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Sample records for du deficit hydrique

  1. Childhood apraxia of speech without intellectual deficit in a patient with cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marignier, Stéphanie; Lesca, Gaetan; Marguin, Jessica; Bussy, Gérald; Sanlaville, Damien; des Portes, Vincent

    2012-06-01

    We report an 11-year-old girl for whom the diagnosis of cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) was made during a genetic investigation of childhood apraxia of speech. The patient presented with the classic chromosome 5 short arm deletion found in CdCS. The microdeletion, characterised using aCGH (array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation), was 12.85 Mb, overlapping the 5p15.2 and 5p15.3 critical regions. CdCS is typically associated with severe mental retardation while this patient had normal intellectual performance, confirmed by normal results from categorisation tasks. This mild phenotype was assessed using a comprehensive cognitive battery. Language evaluation showed normal receptive vocabulary scores, in contrast with obvious oro-facial dyspraxia. Disabled fine motor skills were confirmed as well as weak visuo-spatial reasoning abilities. In conclusion, fine cognitive assessment may be worthwhile for patients with CdCS since good intellectual functioning may be masked by severe speech and gestural dyspraxia, thus requiring specific teaching and rehabilitation strategies. PMID:22510527

  2. Childhood apraxia of speech without intellectual deficit in a patient with cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marignier, Stéphanie; Lesca, Gaetan; Marguin, Jessica; Bussy, Gérald; Sanlaville, Damien; des Portes, Vincent

    2012-06-01

    We report an 11-year-old girl for whom the diagnosis of cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) was made during a genetic investigation of childhood apraxia of speech. The patient presented with the classic chromosome 5 short arm deletion found in CdCS. The microdeletion, characterised using aCGH (array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation), was 12.85 Mb, overlapping the 5p15.2 and 5p15.3 critical regions. CdCS is typically associated with severe mental retardation while this patient had normal intellectual performance, confirmed by normal results from categorisation tasks. This mild phenotype was assessed using a comprehensive cognitive battery. Language evaluation showed normal receptive vocabulary scores, in contrast with obvious oro-facial dyspraxia. Disabled fine motor skills were confirmed as well as weak visuo-spatial reasoning abilities. In conclusion, fine cognitive assessment may be worthwhile for patients with CdCS since good intellectual functioning may be masked by severe speech and gestural dyspraxia, thus requiring specific teaching and rehabilitation strategies.

  3. Evaluation de l'impact du vent et des manoeuvres hydrauliques sur le calcul des apports naturels par bilan hydrique pour un reservoir hydroelectrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mathieu

    Natural inflow is an important data for a water resource manager. In fact, Hydro-Quebec uses historical natural inflow data to perform a daily prediction of the amount of water that will be received in each of its hydroelectric reservoirs. This prediction allows the establishment of reservoir operating rules in order to optimize hydropower without compromising the safety of hydraulic structures. To obtain an accurate prediction, it follows that the system's input needs to be very well known. However, it can be very difficult to accurately measure the natural supply of a set of regulated reservoirs. Therefore, Hydro-Quebec uses an indirect method of calculation. This method consists of evaluating the reservoir's inflow using the water balance equation. Yet, this equation is not immune to errors and uncertainties. Water level measurement is an important input in order to compute the water balance equation. However, several sources of uncertainty including the effect of wind and hydraulic maneuvers can affect the readings of limnimetric gages. Fluctuations in water level caused by these effects carry over in the water balance equation. Consequently, natural inflow's signal may become noisy and affected by external errors. The main objective of this report is to evaluate the uncertainty caused by the effects of wind and hydraulic maneuvers on water balance equation. To this end, hydrodynamic models of reservoirs Outardes 4 and Gouin were prepared. According to the literature review, wind effects can be studied either by an unsteady state approach or by assuming steady state approach. Unsteady state simulation of wind effects on reservoir Gouin and Outardes 4 were performed by hydrodynamic modelling. Consideration of an unsteady state implies that the wind conditions vary throughout the simulation. This feature allows taking into account temporal effect of wind duration. In addition, it also allows the consideration of inertial forces such as seiches which are caused by wind conditions that can vary abruptly. Once the models were calibrated, unsteady state simulations were conducted in closed system where unsteady observed winds were the only forces included. From the simulated water levels obtained at each gage, water balance equation was calculated to determine the daily uncertainty of natural inflow in unsteady conditions. At Outardes 4, a maximum uncertainty of 20 m3/s was estimated during the month of October 2010. On the other hand, at the Gouin reservoir, a maximum uncertainty of 340m3/s was estimated during the month of July 2012. Steady state modelling is another approach to evaluate wind effect uncertainty in the water balance equation. This type of approach consists of assuming that the water level is instantly tilted under the influence of wind. Hence, temporal effect of wind duration and seiches cannot be taken into account. However, the advantage of steady state modelling is that it's better suited than unsteady state modelling to evaluate wind uncertainty in real time. Two steady state modelling methods were experimented to estimate water level difference between gages in function of wind characteristics: hydrodynamic modelling and non-parametric regression. It has been found that non-parametric models are more efficient when it comes to estimate water level differences between gages. However, the use of hydrodynamic model demonstrated that to study wind uncertainty in the water balance equation, it is preferable to assess wind responses individually at each gage instead of using water level differences. Finally, a combination method of water level gages observations has been developed. It allows reducing wind/hydraulic maneuvers impacts on the water balance equation. This method, which is applicable in real time, consists of assigning a variable weight at each limnimetric gages. In other words, the weights automatically adjust in order to minimize steady state modeled wind responses. The estimation of hydraulic maneuvers has also been included in the gage weight adjustment. It has been found that this new combination method allows the correction of noisy natural inflow signal under wind and hydraulic maneuvers effects. However, some fluctuations persist which reflects the complexity of correcting these effects on a real time based daily water balance equation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  4. Diagnostic étiologique du diabète insipide central: à propos de 41 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chaker, Fatma; Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-01-01

    La survenue d'un syndrome polyuro-polydipsiqueavec des urines hypotoniques nécessite une stratégie diagnostique rigoureuse. Le but de cette étude était d’étudier les modalités de diagnostic du diabète insipide central. A travers une étude rétrospective de 41 cas de diabète insipide central(DIC) colligés au service d'Endocrinologie à l'hôpital de la Rabta de Tunis, allant de l'année 1990 à l'an 2013, nous avons relevé les circonstances de découverte du DIC, les anomalies du bilan anté-hypophysaire etde l'imagerie hypophysaire. Le DIC était post opératoire chez 20 patients. La diurèse moyenne de 24 heures était significativement plus élevée chez les patients ayant un DIC en dehors d'un contexte chirurgical. L’épreuve de restriction hydrique était concluante chez tous les patients qui en ont bénéficié. En dehors d'un contexte neurochirurgical, les causes infiltratives étaient retrouvées chez 6 patientset les causes tumorales chez 6 patients. Le DIC était associé à une selle turcique vide dans 1 cas et idiopathique chez 3 malades. L'imagerie par résonnance magnétique hypothalamo-hypophysaire et le bilan anté-hypophysaire sont systématiques en dehors d'un contexte de chirurgie hypophysaire et d'une polydipsie primaire évidente. PMID:27642481

  5. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and child readers. (SG)

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  7. Literacies and Deficits Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jerrie Cobb

    1993-01-01

    Identifies two factors that contribute to the recycling of deficit pedagogy in programs targeted for marginalized students: traditional, technocratic definitions of literacy; and "uncritical dysconsciousness" (the acceptance of culturally sanctioned beliefs that, regardless of good intentions, defend the advantages of insiders and the…

  8. Rethinking Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This book reviews issues concerning attention deficit disorders (ADDs) in the context of a systems perspective. ADDs are viewed as resulting from dynamic interactions of behavior, cognition, and affect, out of which emerge distinct and idiosyncratic ways of coping. Chapter 1 looks at the interaction of attention and behavior. In chapter 2, the…

  9. The Federal Deficit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This first edition of a new semiannual publication for secondary school teachers of social studies features the article, "The Federal Deficit: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy Makers" (Walter Heller and Bruce Dalgaard) and provides ideas for subject area teaching activities in economics, U.S. government, and world history that offer…

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  11. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes.

  12. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes. PMID:7652089

  13. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  19. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  20. Vestibular Deficits Following Youth Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Daniel J.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Grady, Matthew F.; Robinson, Roni L.; Goodman, Arlene M.; Master, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the prevalence and recovery of pediatric patients with concussion who manifest clinical vestibular deficits, and to describe the correlation of these deficits with neurocognitive function, based on computerized neurocognitive testing, in a sample of pediatric patients with concussion. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients age 5–18 years old with concussion referred to a tertiary pediatric hospital-affiliated sports medicine clinic from 7/1/2010–12/31/2011. A random sample of all eligible patient visits was obtained, and all related visits for those patients were reviewed. Results 247 patients were chosen from 3740 eligible visits for detailed review and abstraction. 81% showed a vestibular abnormality on initial clinical exam. Those patients with vestibular signs on initial exam took a significantly longer time to return to school (median 59 days vs. 6 days, p=0.001) or to be fully cleared (median 106 days vs. 29 days, p=0.001). They additionally scored more poorly on initial computerized neurocognitive testing, and took longer for neurocognitive deficits to recover. Those patients with three or more prior concussions had a higher prevalence of vestibular deficits and took longer for those deficits to resolve. Conclusion Vestibular deficits in children and adolescents with a history of concussion are highly prevalent. These deficits appear to be associated with extended recovery times and poorer performance on neurocognitive testing. Further studies evaluating the effectiveness of vestibular therapy on improving such deficits are warranted. PMID:25748568

  1. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  2. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  3. The Perceived Deficits Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Allison; Nikelshpur, Olga M.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction affects approximately 43% to 70% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is an important determinant of several functional outcomes in MS and quality of life. Brief neuropsychological test batteries have been developed specifically for use in MS and are widely used to aid clinicians in assessing levels of cognitive impairment in MS. Neuropsychologists and neurologists also frequently use briefer screening measures, such as the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), to assist in determining whether a more extensive neuropsychological evaluation is warranted. However, despite the ease of such measures, the relationship between self-report and objective cognitive impairment has been inconsistent, at best. Moreover, factors such as depression, fatigue, anxiety, and personality have been found to be more related to reports of cognitive difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between subjective cognitive concerns and objective cognitive impairment while accounting for related symptoms. Methods: We examined the association of self-reported cognitive concerns on the PDQ with objective cognitive measures, as well as depression, anxiety, fatigue, and self-efficacy. Results: There was no relationship between self-reported cognitive concerns and objective performance. Rather, reports on the PDQ were more correlated with reports of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Depression and poor self-efficacy can contribute to reports of cognitive difficulties. Effective treatment to improve these factors seems warranted given the impact of perceived cognitive impairment on outcomes in MS and the potential for more accurate self-reports. PMID:27551243

  4. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  5. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

  6. Etude de l'affaiblissement du comportement mecanique du pergelisol du au rechauffement climatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie

    Le rechauffement climatique predit pour les prochaines decennies, aura des impacts majeurs sur le pergelisol qui sont tres peu documentes pour l'instant. La presente etude a pour but d'evaluer ces impacts sur les proprietes mecaniques du pergelisol et sa stabilite a long terme. Une nouvelle technique d'essai de penetration au cone a taux de deformation controle, a ete developpee pour caracteriser en place le pergelisol. Ces essais geotechniques et la mesure de differentes proprietes physiques ont ete effectues sur une butte de pergelisol au cours du printemps 2000. Le developpement et l'utilisation d'un modele geothermique 1D tenant compte de la thermodependance du comportement mecanique ont permis d'evaluer que les etendues de pergelisol chaud deviendraient instables a la suite d'un rechauffement de l'ordre de 5°C sur cent ans. En effet, la resistance mecanique du pergelisol diminuera alors rapidement jusqu'a 11,6 MPa, ce qui correspond a une perte relative de 98% de la resistance par rapport a un scenario sans rechauffement.

  7. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  8. [Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gabriele; Schaffer, Markus; Winklbaur, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are often associated with cognitive deficits which have an influence on social functioning and the course of the illness. These deficits have an impact on occupational ability and social integration. To date, specific cognitive domains have been found which characterize bipolar affective disorders. However, there is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of the disorder, including the remission phase, in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions (e.g. cognitive flexibility and problem solving). Although their cognitive deficits are comparable the deficits in patients with schizophrenia are more severe than those with bipolar disorder. Recent brain imaging findings indicate structural and functional abnormalities in the cortical and limbic networks of the brain in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls. Mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains (e.g. executive functions and word fluency) and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning. PMID:17640495

  9. Voxelwise Bayesian Lesion Deficit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hillis, Argye E.; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Herskovits, Edward H

    2008-01-01

    Relating cognitive deficits to the presence of lesions has been an important means of delineating structure-function associations in the human brain. We propose a voxel-based Bayesian method for lesion-deficit analysis, which identifies complex linear or nonlinear associations among brain-lesion locations, and neurological status. We validated this method using a simulated data set, and we applied this algorithm to data obtained from an acute-stroke study to identify associations among voxels with infarct or hypoperfusion, and impaired word reading. We found that a distributed region involving Brodmann areas (BA) 22, 37, 39, and 40 was implicated in word reading. PMID:18328733

  10. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  11. Visual Search Deficits Are Independent of Magnocellular Deficits in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Craig M.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dyck, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the theory that visual magnocellular deficits seen in groups with dyslexia are linked to reading via the mechanisms of visual attention. Visual attention was measured with a serial search task and magnocellular function with a coherent motion task. A large group of children with dyslexia (n = 70) had slower…

  12. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  13. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  14. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  15. The federal deficit: how does it matter?

    PubMed

    Eisner, R

    1987-09-25

    Government deficits and debt are surpluses and assets of the private sector of the economy that stimulate private spending. Official measures of deficits are misleading, however, for failing to distinguish public investment from current spending and for failing to adjust for inflation. Correctly measured real deficits have contributed to the growth of gross national product, consumption, and imports, and to investment as well. Optimal policy consistent with balanced growth calls not for elimination of the nominal deficit but rather for prudent deficit reduction accompanied by and stemming at least partly from sufficient monetary stimulus to achieve and sustain relatively full employment. PMID:17834447

  16. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  17. Momentum deficit in quantum glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A. F.

    2009-07-15

    Using the concept of tunneling two-level systems, we explain the reduction of rotational inertia of disordered solid {sup 4}He observed in the torsional oscillator experiments. The key point is a peculiar quantum phenomenon of momentum deficit for two-level systems in moving solids. We show that an unusual state that is essentially different from both normal and superfluid solid states can be realized in quantum glasses. This state is characterized by reduced rotational inertia in oscillator experiments, by the absence of a superflow, and by the normal behavior in steady rotation.

  18. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein.

  19. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the diffusion

  20. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  1. Résultats du traitement du synovialosarcome des members

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les synovialosarcomes, sarcomes de haut grade, sont de diagnostic tardif et le traitement est complexe et onéreux, nécessitant la mise en œuvre d'une équipe pluridisciplinaire. Le but de ce travail était d'apprécier les résultats de l'association de la chirurgie à la radio chimiothérapie des synovialosarcomes des membres. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres pris en charge dans le service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique du CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat allant de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2011 (6 ans). Nous avons inclus les malades présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres dont la clinique et l'imagerie médicale étaient en faveur, confirmés par l'examen anatomopathologique et la prise en charge effectuée dans le service. Les patients ont été revus avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous n'avons pas retenu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets, perdus de vue. Nous avons apprécié les résultats selon les critères carcinologiques et le score MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été faites sur le logiciel SPSS Stastic 17.0 Nous avons colligé 20 cas de synovialosarcome des membres dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique au CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat Le sexe masculin a prédominé avec 65% (n = 13) avec un sex ratio 1,85. L’âge moyen a été de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans et 70 ans. Notre délai moyen de consultation était de 14,42 mois. Tous les malades ont consulté pour une tuméfaction dans 100% (localisée au membre inférieur dans 65% (n = 13), membre supérieur dans 35% (n = 7). La douleur était associée à la tuméfaction dans 55% (n = 11), quant à l'altération de l’état général et l'ulcération de la masse, elles ont été notées dans 3 cas chacune. Nous avons réalisé un bilan d'imagerie médicale comprenant: radiographie standard, échographie, écho doppler

  2. Cirque du Monde as a health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient

  3. Naming Problems Do Not Reflect a Second Independent Core Deficit in Dyslexia: Double Deficits Explored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaessen, Anniek; Gerretsen, Patty; Blomert, Leo

    2009-01-01

    The double deficit hypothesis states that naming speed problems represent a second core deficit in dyslexia independent from a phonological deficit. The current study investigated the main assumptions of this hypothesis in a large sample of well-diagnosed dyslexics. The three main findings were that (a) naming speed was consistently related only…

  4. Loneliness and social skill deficits.

    PubMed

    Jones, W H; Hobbs, S A; Hockenbury, D

    1982-04-01

    The relationship between social skill deficits and the psychological state of loneliness was examined in two studies. Study 1 compared conversational behaviors of high-lonely and low-lonely college students during brief heterosexual interactions. Results indicated that the two loneliness groups differed significantly in their use of a specific class of conversational behaviors termed partner attention, with high-lonely as compared to low-lonely subjects giving less attention to their partners. Study 2 examined the casual relationship between social skill and loneliness by directly manipulating the use of partner attention in a group of high-lonely males. For that group, increased use of partner attention during dyadic interactions resulted in significantly greater change in loneliness and related variables relative to interaction only and no-contact control groups. The utility of conceptualizing loneliness as a social skills problem is discussed.

  5. A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control estimated that approximately 7.8 percent of U.S. children ages 4-17 are currently diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For decades, most educators, physicians, psychologists, and parents have thought of ADD/ADHD as…

  6. Double Dissociation between Reading and Spelling Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Kristina; Landerl, Karin

    2009-01-01

    In two studies dissociations between reading and spelling skills were examined. Study 1 reports equally high prevalence rates for isolated deficits in reading (7%) or spelling (6%) in a representative sample (N = 2,029) of German-speaking elementary school children. In Study 2, children with isolated deficits were presented with the same words to…

  7. Everyday life memory deficits in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Graf, Peter; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-03-01

    Converging evidence indicates that pregnant women report experiencing problems with memory, but the results of studies using objective measures are ambiguous. The present study investigated potential reason(s) for the discrepancy between findings of subjective and objective memory deficits, as well as potential source(s) of pregnant women's problems with memory. Sixty-one pregnant and 24 nonpregnant women completed a series of memory tests which included field and laboratory measures of prospective memory. Three standardized questionnaires were used to assess subjective aspects of memory. The influence of cortisol, depressed mood, anxiety, physical symptoms, sleep/fatigue, and busyness on pregnancy-related deficits was also examined. The findings revealed objective pregnancy-related deficits on two of the field measures of prospective memory. Pregnancy-related subjective deficits were also detected on all of the questionnaires. In contrast, no objective pregnancy-related deficits were found on the laboratory measures of memory. Increased physical symptoms accounted for one of the objective deficits in memory, while depressed mood and physical symptoms accounted for two of the subjective memory deficits. Collectively, these findings suggest that pregnant women experience everyday life problems with memory that are not readily detected in the laboratory environment. The predominant use of laboratory tests may explain the myriad of previous failures to detect objective deficits in pregnant women's memory.

