; NWOKOYE, ANOSIKE; WILKINSON, J. ERBY; EATON, KATHRYN A.; KAUFMAN, RANDAL J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with development of inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of ER stress–induced chaperone response and the orally active chemical chaperones tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) and 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), which facilitate protein folding and reduce ER stress, in mice with colitis. METHODS We used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis in mice that do not express the transcription factor ATF6α or the protein chaperone P58IPK. We examined the effects of TUDCA and PBA in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IECs); in wild-type, P58IPK−/−, and Atf6α−/− mice with colitis; and in Il10−/− mice. RESULTS P58IPK−/− and Atf6α−/− mice developed more severe colitis following administration of DSS than wild-type mice. IECs from P58IPK−/− mice had excessive ER stress, and apoptotic signaling was activated in IECs from Atf6α−/− mice. Inflammatory stimuli induced ER stress signals in cultured IECs, which were reduced by incubation with TUDCA or PBA. Oral administration of either PBA or TUDCA reduced features of DSS-induced acute and chronic colitis in wild-type mice, the colitis that develops in Il10−/− mice, and DSS-induced colitis in P58IPK−/− and Atf6α−/− mice. Reduced signs of colonic inflammation in these mice were associated with significantly decreased ER stress in colonic epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS The unfolded protein response induces expression of genes that encode chaperones involved in ER protein folding; these factors prevent induction of colitis in mice. Chemical chaperones such as TUDCA and PBA alleviate different forms of colitis in mice and might be developed for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:23336977

  8. A new therapeutic association to manage relapsing experimental colitis: Doxycycline plus Saccharomyces boulardii.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Mesa, José; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Utrilla, Maria Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Ocete, Maria Angeles; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Galvez, Julio

    2015-07-01

    Immunomodulatory antibiotics have been proposed for the treatment of multifactorial conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics are able to attenuate intestinal inflammation, being considered as safe when chronically administered. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline, a tetracycline with immunomodulatory properties, alone and in association with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCMI-745. Doxycycline was assayed both in vitro (Caco-2 epithelial cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mouse colitis. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of the association of doxycycline and the probiotic was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a DSS model of reactivated colitis in mice. Doxycycline displayed immunomodulatory activity in vitro, reducing IL-8 production by intestinal epithelial cells and nitric oxide by macrophages. Doxycycline administration to TNBS-colitic rats (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg) ameliorated the intestinal inflammatory process, being its efficacy comparable to that previously showed by minocycline. Doxycycline treatment was also effective in reducing acute intestinal inflammation in the DSS model of mouse colitis. The association of doxycycline and S. boulardii helped managing colitis in a reactivated model of colitis, by reducing intestinal inflammation and accelerating the recovery and attenuating the relapse. This was evidenced by a reduced disease activity index, colonic tissue damage and expression of inflammatory mediators. This study confirms the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and supports the potential use of its therapeutic association with S. boulardii for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, in which doxycycline is used to induce remission and long term probiotic administration helps to prevent the relapses.

  9. Multifactorial Patterns of Gene Expression in Colonic Epithelial Cells Predict Disease Phenotypes in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, Aubrey L.; Bruno, Maria E.C.; Rogier, Eric W.; Tuna, Halide; Cohen, Donald A.; Bondada, Subbarao; Chelvarajan, R. Lakshman; Brandon, J. Anthony; Jennings, C. Darrell; Kaetzel, Charlotte S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex and the need to identify molecular biomarkers is critical. Epithelial cells play a central role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. We previously identified 5 “signature” biomarkers in colonic epithelial cells (CEC) that are predictive of disease phenotype in Crohn’s disease. Here we investigate the ability of CEC biomarkers to define the mechanism and severity of intestinal inflammation. Methods We analyzed expression of RelA, A20, pIgR, TNF and MIP-2 in CEC of mice with DSS acute colitis or T cell-mediated chronic colitis. Factor analysis was used to combine the 5 biomarkers into 2 multifactorial principal components (PCs). PC scores for individual mice were correlated with disease severity. Results For both colitis models, PC1 was strongly weighted toward RelA, A20 and pIgR, and PC2 was strongly weighted toward TNF and MIP-2, while the contributions of other biomarkers varied depending on the etiology of inflammation. Disease severity was correlated with elevated PC2 scores in DSS colitis and reduced PC1 scores in T cell transfer colitis. Down-regulation of pIgR was a common feature observed in both colitis models and was associated with altered cellular localization of pIgR and failure to transport IgA. Conclusions A multifactorial analysis of epithelial gene expression may be more informative than examining single gene responses in IBD. These results provide insight into the homeostatic and pro-inflammatory functions of CEC in IBD pathogenesis and suggest that biomarker analysis could be useful for evaluating therapeutic options for IBD patients. PMID:23070952