  8. Dichotic Listening Deficits in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncrieff, Deborah W.; Black, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Several auditory processing deficits have been reported in children with dyslexia. In order to assess for the presence of a binaural integration type of auditory processing deficit, dichotic listening tests with digits, words and consonant-vowel (CV) pairs were administered to two groups of right-handed 11-year-old children, one group diagnosed…

  9. A Framework for Remediating Number Combination Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for the remediation of number combination (NC) deficits. Research on the remediation of NC deficits is summarized, and research program studies are used to illustrate the 3 approaches to remediation. The Framework comprises a 2-stage system of remediation. The less intensive stage implementing 1 of 3…

  10. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for evaluating WM in…

  11. Unilateral hyperhydrosis in Pourfour du Petit syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kara, Murat; Dikmen, Erkan; Akarsu, Cengiz; Birol, Ahu

    2004-08-01

    Upper limp hyperhydrosis is an idiopathic disease with bilateral involvement. However, Pourfour du Petit syndrome, the opposite of Horner syndrome, may result in unilateral upper limb hyperhydrosis. It occurs following hyperactivity of the sympathetic cervical chain as a consequence of irritation secondary to trauma. We report herein two cases with Pourfour du Petit syndrome showing unilateral upper limb hyperhydrosis. The patients presented with right-sided mydriasis and ipsilateral hemifacial hyperhydrosis. The onset of disease was followed by a trauma in both patients. They underwent upper thoracic sympathectomy with favorable outcome. A history of an antecedent trauma in patients with unilateral upper limb hyperhydrosis and anisocoria may imply a possible diagnosis of Pourfour du Petit syndrome. PMID:15296919

  12. Refining the shallow slip deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Tong, Xiaopeng; Sandwell, David T.; Milliner, Christopher W. D.; Dolan, James F.; Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, Sebastien; Ayoub, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Geodetic slip inversions for three major (Mw > 7) strike-slip earthquakes (1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah) show a 15-60 per cent reduction in slip near the surface (depth < 2 km) relative to the slip at deeper depths (4-6 km). This significant difference between surface coseismic slip and slip at depth has been termed the shallow slip deficit (SSD). The large magnitude of this deficit has been an enigma since it cannot be explained by shallow creep during the interseismic period or by triggered slip from nearby earthquakes. One potential explanation for the SSD is that the previous geodetic inversions lack data coverage close to surface rupture such that the shallow portions of the slip models are poorly resolved and generally underestimated. In this study, we improve the static coseismic slip inversion for these three earthquakes, especially at shallow depths, by: (1) including data capturing the near-fault deformation from optical imagery and SAR azimuth offsets; (2) refining the interferometric synthetic aperture radar processing with non-boxcar phase filtering, model-dependent range corrections, more complete phase unwrapping by SNAPHU (Statistical Non-linear Approach for Phase Unwrapping) assuming a maximum discontinuity and an on-fault correlation mask; (3) using more detailed, geologically constrained fault geometries and (4) incorporating additional campaign global positioning system (GPS) data. The refined slip models result in much smaller SSDs of 3-19 per cent. We suspect that the remaining minor SSD for these earthquakes likely reflects a combination of our elastic model's inability to fully account for near-surface deformation, which will render our estimates of shallow slip minima, and potentially small amounts of interseismic fault creep or triggered slip, which could `make up' a small percentages of the coseismic SSD during the interseismic period. Our results indicate that it is imperative that slip inversions include

  13. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Tannock, Rosemary; Franke, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 5% of children and adolescents and 2.5% of adults worldwide. Throughout an individual's lifetime, ADHD can increase the risk of other psychiatric disorders, educational and occupational failure, accidents, criminality, social disability and addictions. No single risk factor is necessary or sufficient to cause ADHD. In most cases ADHD arises from several genetic and environmental risk factors that each have a small individual effect and act together to increase susceptibility. The multifactorial causation of ADHD is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, which is shown by its extensive psychiatric co-morbidity, its multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment and the wide range of structural and functional brain anomalies associated with it. The diagnosis of ADHD is reliable and valid when evaluated with standard criteria for psychiatric disorders. Rating scales and clinical interviews facilitate diagnosis and aid screening. The expression of symptoms varies as a function of patient developmental stage and social and academic contexts. Although there are no curative treatments for ADHD, evidenced-based treatments can markedly reduce its symptoms and associated impairments. For example, medications are efficacious and normally well tolerated, and various non-pharmacological approaches are also valuable. Ongoing clinical and neurobiological research holds the promise of advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ADHD. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/J6jiwl. PMID:27189265

  15. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  16. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  17. Sleep deficits but no metabolic deficits in premanifest Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Panin, Francesca; Goodman, Anna O. G.; Lazic, Stanley E.; Lazar, Zsolt I.; Mason, Sarah L.; Rogers, Lorraine; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Watson, Laura P. E.; Singh, Priya; Borowsky, Beth; Shneerson, John M.; Barker, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressively worsening motor and nonmotor problems including cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances, along with sleep abnormalities and weight loss. However, it is not known whether sleep disturbances and metabolic abnormalities underlying the weight loss are present at a premanifest stage. Methods We performed a comprehensive sleep and metabolic study in 38 premanifest gene carrier individuals and 36 age‐ and sex‐matched controls. The study consisted of 2 weeks of actigraphy at home, 2 nights of polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests in the laboratory, and body composition assessment using dual energy x‐ray absorptiometry scanning with energy expenditure measured over 10 days at home by doubly labeled water and for 36 hours in the laboratory by indirect calorimetry along with detailed cognitive and clinical assessments. We performed a principal component analyses across all measures within each studied domain. Results Compared to controls, premanifest gene carriers had more disrupted sleep, which was best characterized by a fragmented sleep profile. These abnormalities, as well as a theta power (4–7Hz) decrease in rapid eye movement sleep, were associated with disease burden score. Objectively measured sleep problems coincided with the development of cognitive, affective, and subtle motor deficits and were not associated with any metabolic alterations. Interpretation The results show that among the earliest abnormalities in premanifest HD is sleep disturbances. This raises questions as to where the pathology in HD begins and also whether it could drive some of the early features and even possibly the pathology. Ann Neurol 2015;78:630–648 PMID:26224419

  18. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  19. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  20. Prediction des rendements agricoles du mais et du soya, et du deficit en azote du mais a l'aide d'images aeroportees et d'un reseau de neurones a retropropagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serele, Zogbo Charles

    2002-01-01

    This thesis explores the suitability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network for prediction of corn and soybean yield and for classification of nitrogen corn stressed vegetation. The results show while using a combination of vegetation and texture indices, and topographic data, we can successfully predict corn yield with MLP. The regression coefficient between observed and predicted yield for corn and soybean were respectively 92% and 43% for the middle season image only. This research also indicates that the information from an image is more important when it is acquired during the period of maximum crop biological activity. Thus, MLP developed on the middle season predicts the corn and soybean yield with respective R2 of 89% and 40%. The degree of relationship between the inputs and the outputs and the quality of the data are very important, because they determine the capabilities of the MLP. When the generalization capabilities of the MLP models were tested on a non-corrected crop yield dataset, the results drop to 45% and 36% for corn and soybean respectively. The MLP demonstrated also its capability to discriminate corn nitrogen status during the growing season. MLP models based on image spectral and textural indices reach a Kappa coefficient of 72% for middle season image and 81% for the combined multidate images. Image texture features also provide useful complementary information for the discrimination of different nitrogen stress levels. The best MLP for predicting corn nitrogen status was the one that integrates image features and topographic parameters. It outperforms the first one with an accuracy of 90% for middle season image and 95% for all two images. Evidence that topographic data are a critical discriminatory information source is both obvious and strong. In consequence, crop physiological status monitoring systems require taking into account the combined effects of soil background and canopy architecture. This thesis have highlighted that MLP has a strong potential for detecting corn nitrogen stressed vegetation and that they would help farmers to better manage crop status during the growing season, when there is still time to respond to problems. The other contributions of this study are the development of crop yield data correction and filtering algorithm and the identification of discriminant analysis as the best method for the MLP inputs selection. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  2. Mars' 1995 opposition from PIC du Midi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.

    1997-03-01

    The last Martian apparition was observed from Pic du Midi between October 1994 and March 1995. Earth-based observation remains the only practicable way to perform continuous surveys of the planets, as opposed to orbital (HST) or space-borne observation. A good planetary site with limited demand for observational time like the 1-m telescope at Pic du Midi provides the optimal opportunity to monitor planetary activity, including atmospheric phenomena, surface variations, and polar caps recession. For instance, HST observations of Mars during this period, though yielding a much better spatial resolution, are limited to very few sessions and do not make it possible to monitor quick processes along a whole Martian season.

  3. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    PubMed

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment.

  4. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    PubMed

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment. PMID:11550629

  5. Du Pont Classifications of 6 Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of six supernovae from the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) and the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on June 17 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  6. Disrupting Deficit: The Power of "The Pause" in Resisting the Dominance of Deficit Knowledges in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphry, Nicoli

    2014-01-01

    Deficit ways of speaking about educationally displaced young people are a dominant feature in the language educators draw on to make sense of particular young people. This language can have debilitating effects on the lives of those young people it is applied to. Despite well over 20 years of critique, deficit truths have remained dominant.…

  7. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  8. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  9. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  10. Working Memory Deficit in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: A General or Specific Deficit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ulf; Lyxell, Bjorn

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether children with mathematical difficulties (MDs) or comorbid mathematical and reading difficulties have a working memory deficit and whether the hypothesized working memory deficit includes the whole working memory system or only specific components. In the study, 31 10-year-olds with MDs and 37 10-year-olds with both…

  11. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  12. What Is the deficit in Phonological Processing Deficits: Auditory Sensitivity, Masking, or Category Formation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties,…

  13. Multiple Deficits in ADHD: Executive Dysfunction, Delay Aversion, Reaction Time Variability, and Emotional Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjowall, Douglas; Roth, Linda; Lindqvist, Sofia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The notion that ADHD constitutes a heterogeneous disorder is well accepted. However, this study contributes with new important knowledge by examining independent effects of a large range of neuropsychological deficits. In addition, the study investigated whether deficits in emotional functioning constitute a dissociable component of…

  14. Semantic deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Felicity V C; Hsieh, Sharpley; Caga, Jashelle; Savage, Sharon A; Mioshi, Eneida; Hornberger, Michael; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R; Burrell, James R

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to investigate, and establish neuroanatomical correlates of, semantic deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD), compared to semantic dementia (SD) and controls. Semantic deficits were evaluated using a naming and semantic knowledge composite score, comprising verbal and non-verbal neuropsychological measures of single-word processing (confrontational naming, comprehension, and semantic association) from the Sydney Language Battery (SYDBAT) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R). Voxel based morphometry (VBM) analysis was conducted using the region of interest approach. In total, 84 participants were recruited from a multidisciplinary research clinic in Sydney. Participants included 17 patients with ALS, 19 with ALS-FTD, 22 with SD and 26 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Significant semantic deficits were observed in ALS and ALS-FTD compared to controls. The severity of semantic deficits varied across the clinical phenotypes: ALS patients were less impaired than ALS-FTD patients, who in turn were not as impaired as SD patients. Anterior temporal lobe atrophy significantly correlated with semantic deficits. In conclusion, semantic impairment is a feature of ALS and ALS-FTD, and reflects the severity of temporal lobe pathology.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Mimics Attention Deficit Disorder.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Lauri; Breese McCoy, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity are known possible symptoms or correlates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, these associations may be missed in children, because children often fail to report excessive daytime sleepiness, and attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common primary diagnoses in themselves. We report on a 17-year-old, slender, non-snoring male who presented to his pediatrician with a prolonged history of four complaints: inattention, fidgeting, frequent sinusitis, and somnolence. He was diagnosed with ADHD, while the somnolence, which often abated somewhat upon use of antibiotics for sinusitis, was attributed to the sinus infections. A later sleep study revealed OSA, and thorough additional testing proved that the original ADHD diagnosis was in error. All four conditions were allayed with proper use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine.

  16. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  17. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  18. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  19. Suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Sisler, Jeffrey; Chaput, Geneviève; Sussman, Jonathan; Ozokwelu, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Offrir aux médecins de famille un résumé des recommandations fondées sur les données probantes pour guider les soins aux survivantes traitées pour le cancer du sein. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE entre 2000 et 2016 à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, survivorship, follow-up care, aftercare, guidelines et survivorship care plans, en se concentrant sur la revue des lignes directrices publiées récemment par les organismes nationaux de cancérologie. Les données étaient de niveaux I à III. Message principal Les soins aux survivantes comportent 4 facettes : surveillance et dépistage, prise en charge des effets à long terme, promotion de la santé et coordination des soins. La surveillance des récidives ne se traduit que par une mammographie annuelle, et le dépistage d’autres cancers doit suivre les lignes directrices basées sur la population. La prise en charge des effets à long terme du cancer et de son traitement aborde des problèmes courants tels la douleur, la fatigue, le lymphœdème, la détresse et les effets indésirables des médicaments, de même que les préoccupations à long terme comme la santé du cœur et des os. La promotion de la santé met en relief les bienfaits de l’activité chez les survivantes du cancer, avec l’accent mis sur l’activité physique. Les soins aux survivantes sont de meilleure qualité lorsque divers services et professionnels de la santé participent aux soins, et le médecin de famille joue un rôle important dans la coordination des soins. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont de plus en plus souvent les principaux fournisseurs de soins de suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein. Le cancer du sein doit être considéré comme une affection médicale chronique, même chez les femmes en rémission, et les patientes profitent de la même approche que celle utilisée pour les autres affections chroniques en

  20. ASNT certification of thermographers at DuPont Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eads, Lowry G.; Spring, Robert W.

    1996-03-01

    DuPont is one of the world's largest petrochemical firms. Infrared thermography has been a key nondestructive test method used in the predictive/preventive maintenance (PPM) areas for many years. This paper discusses the reasons why DuPont chooses to use the qualification and certification standards of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) to establish a certification program for thermographers.

  1. Water deficit stress induced gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficit stress is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable cotton production. Many efforts have been incorporated using genetic and genomic approaches to identify valuable molecular resources. In this study, we aimed to identify a global set of transcript fragments ...

  2. Attention Deficit Disorder: Identification and Assessment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined validity of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Canter Background Interference Procedure for the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Conners Parent Questionnaire, and three measures of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised for identifying attention deficit disorders. Compared test results among clinical, special education, and…

  3. Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ronald J.; Doyal, Guy T.

    This book is designed for parents and teachers of children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. Chapter 1 describes the symptoms, diagnosis, and causes of ADD, its effect on parents and families, inborn temperament characteristics of children with ADD, and tests and rating scales used to diagnose and treat the disorder. The…

  4. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  5. Exploring Dyslexics' Phonological Deficit II: Phonological Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Darma, Quynliaan; Darcy, Isabelle; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Language learners have to acquire the phonological grammar of their native language, and different levels of representations on which the grammar operates. Developmental dyslexia is associated with a phonological deficit, which is commonly assumed to stem from degraded phonological representations. The present study investigates one aspect of the…

  6. [Neurobiology of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Narbona-García, J; Sánchez-Carpintero, R

    1999-02-01

    This is a review of current relevant evidences concerning the nature and pathophysiological mechanisms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). From a neuropsychological point of view, clinical symptoms seem to arise from an early dysfunction of the executive system. Patients with ADHD have deficits in inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory and self-motivation, and all of them account for the attentional deficit in non automatic information processing. Decrease in prefrontal, caudate and pallidal structures, which sustain the executive function, have been found in neuroimaging volumetry. Cognitive evoked potentials obtained during attentional tasks have augmented latencies and abnormal topography. A dopaminergic deficit in the structures sustaining executive function is postulated from the results in experimental animal models and from functional neuroimaging studies in patients, and this seem to be the foundation of the favorable outcome with psychostimulants in correctly diagnosed patients. Psychopedagogic interventions are necessary to help the patient in order to get an optimal internal locus of control, which is necessary for attention and impulsiveness inhibition, and also for compensation of associated disorders. PMID:10778507

  7. Fragments: Coping with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Amy E.

    Written by a woman who, at age 25, was diagnosed as "a textbook case for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder," (ADHD) this book, examines: the pitfalls of traditional psychotherapy and medications for those diagnosed with ADD/ADHD; how an interactive, hands-on learning environment can markedly improve the educational experience of children…

  8. Emotional Perception Deficits in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman BA, Erin K.; Eslinger PhD, Paul J.; MD, Zachary Simmons; Barrett MD, Anna M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Cognitive deficits associated with frontal lobe dysfunction can occur in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), particularly in individuals with bulbar ALS who can also suffer pathological emotional lability. Since frontal pathophysiology can alter emotional perception, we examined whether emotional perception deficits occur in ALS, and whether they are related to depressive or dementia symptoms. Methods Bulbar ALS participants (n = 13) and age-matched healthy normal controls (n = 12) completed standardized tests of facial and prosodic emotional recognition, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Participants identified the basic emotion (happy, sad, angry, afraid, surprised, disgusted) that matched 39 facial expressions and 28 taped, semantically neutral, intoned sentences. Results ALS patients performed significantly worse than controls on facial emotional recognition but not on prosodic emotional recognition. Eight of 13 patients (62%) scored below the 95% Confidence Interval of controls in recognizing facial emotions, and 3 of these patients (23% overall) also scored lower in prosody recognition. Among the 8 patients with emotional perceptual impairment, one-half did not have depressive, or memory or cognitive symptoms on screening, while the remainder showed dementia symptoms alone or together with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Emotional recognition deficits occur in bulbar ALS, particularly with emotional facial expressions, and can arise independent of depressive and dementia symptoms or co-morbid with depression and dementia. These findings expands the scope of cognitive dysfunction detected in ALS, and bolsters the view of ALS as a multisystem disorder involving cognitive as well as motor deficits. PMID:17558250

  9. Attention Deficit Disorder: Two Mothers' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Roy C.; O'Connor, Carol

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the decision-making process of two mothers' selection of treatment for their sons' attention deficit disorder (ADD). One mother opted for a medical treatment, and the other mother opted for a non-medical treatment. The boy who is medically treated is 14, and the non-medically treated…

  10. RAN and Double-Deficit Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Virginia S.

    2013-01-01

    Lervag and Hulme’s neuro-developmental theory and Wolf and Bowers’s double-deficit hypothesis were examined in this longitudinal study. A total of 130 children were tested in preschool and followed through fifth grade, when 84 remained in the study. During preschool and kindergarten the participants were given tests of end-sound discrimination…

  11. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  12. Understanding the Federal Debt and Deficit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonnelli, Adam

    This pamphlet defines "national debt," explains how the national debt is incurred by the federal government, and what deficits are. The sections of the pamphlet include: (1) "Definitions"; (2) "History"; (3) "Measurements"; (4) "Problems"; and (5) "Strategies." The text is written in a question-answer format with illustrations, graphs and charts…

  13. Evapotranspiration Estimates for Deficit Irrigated Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficits must be imposed on crops during non-critical growth periods to maximize net economic output per unit of water consumed by the plant. The reference ET-crop coefficient procedure widely used for managing fully irrigated crops would be easiest to implement for irrigation management of d...

  14. Difference Not Deficit: Reconceptualizing Mathematical Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack.…

  15. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Disorders in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold; Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study examined the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among school children in Arkansas for the purpose of helping school districts plan appropriate educational interventions. The ADHD Survey was mailed to all 311 school superintendents; 128 surveys were returned. Findings revealed that, overall, 3 percent of…

  16. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  17. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  18. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  19. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  20. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  1. Primary empathy deficits in frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Baez, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Huepe, David; Torralva, Teresa; Fiorentino, Natalia; Richter, Fabian; Huepe-Artigas, Daniela; Ferrari, Jesica; Montañes, Patricia; Reyes, Pablo; Matallana, Diana; Vigliecca, Nora S.; Decety, Jean; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Loss of empathy is an early central symptom and diagnostic criterion of the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Although changes in empathy are evident and strongly affect the social functioning of bvFTD patients, few studies have directly investigated this issue by means of experimental paradigms. The current study assessed multiple components of empathy (affective, cognitive and moral) in bvFTD patients. We also explored whether the loss of empathy constitutes a primary deficit of bvFTD or whether it is explained by impairments in executive functions (EF) or other social cognition domains. Thirty-seven bvFTD patients with early/mild stages of the disease and 30 healthy control participants were assessed with a task that involves the perception of intentional and accidental harm. Participants were also evaluated on emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), social norms knowledge and several EF domains. BvFTD patients presented deficits in affective, cognitive and moral aspects of empathy. However, empathic concern was the only aspect primarily affected in bvFTD that was neither related nor explained by deficits in EF or other social cognition domains. Deficits in the cognitive and moral aspects of empathy seem to depend on EF, emotion recognition and ToM. Our findings highlight the importance of using tasks depicting real-life social scenarios because of their greater sensitivity in the assessment of bvFTD. Moreover, our results contribute to the understanding of primary and intrinsic empathy deficits of bvFTD and have important theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:25346685

  2. Primary empathy deficits in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Baez, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Huepe, David; Torralva, Teresa; Fiorentino, Natalia; Richter, Fabian; Huepe-Artigas, Daniela; Ferrari, Jesica; Montañes, Patricia; Reyes, Pablo; Matallana, Diana; Vigliecca, Nora S; Decety, Jean; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Loss of empathy is an early central symptom and diagnostic criterion of the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Although changes in empathy are evident and strongly affect the social functioning of bvFTD patients, few studies have directly investigated this issue by means of experimental paradigms. The current study assessed multiple components of empathy (affective, cognitive and moral) in bvFTD patients. We also explored whether the loss of empathy constitutes a primary deficit of bvFTD or whether it is explained by impairments in executive functions (EF) or other social cognition domains. Thirty-seven bvFTD patients with early/mild stages of the disease and 30 healthy control participants were assessed with a task that involves the perception of intentional and accidental harm. Participants were also evaluated on emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), social norms knowledge and several EF domains. BvFTD patients presented deficits in affective, cognitive and moral aspects of empathy. However, empathic concern was the only aspect primarily affected in bvFTD that was neither related nor explained by deficits in EF or other social cognition domains. Deficits in the cognitive and moral aspects of empathy seem to depend on EF, emotion recognition and ToM. Our findings highlight the importance of using tasks depicting real-life social scenarios because of their greater sensitivity in the assessment of bvFTD. Moreover, our results contribute to the understanding of primary and intrinsic empathy deficits of bvFTD and have important theoretical and clinical implications.

  3. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Elias; Soriano, María Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    At present and more so in the future, irrigated agriculture will take place under water scarcity. Insufficient water supply for irrigation will be the norm rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed, the water productivity. To cope with scarce supplies, deficit irrigation, defined as the application of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use. While deficit irrigation is widely practised over millions of hectares for a number of reasons - from inadequate network design to excessive irrigation expansion relative to catchment supplies - it has not received sufficient attention in research. Its use in reducing water consumption for biomass production, and for irrigation of annual and perennial crops is reviewed here. There is potential for improving water productivity in many field crops and there is sufficient information for defining the best deficit irrigation strategy for many situations. One conclusion is that the level of irrigation supply under deficit irrigation should be relatively high in most cases, one that permits achieving 60-100% of full evapotranspiration. Several cases on the successful use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in fruit trees and vines are reviewed, showing that RDI not only increases water productivity, but also farmers' profits. Research linking the physiological basis of these responses to the design of RDI strategies is likely to have a significant impact in increasing its adoption in water-limited areas. PMID:17088360

  4. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  5. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  6. Naming problems do not reflect a second independent core deficit in dyslexia: double deficits explored.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Anniek; Gerretsen, Patty; Blomert, Leo

    2009-06-01

    The double deficit hypothesis states that naming speed problems represent a second core deficit in dyslexia independent from a phonological deficit. The current study investigated the main assumptions of this hypothesis in a large sample of well-diagnosed dyslexics. The three main findings were that (a) naming speed was consistently related only to reading speed; (b) phonological processing speed and naming speed loaded on the same factor, and this factor contributed strongly to reading speed; and (c) although general processing speed was involved in speeded naming of visual items, it did not explain the relationship between naming speed and reading speed. The results do not provide support for the existence of a second independent core naming deficit in dyslexia and indicate that speeded naming tasks are mainly phonological processing speed tasks with an important addition: fast cross-modal matching of visual symbols and phonological codes.

  7. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  8. The Pic du Midi solar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.

    2015-12-01

    We carry a long term survey of the solar activity with our coronagraphic system at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees (CLIMSO). It is a set of two solar telescopes and two coronagraphs, taking one frame per minute for each of the four channels : Solar disk in H-α (656.28 nm), prominences in H-α, disk in Ca II (393.3 nm), prominences in He I (1083 nm), all year long, weather permitting. Since 2015 we also take images of the FeXIII corona (1074.7 nm) at the rate of one every 10 minutes. These images cover a large field: 1.25 solar diameter, 2k*2K pixels, and are freely downloadable form a database. The improvements made since 2015 concern an autoguiding system for better centering of the solar disk behind the coronagraphic masks, and a new Fe XIII channel at λ=1074.7 nm. In the near future we plan to provide radial velocity maps of the disc and polarimetry maps of the disk and corona. This survey took its present form in 2007 and we plan to maintain image acquisition in the same or better experimental conditions for a long period: one or several solar cycles if possible. During the partial solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, the CLIMSO instruments and the staff at Pic du Midi operating it have provided several millions internet users with real time images of the Sun and Moon during all the phenomenon.

  9. Le spasme du sanglot chez les nourrissons

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Des enfants qui fréquentent ma clinique ont des épisodes semblables à des convulsions pendant lesquels ils pleurent et retiennent leur souffle au point de faire survenir une cyanose et de perdre conscience. Les résultats à l’examen ou aux investigations sont normaux et les pédiatres consultés ne font pas d’autres investigations. Les spasmes du sanglot sont-ils communs et quels genres d’investigations faut-il faire? Réponse Le spasme du sanglot est un trouble non épileptique paroxysmal bénin qui se produit chez les enfants en santé de six à 48 mois. Les épisodes commencent par une provocation, comme un bouleversement émotionnel ou une blessure mineure, et peuvent progresser en une retenue de la respiration, une cyanose et une syncope. Les épisodes sont extrêmement effrayants à regarder mais ont des conséquences bénignes. Une fois le diagnostic clinique posé, on recommande de faire passer un électrocardiogramme et d’exclure la possibilité d’une anémie, mais aucune autre investigation ou demande de consultation n’est nécessaire.

  10. Élimination du bore du silicium par plasma inductif sous champ électrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, R.; Morvan, D.; Picard, G.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-05-01

    We analyzed purification mechanisms of silicon by inductive plasma with a fluoride slag. The aim is to study boron elimination from doped electronic grade silicon in function of the nature of the slag to obtain a photovoltaic grade silicon. The steady began with the calculation and the comparison of the stability diagram of boron compounds in presence of CaF2, BaF2 and MgF2. This study led us to conclude that BaF2 is the better slag for silicon purification. This has been confirmed by experience. In a second time, we made purifications under electric bias to enhance slag efficiency. We noticed that BaF2 is more sensitive to electric bias than other slags. Nous avons analysé le mécanisme de purification du silicium sous plasma inductif en présence d'un laitier fluoré. L'objectif principal est d'étudier l'élimination du bore du silicium électronique dopé en fonction de la nature du fluorure pour obtenir un silicium de qualité photovoltaïque. L'étude a commencé par l'établissement et la comparaison de diagrammes des composés du bore en présence de CaF2, de MgF2 et de BaF2. Nous avons déduit de cette première étude que BaF2 est le meilleur laitier pour la purification du silicium. Ceci a été corroboré par l'expérience. Nous avons ensuite opéré en présence d'un champ électrique dans le but d'améliorer encore l'efficacité des laitiers. Nous avons constaté que BaF2 est plus sensible au champ électrique que les deux autres laitiers utilisés.

  11. Preterm Infant Hippocampal Volumes Correlate with Later Working Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Howard, Kelly; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Children born preterm exhibit working memory deficits. These deficits may be associated with structural brain changes observed in the neonatal period. In this study, the relationship between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years were investigated, with a particular interest in the dorsolateral prefrontal…

  12. Speech-Perception-in-Noise Deficits in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Lorenzi, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Speech perception deficits in developmental dyslexia were investigated in quiet and various noise conditions. Dyslexics exhibited clear speech perception deficits in noise but not in silence. "Place-of-articulation" was more affected than "voicing" or "manner-of-articulation." Speech-perception-in-noise deficits persisted when performance of…

  13. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury—the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies—where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  14. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    PubMed

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  15. Visuospatial memory deficits in adolescent onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vance, A; Hall, N; Casey, M; Karsz, F; Bellgrove, M A

    2007-07-01

    Visuospatial memory encoding deficits have been reported in adults with schizophrenia, while adolescents with schizophrenia have not been specifically investigated with visuospatial memory encoding and retrieval paradigms. A cross sectional study of delayed matching-to-sample performance in 19 right handed, male, anti-psychotic medication naïve adolescents with undifferentiated schizophrenia and 28 age, gender, IQ and handedness matched healthy participants was completed. The adolescent-onset schizophrenia group demonstrated significant impairment in visuospatial memory, independent of the degree of delay, consistent with an encoding impairment. The impaired encoding phase of visuospatial memory in the adolescent-onset schizophrenia group is consistent with findings in adult onset schizophrenia samples, suggesting a developmental stage-independent deficit.

  16. Skill deficits and male adolescent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Dishion, T J; Loeber, R; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Patterson, G R

    1984-03-01

    The research literature on juvenile delinquency shows that antisocial adolescents are often lacking in academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Past research on antisocial adolescents has focused primarily on the relationship between single skill deficits and official delinquency. The present report extends this body of literature by investigating the relationship between seven measures of skill and official and self-reported delinquency in a nonclinical sample of 70 white male adolescents. Youths classified as delinquent on the basis of prior police contact had a lower multivariate profile on seven measures of academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Five of the seven measures correlated significantly with both the official and self-reported criteria of delinquency. Academic skill deficits may be the strongest covariates of antisocial behavior.

  17. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  18. [Cognitive deficit: another complication of diabetes mellitus?].

    PubMed

    Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Almada Filho, Clineu de M; Cendoroglo, Maysa S

    2008-10-01

    As the population getting older, the chronic diseases will be more prevalent as diabetes mellitus (DM) and diseases characterized by cognitive deficits, as dementia. Studies have already shown an association between DM and cardiovascular risk factors associated with cognitive impairment. Besides the vascular complications of DM, studies have proposed the role of hyperglycemia and advanced glycosilation end products (AGEP) causing oxidative stress and beta-amyloid protein brain deposition. Other factors have also been investigated, such as the role of insulinemia, genetic and IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1). Some studies showed that good glucose control and intake of polyunsaturated fat, Omega-3 or anti-oxidative food can play a protector role against cognitive deficits. Improving knowledge about the association between DM and cognition and its physiopathology, can be essential for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment, leading to a beneficial impact on the quality of life of elderly patients with DM. PMID:19082295

  19. Frontotemporal dementia: diagnosis, deficits and management

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Nicholas T; Radke, Anneliese; Stephens, Melanie L; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    Summary Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a progressive neurologic syndrome with diverse clinical presentations and attendant underlying pathologies. Psychiatric prodrome, neuropsychiatric symptoms and language difficulties are common in FTD, but the diversity of presentation raises unique diagnostic challenges that can significantly impact patient care and counsel for caregivers regarding clinical status and prognosis. While neuropsychiatric symptom measures are helpful, more sensitive assessments delineating the specific behavioral and linguistic deficits accompanying FTD are needed. Comprehensive clinical assessment in combination with evaluation of language, socio-emotional functioning, cognition and neuroimaging aid in accurate and early diagnosis and treatment planning. In what follows, we review each of the FTD syndromes, highlight current research investigating the cognitive, behavioral and socio-emotional deficits observed with this disease, address common diagnostic challenges and summarize best practices associated with management of FTD. PMID:25531687

  20. Frontotemporal dementia: diagnosis, deficits and management.

    PubMed

    Bott, Nicholas T; Radke, Anneliese; Stephens, Melanie L; Kramer, Joel H

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a progressive neurologic syndrome with diverse clinical presentations and attendant underlying pathologies. Psychiatric prodrome, neuropsychiatric symptoms and language difficulties are common in FTD, but the diversity of presentation raises unique diagnostic challenges that can significantly impact patient care and counsel for caregivers regarding clinical status and prognosis. While neuropsychiatric symptom measures are helpful, more sensitive assessments delineating the specific behavioral and linguistic deficits accompanying FTD are needed. Comprehensive clinical assessment in combination with evaluation of language, socio-emotional functioning, cognition and neuroimaging aid in accurate and early diagnosis and treatment planning. In what follows, we review each of the FTD syndromes, highlight current research investigating the cognitive, behavioral and socio-emotional deficits observed with this disease, address common diagnostic challenges and summarize best practices associated with management of FTD. PMID:25531687

  1. Attention deficits in stroke patients with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Korda, R J; Douglas, J M

    1997-08-01

    Attentional capacity and sustained attention were investigated in 21 aphasic stroke patients and 21 non-brain-damaged patients. Attentional capacity was assessed using a series of reaction time (RT) tasks. The aphasic patients demonstrated impaired attentional capacity as shown by slower processing speed than the non-brain-damaged group (p < .01) and greater increases in RT with increased processing load (p < .05). Similar patterns were found for both verbal and spatial material. There was no significant relationship between severity of auditory comprehension deficits and attentional capacity. Sustained attention was assessed using a cognitive vigilance task requiring identification of a target letter presented infrequently over 32 minutes. Both the aphasic and the non-brain-damaged group demonstrated a decline in performance with time on task as shown by a steady increase in RTs (p < .0001), but the decline was equivalent across the groups. Thus, the aphasic group did not show a specific deficit in the ability to sustain attention. PMID:9342688

  2. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  3. Identifying Neurocognitive Deficits in Adolescents Following Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Danny G.; Collins, Michael W.; Saladino, Richard A.; Frank, Virginia; Raab, Jenny; Zuckerbraun, Noel S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study of concussed adolescents sought to determine if a computer-based neurocognitive assessment (ImPACT) performed on patients who present to the emergency department (ED) immediately following head injury would correlate with assessments performed three to ten days post-injury, and if ED neurocognitive testing would detect differences in concussion severity that clinical grading scales could not. Methods A prospective cohort sample of patients 11 to 17 years of age presenting to the ED within 12 hours of a head injury were evaluated using two traditional concussion grading scales and neurocognitive testing. ED neurocognitive scores were compared to follow-up scores obtained at least three days post-injury. Post-concussive symptoms, outcomes, and complications were assessed via telephone follow-up for all subjects. Results Sixty patients completed phone follow-up. Thirty-six patients (60%) completed follow-up testing a median of six days post-injury. Traditional concussion grading did not correlate with neurocognitive deficits detected in the ED or at follow-up. For the neurocognitive domains of verbal memory, processing speed, and reaction time, there was a significant correlation between ED and follow-up scores trending toward clinical improvement. By two weeks post-injury, 23 patients (41%) had not returned to normal activity. At six weeks, six patients (10%) still had not returned to normal activity. Conclusions Immediate assessment in the ED can predict neurocognitive deficits seen in follow-up, and may be potentially useful to individualize management or test therapeutic interventions. Neurocognitive assessment in the ED detected deficits that clinical grading could not, and correlated with deficits at follow-up. PMID:21401786

  4. Sporadic hemiplegic migraine with permanent neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Schwedt, Todd J; Zhou, Jiying; Dodick, David W

    2014-01-01

    By definition, the neurologic impairments of hemiplegic migraine are reversible. However, a few cases of permanent neurologic deficits associated with hemiplegic migraine have been reported. Herein, we present the case of a patient with permanent impairments because of hemiplegic migraine despite normalization of associated brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. Cases like these suggest the need to consider aggressive prophylactic therapy for patients with recurrent hemiplegic migraine attacks.

  5. The pattern of visual deficits in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    McKee, Suzanne P; Levi, Dennis M; Movshon, J Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Amblyopia is usually defined as a deficit in optotype (Snellen) acuity with no detectable organic cause. We asked whether this visual abnormality is completely characterized by the deficit in optotype acuity, or whether it has distinct forms that are determined by the conditions associated with the acuity loss, such as strabismus or anisometropia. To decide this issue, we measured optotype acuity, Vernier acuity, grating acuity, contrast sensitivity, and binocular function in 427 adults with amblyopia or with risk factors for amblyopia and in a comparison group of 68 normal observers. Optotype acuity accounts for much of the variance in Vernier and grating acuity, and somewhat less of the variance in contrast sensitivity. Nevertheless, there are differences in the patterns of visual loss among the clinically defined categories, particularly between strabismic and anisometropic categories. We used factor analysis to create a succinct representation of our measurement space. This analysis revealed two main dimensions of variation in the visual performance of our abnormal sample, one related to the visual acuity measures (optotype, Vernier, and grating acuity) and the other related to the contrast sensitivity measures (Pelli-Robson and edge contrast sensitivity). Representing our data in this space reveals distinctive distributions of visual loss for different patient categories, and suggests that two consequences of the associated conditions--reduced resolution and loss of binocularity--determine the pattern of visual deficit. Non-binocular observers with mild-to-moderate acuity deficits have, on average, better monocular contrast sensitivity than do binocular observers with the same acuity loss. Despite their superior contrast sensitivity, non-binocular observers typically have poorer optotype acuity and Vernier acuity, at a given level of grating acuity, than those with residual binocular function. PMID:12875634

  6. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  7. Brain Stem Hypoplasia Associated with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  8. Memory deficits and retrieval processes in ALS.

    PubMed

    Mantovan, M C; Baggio, L; Dalla Barba, G; Smith, P; Pegoraro, E; Soraru', G; Bonometto, P; Angelini, C

    2003-05-01

    Subtle neuropsychological deficits have been described in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) without dementia. Overall, selective impairment in memory function has been reported, but the source of memory impairment in ALS has yet to be defined. We performed neuropsychological screening in 20 ALS patients. Semantic encoding and post-encoding cue effects on the retrieval of word lists were investigated in the ALS patients and normal controls. Severity of memory impairment was correlated to cerebral blood perfusion detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). ALS patients showed moderate impairments in frontal and memory tests. Short-term memory was normal, while serial position retrieval of word lists with normal recency effect but poor primacy effect showed long-term memory deficit. ALS patients performed better in cued encoding than in cued post-encoding recall condition. In the cued post-encoding condition, the primacy effect in word list recall improved significantly in controls, but not in ALS patients, as compared with both the free recall and cued encoding conditions. SPECT hypoperfusion was observed in frontal and temporal areas in ALS patients. ALS patients showed a long-term memory deficit which did not improve in cued post-encoding condition as it does for controls. We hypothesize abnormal retrieval processes related to frontal lobe dysfunction which entails difficulties in generating stable long-memory traces at encoding.

  9. Memory deficits and retrieval processes in ALS.

    PubMed

    Mantovan, M C; Baggio, L; Dalla Barba, G; Smith, P; Pegoraro, E; Soraru', G; Bonometto, P; Angelini, C

    2003-05-01

    Subtle neuropsychological deficits have been described in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) without dementia. Overall, selective impairment in memory function has been reported, but the source of memory impairment in ALS has yet to be defined. We performed neuropsychological screening in 20 ALS patients. Semantic encoding and post-encoding cue effects on the retrieval of word lists were investigated in the ALS patients and normal controls. Severity of memory impairment was correlated to cerebral blood perfusion detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). ALS patients showed moderate impairments in frontal and memory tests. Short-term memory was normal, while serial position retrieval of word lists with normal recency effect but poor primacy effect showed long-term memory deficit. ALS patients performed better in cued encoding than in cued post-encoding recall condition. In the cued post-encoding condition, the primacy effect in word list recall improved significantly in controls, but not in ALS patients, as compared with both the free recall and cued encoding conditions. SPECT hypoperfusion was observed in frontal and temporal areas in ALS patients. ALS patients showed a long-term memory deficit which did not improve in cued post-encoding condition as it does for controls. We hypothesize abnormal retrieval processes related to frontal lobe dysfunction which entails difficulties in generating stable long-memory traces at encoding. PMID:12752394

  10. Approach to attention deficit disorder in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adults. SOURCES OF INFORMATION PsycINFO, PubMed, and Psychiatry 24x7.com were searched. Several books on ADD in adults were reviewed. I also drew on my own clinical experience assessing and treating adults with ADD for more than 20 years. MAIN MESSAGE The classic triad of ADD symptoms are inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity or restlessness. Although ADD is a well established brain disorder, the diagnosis remains controversial. Attention deficit disorder has been called a fad, not a legitimate diagnosis, but it is a well established, well documented, medical condition that can cause much suffering if left untreated. At one time we thought children would outgrow ADD at puberty, but we now know that many will continue to have residual symptoms throughout adolescence and adulthood. If left untreated, ADD can interfere with relationships, employment, and self-esteem. Treatment with stimulants and adjunctive care is often effective. CONCLUSION Attention deficit disorder in adults represents a substantial burden of illness. It can be diagnosed and treated successfully. PMID:17273498

  11. Narrative discourse deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Menaged, Anna; Olm, Christopher; McMillan, Corey T.; Boller, Ashley; Irwin, David J.; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined narrative discourse in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to assess the role of executive functioning in support of language and the neuroanatomical basis for such support. Methods: We analyzed a semistructured speech sample in 26 patients with ALS and 19 healthy seniors for narrative discourse features of coherence. Regression analyses related a measure of discourse coherence (“local connectedness”) to gray matter atrophy and reduced white matter fractional anisotropy. Results: Patients with ALS were impaired relative to controls on measures of discourse adequacy, including local connectedness and maintenance of the theme. These discourse measures were related to measures of executive functioning but not to motor functioning. Regressions related local connectedness to gray matter atrophy in ventral and dorsal prefrontal regions and to reduced fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts mediating projections between prefrontal regions. Conclusion: Patients with ALS exhibit deficits in their ability to organize narrative discourse. These deficits appear to be related in part to executive limitations. Consistent with the hypothesis that ALS is a multisystem disorder, this deficit is related to disease in prefrontal regions. PMID:24991038

  12. Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Philip; Stringaris, Argyris; Nigg, Joel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    Although it has long been recognized that many individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also have difficulties with emotion regulation, no consensus has been reached on how to conceptualize this clinically challenging domain. The authors examine the current literature using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Three key findings emerge. First, emotion dysregulation is prevalent in ADHD throughout the lifespan and is a major contributor to impairment. Second, emotion dysregulation in ADHD may arise from deficits in orienting toward, recognizing, and/or allocating attention to emotional stimuli; these deficits implicate dysfunction within a striato-amygdalo-medial prefrontal cortical network. Third, while current treatments for ADHD often also ameliorate emotion dysregulation, a focus on this combination of symptoms reframes clinical questions and could stimulate novel therapeutic approaches. The authors then consider three models to explain the overlap between emotion dysregulation and ADHD: emotion dysregulation and ADHD are correlated but distinct dimensions; emotion dysregulation is a core diagnostic feature of ADHD; and the combination constitutes a nosological entity distinct from both ADHD and emotion dysregulation alone. The differing predictions from each model can guide research on the much-neglected population of patients with ADHD and emotion dysregulation.

  13. Depleted uranium (DU): a holistic consideration of DU and related matters.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E I

    2001-12-17

    Following the use of depleted uranium (DU) during the Gulf and Balkan conflicts, unnecessary and costly confusion has existed for some 11 years concerning the hazard it constitutes, despite the fact that sufficient data are available to answer most of the relevant questions. In tracing the significance of uranium in the environment and humans, too much reliance is still placed upon the extrapolation of animal data. The existing radiological nomenclature is far too involved and complex to understand, let alone implement. The excellence of early health physics seems to have been lost, and hence there is a failure to utilise the large body of knowledge, and the manner in which it was obtained, in other disciplines. Health physics has failed to understand the nature of some natural processes that ultimately control radiation dose to the environment and humans. Examination of three types of DU, in particular the highly radioactive and potentially hazardous unprocessed, spent-reactor uranium fuel debris (UDU), alluded to as hot particles, has been poorly studied on the basis of scarcity in the environment. Fundamental geological processes are described which illustrate that, as a consequence of routine operation of nuclear reprocessing plants, especially in the past, and following reactor accidents, natural processes can result in an enrichment of DU particles in most types of sediment. Failure to grasp essential geological processes in relation to the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment is detrimental to public acceptance of an essential form of energy in association with others.

  14. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  15. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  16. [Neuromyelopathy in the population of Noir-marron of Saint-Laurent du Maroni in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Sainte-Foie, S; Bourhis, V; Joly, F; Petit-Bon, J

    1997-01-01

    The neurological observations have been reported at André Bouron Hospital of Saint-Laurent du Maroni and at General Hospital of Cayenne during a period of 5 years. All patients belonged to the "Noir Marron" ethnic group and lived in the area of Saint-Laurent. There were six women and four men, aged 15-35 years. Neurological symptoms were isolated or associated to other organ failure. Neurological manifestations included retrobulbar optic neuropathy, spastic paraparesis, sensitive ataxia and cerebellar ataxia, psychiatric symptoms were observed. Other organs affected were cardiovascular, digestive, cutaneous or endocrinologic (thyroid). Diet consist mainly in cassava. Thiamin deficiency has been observed several times. Improvement of neurological deficits following thiamin administration points towards Thiamin as an etiological factor. Ethnological specificity of Saint-Laurent area may explain that such neurological manifestation have not been observed in the rest of the department.

  17. Impact socio professionnel de la libération chirurgicale du syndrome du canal carpien

    PubMed Central

    Kraiem, Aouatef Mahfoudh; Hnia, Hajer; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed Adnène; Khalfallah, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif de notre travail était d’étudier les conséquences socioprofessionnelles d’une libération chirurgicale du SCC. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale portant sur les sujets opérés pour un SCC d’origine professionnelle ; recensés dans le Service de Médecine de Travail et de Pathologies Professionnelles au CHU Tahar Sfar de Mahdia en Tunisie sur une période de 8 ans allant du 1 Janvier 2006 au mois Décembre 2013. Le recueil des données s’est basé sur une fiche d’enquête, portant sur la description des caractéristiques socioprofessionnelles, médicales, et sur le devenir professionnel des participants. Pour étudier les contraintes psychosociales au travail, nous avons adopté le questionnaire de Karasek. La durée d’arrêt de travail après libération chirurgicale du SCC était significativement liée à l’existence d’autres troubles musculo-squelettiques autre que le SCC, la déclaration du SCC en maladie professionnelle et à l’ancienneté professionnelle des salariés. Quant au devenir professionnel des salariés opérés, 50,7% ont gardé le même poste, 15,3% ont bénéficié d’un aménagement de poste et 33,8% ont bénéficié d’un changement de poste dans la même entreprise. Le devenir professionnel de ces salariés était corrélé à leurs qualifications professionnelles et au type de l’atteinte sensitive et/ou motrice du nerf médian à l’EMG. Un certain nombre de facteurs non lésionnels déterminaient la durée de l’arrêt de travail, alors que le devenir professionnel des opérés pour SCC dépendait essentiellement de leurs qualifications professionnelles et des données de l’électromyogramme. Il est certain que des travaux beaucoup plus larges permettraient d’affiner encore ces résultats. PMID:27800089

  18. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 patientes colligées au CHU pour le diagnostic et le suivi. Les tumeurs sont analysées histologiquement et classées après une étude immunohistochimique en groupes: luminal A, luminal B, Her2+, basal-like et non-classées. Résultats 54.3% des tumeurs sont du groupe luminal A, 16% luminal B, 11.3% Her2+, 11.3% basal-like et 7% non-classées. Le groupe luminal A renferme le plus faible taux de grade III, d'emboles vasculaires ainsi que de métastases; alors que le groupe des non-classées et basal-like représentent un taux élevé de grade III, une faible proportion d'emboles vasculaires et d'envahissement ganglionnaire. Ces facteurs sont significativement élevés dans les groupes luminal B et Her2+ avec un taux de survie globale de 78% et 76% respectivement. Dans le groupe luminal A, la survie globale des patientes est élevée (87%) alors qu'elle n'est que de 49% dans le groupe des triples négatifs (basal-like et non-classés). Conclusion Le groupe luminal B est différent du luminal A et il est de pronostic péjoratif vis à vis du groupe Her2+. Les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques concordent avec le profil moléculaire donc devraient être pris en considération comme facteurs pronostiques. PMID:23396646

  19. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission denies a petition...