  10. Recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying thymosin β4 suppresses experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Yan; Lv, Yi-Fei; Li, Shuang; Li, Qian; Zhang, Qian-Nan; Zhang, Xue-Ting; Hao, Zhi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the protective effect of a recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying thymosin β4 (AAV-Tβ4) on murine colitis via intracolonic administration. METHODS AAV-Tβ4 was prepared and intracolonically used to mediate the secretory expression of Tβ4 in mouse colons. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was applied to induce the murine ulcerative colitis, and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to establish a mouse colitis model resembling Crohn’s disease. The disease severity and colon injuries were observed and graded to reveal the effects of AAV-Tβ4 on colitis. The activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined using biochemical assays. Colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 were measured using ELISA, and mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation were detected by TUNEL assay and immunochemistry, respectively. RESULTS Recombinant AAVs efficiently delivered LacZ and Tβ4 into the colonic tissues of the mice, and AAV-Tβ4 led to a strong expression of Tβ4 in mouse colons. In both the DSS and TNBS colitis models, AAV-Tβ4-treated mice displayed distinctly attenuated colon injuries and reduced apoptosis rate of colonic mucosal epithelia. AAV-Tβ4 significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltrations and relieved oxidative stress in the inflamed colons of the mice, as evidenced by decreases in MPO activity and MDA content and increases in SOD activity. AAV-Tβ4 also modulated colonic TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels and suppressed the compensatory proliferation of colonic epithelial cells in DSS- and TNBS-treated mice. CONCLUSION Tβ4 exerts a protective effect on murine colitis, indicating that AAV-Tβ4 could potentially be developed into a promising agent for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:28127198

  11. Cordyceps militaris extract suppresses dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and production of inflammatory mediators from macrophages and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Su; Oh, Joo Yeon; Park, Hye-Jin

    2011-04-12

    Cordyceps militaris is a well-known medicinal mushroom used for treatment of asthma, and other bronchial and lung inflammatory diseases. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of Cordyceps militaris extract on a murine model of acute colitis. We induced colitis using DSS for 1 week. The disease activity index (DAI) took into account body weight loss, diarrhea, and bleeding. Colon length and crypt length were measured using a microscope. Structural changes of the colon were observed by H&E staining. NO, iNOS, and TNF-α were determined using the Griess assay. iNOS protein was determined using western blotting and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Degranulated mast cells in colon tissue were stained using toluidine blue. The degree of degranulated RBL-2H3 cells was measured by the β-hexosaminidase assay. Cordyceps militaris extract significantly attenuated DSS-induced DAI scores (e.g., body weight loss, diarrhea, gross bleeding). Cordyceps militaris extract also effectively prevented shortening of colon length and crypt length. Histological analysis indicated that Cordyceps militaris extract suppressed epithelial damage, loss of goblet cells, loss of crypts, and infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by DSS. In addition, Cordyceps militaris extract inhibited iNOS and TNF-α mRNA expression in colon tissue of DSS-induced colitis and in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Cordyceps militaris extract suppressed degranulation of mast cells in the colon of mice with DSS-induced colitis and in antigen-stimulated mast cells. These results suggest that Cordyceps militaris extract has anti-inflammatory activity in DSS-induced acute colitis by down-regulating production and expression of inflammatory mediators. These findings suggest that Cordyceps militaris extract might be applied as an agent for prevention or treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  12. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    te Velde, Anje A; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Meijer, Sybren L; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-10-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner.

  13. Downregulation of CX3CR1 ameliorates experimental colitis: evidence for CX3CL1-CX3CR1-mediated immune cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Becker, Felix; Holthoff, Christina; Anthoni, Christoph; Rijcken, Emile; Alexander, J Steven; Gavins, Felicity N E; Spiegel, H U; Senninger, Norbert; Vowinkel, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    Inflammatory conditions like inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by increased immune cell infiltration. The chemokine ligand CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 have been shown to be involved in leukocyte adhesion, transendothelial recruitment, and chemotaxis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe CX3CL1-CX3CR1-mediated signaling in the induction of immune cell recruitment during experimental murine colitis. Acute colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), and sepsis was induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Serum concentrations of CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 were measured by ELISA. Wild-type and CX3CR1(-/-) mice were challenged with DSS, and on day 6, intravital microscopy was performed to monitor colonic leukocyte and platelet recruitment. Intestinal inflammation was assessed by disease activity, histopathology, and neutrophil infiltration. CX3CR1 was upregulated in DSS colitis and LPS-induced sepsis. CX3CR1(-/-) mice were protected from disease severity and intestinal injury in DSS colitis, and CX3CR1 deficiency resulted in reduced rolling of leukocytes and platelets. In the present study, we provide evidence for a crucial role of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in experimental colitis, in particular for intestinal leukocyte recruitment during murine colitis. Our findings suggest that CX3CR1 blockade represents a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD.