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. The Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Stewart C.; Christie, Margarette A.

    1987-01-01

    The developmental history of a 14-year-old girl with Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome (a genetic disorder characterized by a distinctive cry and severe physical and intellectual disabilities) is reported. (Author/DB)

  2. Lymphome primitif du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Njoumi, Noureddine; Najih, Mohamed; Haqqi, Laila; Atolou, Gilles; Bougtab, Abdessalm; Hachi, Hafid; Benjelloun, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Le lymphome primitif du sein est une entité histologique très rare du cancer du sein. Les aspects cliniques et radiologiques ne présentent pas de spécificités particulières. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé. Le traitement se base essentiellement sur la chimiothérapie. Le pronostic est globalement péjoratif. Nous rapportons un cas de lymphome malin non Hodgkinien primitif du sein chez une patiente de 38 ans. Parallèlement une revue de la littérature est entreprise évoquant les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques et thérapeutiques de ce néoplasme. PMID:22937198

  3. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  4. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  5. Peters anomaly in cri-du-chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hope, William C; Cordovez, Jose A; Capasso, Jenina E; Hammersmith, Kristin M; Eagle, Ralph C; Lall-Trail, Joel; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. It presents with a distinctive catlike high-pitched cry, psychomotor delays, microcephaly, craniofacial abnormalities, and, in many cases, ocular findings. We report the first child with cri-du-chat and the findings of unilateral corneal staphyloma due to Peters anomaly and retinal dysplasia. PMID:26059676

  6. Determination of periodontopathogens in patients with Cri du chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta-Mudarra, Sofía; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa M.; Solano-Reina, Enrique; Perea-Pérez, Evelio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic alteration associated with some oral pathologies. However, it has not been described previously any clinical relationship between the periodontal disease and the syndrome. The purpose of this comparative study was to compare periodontopathogenic flora in a group with Cri du chat syndrome and another without the síndrome, to assess a potential microbiological predisposition to suffer a periodontitis. Study Design: The study compared nineteen subjects with Cri du chat Syndrome with a control group of nineteen patients without it. All patients were clinically evaluated by periodontal probing, valuing the pocket depth, the clinical attachmente level and bleeding on probing. There were no significant differences between both groups. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were detected by multiplex-PCR using 16S rDNA (microIDENT). Results: When A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and T. denticola were compared, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (p>0.05). The value of T. forsythia was significantly higher for Cri du chat syndrome (31.6%) than for the control group (5.3%). The odds ratio for T. forsythia was 8.3. Conclusions: In the present study T. forsythia is associated with Cri du chat syndrome subjects and not with healthy subjects. Key words:Cri du Chat syndrome, periodontal health, microbiology, special care dentistry. PMID:24121919

  7. BECLA, a new assessment battery for acquired deficits of language: Normative data from Quebec-French healthy younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Macoir, Joël; Gauthier, Caroline; Jean, Catherine; Potvin, Olivier

    2016-02-15

    Compared to English, for which there exist numerous tests and batteries for the assessment of acquired deficits of language, the tools available to assess French-speaking individuals are much more limited. The Batterie d'Évaluation Cognitive du Langage (BECLA) was purposely developed to fulfill the need for French assessment tools based on theoretical models of cognitive psychology. It comprises 19 tasks, designed to assess each of the components and routes involved in single word processing in order to identify the functional locus/loci of impairment. In this article, we describe the BECLA and we present normative data for individuals 18-94 years of age (N=248). The sample was stratified by age, gender, and years of education, according to the Institut de la statistique du Québec, in order to be representative of the French-Quebec population. Percentile scores were provided for each BECLA task in order to show the relative rank of each raw score according to significant correlates. The BECLA is a new clinical, theoretically based assessment battery, useful for identifying and characterizing acquired deficits of language in younger and older adults.

  8. Motor Extinction: A Deficit of Attention or Intention?

    PubMed Central

    Punt, T. David; Riddoch, M. Jane; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2013-01-01

    Motor extinction refers to a deficit of motor production on the side opposite a brain lesion that either only becomes apparent or disproportionately worsens during bilateral motor activity. It may arise due either to a contralesional deficit in setting the motor activation level (an intentional deficit) or a deficit in contralesional awareness of the sensory consequences of movement (an attentional deficit). In this study, we investigate the nature of motor extinction in a patient (LR) with a right fronto-temporal lesion through the kinematic analysis of unimanual and bimanual circle-drawing movements. While the ipsi- and contralesional limbs performed comparably for unimanual movements, the contralesional limb demonstrated marked bradykinesia and hypometria during bimanual movements. Furthermore, these deficits were not overcome when visual feedback of the contralesional limb was provided (Experiment 1). However, when performing bimanual movements in the presence of a visual template (Experiment 2), LR was able to overcome the contralesional hypometria but not the bradykinesia which proved intractable across both experiments. Both the bradykinesia and hypometria could result from an intentional deficit of motor production. However, in Experiment 2, LR also demonstrated an abnormal level of positional drift in the contralesional limb for bimanual movements indicative of an additional attentional deficit. We conclude that LR’s presentation of motor extinction is the result of a primary intentional deficit and a secondary attentional deficit. PMID:24137119

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C; Wright, B; Partridge, I

    1999-01-01

    The topic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is fascinating and controversial. A variety of stances have been taken by different clinicians, support groups, and the media. A nature/nurture argument has developed that may have a tendency to polarize views. This review aims to present research findings that inform the debate. It deals with symptomatology, aetiology, and prevalence, with assessment for diagnosis, management, and outcome. The importance of comprehensive management taking into consideration not just attention abilities but a range of other factors that have an impact upon them is stressed. Management should be pragmatic, multifaceted, and based around the establishment of good working relationships with family and school. PMID:10621994

  10. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning.

  11. Sustained Perceptual Deficits from Transient Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory pathways display heightened plasticity during development, yet the perceptual consequences of early experience are generally assessed in adulthood. This approach does not allow one to identify transient perceptual changes that may be linked to the central plasticity observed in juvenile animals. Here, we determined whether a brief period of bilateral auditory deprivation affects sound perception in developing and adult gerbils. Animals were reared with bilateral earplugs, either from postnatal day 11 (P11) to postnatal day 23 (P23) (a manipulation previously found to disrupt gerbil cortical properties), or from P23-P35. Fifteen days after earplug removal and restoration of normal thresholds, animals were tested on their ability to detect the presence of amplitude modulation (AM), a temporal cue that supports vocal communication. Animals reared with earplugs from P11-P23 displayed elevated AM detection thresholds, compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, an identical period of earplug rearing at a later age (P23-P35) did not impair auditory perception. Although the AM thresholds of earplug-reared juveniles improved during a week of repeated testing, a subset of juveniles continued to display a perceptual deficit. Furthermore, although the perceptual deficits induced by transient earplug rearing had resolved for most animals by adulthood, a subset of adults displayed impaired performance. Control experiments indicated that earplugging did not disrupt the integrity of the auditory periphery. Together, our results suggest that P11-P23 encompasses a critical period during which sensory deprivation disrupts central mechanisms that support auditory perceptual skills. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory systems are particularly malleable during development. This heightened degree of plasticity is beneficial because it enables the acquisition of complex skills, such as music or language. However, this plasticity comes with a cost: nervous system development

  12. Assessment and Characteristics of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder. Education of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Roscoe A.; And Others

    This report summarizes activities and findings of a federally funded center at the Arkansas Children's Hospital which reviewed and disseminated literature on the identification and assessment of children with attention deficit disorders (ADD). Meetings throughout Arkansas led to the identification of interest areas, and findings are summarized for…

  13. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  14. Detecting Behavioral Deficits Post Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Awwad, Hibah O

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), ranging from mild to severe, almost always elicits an array of behavioral deficits in injured subjects. Some of these TBI-induced behavioral deficits include cognitive and vestibulomotor deficits as well as anxiety and other consequences. Rodent models of TBI have been (and still are) fundamental in establishing many of the pathophysiological mechanisms of TBI. Animal models are also utilized in screening and testing pharmacological effects of potential therapeutic agents for brain injury treatment. This chapter details validated protocols for each of these behavioral deficits post traumatic brain injury in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The elevated plus maze (EPM) protocol is described for assessing anxiety-like behavior; the Morris water maze protocol for assessing cognitive deficits in learning memory and spatial working memory and the rotarod test for assessing vestibulomotor deficits. PMID:27604739

  15. Depth perception deficits in glaucoma suspects

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, N; Krishnadev, N; Hamstra, S J; Yücel, Y H

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate depth perception in glaucoma suspects compared to glaucoma patients and controls. Methods Glaucoma suspects (n = 16), patients (n = 18), and normal age matched controls (n = 19) aged 40–65 years were prospectively evaluated for depth perception deficits using the Frisby test. Stereoacuity was measured by stereothreshold in seconds of arc for each group. Results Glaucoma suspects showed significantly increased mean stereothreshold compared to age matched normals (144.1 (SE 35.2) v 26.6 (3.7) seconds of arc; p = 0.0004). The mean stereothreshold in glaucoma patients was also increased compared to age matched normals 148.1 (33.8) v 26.6 (3.7) seconds of arc; p = 0.0004). Conclusions Glaucoma suspects show depth perception deficits. The impaired stereovision in glaucoma suspects suggests that binocular interactions can be disrupted in the presence of normal visual fields by standard achromatic automated perimetry. PMID:16672326

  16. Cognitive deficits in post-stroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Milena V; Radanovic, Márcia

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of aphasics' cognitive performance is challenging and such patients are generally excluded from studies that describe cognitive deficits after stroke. We evaluated aphasics' performance in cognitive tasks compared to non-aphasic subjects. A sample of 47 patients (21 aphasics, 17 non-aphasics with left hemisphere lesions and 9 non-aphasics with right hemisphere lesions) performed cognitive tasks (attention, verbal and visual memory, executive functions, visuospatial skills and praxis). Aphasic patients performed poorer than all non-aphasics in Digit Span (p < 0.001), Clock-Drawing Test (p = 0.006), Verbal memory (p = 0.002), Visual Memory (p < 0.01), Verbal Fluency (p < 0.001), and Gesture Praxis (p < 0.001). Aphasia severity correlated with performance in Trail Making test part B (p = 0.004), Digit Span forward (p < 0.001) and backwards (p = 0.011), and Gesture Praxis (p = 0.002). Aphasia is accompanied by deficits not always easy to be evaluated by cognitive tests due to speech production and motor impairments. Assessment of cognitive functions in aphasics might contribute to optimize therapeutic intervention. PMID:26465401

  17. Word learning in children with vocabulary deficits.

    PubMed

    Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L

    2005-04-01

    Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SLI) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks assessed how much the children had learned about the words' phonological form and semantic properties after 6 repetitions (Time 1) and again after 12 repetitions (Time 2) of the words in each context. The SLI group performed significantly worse than the CAC group at both Time 1 and Time 2 on all measures of the words presented in both contexts. They performed similarly to the VAC group (who were on average 21/2 years younger) on Time 1 and Time 2 measures from both contexts, except for the Naming task at Time 2, on which their performance was significantly lower. These findings suggest that children with vocabulary deficits have difficulties with both phonological and semantic aspects of word learning.

  18. Behavioral persistence deficit in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J S

    2007-03-01

    The present study was performed to examine the degree to which decreased task persistence may contribute to deficits in the ability of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to perform a problem solving task. Patients with mild/moderate PD performed a computerized Tower of Hanoi task in which they planned and verbalized moves to solve the puzzle but did not need to produce a limb motor response. All patients were tested at least 14 h off medication. As expected from previous studies of planning abilities in PD, patients had significant problems performing this task and accuracy decreased specifically when patients were presented with the most difficult puzzles in the sequence. PD patients solved fewer of the most difficult puzzles than did control subjects, but also made significantly fewer attempts to solve those puzzles than controls. These results suggest that PD patients not only have planning and problem solving deficits as have been documented previously, but that at least part of this and perhaps other cognitive performance problems may result from difficulty in maintaining adequate mental effort to successfully complete difficult tasks. PMID:17355551

  19. Lingual deficits in neurotrophin double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, Irina V; Agerman, Karin; Marinescu, Andrea; Ernfors, Patrik; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2004-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) are members of the neurotrophin family and are expressed in the developing and adult tongue papillae. BDNF null-mutated mice exhibit specific impairments related to innervation and development of the gustatory system while NT-3 null mice have deficits in their lingual somatosensory innervation. To further evaluate the functional specificity of these neurotrophins in the peripheral gustatory system, we generated double BDNF/NT-3 knockout mice and compared the phenotype to BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. Taste papillae morphology was severely distorted in BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice compared to single BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. The deficits were found throughout the tongue and all gustatory papillae. There was a significant loss of fungiform papillae and the papillae were smaller in size compared to BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. Circumvallate papillae in the double knockouts were smaller and did not contain any intraepithelial nerve fibers. BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice exhibited additive losses in both somatosensory and gustatory innervation indicating that BDNF and NT-3 exert specific roles in the innervation of the tongue. However, the additional loss of fungiform papillae and taste buds in BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice compared to single BDNF knockout mice indicate a synergistic functional role for both BDNF-dependent gustatory and NT-3-dependent somatosensory innervations in taste bud and taste papillae innervation and development. PMID:16217617

  20. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    PubMed

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.

  1. [Screening project of identification of hearing deficits in newborns].

    PubMed

    Møller, Troels Reinholdt; Jensen, Frank Kjeldsen; Ekmann, Anita; Wetke, Randi; Ovesen, Terese

    2007-03-01

    A screening project of identification of hearing deficits in newborns has been implemented in the County of Arhus, Denmark in January and February 2005 and is still ongoing. The purpose of the screening is to diagnose the hearing deficits during the first month postpartum and institute treatment of the handicap. During the first year of screening, 6154 children have been tested and 12 newborns with hearing deficits have been identified. PMID:17359732

  2. Mise à jour sur le nouveau vaccin 9-valent pour la prévention du virus du papillome humain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, David Yi; Bracken, Keyna

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Informer les médecins de famille quant à l’efficacité, à l’innocuité, aux effets sur la santé publique et à la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent contre le virus du papillome humain (VPH). Qualité des données Des articles pertinents publiés dans PubMed jusqu’en mai 2015 ont été examinés et analysés. La plupart des données citées sont de niveau I (essais randomisés et contrôlés et méta-analyses) ou de niveau II (études transversales, cas-témoins et épidémiologiques). Des rapports et recommandations du gouvernement sont aussi cités en référence. Message principal Le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH, qui offre une protection contre les types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 et 58 du VPH, est sûr et efficace et réduira encore plus l’incidence des infections à VPH, de même que les cas de cancer lié au VPH. Il peut également protéger indirectement les personnes non immunisées par l’entremise du phénomène d’immunité collective. Un programme d’immunisation efficace peut prévenir la plupart des cancers du col de l’utérus. Les analyses montrent que la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent chez les femmes est comparable à celle du vaccin quadrivalent original contre le VPH (qui protège contre les types 6, 11, 16 et 18 du VPH) en usage à l’heure actuelle. Toutefois, il faut investiguer plus en profondeur l’utilité d’immuniser les garçons avec le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH. Conclusion en plus d’être sûr, le vaccin 9-valent protège mieux contre le VPH que le vaccin quadrivalent. Une analyse coûtefficacité en favorise l’emploi, du moins chez les adolescentes. Ainsi, les médecins devraient recommander le vaccin 9-valent à leurs patients plutôt que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le VPH.

  3. Auditory processing deficits in reading disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Ahissar, Meray; Nelken, Israel

    2002-09-01

    The nature of the auditory processing deficit of disabled readers is still an unresolved issue. The quest for a fundamental, nonlinguistic, perceptual impairment has been dominated by the hypothesis that the difficulty lies in processing sequences of stimuli at presentation rates of tens of milliseconds. The present study examined this hypothesis using tasks that require processing of a wide range of stimulus time constants. About a third of the sampled population of disabled readers (classified as "poor auditory processors") had difficulties in most of the tasks tested: detection of frequency differences, detection of tones in narrowband noise, detection of amplitude modulation, detection of the direction of sound sources moving in virtual space, and perception of the lateralized position of tones based on their interaural phase differences. Nevertheless, across-channel integration was intact in these poor auditory processors since comodulation masking release was not reduced. Furthermore, phase locking was presumably intact since binaural masking level differences were normal. In a further examination of temporal processing, participants were asked to discriminate two tones at various intervals where the frequency difference was ten times each individual's frequency just noticeable difference (JND). Under these conditions, poor auditory processors showed no specific difficulty at brief intervals, contrary to predictions under a fast temporal processing deficit assumption. The complementary subgroup of disabled readers who were not poor auditory processors showed some difficulty in this condition when compared with their direct controls. However, they had no difficulty on auditory tasks such as amplitude modulation detection, which presumably taps processing of similar time scales. These two subgroups of disabled readers had similar reading performance but those with a generally poor auditory performance scored lower on some cognitive tests. Taken together, these

  4. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  5. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: management.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, M L; Zolotor, A

    2001-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is a neurophysiologic disorder defined in behavioral terms and associated with significant morbidity in the realms of social and academic success, and self-esteem. ADHD is often associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities, which further impede the successful development of these persons. It is essential that family physicians be knowledgeable about the presentation and diagnosis of ADHD. Stimulant medications continue to be the mainstay of treatment, although many other medications (such as antidepressants and alpha blockers) are helpful adjuvants to therapy. Current recommendations for treatment include an individualized, multimodal approach involving parents, teachers, counselors and the school system. Treatment follow-up includes monitoring response to medications in various settings, as well as side effects. With time and interest, the family physician can develop the skills needed to treat this disorder.

  7. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects.

  8. Amnesia is a deficit in relational memory.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J D; Althoff, R R; Whitlow, S; Cohen, N J

    2000-11-01

    Eye movements were monitored to assess memory for scenes indirectly (implicitly). Two eye movement-based memory phenomena were observed: (a) the repetition effect, a decrease in sampling of previously viewed scenes compared with new scenes, reflecting memory for those scenes, and (b) the relational manipulation effect, an increase in viewing of the regions where manipulations of relations among scene elements had occurred. In normal control subjects, the relational manipulation effect was expressed only in the absence of explicit awareness of the scene manipulations. Thus, memory representations of scenes contain information about relations among elements of the scenes, at least some of which is not accessible to verbal report. But amnesic patients with severe memory impairment failed to show the relational manipulation effect. Their failure to show any demonstrable memory for relations among the constituent elements of scenes suggests that amnesia involves a fundamental deficit in relational (declarative) memory processing.

  9. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects. PMID:21069642

  10. Nonlinear spelling in graphemic buffer deficit.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Teresa; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of nonlinear spelling and its implications for theories of the graphemic buffer. C.T.J., an individual with an acquired deficit of the graphemic buffer, often wrote the letters of his responses in a nonlinear temporal order when writing to dictation. The spatial ordering of the letters was maintained: Letters in the later positions of the words were written towards the right side of the response, even when written before letters in earlier positions. This unusual phenomenon has been briefly reported in three prior cases but this study provides the most detailed analysis of the phenomenon to date. We specifically contend that the decoupling of the temporal and spatial aspects of spelling is difficult to reconcile with competitive queuing accounts of the graphemic buffer. PMID:27355609

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P S

    1995-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder has been redefined in the classifications in the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. The definitions are more concordant than their predecessors and reemphasize the distinction between inattentiveness and hyperactivity. The causes and mechanisms are still uncertain, but dietary sugar or aspartame and thyroid dysfunction do not seem to be major factors. Specific subgroups, such as children with comorbid psychologic disorders, tic disorders, or mental handicap, seem to have different origins, natural history, prognoses, and responses to treatment, reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder. Psychostimulant therapy has unquestioned short-term effects on behavior but less certain benefits on long-term psychosocial outcome or on academic performance.

  12. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  13. Motion perception deficit in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Del Viva, Maria Michela; Tozzi, Arianna; Bargagna, Stefania; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    It is a well established fact that Down Syndrome (DS) individuals have a tendency to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Lott, I.T., Head, E., 2005. Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome: factors in pathogenesis. Neurobiol. Aging 26, 383-389). They have therefore been proposed as a model to study the pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer's (Mann, D.M., 1988. The pathological association between Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. Mech. Ageing Dev. 43, 99-136). One of the specific deficits exhibited by AD patients is optic flow motion perception (Tetewsky, S.J., Duffy, C.J., 1999. Visual loss and getting lost in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 52, 958-965), but there are no corresponding systematic studies in DS individuals. We performed sensitivity measurements to optic flow with Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) and psychophysical techniques in a group of young DS participants with mild mental retardation and without significant Alzheimer's clinical symptoms. We found a significant reduction in direction discrimination sensitivity to optic flow (random dots moving in radial, rotational and translational trajectories) in DS participants compared to mental age-matched controls, while their sensitivity to direction of control moving stimuli (sinusoidal gratings) was similar to age-matched controls. Measurements of Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) showed no response to optic flow, although the response to control stimuli (contrast-reversal checkerboard patterns) was significant. Overall, our results show a selective and substantial deficit in the perception of optic flow motion and a corresponding suppression of electroencephalographic activity in DS individuals, thus establishing a further common trait between Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  15. Single and Double Deficits in Early Readers in Rural, Low-Wealth Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedora, Pledger M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used secondary data to test the double-deficit hypothesis that rapid automatized naming (RAN) deficits and phonological awareness (PA) deficits are 2 core reading-related deficits and that students exhibiting deficits in both areas would be the most severely impaired in entry-level reading ability. Specifically, this study investigated…

  16. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  17. Social perception deficits, cognitive distortions, and empathy deficits in sex offenders: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Blake, Emily; Gannon, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    This literature review examines the differences between sex offenders and nonoffenders with regard to social perception skills, cognitive distortions, and empathy skills in order to investigate sex offenders' cognition. The literature on cognitive distortions is discussed, with reference to the confusion surrounding its definition, and the debate between cognitive distortions as offense-supportive beliefs or justifications is examined. In terms of social perception, particular reference is made to sex offenders' misinterpretations of women's social cues and the source of this deficit. The authors discuss possibilities for this deficit, including offense-supportive beliefs that are driven by underlying implicit theories or schemata held by offenders. The concept of empathy and its relation to both social perception skills and cognitive distortions is discussed, and the integration of these factors is represented in a new model.

  18. 45 CFR 1628.5 - Fund balance deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... prior year shall be identified as questioned costs under 45 CFR part 1630. (d) The recipient's request... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fund balance deficits. 1628.5 Section 1628.5... FUND BALANCES § 1628.5 Fund balance deficits. (a) Sound financial management practices such as...

  19. 45 CFR 1628.5 - Fund balance deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prior year shall be identified as questioned costs under 45 CFR part 1630. (d) The recipient's request... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fund balance deficits. 1628.5 Section 1628.5... FUND BALANCES § 1628.5 Fund balance deficits. (a) Sound financial management practices such as...

  20. 45 CFR 1628.5 - Fund balance deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prior year shall be identified as questioned costs under 45 CFR part 1630. (d) The recipient's request... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fund balance deficits. 1628.5 Section 1628.5... FUND BALANCES § 1628.5 Fund balance deficits. (a) Sound financial management practices such as...

  1. 45 CFR 1628.5 - Fund balance deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prior year shall be identified as questioned costs under 45 CFR part 1630. (d) The recipient's request... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fund balance deficits. 1628.5 Section 1628.5... FUND BALANCES § 1628.5 Fund balance deficits. (a) Sound financial management practices such as...

  2. 45 CFR 1628.5 - Fund balance deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prior year shall be identified as questioned costs under 45 CFR part 1630. (d) The recipient's request... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fund balance deficits. 1628.5 Section 1628.5... FUND BALANCES § 1628.5 Fund balance deficits. (a) Sound financial management practices such as...

  3. Are Auditory and Visual Processing Deficits Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological…

  4. Policy Deficit in Distance Education: A Transactional Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokool-Ramdoo, Sushita

    2009-01-01

    This paper innovatively extends the application of transactional distance theory (TDT) to evidence-based policy development in Mauritius. In-depth interview data on student persistence from a range of stakeholders is used to understand the implications of distance education (DE) policy deficit. Policy deficit has surfaced as another dimension of…

  5. A Double-Deficit Hypothesis for Developmental Reading Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Patricia Greig; Wolff, Maryanne

    Two longitudinal studies examined a "double deficit" hypothesis of reading disorders that contends that along with a core phonological deficit, slow speed of lexical access disrupts the efficient formation of orthographic representations and their quick retrieval. In the first study, 38 children from 6 classrooms in a predominantly white, middle…

  6. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated with Learning Disability Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…

  7. The Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Shirley; Bolan, Morna; Burton, Michael; Snyder, Sherry; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, Claire; Martin, Don

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines the role of neurochemical stimulation and signs of neurological deficits. Describes the chemical action of drugs used to treat ADHD, along with cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects, and side effects. Elaborates on drug treatment and basic behavior modification…

  8. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  9. The Prevention of Learning Disability through Deficit Centered Classroom Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapir, Selma G.

    This document describes the development of an instrument to identify and diagnose developmental deficits at age 5 and the planning of a deficit centered training curriculum to prevent learning disabilities. An evaluation of the effectiveness of this curriculum, based on measures of the children's developmental growth and their academic achievement…

  10. Does Deficit Irrigation Give More Crop Per Drop?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DOES DEFICIT IRRIGATION GIVE MORE CROP PER DROP? Deficit irrigation can be an effective way to maximize economic returns when water supply is the limiting resource. The ARS Water Management Research Unit is conducting field studies to determine the water production functions for 4 crops common in ...

  11. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  12. Patterns of Perceptual Deficits in Academically Deficient Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinkus, Peter W.; Gottlieb, Marvin I.

    1979-01-01

    Patterns of perceptual deficits were investigated in a population of academically deficient juvenile delinquents. Comparisons were made with youthful offenders with adequate academic skills. Multiple perceptual deficits involving both auditory and visual perceptual skills formed the basis of the majority of academic deficiencies and social…

  13. Is Attention Deficit Disorder Becoming a Desired Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student…

  14. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  15. Overcoming Executive Function Deficits with Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph; Reid, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Academic problems are common among students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One reason for academic problems is the difficulties in executive functions (EF) that are necessary for complex goal-oriented behaviors. Students with ADHD often exhibit EF deficits and as a result have difficulties with tasks that require planning,…

  16. Encoding, Memory, and Transcoding Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Strand, Edythe A.; Jakielski, Kathy J.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is whether the core phenotype is limited to transcoding (planning/programming) deficits or if speakers with CAS also have deficits in auditory-perceptual "encoding" (representational) and/or "memory" (storage and retrieval of representations) processes. We addressed this and other questions…

  17. La chirurgie du diaphragme sous aortique

    PubMed Central

    Moutakiallah, Younes; Maaroufi, Ilham; Aithoussa, Mahdi; Bamous, Mehdi; Abdou, Abdessamad; Atmani, Noureddine; Hatim, Abdedaïm; Amahzoune, Brahim; Bekkali, Youssef El; Boulahya, Abdelatif

    2016-01-01

    Le diaphragme sous aortique se caractérise par une certaine latence clinique et une faible morbi-mortalité. La chirurgie reste le traitement de choix malgré un réel risque de récurrence à long terme. Nous rapportons 18 patients opérés entre Avril 1994 et Mars 2011 pour diaphragme sous aortique d’âge moyen de 18,1±9,7 ans avec 11 patients de sexe masculin. Le diaphragme était de nature fibreuse chez 13 patients et fibro-musculaire chez 5 patients. Tous les patients ont été opérés par résection de diaphragme associée à une myectomie, une plastie aortique, une fermeture de communication interventriculaire et une ligature de canal artériel perméable respectivement chez 3, 3, 2 et 2 patients. La Mortalité opératoire était nulle et sans aucun cas de trouble de conduction postopératoire. Le suivi a duré en moyenne 44,3±36,8 mois sans aucun décès tardif. Deux patients ont présenté une récidive de diaphragme qui a nécessité une réopération avec bonne évolution. La tendance actuelle dans la chirurgie du diaphragme se fait vers des interventions précoces et des résections plus extensives. Cependant, le risque de récidive impose une surveillance échographique systématique et rapprochée. PMID:27516830

  18. Anxiety modulates cognitive deficits in a perinatal glutathione deficit animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Preissmann, D; Dépré, M; Schenk, F; Gisquet-Verrier, P

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated long-term repercussion of early glutathione deficit by l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) injections as a rat model of schizophrenia. BSO rats were tested through various behavioral tasks requiring animals to take into account previously delivered information. We showed that relative to controls, BSO rats (1) were less active and more anxious in an Elevated Plus Maze test, allowing us to split them into two subgroups with high and low anxiety levels; (2) demonstrated normal abilities of behavioral flexibility tested with a rat-adapted version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), with even higher abilities in anxious BSO rats suggesting reduced interference of previously acquired rules; (3) did not forage normally in radial arm mazes and mainly used clockwise strategies; (4) exhibited a lack of habituation during a startle response task; and (5) showed a normal prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI) and a normal conditioned taste aversion (CTA). All these results indicate that early glutathione deficit provokes persistent changes in adulthood and improves the validity of this animal model of schizophrenia. They further suggest difficulties binding temporally separated events (WCST), except when the salience of this information is very strong (CTA). We propose that the transient glutathione deficit during cerebral development could alter a "cognitive binding" process in interaction with the emotional state that could possibly account for the disruption of integrative function that characterizes schizophrenia. PMID:27485658

  19. Multiple deficits in ADHD: executive dysfunction, delay aversion, reaction time variability, and emotional deficits

    PubMed Central

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Roth, Linda; Lindqvist, Sofia; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Background The notion that ADHD constitutes a heterogeneous disorder is well accepted. However, this study contributes with new important knowledge by examining independent effects of a large range of neuropsychological deficits. In addition, the study investigated whether deficits in emotional functioning constitute a dissociable component of ADHD. Method The study included children with ADHD (n = 102; 7–13 years) and a control sample individually matched with regard to age and gender. The administered tasks were designed to tap into three different neuropsychological domains: executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay aversion, and reaction time variability. Parent ratings of emotion regulation and a test of emotion recognition were also included. Results Children with ADHD differed significantly from controls on all measures, except for delay aversion and recognition of disgust. No main effects of gender or interaction effects of gender and group were found. More importantly, executive functioning, reaction time variability, and emotional functioning all contributed independently to distinguishing between children with ADHD and controls. Conclusions The current study supports the view of ADHD as a heterogeneous disorder related to multiple neuropsychological deficits. In addition, emotional functioning appears to be an area of importance for ADHD that needs to be incorporated into future theoretical models. PMID:23061803

  20. Anxiety modulates cognitive deficits in a perinatal glutathione deficit animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Preissmann, D; Dépré, M; Schenk, F; Gisquet-Verrier, P

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated long-term repercussion of early glutathione deficit by l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) injections as a rat model of schizophrenia. BSO rats were tested through various behavioral tasks requiring animals to take into account previously delivered information. We showed that relative to controls, BSO rats (1) were less active and more anxious in an Elevated Plus Maze test, allowing us to split them into two subgroups with high and low anxiety levels; (2) demonstrated normal abilities of behavioral flexibility tested with a rat-adapted version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), with even higher abilities in anxious BSO rats suggesting reduced interference of previously acquired rules; (3) did not forage normally in radial arm mazes and mainly used clockwise strategies; (4) exhibited a lack of habituation during a startle response task; and (5) showed a normal prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI) and a normal conditioned taste aversion (CTA). All these results indicate that early glutathione deficit provokes persistent changes in adulthood and improves the validity of this animal model of schizophrenia. They further suggest difficulties binding temporally separated events (WCST), except when the salience of this information is very strong (CTA). We propose that the transient glutathione deficit during cerebral development could alter a "cognitive binding" process in interaction with the emotional state that could possibly account for the disruption of integrative function that characterizes schizophrenia.

  1. The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

    2012-01-01

    Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task. PMID:23296389

  2. Genetic and physiological controls of growth under water deficit.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Welcker, Claude

    2014-04-01

    The sensitivity of expansive growth to water deficit has a large genetic variability, which is higher than that of photosynthesis. It is observed in several species, with some genotypes stopping growth in a relatively wet soil, whereas others continue growing until the lower limit of soil-available water. The responses of growth to soil water deficit and evaporative demand share an appreciable part of their genetic control through the colocation of quantitative trait loci as do the responses of the growth of different organs to water deficit. This result may be caused by common mechanisms of action discussed in this paper (particularly, plant hydraulic properties). We propose that expansive growth, putatively linked to hydraulic processes, determines the sink strength under water deficit, whereas photosynthesis determines source strength. These findings have large consequences for plant modeling under water deficit and for the design of breeding programs. PMID:24569846

  3. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  4. Du pont ''Freon'' helps tap geothermal wells for power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Low-grade heat from geothermal wells can now be harnessed to produce electricity by using Du Pont ''Freon'' IF as the power conversion fluid. The new system was developed by Turbonetics Energy Inc. The company's Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system takes advantage of the low boiling point (117F) of Du Pont ''Freon'' TF. Geothermal energy is harnessed by utilizing the heat from 200F to 400F water to vaporize the ''Freon'' power fluid. Then the fluid expands through a turbine and drives a generator. The system can produce from 600 kW of electric power.

  5. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  6. Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Profiles across Domains and Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happe, Francesca; Booth, Rhonda; Charlton, Rebecca; Hughes, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in "executive function" (EF) are characteristic of several clinical disorders, most notably Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this study, age-and IQ-matched groups with ASD, ADHD, or typical development (TD) were compared on a battery of EF tasks tapping three core domains: response…

  7. Career Development Needs among College and University Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Mary L.; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.; Cook, Bryan G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the employment and career development concerns of postsecondary students with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and (b) develop strategies for improving their post-graduation employment outcomes. Employing an established…

  8. Baisse du HDL-cholestérol indicateur du stress oxydatif dans le diabète de type 2

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Bakari, Salvius Amuri; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    L'hypercholestérolémie est étroitement liée au stress oxydatif. Lorsqu'il y a trop de cholestérol qui circule dans le sang, il n'est pas utilisé en totalité par les cellules et il risque de s'accumuler dans les vaisseaux sanguins. Cela peut entrainer la formation des plaques d'athérosclérose qui gênent la circulation sanguine et provoquent des accidents cardiovasculaires. Le stress oxydatif apparait très tôt dans l'histoire des complications du diabète de type 2, et est lié à l'oxydation du glucose mais aussi à la peroxydation lipidique. Le cholestérol-HDL est un marqueur important du stress oxydatif par sa capacité à faciliter la métabolisation du cholestérol, sa baisse est souvent considérée comme la source de beaucoup d'inquiétudes. L'objectif est l’évaluation de la variation du taux de cholestérol-HDL, marqueur du stress oxydatif, chez les patients diabétiques de type 2 dans la population congolaise. Nous avons inclus dans cette étude prospective des cas témoins des patients diabétiques de type 2 reconnus et diagnostiqués, et des témoins non diabétiques appariés selon l’âge et le sexe. Parallèlement au bilan biologique classique, une analyse d'un des facteurs de risque du stress oxydatif a été réalisée: baisse de HDL-Cholestérol. L’âge moyen des 30 patients diabétiques (47,77±10,78 ans) était comparable à celui des 30 témoins (48,83±10,73 ans). Une baisse significative du cholestérol-HDL dans le sang était observée chez 100% des diabétiques et 50% des témoins (p=0,0000). L'augmentation du HDL cholestérol permet d’éliminer le mauvais cholestérol en excès en nettoyant les tissus et en ramenant le cholestérol vers le foie. Lors du diabète de type 2 on constate une baisse sanguine sensible du taux de HDL-cholestérol, qui est signe indicateur du stress oxydatif. PMID:25767660

  9. Influence du chrome et du niobium sur l'équilibre α-γ dans les aluminiures de titane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daloz, D.; Hazotte, A.; Lacaze, J.; Charpentier, M.

    2004-12-01

    L’influence du chrome et du niobium sur les transformations et équilibres de phases des aluminiures de titane dans le domaine biphasé a/g est étudiée par analyse thermique différentielle, dilatomètrie, et métallographie quantitative après traitements thermiques suivis de trempe. Les compositions et les taux de phases à l’équilibre sont déterminés pour différentes températures du domaine biphasé a/g. Les résultats sont comparés aux calculs thermodynamiques réalisés à l’aide d’une banque de données relative aux intermétalliques de base Ti-Al.

  10. The hysteretic evapotranspiration - vapor pressure deficit relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Yang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Diurnal hysteresis between evapotranspiration (ET) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was reported in many ecosystems but justification for its onset and magnitude remain incomplete with biotic and abiotic factors invoked as possible explanations. To place these explanations within a mathematical framework, ';rate-dependent' hysteresis originating from a phase angle difference between periodic input and output time series is first considered. Lysimeter evaporation (E) measurements from wet bare soils and model calculations using the Penman equation demonstrate that the E-VPD hysteresis emerges without any biotic effects due to a phase angle difference (or time lag) between net radiation the main driver of E, and VPD. Modulations originating from biotic effects on the ET-VPD hysteresis were then considered. The phase angle difference representation earlier employed was mathematically transformed into a storage problem and applied to the soil-plant system. The transformed system shows that soil moisture storage within the root zone can produce an ET-VPD hysteresis prototypical of those generated by phase-angle differences. To explore the interplay between all the lags in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and phase angle differences among forcing and response variables, a detailed soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) model was developed and applied to a grassland ecosystem. The results of the SPAC model suggest that the hysteresis magnitude depends on the radiation-VPD lag. The soil moisture dry-down simulations also suggest that modeled root water potential and leaf water potential are both better indicators of the hysteresis magnitude than soil moisture, suggesting that plant water status is the main factor regulating the hysteretic relation between ET and VPD. Hence, the genesis and magnitude of the ET-VPD hysteresis are controlled directly by both biotic factors and abiotic factors such as time lag between radiation and VPD originating from boundary layer processes

  11. Le traitement conservateur du cancer du sein: expérience d'une équipe tunisienne

    PubMed Central

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Gharsa, Anissa; Chanoufi, Mohammed Badis; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2014-01-01

    En Tunisie, le cancer du sein touche des femmes jeunes avec une taille moyenne au moment du diagnostic à 5 cm. Ces particularités font que la chirurgie radicale reste prédominante. Nous présentons dans ce travail l'expérience de notre équipe en matière de chirurgie conservatrice du cancer du sein. Le but de ce travail est d’évaluer les résultats de ce traitement. Etude rétrospective longitudinale, sur une période de 75 mois. Nous avons inclus toutes les patientes ayant bénéficié d'un traitement conservateur pour une tumeur maligne du sein. Ont été analysés: les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, les aspects radiologiques et histologiques. Le suivi des malades s'est basé sur la détection des récidives. Nous avons évalué le résultat esthétique à la fin de la radiothérapie. Le traitement conservateur a été réalisé dans 23.8% des cas. Le taux de récidives locales était de 6.8% avec une corrélation significative pour une taille tumorale > 30 mm (p= 0.009), l'association d'une composante intracanalaire (p= 0.035), le statut triple négatif (p= 0.003) et des marges d'exérèse < 5mm sans recoupes per-opératoires (p = 0.045). Les facteurs suivants étaient significativement liés au risque de survenue de métastases à distance: le statut triple négatif (p= 0.003), taille tumorale > 30mm (p = 0.006) et l'atteinte ganglionnaire (p = 0.001). Le résultat esthétique était satisfaisant dans 90% des cas. L'augmentation du nombre de patientes pouvant bénéficier d'une chirurgie conservatrice, doit passer impérativement par le développement et la promotion du diagnostic précoce et du dépistage par la mammographie. PMID:25810795

  12. Buffering growth variations against water deficits through timely carbon usage.

    PubMed

    Pantin, Florent; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Massonnet, Catherine; Dauzat, Myriam; Simonneau, Thierry; Muller, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Water stresses reduce plant growth but there is no consensus on whether carbon metabolism has any role in this reduction. Sugar starvation resulting from stomatal closure is often proposed as a cause of growth impairment under long-term or severe water deficits. However, growth decreases faster than photosynthesis in response to drought, leading to increased carbohydrate stores under short-term or moderate water deficits. Here, we addressed the question of the role of carbon availability on growth under moderate water deficits using two different systems. Firstly, we monitored the day/night pattern of leaf growth in Arabidopsis plants. We show that a moderate soil water deficit promotes leaf growth at night in mutants severely disrupted in their nighttime carbohydrate availability. This suggests that soil water deficit promotes carbon satiation. Secondly, we monitored the sub-hourly growth variations of clementine fruits in response to daily, natural fluctuations in air water deficit, and at contrasting source-sink balances obtained by defoliation. We show that high carbohydrate levels prevent excessive, hydraulic shrinkage of the fruit during days with high evaporative demand, most probably through osmotic adjustment. Together, our results contribute to the view that growing organs under moderate soil or air water deficit are not carbon starved, but use soluble carbohydrate in excess to partly release a hydromechanical limitation of growth.

  13. Buffering growth variations against water deficits through timely carbon usage

    PubMed Central

    Pantin, Florent; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Massonnet, Catherine; Dauzat, Myriam; Simonneau, Thierry; Muller, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Water stresses reduce plant growth but there is no consensus on whether carbon metabolism has any role in this reduction. Sugar starvation resulting from stomatal closure is often proposed as a cause of growth impairment under long-term or severe water deficits. However, growth decreases faster than photosynthesis in response to drought, leading to increased carbohydrate stores under short-term or moderate water deficits. Here, we addressed the question of the role of carbon availability on growth under moderate water deficits using two different systems. Firstly, we monitored the day/night pattern of leaf growth in Arabidopsis plants. We show that a moderate soil water deficit promotes leaf growth at night in mutants severely disrupted in their nighttime carbohydrate availability. This suggests that soil water deficit promotes carbon satiation. Secondly, we monitored the sub-hourly growth variations of clementine fruits in response to daily, natural fluctuations in air water deficit, and at contrasting source–sink balances obtained by defoliation. We show that high carbohydrate levels prevent excessive, hydraulic shrinkage of the fruit during days with high evaporative demand, most probably through osmotic adjustment. Together, our results contribute to the view that growing organs under moderate soil or air water deficit are not carbon starved, but use soluble carbohydrate in excess to partly release a hydromechanical limitation of growth. PMID:24348489

  14. Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

    2014-12-30

    Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome. PMID:25262562

  15. Consequences experimentales des effets des fluctuations du vide sur la fluorescence parametrique et la generation du second harmonique en milieu confine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Luc

    Les fluctuations du vide, qui consistent en l'apparition momentanee de particules, ce qui est permit par le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg, joue un role primordial dans les processus photoniques, en particulier les processus non-lineaires. Par la manipulation de ces fluctuations du vide a l'aide de confinement optique, on retrouve deux phenomenes particuliers : l'intensification de la fluorescence parametrique (Walker, 2008) et l'inhibition de la generation du second harmonique (Collette, 2013). Dans ce travail, on presente les resultats dans le cas classique ; c'est-a-dire sans fluctuations du vide et confinement. Par la suite, on presente les effets des fluctuations du vide et du confinement, ce qui mene aux deux effets mentionnes. Dans le cas de la fluorescence parametrique, le bruit quantique sur le champ interne et externe est calcule, le role du desaccord de phase dans le modele est expose et une generalisation tridimensionnelle est etudiee afin de generaliser la conception du modele d'un cas unidimensionnel a un cas tridimensionnel planaire. Dans le cas de la generation du second harmonique, les difficultes d'un modele purement tridimensionnel sont exposees et ensuite le cas limite planaire est etudie.

  16. Sensory gating deficits in parents of schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, M.; Madison, A.; Freedman, R.