  14. Gut microbiome composition and function in experimental colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission

    PubMed Central

    Rooks, Michelle G; Veiga, Patrick; Wardwell-Scott, Leslie H; Tickle, Timothy; Segata, Nicola; Michaud, Monia; Gallini, Carey Ann; Beal, Chloé; van Hylckama-Vlieg, Johan ET; Ballal, Sonia A; Morgan, Xochitl C; Glickman, Jonathan N; Gevers, Dirk; Huttenhower, Curtis; Garrett, Wendy S

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated immune responses to gut microbes are central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gut microbial activity can fuel chronic inflammation. Examining how IBD-directed therapies influence gut microbiomes may identify microbial community features integral to mitigating disease and maintaining health. However, IBD patients often receive multiple treatments during disease flares, confounding such analyses. Preclinical models of IBD with well-defined disease courses and opportunities for controlled treatment exposures provide a valuable solution. Here, we surveyed the gut microbiome of the T-bet−/− Rag2−/− mouse model of colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission. Microbial features modified among these conditions included altered potential for carbohydrate and energy metabolism and bacterial pathogenesis, specifically cell motility and signal transduction pathways. We also observed an increased capacity for xenobiotics metabolism, including benzoate degradation, a pathway linking host adrenergic stress with enhanced bacterial virulence, and found decreased levels of fecal dopamine in active colitis. When transferred to gnotobiotic mice, gut microbiomes from mice with active disease versus treatment-induced remission elicited varying degrees of colitis. Thus, our study provides insight into specific microbial clades and pathways associated with health, active disease and treatment interventions in a mouse model of colitis. PMID:24500617

  15. Central Muscarinic Cholinergic Activation Alters Interaction between Splenic Dendritic Cell and CD4+CD25- T Cells in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is based on vagus nerve (VN) activity that regulates macrophage and dendritic cell responses in the spleen through alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR) signaling. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients present dysautonomia with decreased vagus nerve activity, dendritic cell and T cell over-activation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether central activation of the CAP alters the function of dendritic cells (DCs) and sequential CD4+/CD25−T cell activation in the context of experimental colitis. Methods The dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of experimental colitis in C57BL/6 mice was used. Central, intracerebroventricular infusion of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist McN-A-343 was used to activate CAP and vagus nerve and/or splenic nerve transection were performed. In addition, the role of α7nAChR signaling and the NF-kB pathway was studied. Serum amyloid protein (SAP)-A, colonic tissue cytokines, IL-12p70 and IL-23 in isolated splenic DCs, and cytokines levels in DC-CD4+CD25−T cell co-culture were determined. Results McN-A-343 treatment reduced colonic inflammation associated with decreased pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 colonic and splenic cytokine secretion. Splenic DCs cytokine release was modulated through α7nAChR and the NF-kB signaling pathways. Cholinergic activation resulted in decreased CD4+CD25−T cell priming. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of central cholinergic activation was abolished in mice with vagotomy or splenic neurectomy. Conclusions Suppression of splenic immune cell activation and altered interaction between DCs and T cells are important aspects of the beneficial effect of brain activation of the CAP in experimental colitis. These findings may lead to improved therapeutic strategies in the treatment of IBD. PMID:25295619

  16. Antioxidant properties of mesenchymal stem cells against oxidative stress in a murine model of colitis.

    PubMed

    da Costa Gonçalves, Fabiany; Grings, Mateus; Nunes, Natália Schneider; Pinto, Fernanda Otesbelgue; Garcez, Tuane Nerissa Alves; Visioli, Fernanda; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Paz, Ana Helena

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effects of oxidative stress injury in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Mice exposed to oral administration of 2% DSS over 7 days presented a high disease activity index and an intense colonic inflammation. Systemic infusion of MSC protected from severe colitis, reducing weight loss and diarrhea while lowering the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, toxic colitis injury increased oxidative stress. Administration of DSS decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in the colon. No alteration was found in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Otherwise, MSC transplantation was able to prevent the decrease of GSH levels and SOD activity suggestive of an antioxidant property of MSC. The oxidative stress is a pathomechanism underlying the pathophysiology of colitis and MSC play an important role in preventing the impairment of antioxidants defenses in inflamed colon.