    1995-12-18

    Although schizophrenia clusters in families, it is not inherited in Mendelian fashion. This suggests that there may be alternative phenotypic expressions of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia, such as more elementary physiological or biochemical defects. One proposed phenotype is impaired inhibitory gating of the auditory evoked potential to repeated stimuli. Normally, the amplitude of the P50 response to the second stimulus is significantly less than the response to the first, but this gating of response is generally impaired in schizophrenia. Clinically unaffected individuals within a pedigree who have both an ancestral and descendant history of schizophrenia may be useful for studying whether this physiological defect is a possible alternative phenotype. We have studied inhibitory gating of the auditory P50 response to pairs of auditory stimuli in 17 nuclear families. In 11, there was one parent who had another relative with a chronic psychotic illness, in addition to the schizophrenic proband. AR of the parents with family histories of schizophrenia had gating of the P50 response similar to their schizophrenia offspring, whereas only 7% of the parents without family history had gating of the P50 response in the abnormal range. These results support loss of gating of the auditory P50 wave as an inherited deficit related to schizophrenia and suggest that studies of parents may help elucidate the neurobiological expression of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Prepulse inhibition deficits in women with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Pineles, Suzanne L; Blumenthal, Terry D; Curreri, Andrew J; Nillni, Yael I; Putnam, Katherine M; Resick, Patricia A; Rasmusson, Ann M; Orr, Scott P

    2016-09-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an automatic and preattentive process, whereby a weak stimulus attenuates responding to a sudden and intense startle stimulus. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor filtering, which is conceptualized as a mechanism that facilitates processing of an initial stimulus and is protective from interruption by a later response. Impaired PPI has been found in (a) healthy women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and (b) individuals with types of psychopathology characterized by difficulty suppressing and filtering sensory, motor, or cognitive information. In the current study, 47 trauma-exposed women with or without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed a PPI session during two different phases of the menstrual cycle: the early follicular phase, when estradiol and progesterone are both low, and the midluteal phase, when estradiol and progesterone are both high. Startle stimuli were 100 dB white noise bursts presented for 50 ms, and prepulses were 70 dB white noise bursts presented for 20 ms that preceded the startle stimuli by 120 ms. Women with PTSD showed deficits in PPI relative to the healthy trauma-exposed participants. Menstrual phase had no effect on PPI. These results provide empirical support for individuals with PTSD having difficulty with sensorimotor filtering. The potential utility of PPI as a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) phenotype is discussed. PMID:27237725

  18. Losing the beat: deficits in temporal coordination

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Caroline; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Tapping or clapping to an auditory beat, an easy task for most individuals, reveals precise temporal synchronization with auditory patterns such as music, even in the presence of temporal fluctuations. Most models of beat-tracking rely on the theoretical concept of pulse: a perceived regular beat generated by an internal oscillation that forms the foundation of entrainment abilities. Although tapping to the beat is a natural sensorimotor activity for most individuals, not everyone can track an auditory beat. Recently, the case of Mathieu was documented (Phillips-Silver et al. 2011 Neuropsychologia 49, 961–969. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002)). Mathieu presented himself as having difficulty following a beat and exhibited synchronization failures. We examined beat-tracking in normal control participants, Mathieu, and a second beat-deaf individual, who tapped with an auditory metronome in which unpredictable perturbations were introduced to disrupt entrainment. Both beat-deaf cases exhibited failures in error correction in response to the perturbation task while exhibiting normal spontaneous motor tempi (in the absence of an auditory stimulus), supporting a deficit specific to perception–action coupling. A damped harmonic oscillator model was applied to the temporal adaptation responses; the model's parameters of relaxation time and endogenous frequency accounted for differences between the beat-deaf cases as well as the control group individuals. PMID:25385783

  19. [Controversial aspects of the attention deficit disorder].

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, Máximo C; Díaz Lucero, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades there have been those in favor of recognizing the attention deficit disorder (ADD) as a neurodevelopment entity with a strong neurobiological basis responding to a specific interdisciplinary treatment versus those who think, sustain and defend that the accumulated scientific evidence is not sufficient to justify the disorder as a development anomaly in need of a specific therapeutic outline. The attention model versus the autoregulation model are described. The neurological basis of the disorder is discussed analyzing the use of functional neuroimages such as PET (positron emission tomography), SPECT (single photon emission tomography) and FMR (functional magnetic resonance) neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry of neurotransmitters up to genetics. The importance of an adequate diagnosis is emphasized, analyzing the cognitive areas involved and trying to differentiate the ADD types, and to determine in some cases the phenotype or phenocopy of the disorder. The different treatments advocated are discussed taking into account the interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, a complete analysis of the information available is presented and conclusions are drawn to facilitate the understanding of this disorder. PMID:19240002

  20. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Se entiende por adopcion o filiacion adoptiva el acto juridico mediante el cual se crea un vinculo de parentesco entre dos personas, de tal forma que se establece entre ellas una relacion de paternidad o maternidad. Objetivos. Tratar de exponer los problemas derivados de la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y otros factores de riesgo, de la hipoestimulacion durante el 'periodo critico' en pacientes institucionalizados (especialmente aquellos adoptados de paises del este de Europa) y su relacion con el trastorno de deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). Realizar una aproximacion al diagnostico, prevencion y tratamiento de estos problemas. Desarrollo. Estos niños presentan problemas de relacion psicosocial, problemas conductuales, retraso del desarrollo del lenguaje o de la lectura y, sobre todo, TDAH. Existe una enorme dificultad practica a la hora de separar ambos factores durante la evaluacion de niños adoptados de paises del este de Europa en las consultas de neuropediatria. La interrelacion de todos estos factores no es bien conocida. Conclusiones. Existe una intima relacion entre la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y las consecuencias de la adopcion. Se necesitan estudios aleatorizados controlados con placebo, con mayores muestras poblacionales, que comprueben el beneficio y perfil de efectos secundarios, tanto con psicoestimulantes como con la atomoxetina en este grupo de pacientes.

  1. Losing the beat: deficits in temporal coordination.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Caroline; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-12-19

    Tapping or clapping to an auditory beat, an easy task for most individuals, reveals precise temporal synchronization with auditory patterns such as music, even in the presence of temporal fluctuations. Most models of beat-tracking rely on the theoretical concept of pulse: a perceived regular beat generated by an internal oscillation that forms the foundation of entrainment abilities. Although tapping to the beat is a natural sensorimotor activity for most individuals, not everyone can track an auditory beat. Recently, the case of Mathieu was documented (Phillips-Silver et al. 2011 Neuropsychologia 49, 961-969. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002)). Mathieu presented himself as having difficulty following a beat and exhibited synchronization failures. We examined beat-tracking in normal control participants, Mathieu, and a second beat-deaf individual, who tapped with an auditory metronome in which unpredictable perturbations were introduced to disrupt entrainment. Both beat-deaf cases exhibited failures in error correction in response to the perturbation task while exhibiting normal spontaneous motor tempi (in the absence of an auditory stimulus), supporting a deficit specific to perception-action coupling. A damped harmonic oscillator model was applied to the temporal adaptation responses; the model's parameters of relaxation time and endogenous frequency accounted for differences between the beat-deaf cases as well as the control group individuals. PMID:25385783

  2. Pragmatic Comprehension Deficit in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the specific speech act (Searle, 1969) that a speaker performs with an utterance is a fundamental feature of pragmatic competence. However, little is known about neurocognitive mediation of speech act comprehension. The present research examined the extent to which people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) comprehend specific speech acts. In the first experiment, participants read conversational utterances and then performed a lexical decision task (decide whether a target string of letters is a word). Consistent with past research, non-impaired participants performed this task more quickly when the target string was the speech act associated with the preceding utterance. In contrast, people with Parkinson's disease did not demonstrate this effect, suggesting that speech act activation is slowed or is not an automatic component of comprehension for people with PD. In a second study, participants were given unlimited time to indicate their recognition of the speech act performed with an utterance. PD participants were significantly poorer at this task than were control participants. We conclude that a previously undocumented language disorder exists in PD and that this disorder involves a selective deficit in speech act comprehension. Frontostriatal systems (the systems impaired in PD) likely contribute to normal speech act comprehension. PMID:19763993

  3. Counterfactual Reasoning Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Castellví, Pere; Caño, Agnès; Benejam, Bessy

    2016-01-01

    Background Counterfactual thinking is a specific type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Although it has been broadly studied in the general population, research on schizophrenia is still scarce. The aim of the current study was to further examine counterfactual reasoning in this illness. Methods Forty schizophrenia patients and 40 controls completed a series of tests that assessed the influence of the “causal order effect” on counterfactual thinking, and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences from a hypothetical situation. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as neurocognitive variables, were also examined. Results Compared to controls, the schizophrenia patients generated fewer counterfactual thoughts when faced with a simulated scenario. The pattern of response when assessing the causality effect of the order was also different between the groups, with the patients being more frequently unable to attribute any ordering of events than the control subjects. Additionally, the schizophrenia patients showed more difficulties when deriving normative counterfactual inferences from hypothetical social situations. None of the counterfactual reasoning measures was associated to any of the cognitive functions or clinical and socio-demographic variables assessed. Conclusions A global impairment in counterfactual thinking characterizes schizophrenia patients. Because of the potential impact of such deficits on psychosocial functioning, targeting counterfactual reasoning for improvement might be considered in future treatment approaches. PMID:26828931

  4. [Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs)].

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yohei; Murata, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) facilitate the investigation of dopaminergic hypofunction in neurodegenerative diseases. DaT SPECT and [18F]DOPA PET have been adopted as survey tools in clinical trials. In a large study on Parkinson's disease, 4-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson's disease had normal dopaminergic functional imaging scans. These are called Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs), and are considered to represent a state different from Parkinson's disease. Neurological diseases that exhibit parkinsonism and have normal dopaminergic cells in the nigrostriatal system (e.g., essential tremor, psychogenic parkinsonism, DOPA-responsive dystonia, vascular parkinsonism, drug-induced parkinsonism, manganism, brain tumor, myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11), and fragile X syndrome) might be diagnosed with SWEDDs. True bradykinesia with fatigue or decrement may be useful for distinguishing between Parkinson's disease and SWEDDs. However, because SWEDDs encompass many diseases, their properties may not be uniform. In this review, we discuss DaT SPECT, the concept of SWEDDs, and differential diagnosis. PMID:26764301

  5. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence. PMID:19681107

  6. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD.

  7. Complexity in Treatment of Syntactic Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This article addresses complexity in the context of treatment for sentence structural impairments in agrammatic aphasia, with emphasis on noncanonical sentences involving linguistic movement and their related counterparts. Extensions of the complexity effect to recovery of canonical sentences also are discussed, stressing the linguistic properties of verbs as well as grammatical morphology in building complexity hierarchies. Method A number of variables to consider in developing complexity hierarchies in the syntactic domain are addressed, and a series of studies using single-subject controlled experimental analysis are discussed. Results Findings across studies show that training complex sentences results in improvement of simpler structures when, and only when, the underlying linguistic properties are shared by both. The opposite approach, training simple structures first and building to more complex ones, does not provide the full benefit of treatment, in that little or no generalization occurs across structures. Conclusion Using complex language material as a starting point for treatment of sentence structural deficits in aphasia results in cascading generalization to simpler, linguistically related material and expands spontaneous language production in many language-disordered adults with aphasia. Clinicians are, therefore, urged to adopt this approach in clinical practice, even though it is counterintuitive and departs significantly from conventional treatment methods. PMID:17329673

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    PubMed Central

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluation, return-to-play, pharmacotherapy, adult, adolescent, student, screening, injury, risk, neuropsychiatry, TBI, traumatic brain injury, and epidemiology. Study Design: Literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: ADHD usually has an early onset, with delayed diagnosis in some patients due to heterogeneous presentations. Suspected cases can be evaluated with available diagnostic tools and confirmed clinically. Athletes with ADHD may participate at all competition levels. Conclusion: Athletes with ADHD are able to participate at all competition levels by following published guidelines and requirements. Exercise benefits many athletes with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and concussion syndromes is currently under investigation. PMID:24587866

  9. Neurocognitive deficits in borderline personality disorder: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Judd, Patricia A

    2012-03-01

    The cognitive dimension of Borderline Personality Disorder has received relatively little attention in the clinical literature and is poorly understood. This article illustrates how a range of cognitive problems including attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities may contribute to the cognitive disturbances identified in the disorder including dissociation, paranoia, all or nothing thinking, overvalued ideas, and denial and splitting. A review of relevant research supporting the presence of cognitive deficits is summarized along with a developmental pathway for the expression of the cognitive dimension. Clinical examples are provided. Recommendations for inclusion of assessment and treatment strategies that address cognitive deficits within a psychodynamically based psychotherapy are discussed.

  10. Past Tense Morphology in Cri Du Chat Syndrome: Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wium, Kristin; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that persons with Cri du chat syndrome (CDCS) have poor language production. However, very few studies have addressed the question whether all aspects of language production are equally afflicted, or whether there are differences between for instance phonological and morphological abilities. The present study was aimed at…

  11. Consonants in Cri du Chat Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal case study of consonant productions in one Norwegian girl with Cri du chat syndrome from age 4;6 to age 9;4. It was shown that she had many articulation errors throughout the period of observation. Furthermore, these errors were shown to fall into three main categories: (1) errors of differentiation and…

  12. College of DuPage Administrative Internship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This paper describes the objectives, policies, and procedures of the College of DuPage's Administrative Internship Program, whereby faculty members can gain broad administrative experience in key administrative areas of the college. The program seeks not only to broaden the experience of the individual intern, but to promote empathy among faculty…

  13. W. E. B. Du Bois: Reform, Will, and the Veil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lynn; Warner, W. Keith

    2013-01-01

    While W. E. B. Du Bois is widely recognized for his contributions to the sociology of race, his contributions to the foundations of sociology are largely ignored. His sociology is based on African American reformism, a version of pragmatism, and a contingent historicism. The basic view of sociology is one that emphasizes the role of chance and…

  14. College of DuPage Student Portrait, Fall Quarter 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL. Office of Research and Planning.

    The report profiles the College of DuPage's (COD) fall quarter 1999 student body. It presents a brief history of the college's enrollment and a comparison of enrollments with other Illinois community colleges. It also provides demographic information on current students. Additionally, enrollment information is included by program, division, and…

  15. "The Moon Ring": A Conversation with Randy DuBurke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the author, currently Editor-at-Large of Chronicle Books, chooses books to publish and discusses four attributes in a book that catch her eye. Presents an interview with Randy DuBurke and a conversation about his first picture book, "The Moon Ring." (SG)

  16. The first Pic du Midi photographs of Mars, 1909

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollfus, A.

    2010-08-01

    This short paper comprises an English translation of the article '1909; Premieres photographies de Mars au Pic du Midi', by Audouin Dollfus, published in l'Astronomie, 2009 November, pp. 27-30, and printed here with the assistance of the Director of the BAA Mars Section, Dr Richard McKim.

  17. College of DuPage Institutional Portrait, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL. Office of Research and Planning.

    This report profiles the College of DuPage (Illinois) and provides a quick reference regarding the institution. It contains information on facilities and land, finance, staff, college/student services, the Library, athletics, academic calendars, maps, and instructional programs. This report reflects the college structure as of September 1999 and…

  18. Cost-Effective Remediation of Depleted Uranium (DU) at Environmental Restoration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,MARK; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; VANDERPOEL,GLENN; JOHNSON,ED; COPLAND,JOHN; SALAZAR,MICHAEL

    1999-11-03

    Numerous sites in the United States and around the world are contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. A prevalent form is fragmented DU originating from various scientific tests involving high explosives and DU during weapon-development programs, at firing practice ranges, or in war theaters where DU was used in armor-piercing projectiles. The contamination at these sites is typically very heterogeneous, with discrete, visually identifiable DU fragments mixed with native soil. The bulk-averaged DU activity is quite low, whereas DU fragments, which are distinct from the soil matrix, have much higher specific activity. DU is best known as a dark metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead, but DU in the environment readily weathers (oxidizes) to a distinctive bright yellow color that is quite visible. While the specific activity (amount of radioactivity per mass of soil) of DU is relatively low and presents only a minor radiological hazard, the fact that DU is radioactive and visually identifiable makes it desirable to remove the DU ''contamination'' from the environment. The typical approach to conducting this DU remediation is to use radiation-detection instruments to identify the contaminant and then to separate it from the adjacent soil, packaging it for disposal as radioactive waste. This process can be performed manually or by specialized, automated equipment. Alternatively, a more cost-effective approach might be simple mechanical or gravimetric separation of the DU fragments from the host soil matrix. At SNL/NM, both the automated and simple mechanical approaches have recently been employed. This paper discusses the pros/cons of the two approaches.

  19. Developmental course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its predictors.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Mariya; Sulla, Erin M; Dalena, Kara L; Pondé, Milena P; Hechtman, Lily

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Cette revue entend présenter les principales caractéristiques de la progression développementale du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) et examiner les influences les plus dominantes du cours développemental et des résultats du TDAH. MÉTHODES: Cette revue sélective porte principalement sur les études prospectives de suivi. Les publications pertinentes ont été choisies par une recherche dans les bases de données MEDLINE et PubMed, à l’aide des mots clés: TDAH, développement, préscolaire, adolescent, adulte, suivi, résultat, long terme, prédicteurs, et traitement. Des publications additionnelles ont ensuite été repérées dans les bibliographies des articles sélectionnés. RÉSULTATS: La présentation du TDAH et les déficiences qui y sont associées évoluent durant le développement, tout comme les prédicteurs de résultat. En début de développement, outre la génétique, certaines formes d’adversité prénatale accroissent le risque du TDAH. Dans les années préscolaires, la gravité des symptômes, la fonction cognitive, et les facteurs familiaux deviennent des prédicteurs significatifs des résultats à l’âge scolaire. Ces facteurs continuent de prédire les résultats à long terme des enfants d’âge scolaire; la comorbidité apparaît comme étant un autre prédicteur significatif des résultats à long terme à ce stade. CONCLUSIONS: La présentation du TDAH et les facteurs de risque d’adversité ultérieure évoluent au cours du développement, ce qui requiert des pratiques cliniques éclairées en matière de développement.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the frontal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shue, K L; Douglas, V I

    1992-09-01

    The usefulness of frontal lobe (FL) dysfunction as a conceptual model for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was investigated. Twenty-four ADHD and 24 normal control (NC) children were tested using two batteries of tasks. The first was sensitive to FL deficits in motor control and problem solving skills. The second consisted of memory tasks sensitive to temporal lobe dysfunction. ADHD children differed significantly from NCs on measures of FL function, but not on tests of temporal lobe functions. Where norms were available for normal children on the same FL tests, ADHDs performed like 6- to 7-year-olds, despite their mean age of 10 years and minimum age of 8 years. The differential performance of ADHDs on tasks sensitive to FL and temporal lobe dysfunction supports the hypothesis that ADHD deficits are analogous to FL dysfunction and demonstrates that the children's deficits do not reflect generalized cognitive impairment.

  1. Water Deficit Increases Stilbene Metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes. PMID:21128664

  2. [Treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Part 2: Pharmacological strategies].

    PubMed

    Roesch-Ely, D; Pfueller, U; Mundt, C; Müller, U; Weisbrod, M

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are a clinically relevant symptom dimension and one of the best predictors for functional outcome. Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is still a challenge. The objective of this article is to present a detailed review of the literature on strategies for the pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits. It is not clear whether first-generation antipsychotics have a genuine positive influence on cognition. There is only sparse evidence for the positive effect of second-generation antipsychotics on cognitive processes. Furthermore it is not evident that second-generation antipsychotics are more beneficial than first-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of cognitive deficits. The add-on use of substances which directly influence cognitive processes, so-called cognition-enhancing drugs is more promising.

  3. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome.

  4. Written expression in boys with attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Resta, S P; Eliot, J

    1994-12-01

    32 boys, between the ages of 8 and 13 years, were identified on four teachers' and parents' rating scales (including the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-III for ADD) as showing attention deficits and hyperactivity (ADD + H; n = 10), attention deficits without hyperactivity (ADD-H; n = 11), or without ADD (attention deficits controls; n = 11). All subjects were administered Bender's Visual-motor Gestalt test and the Written Language Assessment. The ADD + H children produced significantly more errors on the Bender-Gestalt test, and both groups with attention deficits had lower (poorer) scores on most of the written language subtests. Results were interpreted as providing evidence that these children possessed significant limitations in their writing, copying, and composition.

  5. [Psychopedagogical intervention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Herrero, Raquel; Suay, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. Los niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) presentan alteraciones en los mecanismos atencionales y en los procesos de control inhibitorio (impulsividad e hiperactividad), que afectan de distinta manera a su rendimiento academico, socioemocional y conductual, por lo que es fundamental la consideracion de estrategias de intervencion en el ambito psicopedagogico que puedan incidir de forma favorable en el curso evolutivo de los afectados. Objetivo. Revisar las bases psicopedagogicas en la intervencion sobre el TDAH, considerando la relacion de la anatomia funcional con la sintomatologia clinica y los correspondientes programas de intervencion. Desarrollo. Se destacan los tres sindromes preferentes: orbitofrontal, dorsolateral y en el cingulo a nivel medial. Las fases de la intervencion psicopedagogica deben abarcar tanto al niño como a la familia y el colegio. El entrenamiento neurocognitivo se centra en el niño, basado en programas de entrenamiento de las funciones ejecutivas y en las actuaciones sobre el ambito academico, conductual y socioafectivo. Los programas de modificacion de conducta son complementarios y en muchas ocasiones mejoran el comportamiento comprometido en los niños con TDAH. Las orientaciones psicopedagogicas en la escuela deben considerarse necesarias para una intervencion eficaz en el entorno academico. Conclusiones. La intervencion psicopedagogica de los niños con TDAH debe contemplar la individualizacion del tratamiento dentro de una metodologia multidisciplinar, teniendo en cuenta todos los contextos en los que se desarrolla el niño, su rendimiento cognitivo y las intervenciones farmacologicas apropiadas en cada caso.

  6. [Drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gangoso-Fermoso, A B; Martíínez-Granero, M A

    Quantitative studies have highlighted differences in several drugs approved for use in Spain in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No clear differences are observed, however, in the case of qualitative studies. The number of patients needed to be treated in order for one to reach complete remission (NNT) of methylphenidate (MTF) is from 2.2 to 5, and the effect size (ES) is 0.9. Atomoxetine has an NNT of 4 and an ES of 0.7. The advantages of immediate-release MTF (IR-MTF) over the extended-release version (ER-MTF) lie in its low cost, its flexibility and the better results obtained in quantitative studies. In contrast, ER-MTF offers a lower risk of abuse, needs to be taken fewer times with less need for third parties to control administration, and there is a lower risk of stigmatisation. Combination or changes of IR-MTF and ER-MTF and the combination of MTF with atomoxetine are sometimes necessary to adjust the weekday or weekend doses. Starting treatment with IR-MTF and then maintaining or changing to ER-MTF offers certain advantages as regards safety, dose adjustments and dosage. Atomoxetine is the best alternative if there is a background of adverse events with low or moderate doses of stimulants, or lack of response to high doses of stimulants. In cases of notable comorbid anxiety, both MTF and atomoxetine have the same level of indication. If there is a risk of substance abuse, both atomoxetine and ER-MTF are the preferred treatment. For the other indications, MTF is the preferred treatment.

  7. [Drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gangoso-Fermoso, A B; Martíínez-Granero, M A

    Quantitative studies have highlighted differences in several drugs approved for use in Spain in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No clear differences are observed, however, in the case of qualitative studies. The number of patients needed to be treated in order for one to reach complete remission (NNT) of methylphenidate (MTF) is from 2.2 to 5, and the effect size (ES) is 0.9. Atomoxetine has an NNT of 4 and an ES of 0.7. The advantages of immediate-release MTF (IR-MTF) over the extended-release version (ER-MTF) lie in its low cost, its flexibility and the better results obtained in quantitative studies. In contrast, ER-MTF offers a lower risk of abuse, needs to be taken fewer times with less need for third parties to control administration, and there is a lower risk of stigmatisation. Combination or changes of IR-MTF and ER-MTF and the combination of MTF with atomoxetine are sometimes necessary to adjust the weekday or weekend doses. Starting treatment with IR-MTF and then maintaining or changing to ER-MTF offers certain advantages as regards safety, dose adjustments and dosage. Atomoxetine is the best alternative if there is a background of adverse events with low or moderate doses of stimulants, or lack of response to high doses of stimulants. In cases of notable comorbid anxiety, both MTF and atomoxetine have the same level of indication. If there is a risk of substance abuse, both atomoxetine and ER-MTF are the preferred treatment. For the other indications, MTF is the preferred treatment. PMID:19396764

  8. Preventing visual field deficits from neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Daga, Pankaj; White, Mark J.; Micallef, Caroline; Miserocchi, Anna; Mancini, Laura; Modat, Marc; Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka K.; Symms, Mark R.; Lythgoe, David J.; Thornton, John; Yousry, Tarek A.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Duncan, John S.; McEvoy, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether display of optic radiation tractography during anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can reduce the severity of postoperative visual field deficits (VFD) and increase the proportion of patients who can drive and whether correction for brain shift using intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is beneficial. Methods: A cohort of 21 patients underwent ATLR in an iMRI suite. Preoperative tractography of the optic radiation was displayed on the navigation and operating microscope displays either without (9 patients) or with (12 patients) correction for brain shift. VFD were quantified using Goldmann perimetry and eligibility to drive was assessed by binocular Esterman perimetry 3 months after surgery. Secondary outcomes included seizure freedom and extent of hippocampal resection. The comparator was a cohort of 44 patients who underwent ATLR without iMRI. Results: The VFD in the contralateral superior quadrant were significantly less (p = 0.043) with iMRI guidance (0%–49.2%, median 14.5%) than without (0%–90.9%, median 24.0%). No patient in the iMRI cohort developed a VFD that precluded driving whereas 13% of the non-iMRI cohort failed to meet UK driving criteria. Outcome did not differ between iMRI guidance with and without brain shift correction. Seizure outcome and degree of hippocampal resection were unchanged. Conclusions: Display of the optic radiation with image guidance reduces the severity of VFD and did not affect seizure outcome or hippocampal resection. Correction for brain shift is possible but did not further improve outcome. Future work to incorporate tractography into conventional neuronavigation systems will make the work more widely applicable. PMID:25015363

  9. Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T; Biederman, J; Wilens, T

    2000-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature documenting the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of ADHD, there has been public and professional concern regarding the possible inappropriate diagnosis and prescription of ADHD medications. Recently the Council of Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association addressed these concerns in a scholarly review. Several factors were identified that contributed to existing controversies: (1) Like most psychiatric disorders, diagnostic criteria for ADHD are based on history and behavioral assessment. There are no pathognomonic laboratory or radiologic tests to confirm the diagnosis. (2) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder and requires extended treatment. (3) Treatment includes potentially abusable medications. After a review of the voluminous literature, this distinguished panel concluded that ADHD is one of the best researched disorders in medicine; in fact, the overall data on its validity are far more compelling than for many other medical conditions. They also concluded that there was little evidence of widespread overdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of ADHD or of widespread overprescription of stimulants by physicians. Consistent with the current emphasis on cognitive dysregulation in ADHD, treatment concerns have expanded from a primarily behavioral focus to include enhancement of executive functions in scholastic as well as other settings. Although stimulants have been the most studied compounds, there is a considerable body of literature indicating an important role for other psychopharmacologic agents. Noradrenergic and dopaminergic modulation appears to be necessary for effective anti-ADHD treatment. In addition, promising evidence of newer cholinergic agents may provide other useful alternatives. As with all psychiatric disorders, comorbid conditions are prominent and may lead to high morbidity and disability if not addressed. As with other areas of medicine, it is sometimes necessary to

  10. Brain white matter microstructure in deficit and non-deficit subtypes of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; De Rossi, Pietro; Piras, Fabrizio; Iorio, Mariangela; Dacquino, Claudia; Scanu, Francesca; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Chiapponi, Chiara

    2015-03-30

    Dividing schizophrenia into its deficit (SZD) and nondeficit (SZND) subtypes may help to identify specific and more homogeneous pathophysiological characteristics. Our aim was to define a whole brain voxelwise map specifically characterizing white matter tracts of schizophrenia patients with and without the deficit syndrome. We compared microstructural diffusion-related parameters as measured by diffusion tensor imaging in 21 SZD patients, 21 SZND patients, and 21 healthy controls, age- and gender-matched. Results showed that fractional anisotropy was reduced in the right precentral area in SZND patients, and in the left corona radiata of the schizophrenia group as a whole. Axial diffusivity was reduced in the left postcentral area of SZD patients and in the left cerebellum of the whole schizophrenia group. Radial diffusivity was increased in the left forceps minor of SZD patients, in the left internal capsule of SZND patients, and in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in the whole schizophrenia group. Mean diffusivity was increased from healthy controls to SZD patients to SZND patients in the right occipital lobe. In conclusion, SZD patients are not simply at the extreme end of a severity continuum of white matter disruption. Rather, the SZD and SZND subtypes are associated with distinct and specific brain microstructural anomalies that are consistent with their peculiar psychopathological dimensions.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type, dysthymic disorder and anxiety disorders: differential patterns of neurodevelopmental deficits.

    PubMed

    Vance, Alasdair; Arduca, Yolanda; Sanders, Michelle; Karamitsios, Mary; Hall, Nicole; Hetrick, Sarah

    2006-08-30

    The associations between neurodevelopmental deficits (NDD) and (1) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and (2) internalising disorders have been replicated. To date, the specific association between standardized NDD and carefully defined ADHD-CT alone, dysthymic disorder alone and anxiety disorders alone has not been systematically investigated in children of primary school age. A cross-sectional study of NDD in 99 six- to 12-year-old children with categorically and dimensionally defined ADHD-CT alone, dysthymic disorder alone and anxiety disorders alone and 20 age-matched healthy children was undertaken. The ADHD-CT and dysthymic disorder groups had increased total neurological subtle signs, compared to the anxiety disorders group, which, in turn, had increased total neurological subtle signs compared with the healthy children. Interestingly, the dysthymic disorder children had increased conjugate eye gaze difficulties compared with the other three groups. The differences remained after controlling for full scale IQ. These findings suggest a neurobiological underpinning of dysthymic disorder, while confirming that of ADHD-CT in primary school age children. Future studies will explore whether the above more specific neurological subtle signs are developmental phase specific or independent associations.

  12. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment.

  13. Nicotine Administration Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Novel Object Recognition Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Smith, Misty D.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine abuse leads to memory deficits and these are associated with relapse. Furthermore, extensive evidence indicates that nicotine prevents and/or improves memory deficits in different models of cognitive dysfunction and these nicotinic effects might be mediated by hippocampal or cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present study investigated whether nicotine attenuates methamphetamine-induced novel object recognition deficits in rats and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: Adolescent or adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either nicotine water (10–75 μg/mL) or tap water for several weeks. Methamphetamine (4×7.5mg/kg/injection) or saline was administered either before or after chronic nicotine exposure. Novel object recognition was evaluated 6 days after methamphetamine or saline. Serotonin transporter function and density and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density were assessed on the following day. Results: Chronic nicotine intake via drinking water beginning during either adolescence or adulthood attenuated the novel object recognition deficits caused by a high-dose methamphetamine administration. Similarly, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in novel object recognition when administered after methamphetamine treatment. However, nicotine did not attenuate the serotonergic deficits caused by methamphetamine in adults. Conversely, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, nicotine increased α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex in both saline- and methamphetamine-treated rats. Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest that nicotine-induced increases in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex might be one mechanism by which

  14. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment. PMID:25550235

  15. Genetic analysis of water-deficit response traits in maize.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Saleem, M; Ahsan, M; Ahmad, A

    2016-01-01

    A set of sixty inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were screened in the greenhouse at the seedling stage under both normal and water-deficit conditions. Six water deficit-tolerant inbred lines were selected based on root to shoot ratios. These selected lines were crossed in a diallel pattern. The parental, F1, and reciprocal cross plants were planted in a field under both normal and water-deficit conditions. Normal irrigation was applied to the control set, while the water-deficit set received 50% of normal irrigation levels. Analyses of variance of various morpho-physiological parameters identified significant differences among the selected lines under both conditions, indicating the presence of significant genetic variability. Variance components for general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal effects for all the parameters were estimated to determine the relative importance of additive and non-additive or dominance type of gene action. Variance components for GCA were larger than for SCA indicating the preponderance of additive types of gene action for all the traits under study. Hybrids developed from inbred lines W-10 and W-64SP proved to have the best grain yield under normal and water-deficit conditions. Under water-deficit conditions, the best performing cross was B-34 x W-10. Hence, these inbred lines and the hybrids might be of value in future breeding programs. PMID:27051012

  16. Premorbid Cognitive Deficits in Young Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Kulkarni, Shreedhar; Bhojraj, Tejas; Francis, Alan; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Montrose, Debra M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Sweeney, John

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are thought to be stable trait markers that predate the illness and manifest in relatives of patients. Adolescence is the age of maximum vulnerability to the onset of SZ and may be an opportune “window” to observe neurocognitive impairments close to but prior to the onset of psychosis. We reviewed the extant studies assessing neurocognitive deficits in young relatives at high risk (HR) for SZ and their relation to brain structural alterations. We also provide some additional data pertaining to the relation of these deficits to psychopathology and brain structural alterations from the Pittsburgh Risk Evaluation Program (PREP). Cognitive deficits are noted in the HR population, which are more severe in first-degree relatives compared to second-degree relatives and primarily involve psychomotor speed, memory, attention, reasoning, and social-cognition. Reduced general intelligence is also noted, although its relationship to these specific domains is underexplored. Premorbid cognitive deficits may be related to brain structural and functional abnormalities, underlining the neurobiological basis of this illness. Cognitive impairments might predict later emergence of psychopathology in at-risk subjects and may be targets of early remediation and preventive strategies. Although evidence for neurocognitive deficits in young relatives abounds, further studies on their structural underpinnings and on their candidate status as endophenotypes are needed. PMID:20300465

  17. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit: pathogenesis and response to acute throwing.

    PubMed

    Kibler, W Ben; Sciascia, Aaron; Thomas, Stephen J

    2012-03-01

    Overhand throwing places high loads and stresses on the joints and tissues of the shoulder and arm. As a result, throwing athletes regularly demonstrate altered shoulder internal and external ranges of motion where internal rotation (IR) is decreased and external rotation is increased in the dominant arm when compared with the nondominant arm. This alteration can exist as a result of alterations to the bones (humeral retroversion), capsule (posterior thickening), or muscle (passive stiffness known as thixotropy). When the amount of IR or total arc of motion difference reaches a certain threshold (typically 20 or more degrees of IR or 8 degrees total arc difference), it is known as glenohumeral internal rotation deficit or total arc of motion deficit. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total arc of motion deficit can cause alterations in biomechanics such as scapular "wind-up" or alteration of glenohumeral joint kinematics, which can in turn lead to clinical findings of impingement and labral pathology. This study will review the causes of motion alteration, effects of altered motion on the throwing motion, provide definitions for the various types of rotation deficits, and how to evaluate and treat rotational deficits.

  18. Deficit in automatic sound-change detection may underlie some music perception deficits after acute hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Kohlmetz, C; Altenmüller, E; Schuppert, M; Wieringa, B M; Münte, T F

    2001-01-01

    Music perception deficits following acute neurological damage are thought to be rare. By a newly devised test battery of music-perception skills, however, we were able to identify among a group of 12 patients with acute hemispheric stroke six patients with music perception deficits (amusia) while six others had no such deficits. In addition we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a passive listening task with frequent standard and infrequent pitch deviants designed to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN). The MMN in the patients with amusia was grossly reduced, while the non-amusic patients and control subjects had MMNs of equal size. These data show that amusia is quite common in unselected stroke patients. The MMN reduction suggests that amusia is related to unspecific automatic stimulus classification deficits in these patients.

  19. Les inconvénients de perdre du poids

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Explorer les raisons pour lesquelles la perte de poids à long terme échoue la plupart du temps et évaluer les conséquences de diverses trajectoires pondérales, y compris la stabilité, la perte et le gain. Source des données Les études qui évaluent les paramètres pondéraux dans la population sont en majorité observationnelles. Des données probantes de niveau I ont été publiées pour évaluer l’influence des interventions relatives au poids sur la mortalité et la qualité de vie. Message principal Seulement un petit pourcentage des personnes qui désirent perdre du poids réussissent à le faire de manière durable. La mortalité est la plus faible chez les personnes se situant dans la catégorie de poids élevé-normal et surpoids. La trajectoire pondérale la plus sécuritaire est la stabilité du poids avec une optimisation de la condition physique et métabolique. Il est démontré que la mortalité est plus faible chez les personnes ayant des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité si elles perdent du poids. Il est aussi établi que la qualité de vie sur le plan de la santé est meilleure chez les personnes obèses qui perdent du poids. Par contre, la perte de poids chez une personne obèse autrement en santé est associée à une mortalité accrue. Conclusion La perte de poids est recommandable seulement chez les personnes qui ont des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité. Les personnes obèses en santé qui veulent perdre du poids devraient être informées qu’il peut y avoir des risques à le faire. Une stratégie qui se traduit par un indice de masse corporelle stable avec une condition physique et métabolique optimisée, peu importe le poids, est l’option d’intervention la plus sécuritaire en ce qui concerne le poids.

  20. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer A.; Creighton, Sarah E.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive…

  1. Participation des médecins généralistes de la province de Benimellal (Maroc) dans le dépistage du cancer du col

    PubMed Central

    Nani, Samira; Benallal, Mohamed; Hassoune, Samira; Kissi, Dounia; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Au Maroc, chaque année il y aurait environ 2000 nouveaux cas de cancer du col et les 2/3 des cas sont pris en charge à un stade très avancé. Nous avons mené une étude transversale, exhaustive incluant les 71 médecins généralistes exerçant dans les établissements de soins de santé de base du secteur public et privé de la province de Benimellal. Le but était d’évaluer leurs connaissances et leur participation au dépistage du cancer du col. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude transversale, exhaustive incluant les 71 médecins généralistes exerçant dans les établissements de soins de santé de base du secteur public et privé de la province de Benimellal. Le but était d’évaluer leurs connaissances et leur participation au dépistage du cancer du col. Résultats Le niveau de connaissance était relativement modeste, 22 médecins généraliste avaient répondu à la question sur l'incidence du cancer du col au Maroc, Parmi eux (81,8%) avaient donné une réponse incorrecte. L'Herpes Papilloma virus comme facteur de risque du cancer du col a été identifié par seulement 21% des médecins généralistes. La participation au dépistage était également défaillante, 92,8% n'avaient jamais pratiqué le FCV chez leurs patientes à cause principalement du manque de formation (95,5%). Conclusion Les résultats montrent la nécessité d'améliorer les connaissances théoriques et pratique des médecins généralistes concernant le dépistage du cancer du col. PMID:23785557

  2. Rupture simultanée du ligament croisé antérieur et du ligament patellaire: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Achkoun, Abdessalam; Houjairi, Khalid; Quahtan, Omar; Hassoun, Jalal; Arssi, Mohamed; Rahmi, Mohamed; Garch, Abdelhak

    2016-01-01

    La rupture simultanée du tendon rotulien et du ligament croisé antérieur est une lésion relativement rare. Son diagnostic peut facilement manquer lors de l'examen initial. Les options de traitement incluent la réparation immédiate du tendon rotulien avec soit la reconstruction simultanée ou différée de ligament croisé antérieur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une rupture combinée du tendon rotulien et du ligament croisé antérieur chez un jeune footballeur de 22 ans. Une approche de traitement en deux temps a été effectuée avec un excellent résultat fonctionnel. PMID:27366288

  3. Teachers' perceptions of the incidence and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Havey, J Michael; Olson, Julie M; McCormick, Christine; Cates, Gary L

    2005-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to be a common diagnosis of school children, and according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV], American Psychiatric Association, 1994), it affects approximately 3%-5% of the population. Teachers are often the primary source of information regarding ADHD diagnoses in school children. A previous study by Glass and Wegar (2000) found that teachers were overidentifying children with ADHD and that medication was preferred as the primary treatment for these students. This study further examined teacher perceptions on the causes, incidence, and appropriate treatment methods of ADHD. In addition, this study also examined the prevalence of ADHD as determined by ADHD Rating Scale-IV (School Version; DuPaul et al., 1998) and examined differential identification rates by gender and ethnicity. Results showed that teachers were likely to identify children as having ADHD at rates higher than the expected prevalence rates specified in DSM-IV. Out of 121 rating scales analyzed, 23.97% of students were identified by teachers as meeting criteria for 1 of the 3 types of ADHD. Males had significantly higher scores than females and Whites had significantly higher scores than Hispanics. Class size was also associated with the likelihood that teachers would identify more than 5% of their students as having ADHD. Results suggest that, despite increasing evidence of a connection between biological factors and ADHD, environmental factors (i.e., class size and culture) may still influence teachers' perceptions about what students have the disorder.

  4. Treatment of common deficits associated with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Alison; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are amongst the most common injuries incurred by athletes, with the high rate of reoccurrence after initial injury becoming of great concern. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) refers to the development of repetitive ankle sprains and persistent residual symptoms post-injury. Some of the initial symptoms that occur in acute sprains may persist for at least 6 months post-injury in the absence of recurrent sprains, despite the athlete having returned to full functional activity. CAI is generally thought to be caused by mechanical instability (MI) or functional instability (FI), or both. Although previously discussed as separate entities, recent research has demonstrated that deficits associated with both MI and FI may co-exist to result in CAI. For clinicians, the main deficits associated with CAI include deficits in proprioception, neuromuscular control, strength and postural control. Based on the literature reviewed, it does seem that subjects with CAI have a deficit in frontal plane ankle joint positional sense. Subjects with CAI do not appear to exhibit any increased latency in the peroneal muscles in response to an external perturbation. Preliminary data suggest that feed-forward neuromuscular control may be more important than feed-back neuromuscular control and interventions are now required to address deficits in feed-forward neuromuscular control. Balance training protocols have consistently been shown to improve postural stability in subjects with CAI. Subjects with CAI do not experience decreased peroneus longus strength, but instead may experience strength deficits in the ankle joint invertor muscles. These findings are of great clinical significance in terms of understanding the mechanisms and deficits associated with CAI. An appreciation of these is vital to allow clinicians to develop effective prevention and treatment programmes in relation to CAI.

  5. DuPont cuts energy consumption 8% -- for starters

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, K.

    1998-07-01

    DuPont`s Corporate Energy Leadership Team (CELT) faced a difficult challenge at its inception in 1991--reducing the industry giant`s $900 million annual domestic energy bill. Seven years later, DuPont`s annual energy costs are down to $800 million, and energy consumption has shrunk by more than 8%. The team is on track toward future reduction goals. Key to persuading the company was the team`s 1992 Jump Start commitment to reduce out-of-pocket energy expenditures immediately. Over a four-month period, the goal was to save $6 million out-of-pocket on energy costs. The company actually ended up doubling that, saving over $12 million. The greatest savings--26% of the total--came from shutting down spare or unneeded equipment. Equipment tune-ups to improve performance and renegotiation of fuel contracts also lowered energy costs. The paper discusses how it was done.

  6. A Conversation with Lee Alvin DuBridge - Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, Judith R.

    Physicist Lee A. DuBridge became president of the California Institute of Technology in 1946. In this interview he recalls the immediate problems he faced, including his dealings with Robert A. Millikan, whom he replaced as chief administrator of the institute; institute financing and inadequate salaries. DuBridge also talks about the advent of federal support for peacetime science and Millikan's distaste for it; his close working relationship with Robert F. Bacher, who came to the institute in 1949 as chairman of the Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy; his recollections of the meteorologist Irving P. Krick, the physicist Alexander Goetz, and the chemist Linus Pauling; and his attempts to build up the Humanities Division.

  7. Du Pont Classifications of 2 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Prieto, J. L.; Rich, J.; Madore, B.; Poetrodjojo, Henry; D'Agostino, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of two supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on Aug. 30 and Sep. 1 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  8. Du Pont Classifications of 4 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-08-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of four supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on July 31 and Aug. 01 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  9. DuPage County chilled water storage project

    SciTech Connect

    Grumman, D.L.

    1998-10-01

    Between 1992 and 1995, the DuPage County Governmental Center in Wheaton, Illinois, commissioned a detailed analysis of its chilled water plant and distribution system, as well as its future needs and options for meeting those needs. The result was a 10,000 ton-hour (35,170 kWh) chilled water storage tank with associated components and controls. This paper describes that process and the system that resulted.