  17. Sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 2 promotes disruption of mucosal integrity, and contributes to ulcerative colitis in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Ching; Liang, Jie; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Avni, Dorit; Yamada, Akimitsu; Maceyka, Michael; Wolen, Aaron R; Kordula, Tomasz; Milstien, Sheldon; Takabe, Kazuaki; Oravecz, Tamas; Spiegel, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and the kinase that produces it have been implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases in mice and humans; however, little is known about the role of the 2 S1P-specific phosphohydrolase isoforms, SGPP1 and SGPP2, which catalyze dephosphorylation of S1P to sphingosine. To elucidate their functions, we generated specific knockout mice. Deletion of Sgpp2, which is mainly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, significantly reduced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis severity, whereas deletion of ubiquitously expressed Sgpp1 slightly worsened colitis. Moreover, Sgpp1 deletion enhanced expression of multifunctional proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and immune cell infiltration into the colon. Conversely, Sgpp2-null mice failed to mount a DSS-induced systemic inflammatory response. Of interest, Sgpp2 deficiency suppressed DSS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and improved mucosal barrier integrity. Furthermore, down-regulation of Sgpp2 attenuated LPS-induced paracellular permeability in cultured cells and enhanced expression of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin. Finally, in patients with ulcerative colitis, SGPP2 expression was elevated in colitis tissues relative to that in uninvolved tissues. These results indicate that induction of SGPP2 expression contributes to the pathogenesis of colitis by promoting disruption of the mucosal barrier function. SGPP2 may represent a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease.-Huang, W.-C., Liang, J., Nagahashi, M., Avni, D., Yamada, A., Maceyka, M., Wolen, A. R., Kordula, T., Milstien, S., Takabe, K., Oravecz, T., Spiegel, S. Sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 2 promotes disruption of mucosal integrity, and contributes to ulcerative colitis in mice and humans. © FASEB.

  18. Beneficial effect of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on experimental ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Dey, Yadu Nandan; Sharma, Garima; Wanjari, Manish M; Kumar, Dharmendra; Lomash, Vinay; Jadhav, Ankush D

    2017-12-01

    The tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Araceae), commonly called Suran or Jimmikand, has high medicinal value and is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of different gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders. The present study evaluated the effects of extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tubers on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. Wistar rats were orally administered methanol extract (APME) or aqueous extract (APAE) (250 and 500 mg/kg) or standard drug, prednisolone (PRDS) (4 mg/kg) for 7 days. On 6th day of treatment, UC was induced by transrectal instillation of 4% acetic acid (AA) and after 48 h colitis was assessed by measuring colitis parameters, biochemical estimations and histology of colon. APME or APAE pretreatment significantly (p < .05-.001) prevented AA-induced reduction in body weight and increase in colitis parameters viz. stool consistency, colon weight/length ratio and ulcer score, area and index. Extracts treatment attenuated (p < .001) increase in alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in serum and myeloperoxidase activity and cytokines in colon tissue due to AA administration. Extracts treatment prevented AA-induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced-glutathione content (p < .05-.001) along with histopathological alterations. PRDS also showed similar ameliorative effect on colitis. APME and APAE showed a preventive effect on UC, and ameliorated inflammation and oxidative damage in colon. The effects may be attributed to presence of phytochemicals, betulinic acid, β-sitosterol, and glucomannan. In conclusion, the tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius exhibited an anticolitic effect through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action.

  19. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, José L.; Fernando, Maria R.; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L.; Matisz, Chelsea E.; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  20. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Fernando, Maria R; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L; Matisz, Chelsea E; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nagib, Marwa M.; Tadros, Mariane G.; ELSayed, Moushira I.; Khalifa, Amani E.

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  2. Dietary supplementation of arachidonic acid increases arachidonic acid and lipoxin A4 contents in colon, but does not affect severity or prostaglandin E2 content in murine colitis model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an essential fatty acid and a major constituent of biomembranes. It is converted into various lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). The effects of dietary ARA on colon maintenance are unclear because PGE2 has both mucosal protective and proinflammatory effects, and LXA4 has an anti-inflammatory role. Our objective is to clarify the effects of dietary ARA on an experimental murine colitis model. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed three types of ARA diet (0.075%, 0.15% or 0.305% ARA in diet), DHA diet (0.315% DHA) or control diet for 6 weeks, and were then administered dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. We evaluated colitis severity, fatty acid and lipid mediator contents in colonic tissue, and the expression of genes related to lipid mediator formation. Results ARA composition of colon phospholipids was significantly elevated in an ARA dose-dependent manner. ARA, as well as DHA, did not affect colitis severity (body weight loss, colon shortening, diarrhea and hemoccult phenomena) and histological features. PGE2 contents in the colon were unchanged by dietary ARA, while LXA4 contents increased in an ARA dose-dependent manner. Gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was unchanged, while that of 12/15-lipoxgenase (LOX) was significantly increased by dietary ARA. ARA composition did not correlate with neither colon length nor PGE2 contents, but significantly correlated with LXA4 content. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary ARA increases ARA and LXA4 contents in colon, but that it has no effect on severity and PGE2 content in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. PMID:24507383

  3. The noncommensal bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) ameliorates dextran sulfate (Sodium Salt)-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by influencing mechanisms essential for maintenance of the colonic barrier function.

    PubMed

    Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Hult, Lene T Olsen; Spetalen, Signe; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Christofferesen, Trine Eker; Bengtsson, Oskar; Romarheim, Odd Helge; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of a bacterial meal has recently been shown to efficiently abolish soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. The objective of this study was to investigate whether inclusion of this bacterial meal in the diet could abrogate disease development in a murine model of epithelial injury and colitis and thus possibly have therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6N mice were fed ad libitum a control diet or an experimental diet containing 254 g/kg of body weight BioProtein, a bacterial meal consisting of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), together with the heterogenic bacteria Ralstonia sp., Brevibacillus agri, and Aneurinibacillus sp. At day 8, colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ad libitum in the drinking water for 6 days. Symptoms of DSS treatment were less profound after prophylactic treatment with the diet containing the BioProtein. Colitis-associated parameters such as reduced body weight, colon shortening, and epithelial damage also showed significant improvement. Levels of acute-phase reactants, proteins whose plasma concentrations increase in response to inflammation, and neutrophil infiltration were reduced. On the other, increased epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced mucin 2 (Muc2) transcription indicated improved integrity of the colonic epithelial layer. BioProtein mainly consists of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (88%). The results that we obtained when using a bacterial meal consisting of M. capsulatus (Bath) were similar to those obtained when using BioProtein in the DSS model. Our results show that a bacterial meal of the noncommensal bacterium M. capsulatus (Bath) has the potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing colonic barrier function, as judged by increased epithelial proliferation and increased Muc2 transcription.

  4. Prophylactic effects of Lonicera japonica extract on dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in a mouse model by the inhibition of the Th1/Th17 response.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Woo; Bae, Hyunsu; Lee, Gihyun; Hong, Beom-Gi; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Lim, Sung-Jig; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Jinsung; Ryu, Bongha; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Lee, Hyejung; Bu, Youngmin

    2013-01-28

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronically relapsing inflammatory disorders of the intestine. Although some therapeutic agents, including steroids, are available for the treatment of IBD, these agents have limited use. Therefore, dietary supplements have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Japanese honeysuckle flower, the flower of Lonicera japonica, is a well-known dietary supplement and has been used to prevent or treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. japonica on experimental murine colitis. Colitis was induced by 5 % dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in Balb/c mice. The water extract of L. japonica (LJE) at doses of 20, 100 or 500 mg/kg was orally administered to mice twice per day for 7 d. Body weight, colon length and a histological damage score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Cytokine profiles were assessed to examine the effects on helper T (Th) cell-related immunological responses. In addition, CD4⁺CD25⁺Foxp3⁺T cells were analysed in vivo and in vitro for investigating the effects on regulatory T (Treg) cells. LJE showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects against colon shortening, weight loss and histological damage. LJE down-regulated IL-1β, TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-17. However, LJE did not show any significant effects on IL-10, IL-23, transforming growth factor-β1 and Treg cell populations. In conclusion, LJE showed protective effects against DSS-induced colitis via the Th1/Th17 pathway and not via Treg cell-related mechanisms.

  5. Granzyme M has a critical role in providing innate immune protection in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, F; Krasnova, Y; Putoczki, T; Miles, K; MacDonald, K P; Town, L; Shi, W; Gobe, G C; McDade, L; Mielke, L A; Tye, H; Masters, S L; Belz, G T; Huntington, N D; Radford-Smith, G; Smyth, M J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immunoregulatory disorder, associated with a chronic and inappropriate mucosal immune response to commensal bacteria, underlying disease states such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. Granzyme M (GrzM) is a serine protease expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes, in particular natural killer (NK) cells. Granzymes are thought to be involved in triggering cell death in eukaryotic target cells; however, some evidence supports their role in inflammation. The role of GrzM in the innate immune response to mucosal inflammation has never been examined. Here, we discover that patients with UC, unlike patients with CD, display high levels of GrzM mRNA expression in the inflamed colon. By taking advantage of well-established models of experimental UC, we revealed that GrzM-deficient mice have greater levels of inflammatory indicators during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD, including increased weight loss, greater colon length reduction and more severe intestinal histopathology. The absence of GrzM expression also had effects on gut permeability, tissue cytokine/chemokine dynamics, and neutrophil infiltration during disease. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that GrzM has a critical role during early stages of inflammation in UC, and that in its absence colonic inflammation is enhanced. PMID:27441655

  6. Chios mastic fractions in experimental colitis: implication of the nuclear factor κB pathway in cultured HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Papalois, Apostolos; Gioxari, Aristea; Kaliora, Andriana C; Lymperopoulou, Aikaterini; Agrogiannis, George; Papada, Efstathia; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2012-11-01

    The Pistacia lentiscus tree gives a resinous exudate called Chios mastic (CM) rich in triterpenoids. CM can be fractionated into acidic and neutral fractions (AF and NF, respectively). Oleanolic acid (OA) is a major triterpenic acid in CM with several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently shown that CM is beneficial in experimental colitis in the form of powder mixture with inulin, as supplied commercially. However, the bioactive fraction or compound of CM is unidentified. Thus, based on the hypothesis that terpenoids exhibit functional activities via distinguishable pathways, we fractionated CM and applied different fractions or individual OA in experimental colitis. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this effect in human colon epithelial cells. CM powder mixture (100 mg/kg of body weight) or the respective CM powder mixture components (i.e., inulin, AF, NF, or OA) were individually administered in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-treated rats. Colonic damage was assessed microscopically, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1were measured. A model of inflammation in co-cultured human colon epithelial HT29 cells and monocytes/macrophages was established. Lactate dehydrogenase release and levels of TNF-α, IL-8, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 were measured. In vivo, histological amelioration of colitis and significant regulation in inflammation occurred with CM powder mixture, even at the mRNA level. Although no histological improvement was observed, AF and NF reduced levels of inflammatory markers. Inulin was ineffective. In vitro, CM treatment down-regulated IL-8 and NF-κB p65. Neither fractions nor OA was the bioactive component solely. Most probably, the entire CM rather than its individual fractions reduces inflammation via NF-κB regulation.

  7. Oral administration of dextran sodium sulphate induces a caecum-localized colitis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Irina; Nicholls, Flora; Atrott, Kirstin; Cee, Alexandra; Tewes, Bernhard; Greinwald, Roland; Rogler, Gerhard; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Trichuris suis ova (TSO) have shown promising results in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the mechanisms which underlies this therapeutic effect cannot be studied in mice and rats as T. suis fails to colonize the rodent intestine, whilst hatching in humans and rabbits. As a suitable rabbit IBD model is currently not available, we developed a rabbit colitis model by administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). White Himalayan rabbits (n = 12) received 0.1% DSS in the daily water supply for five days. Clinical symptoms were monitored daily, and rabbits were sacrificed at different time points. A genomewide expression analysis was performed with RNA isolated from caecal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). The disease activity index of DSS rabbits increased up to 2.1 ± 0.4 (n = 6) at day 10 (controls <0.5). DSS induced a caecum-localized pathology with crypt architectural distortion, stunted villous surface and inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria. The histopathology score reached a peak of 14.2 ± 4.9 (n = 4) at day 10 (controls 7.7 ± 0.9, n = 5). Expression profiling revealed an enrichment of IBD-related genes in both LPMC and IEC. Innate inflammatory response, Th17 signalling and chemotaxis were among the pathways affected significantly. We describe a reproducible and reliable rabbit model of DSS colitis. Localization of the inflammation in the caecum and its similarities to IBD make this model particularly suitable to study TSO therapy in vivo. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  8. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-12-14

    significantly reduced the DSS colitis-induced TNF-α increase (P < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were observed among groups for IL-10 and MDA levels. Colon tissue iNOS levels in the colitis group were significantly higher than those in the control and kefir-colitis groups (P < 0.05). Kefir reduces the clinical DAI and histologic colitis scores in a DSS-induced colitis model, possibly via reduction of MPO, TNF-α, and iNOS levels.

  9. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-01-01

    .05). Kefir treatment significantly reduced the DSS colitis-induced TNF-α increase (P < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were observed among groups for IL-10 and MDA levels. Colon tissue iNOS levels in the colitis group were significantly higher than those in the control and kefir-colitis groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Kefir reduces the clinical DAI and histologic colitis scores in a DSS-induced colitis model, possibly via reduction of MPO, TNF-α, and iNOS levels. PMID:26676086

  10. Ischaemic colitis in the experimental animal. II. Role of hypovolaemia in the production of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, J G; Parks, T G

    1976-01-01

    Hypovolaemia alone did not lead to ischaemic colitis but when venesection was induced immediately after the acute ligation of the common colic artery large bowel ischaemia ensued. Similarly, hypovolaemia induced one month after two major blood vessels had been occluded led to ischaemic colitis. These findings suggest that states of low blood flow in the presence of previous arterial constriction or blockage may lead to enough reduction in mesenteric perfusion for intestinal ischaemia to develop. Using an electromagnetic flowmeter placed in the cranial mesenteric artery of the dog, it was shown that hypovolaemia may lead to 50-75% reduction in mesenteric blood flow without producing any significant change in the systemic blood pressure. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:976807

  11. Protective effect of melatonin on myenteric neuron damage in experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Shang, Boxin; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Xiaoyan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Yan; Dong, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation of the colon in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) causes pain and altered motility, at least in part through the damage of the myenteric neurons (MNs). Thus, it is important to evaluate new drugs for UC treatment that could also protect myenteric neurons efficiently. As a well-known neural protective and anti-inflammatory agent, melatonin could protect neurons from damage through the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2-ARE) signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated the potential protective effect of melatonin against MN damage during colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in rats. Colitis was induced by intracolonic (i.c.) instillation of DNBS and treated with melatonin at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 4 days. The damage of MN in the left colon was immunohistochemically evaluated in different groups. Ulcerations and inflammation in the colon were semiquantitatively observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were detected to evaluate the inflammatory and oxidative stress status. The protein and mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the colon were detected by Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. Melatonin partially prevented the loss of MN and alleviated the inflammation and oxidative stress induced by DNBS. In addition, melatonin markedly increased the Nrf2 and HO-1 level in the colitis. These results indicate that melatonin protects MN from damage by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, effects that are partly mediated by the Nrf2-ARE pathway.

  12. Novel effects of ectoine, a bacteria-derived natural tetrahydropyrimidine, in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Wadie, Walaa; Abdallah, Dalaal M; Lentzen, Georg; Khayyal, Mohamed T

    2013-05-15

    Evidence suggests an important role of intestinal barrier dysfunction in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore stabilizing mucosal barrier function constitutes a new therapeutic approach in its management. Ectoine is a compatible solute produced by aerobic chemoheterotrophic and halophilic/halotolerant bacteria, where it acts as osmoprotectant and effective biomembrane stabilizer, protecting the producing cells from extreme environmental stress. Since this natural compound was also shown to prevent inflammatory responses associated with IBD, its potential usefulness was studied in a model of colitis. Groups of rats were treated orally with different doses of ectoine (30-300 mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (reference drug) daily for 11 days. On day 8 colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, when overt signs of lesions develop within the next 3 days. On day 12, blood was withdrawn from the retro-orbital plexus of the rats and the animals were sacrificed. The colon was excised and examined macroscopically and microscopically. Relevant parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured in serum and colon homogenates. Induction of colitis led to marked weight loss, significant histopathological changes of the colon, and variable changes in levels of myeloperoxidase, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and all inflammatory markers tested. Treatment with ectoine ameliorated the inflammatory changes in TNBS-induced colitis. This effect was associated with reduction in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, PGE2 and LTB4. The findings suggest that intestinal barrier stabilizers from natural sources could offer new therapeutic measures for the management of IBD.

  13. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich formula reduces adhesion molecules in rats with experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ayman; Aziz, Moutaz; Hassan, Aktham; Mbodji, Khaly; Collasse, Elodie; Coëffier, Moïse; Bounoure, Frédéric; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Marion-Letellier, Rachel

    2012-07-01

    The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in inflammatory bowel disease is focused on the effects on fish oil-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids. We speculated that a vegetal oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) might also inhibit colitis. Therefore, we evaluated whether dietary ALA would decrease the expression of adhesion molecules by inducing the protective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a rat colitis model. Colitis was induced at day 0 by an intrarectal injection of 2-4-6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS), whereas control rats received the vehicle. Rats were fed an ALA-rich formula 450 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, whereas the other colitic group (TNBS) and the control group were fed an isocaloric corn oil formula for 14 d (from day -7 to day 7). The colonic expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor A receptor-2 (VEGFR2), and HO-1 were studied by immunohistochemistry. The ALA-rich diet significantly decreased the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGFR-2 compared the TNBS group, but it did not affect the expression of HO-1. A vegetal ALA-rich formula decreases the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGFR-2 and independently of HO-1 in rats with TNBS-induced colitis. Further studies are required to evaluate its therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease as an alternative to fish oil. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Efficacy of a Gal-lectin subunit vaccine against experimental Entamoeba histolytica infection and colitis in baboons (Papio sp.).

    PubMed

    Abd Alla, Mohamed D; Wolf, Roman; White, Gary L; Kosanke, Stanley D; Cary, David; Verweij, Jaco J; Zhang, Mie-Jie; Ravdin, Jonathan I

    2012-04-26

    To determine the efficacy of a Gal-lectin based intranasal synthetic peptide vaccine, we developed a new experimental primate model of Entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection. Release of xenic E. histolytica trophozoites (5×10(6)) into the small bowel of baboons (Papio sp.) resulted in a rapid intestinal anti-amebic antibody response and a brief infection; however, release of trophozoites directly into the cecum (5 baboons) elicited a sustained E. histolytica infection, as determined by quantitative fecal PCR, and an ulcerative, inflammatory colitis observed on colonoscopy and histopathology. In three controlled experiments, baboons received four immunizations at seven day intervals of 1600 μg of the vaccine/nostril, with Cholera toxin, 20 μg/nostril as adjuvant; vaccinated (n=6) and control baboons (n=6) baboons were then challenged via colonoscopy with xenic trophozoites (5×10(6)). During 90 days of follow up, 250 of 415 (60.24%) fecal samples in control baboons had a (+) PCR for E. histolytica, compared to only 36 of 423 (8.51%) samples from vaccinated baboons (P<0.001). All 6 vaccinated baboons were free of infection by the 51st day after challenge, 5 of 6 controls positive had (+) fecal PCRs for up to 126 days post-challenge (P=0.019). Inflammatory colitis developed in 4 of 6 control baboons post-challenge, with invasive E. histolytica trophozoites present in 2 of the 4 on histopathology. There was no evidence of inflammatory colitis or parasite invasion in any of the vaccinated baboons; there was a strong inverse correlation between positive ELISA OD value indicating the presence of intestinal anti-peptide IgA antibodies and baboons having a positive fecal PCR CT value, P<0.001. In conclusion, we developed a novel primate model of E. histolytica intestinal infection and demonstrated that a Gal-lectin-based intranasal synthetic peptide vaccine was highly efficacious in preventing experimental E. histolytica infection and colitis in baboons.

  15. Aluminum enhances inflammation and decreases mucosal healing in experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pineton de Chambrun, G; Body-Malapel, M; Frey-Wagner, I; Djouina, M; Deknuydt, F; Atrott, K; Esquerre, N; Altare, F; Neut, C; Arrieta, M C; Kanneganti, T-D; Rogler, G; Colombel, J-F; Cortot, A; Desreumaux, P; Vignal, C

    2014-01-01

    The increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in developing countries has highlighted the critical role of environmental pollutants as causative factors in their pathophysiology. Despite its ubiquity and immune toxicity, the impact of aluminum in the gut is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant intoxication with aluminum in murine models of colitis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Oral administration of aluminum worsened intestinal inflammation in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and chronic colitis in interleukin 10-negative (IL10−/−) mice. Aluminum increased the intensity and duration of macroscopic and histologic inflammation, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, inflammatory cytokines expression, and decreased the epithelial cell renewal compared with control animals. Under basal conditions, aluminum impaired intestinal barrier function. In vitro, aluminum induced granuloma formation and synergized with lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory cytokines expression by epithelial cells. Deleterious effects of aluminum on intestinal inflammation and mucosal repair strongly suggest that aluminum might be an environmental IBD risk factor. PMID:24129165

  16. Experimental colitis in SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques recapitulates important features of pathogenic SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xing Pei; Lucero, Carissa M; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino L; Morcock, David R; Deleage, Claire; Trubey, Charles M; Smedley, Jeremy; Klatt, Nichole R; Giavedoni, Luis D; Kristoff, Jan; Xu, Amy; Del Prete, Gregory Q; Keele, Brandon F; Rao, Srinivas S; Alvord, W Gregory; Choyke, Peter L; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Brenchley, Jason M; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Estes, Jacob D

    2015-08-18

    Mucosal damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with resulting microbial translocation is hypothesized to significantly contribute to the heightened and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation characteristic to HIV infection. Here we employ a non-human primate model of chemically induced colitis in SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques that we developed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), to directly test this hypothesis. DSS treatment results in GI barrier damage with associated microbial translocation, inflammation and immune activation. The progression and severity of colitis are longitudinally monitored by a magnetic resonance imaging approach. DSS treatment of SIV-infected African green monkeys, a natural host species for SIV that does not manifest GI tract damage or chronic immune activation during infection, results in colitis with elevated levels of plasma SIV RNA, sCD14, LPS, CRP and mucosal CD4+ T-cell loss. Together these results support the hypothesis that GI tract damage leading to local and systemic microbial translocation, and associated immune activation, are important determinants of AIDS pathogenesis.

  17. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Colonic Mucosal Damage in Experimental Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, Sh