  10. DuOx2 Promoter Regulation by Hormones, Transcriptional Factors and the Coactivator TAZ.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Weide, L C; Cardoso-Penha, R C; Costa, M W; Ferreira, A C F; Carvalho, D P; Santisteban, P S

    2015-03-01

    The production of H2O2, which is essential to thyroid hormone synthesis, involves two NADPH oxidases: dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DuOx1 and DuOx2). A functional study with human DuOx genes and their 5'-flanking regions showed that DuOx1 and -2 promoters are different from thyroid-specific gene promoters. Furthermore, their transcriptional activities are not restricted to thyroid cells. While regulation of Tg (thyroglobulin) and TPO (thyroperoxidase) expression have been extensively studied, DuOx2 promoter regulation by hormones and transcriptional factors need to be more explored. Herein we investigated the role of TSH, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), as well as the cAMP effect on DuOx2 promoter (ptx41) activity in transfected rat thyroid cell lines (PCCL3). We also assessed DuOx2 promoter activity in the presence of transcriptional factors crucial to thyroid development such as TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1), PAX8, CREB, DREAM, Nkx2.5 and the coactivator TAZ in HeLa and HEK 293T-transfected cells. Our results show that TSH and forskolin, which increase cAMP in thyroid cells, stimulated DuOx2 promoter activity. IGF-1 led to pronounced stimulation, while insulin induction was not statistically different from DuOx2 promoter basal activity. All transcriptional factors selected for this work and coactivator TAZ, except DREAM, stimulated DuOx2 promoter activity. Moreover, Nkx2.5 and TAZ synergistically increased DuOx2 promoter activity. In conclusion, we show that DuOx2 expression is regulated by hormones and transcription factors involved in thyroid organogenesis and carcinogenesis, reinforcing the importance of the control of H2O2 generation in the thyroid. PMID:25960956

  11. Une cause rare de plexopathie brachiale: une metastase d'un cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Maâroufi, Mustapha; Kamaoui, Imane; Boubbou, Meriem; Sqalli, Nadia; Tizniti, Siham

    2014-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 50 ans ayant une histoire de cancer du sein et qui accuse une symptomatologie d'atteinte du plexus brachial. L'IRM montre une masse qui envahie le plexus brachial compatible avec une métastase. L'IRM est très utile pour le diagnostic et l'orientation thérapeutique des plexopathies brachiales chez les femmes présentant un cancer du sein PMID:25360196

  12. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  13. Double-Deficit Hypothesis in a Clinical Sample: Extension Beyond Reading.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Riikka; Torppa, Minna; Aro, Mikko; Närhi, Vesa; Ahonen, Timo

    2016-09-01

    This study explored the double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) in a transparent orthography (Finnish) and extended the view from reading disabilities to comorbidity of learning-related problems in math and attention. Children referred for evaluation of learning disabilities in second through sixth grade (N = 205) were divided into four groups based on rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological awareness (PA) according to the DDH: the double-deficit group, the naming speed deficit-only group, the phonological deficit-only group, and the no-deficit group. The results supported the DDH in that the prevalence and severity of reading disability were greatest in the double-deficit group. Despite the greater prevalence of reading disabilities in single-deficit groups compared to the no-deficit group, the means of reading measures in the single-deficit groups were similar to those of the no-deficit group. The PA single-deficit group was poorer in spelling than the no-deficit group and single-naming-deficit group. Deficits in RAN or PA were primarily linked to reading disabilities but not with math or attention problems. The results supported the DDH partially and indicate that deficits in RAN and PA are specific to reading disabilities. PMID:25716215

  14. Iatrogenic neurologic deficit after lumbar spine surgery: A review.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, George M; Williams, Kim A; Arnold, Paul; Fehlings, Michael; Harrop, James S

    2015-12-01

    Iatrogenic neurologic deficits after lumbar spine surgery are rare complications, but important to recognize and manage. Complications such as radiculopathy, spinal cord compression, motor deficits (i.e. foot drop with L5 radiculopathy), and new onset radiculitis, while uncommon do occur. Attempts at mitigating these complications with the use of neuromonitoring have been successful. Guidance in the literature as to the true rate of iatrogenic neurologic deficit is limited to several case studies and retrospective designed studies describing the management, prevention and treatment of these deficits. The authors review the lumbar spinal surgery literature to examine the incidence of iatrogenic neurologic deficit in the lumbar spinal surgery literature. An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 14th, 2015 from January 1, 2004 through May 14, 2015, using the following MeSH search terms "postoperative complications," then subterms "lumbar vertebrae," treatment outcome," "spinal fusion," and "radiculopathy" were included together with "postoperative complications" in a single search. Postoperative complications including radiculopathy, weakness, and spinal cord compression were included. The definition of iatrogenic neurologic complication was limited to post-operative radiculopathy, motor weakness or new onset pain/radiculitis. An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 14th, 2015 using all of the above terms together yielded 21 results. After careful evaluation, 11 manuscripts were excluded and 10 were carefully reviewed. The most common indications for surgery were degenerative spondylolisthesis, spondylosis, scoliosis, and lumbar stenosis. In 2783 patients in 12 total studies, there were 56 patients who had reported a postoperative neurologic deficit for a rate of 5.7. The rates of deficits ranged from 0.46% to 17% in the studies used. The average rate of reported neurologic complications within these papers was 9% (range 0.46-24%). Thirty patients of a total of

  15. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  16. Effect of antidepressants on spatial memory deficit induced by dizocilpine.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chenjuan; Yan, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Lu, Xiaodong

    2016-10-30

    Cognitive deficits are a core symptom of schizophrenia. It is controversial whether antidepressants could improve cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. The present study was designed to identify the therapeutic effect of antidepressants on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In the present study, adolescent rats were repeatedly exposed to dizocilpine, which can induce cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Then these rats were treated by six antidepressants (fluvoxamine, sertraline, paroxetine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, mirtazapine) or vehicle. The rats in the control group were exposed to vehicle during the study. Lastly, all rats' spatial memory (a major part of cognition) was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and the density of hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons was evaluated to explore possible mechanisms underlying spatial memory change in schizophrenia. The results of the present study supported the hypothesis of a therapeutic effect of fluvoxamine and escitalopram on spatial memory deficit induced by dizocilpine. Additionally, the data of the present study suggested that fluvoxamine and escitalopram remitted hippocampal PV interneuron reduction induced by dizocilpine. The neuroprotective effect of fluvoxamine and escitalopram may partly explain the therapeutic effect of antidepressants on spatial memory deficit in schizophrenia patients. PMID:27512913

  17. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. PMID:24916335

  18. Hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits following repeated pyrethroid exposure.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Muhammad M; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Richardson, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that the widely used pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin causes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. Whether or not this occurs in vivo remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure (3 mg/kg every 3 days for 60 days) causes hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits in adult mice. Repeated exposure to deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus as indicated by increased levels of C/EBP-homologous protein (131%) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (96%). This was accompanied by increased levels of caspase-12 (110%) and activated caspase-3 (50%). To determine whether these effects resulted in learning deficits, hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated using the Morris water maze. Deltamethrin-treated animals exhibited profound deficits in the acquisition of learning. We also found that deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased BrdU-positive cells (37%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting potential impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure leads to ER stress, apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and deficits in hippocampal precursor proliferation, which is associated with learning deficits.

  19. Cognitive Mapping Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Critical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Anushree; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Kalmady, Sunil V.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal deficits are an established feature of schizophrenia and are complementary with recent evidences of marked allocentric processing deficits being reported in this disorder. By “Cognitive mapping” we intend to refer to the concepts from the seminal works of O’Keefe and Nadel (1978) that led to the development of cognitive map theory of hippocampal function. In this review, we summarize emerging evidences and issues that indicate that “Cognitive mapping deficits” form one of the important cognitive aberrations in schizophrenia. The importance has been placed upon hippocampally mediated allocentric processing deficits and their role in pathology of schizophrenia, for spatial/representational cognitive deficits and positive symptoms in particular. It is modestly summarized that emerging evidences point toward a web of spatial and cognitive representation errors concurrent with pronounced hippocampal dysfunction. In general, it can be stated that there are clear and consistent evidences that favor the cognitive mapping theory in explaining certain deficits of schizophrenia and for drawing out a possible and promising endophenotype/biomarkers. Further research in this regard demands attention. PMID:24701005

  20. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions.

  1. Cognitive control in alcohol use disorder: deficits and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Dekonenko, Charlene J.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to the internal representation, maintenance, and updating of context information in the service of exerting control over thoughts and behavior. Deficits in cognitive control likely contribute to difficulty in maintaining abstinence in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). In this article, we define three cognitive control processes in detail (response inhibition, distractor interference control, and working memory), review the tasks measuring performance in these areas, and summarize the brain networks involved in carrying out these processes. Next, we review evidence of deficits in these processes in AUD, including both metrics of task performance and functional neuroimaging. Finally, we explore the clinical relevance of these deficits by identifying predictors of clinical outcome and markers that appear to change (improve) with treatment. We observe that individuals with AUD experience deficits in some, but not all, metrics of cognitive control. Deficits in cognitive control may predict clinical outcome in AUD, but more work is necessary to replicate findings. It is likely that performance on tasks requiring cognitive control improves with abstinence, and with some psychosocial and medication treatments. Future work should clarify which aspects of cognitive control are most important to target during treatment of AUD. PMID:24361772

  2. La Carte du Ciel, histoire et actualité d'un projet scientifique international

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, J.

    2008-06-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif analyse la genèse, le déploiement, l'abandon et les résurgences récentes de la Carte du Ciel. Au-delà de son échec avéré, la Carte du Ciel fut en effet le premier projet international astronomique de grande envergure, remarquable notamment par son organisation à l'échelle du globe. Bien plus que par son objet ou les techniques mobilisées pour sa réalisation, c'est par cette vision que la Carte du Ciel ouvre une nouvelle ère pour l'astronomie.

  3. Stability of computational deficits in math learning disability from second through fifth grades.

    PubMed

    Chong, Suet Ling; Siegel, Linda S

    2008-01-01

    This study utilized growth modeling to investigate the stability of two computational deficits that are strongly associated with math learning disability (MLD)-procedural deficits and fact fluency deficits. Math "deficit" was defined in two ways-having scores in the lower 10th percentile (MLD) and between the 11th and 25th percentiles (LA, low achieving). The longitudinal sample was composed of 214 children. Between the second and fifth grades, children who started at grade 2 with procedural deficits showed more rapid growth in procedural skills than typically achieving (TA) children. The procedural deficits group was able to narrow the initial gap in procedural skills and catch up with their normal peers. In contrast, children who started at grade 2 with fact fluency deficits showed the same growth in fact fluency skills as TA children. The fact fluency deficits group maintained their initial gap and was not able to catch up. This pattern of results held for both the MLD and LA criteria. Fact fluency deficits are more stable in the elementary years. Further results showed that fact fluency deficits may be associated with more pervasive and persistent cognitive deficits than procedural deficits. The fact fluency group showed persistent cognitive deficits in working memory, processing speed, and phonological processing, from grades 2-5. The group with procedural deficits at grade 2 showed persistent deficits in working memory and processing speed, but closed the gap in phonological skills. In addition, only the MLD procedural deficits group showed these cognitive deficits; the LA group was no different than the typical achievers. The present results support the hypothesis that fact fluency deficits and procedural deficits are dissociable and may represent distinct subgroups of MLD. PMID:18473201

  4. Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug safety meeting.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert M; Rosenthal, Eric; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Graham, John G I; Sergeant, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The

  5. Quasar evolution - Not a deficit at 'low' redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avni, Y.; Schiller, N.

    1983-01-01

    Hawkins and Stewart (1981) have argued that the conventional interpretation of complete quasar samples in terms of a cosmological evolution of quasars is not unique. It has been suggested that these data can also be interpreted as due to a deficit in the density of quasars. Hawkins and Stewart have argued that such a deficit could be either apparent, due to an observational selection which biases against the inclusion of low-z quasars, or real, due to a lower density of quasars at low redshifts. The present investigation is concerned with this new interpretation. In order to test the interpretation of Hawkins and Stewart (1981) as directly as possible, the investigation is restricted to the same type of quasar samples considered by Hawkins and Stewart. It is found that the obtained results contradict clearly Hawkins and Stewart's assertion. Quasar evolution is not just a deficit of quasars at low redshifts, neither apparent nor real.

  6. Do motivational incentives reduce the inhibition deficit in ADHD?

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Michelle A; Pennington, Bruce F; Willcutt, Erik W

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test three competing theories of ADHD: the inhibition theory, the motivational theory, and a dual deficit theory. Previous studies have produced conflicting findings about the effects of incentives on executive processes in ADHD. In the present study of 25 children with ADHD and 30 typically developing controls, motivation was manipulated within the Stop Task. Stop signal reaction time was examined, as well as reaction time, its variability, and the number of errors in the primary choice reaction time task. Overall, the pattern of results supported the inhibition theory over the motivational or dual deficit hypotheses, as main effects of group were found for most key variables (ADHD group was worse), whereas the group by reward interaction predicted by the motivational and dual deficit accounts was not found. Hence, as predicted by the inhibition theory, children with ADHD performed worse than controls irrespective of incentives.

  7. Motivational deficit in depression: people's expectations x outcomes' impacts.

    PubMed

    Layne, C

    1980-07-01

    Concludes that depression consists of low reward motivation and high punisher motivation. The argument is as follows: Clinical observation and research agree that depression is primarily a motivational deficit. Learning theories agree that motivation consists of both the organism's expectations and the outcome's impact (value or aversiveness), i.e., motivation = expectation X impact. Popular theories and research agree that depressed people's expectations and their impacts differ from those of nondepressed people. Depressed people often expect few rewards and many punishers, and the impact of rewards is low while that of punishers is high. By substituting known expectancies and impacts into the motivation equation, it becomes clear that depressed people suffer a motivational deficit. A specific deduction is that depressed people exhibit their most severe motivational deficits in ambiguous social situations. This deduction generates the hypothesis that in ambiguous social situations, depressed people should engage in few instrumental, operant behaviors, but many escape and avoidance behaviors. PMID:7410560

  8. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Nagaraj, Naveen K.; Kennett, Sarah E.W.; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  9. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  10. "Sightblind": perceptual deficits in the "intact" visual field.

    PubMed

    Bola, Michał; Gall, Carolin; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral visual cortex lesions caused by stroke or trauma lead to blindness in contralateral visual field - a condition called homonymous hemianopia. Although the visual field area processed by the uninjured hemisphere is thought to be "intact," it also exhibits marked perceptual deficits in contrast sensitivity, processing speed, and contour integration. Such patients are "sightblind" - their blindness reaches far beyond the primary scotoma. Studies showing perceptual deficits in patients' intact fields are reviewed and implications of these findings are discussed. It is concluded that consequences of partial blindness are greater than previously thought, since perceptual deficits in the "intact" field likely contribute to subjective vision loss in patients with visual field defect. This has important implications for vision diagnosis and rehabilitation. PMID:23805126

  11. Impact of Education on Memory Deficits in Subclinical Depression.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Molly E; Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Kirton, Joshua W; Dotson, Vonetta M

    2015-08-01

    Elevated depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive deficits, while higher education protects against cognitive decline. This study was conducted to test if education level moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Seventy-three healthy, dementia-free adults aged 18-81 completed neuropsychological tests, as well as depression and anxiety questionnaires. Controlling for age, sex, and state anxiety, we found a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and education for immediate and delayed verbal memory, such that those with a higher education level performed well regardless of depressive symptomatology, whereas those with lower education and high depressive symptoms had worse performance. No effects were found for executive functioning or processing speed. Results suggest that education protects against verbal memory deficits in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. Further research on cognitive reserve in depression-related cognitive deficits and decline is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon.

  12. Clinical Markers for Identifying Cholinergic Deficits in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martijn L.T.M.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Kotagal, Vikas; Scott, Peter J.H.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Frey, Kirk A.; Albin, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinergic projection systems degeneration is associated with dopamine non-responsive features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cholinergic deficits are variable in non-demented PD. Identification of cholinergic deficits in PD may help with selection of suitable patients for targeted cholinergic drug treatment in PD. The objective of this retrospective multivariate predictor analysis study was to identify clinical markers indicative of cholinergic deficits in PD patients, as assessed by acetylcholinesterase ([11C]PMP) positron emission tomography. Methods One hundred thirty-seven PD patients (34 female) participated; median modified Hoehn and Yahr score was 2.5 (range 1–4), average age of 65.6 ± 7.4 years, and average duration of motor disease symptoms of 6.0 ± 4.2 years. Subjects were dichotomized as “normocholinergic” or “hypocholinergic” based on a 5th percentile cutoff from normal for the basal forebrain-cortical and pedunculopontine nucleus-thalamic cholinergic projection systems. Previously identified clinical indices of cholinergic denervation were used for statistical prediction of cholinergic deficits. Logistic regression determined which risk factors predicted cholinergic deficits. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were determined for the (combinations of) significant predictor variables. Results There were 49 (35.8%) hypocholinergic PD subjects. The combination of RBD symptoms and fall history showed highest diagnostic accuracy (81.1%) for predicting combined thalamic and cortical cholinergic deficits. A combined assessment of 8.5 meter walk time and lower score on the Montreal cognitive assessment scale provided diagnostic accuracy of 80.7 % for predicting isolated cortical cholinergic denervation. Conclusion Assessment of clinical indices of cholinergic denervation may be useful for identifying suitable subjects for trials of targeted cholinergic drug treatments in PD. PMID:25393613

  13. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients’ speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  14. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients' speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  15. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, M. M.; Zarrouk, O.; Francisco, R.; Costa, J. M.; Santos, T.; Regalado, A. P.; Rodrigues, M. L.; Lopes, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. Scope How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with ‘isohydric’ behaviour in contrast to ‘anysohydric’ behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed. PMID:20299345

  16. Effect of meaning on apraxic finger imitation deficits.

    PubMed

    Achilles, E I S; Fink, G R; Fischer, M H; Dovern, A; Held, A; Timpert, D C; Schroeter, C; Schuetz, K; Kloetzsch, C; Weiss, P H

    2016-02-01

    Apraxia typically results from left-hemispheric (LH), but also from right-hemispheric (RH) stroke, and often impairs gesture imitation. Especially in LH stroke, it is important to differentiate apraxia-induced gesture imitation deficits from those due to co-morbid aphasia and associated semantic deficits, possibly influencing the imitation of meaningful (MF) gestures. To explore this issue, we first investigated if the 10 supposedly meaningless (ML) gestures of a widely used finger imitation test really carry no meaning, or if the test also contains MF gestures, by asking healthy subjects (n=45) to classify these gestures as MF or ML. Most healthy subjects (98%) classified three of the 10 gestures as clearly MF. Only two gestures were considered predominantly ML. We next assessed how imitation in stroke patients (255 LH, 113 RH stroke) is influenced by gesture meaning and how aphasia influences imitation of LH stroke patients (n=208). All patients and especially patients with imitation deficits (17% of LH, 27% of RH stroke patients) imitated MF gestures significantly better than ML gestures. Importantly, meaningfulness-scores of all 10 gestures significantly predicted imitation scores of patients with imitation deficits. Furthermore, especially in LH stroke patients with imitation deficits, the severity of aphasia significantly influenced the imitation of MF, but not ML gestures. Our findings in a large patient cohort support current cognitive models of imitation and strongly suggest that ML gestures are particularly sensitive to detect imitation deficits while minimising confounding effects of aphasia which affect the imitation of MF gestures in LH stroke patients. PMID:26721762

  17. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: a therapeutic option

    PubMed Central

    Topczewski, Abram

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of a therapeutic regimen to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients. Methods A total of 140 patients initially underwent physical, neurological and laboratory evaluation. Thereafter, treatment was initiated with a compounding product consisting of a tricyclic antidepressant and an anxiolytic. Results The response was positive in 71.43% of patients in controlling hyperactivity and improving dispersion and attention deficit. Conclusion The therapeutic regimen utilized proved to be an effective therapeutic alternative, especially for patients who do not adapt to psychostimulant drugs. PMID:25295451

  18. Facial emotion recognition deficits: The new face of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Behere, Rishikesh V

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been classically described to have positive, negative, and cognitive symptom dimension. Emerging evidence strongly supports a fourth dimension of social cognitive symptoms with facial emotion recognition deficits (FERD) representing a new face in our understanding of this complex disorder. FERD have been described to be one among the important deficits in schizophrenia and could be trait markers for the disorder. FERD are associated with socio-occupational dysfunction and hence are of important clinical relevance. This review discusses FERD in schizophrenia, challenges in its assessment in our cultural context, its implications in understanding neurobiological mechanisms and clinical applications. PMID:26600574

  19. Lateralizing Sensorimotor Deficits in a Case of Pseudopheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Joome; Quinn, Courtney; Rehwinkel, Alia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudopheochromocytoma is a poorly understood, rare cause of severe paroxysmal hypertension that mimics the symptomatology of pheochromocytoma in the absence of biochemical evidence of this tumor. Symptoms such as headache, nausea, sweating, and palpitations during hypertensive episodes have been described. In this paper, we describe previously unreported findings of lateralizing sensorimotor deficits in a patient with pseudopheochromocytoma. These changes presented during a hypertensive episode and were concerning for stroke but were not accompanied by acute radiologic abnormalities. The deficits improved over 1.5 weeks as blood pressure stabilized with beta-blockade. We also review relevant literature on the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of pseudopheochromocytoma. PMID:25506289

  20. Transcriptome profiling of tobacco under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Rabara, Roel C; Tripathi, Prateek; Choudhary, Mani Kant; Timko, Michael P; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Drought is one of the limiting environmental factors that affect crop production. Understanding the molecular basis of how plants respond to this water deficit stress is key to developing drought tolerant crops. In this study we generated time course-based transcriptome profiles of tobacco plants under water deficit conditions using microarray technology. In this paper, we describe in detail the experimental procedures and analyses performed in our study. The data set we generated (available in the NCBI/GEO database under GSE67434) has been analysed to identify genes that are involved in the regulation of tobacco's responses to drought. PMID:26484226

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: dietary and nutritional treatments.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Eugene; Hurt, Elizabeth; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    Dozens of complementary and alternative treatments have been advocated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Some verge into standard treatment of specific cases. Most do not have conclusive evidence of effectiveness or safety for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but some have enough evidence and are safe, easy, cheap, and sensible enough that individual patient trials can be justified. There is a need to flesh out the evidence base, which could be done cost effectively for supplements or off-label agents that are amenable to placebo control. PMID:23806311

  2. Illness insight and neurophysiological error-processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Vinay; Patriciu, Iulia; Kiang, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Impaired illness insight in schizophrenia is associated with non-adherence and worse outcomes. Schizophrenia patients also exhibit error-monitoring deficits, which have been proposed to cause poor insight. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether schizophrenia patients' deficits in neurophysiological error-monitoring indices, the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes, are associated with impaired insight. ERPs were recorded in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 normal comparison participants during a Stroop task. Patients' subnormal ERN and Pe amplitudes did not correlate with insight, suggesting that impaired insight in schizophrenia stems from neurocognitive mechanisms other than deficient error monitoring.

  3. Connaissances des médecins généralistes de Mohammedia (Maroc) concernant le dépistage du cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Zine, Karima; Nani, Samira; Lahmadi, Imad Ait; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le cancer du sein représente un problème de santé publique majeur au Maroc. C'est le premier cancer chez la femme. L'objectif de ce travail était d'évaluer les connaissances des médecins généralistes (MG) en matière de dépistage du cancer du sein dans la préfecture de Mohammedia Maroc. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude transversale, descriptive, exhaustive incluant les 97 MG exerçant dans les établissements de soins de santé de base du secteur public et privé de la province de Mohammedia. Résultats Le taux de participation était de 87%. L'âge moyen des MG était de 49,6 ± 8,1. Quatre-vingt pour cent (n=55) des MG ont donné une incidence incorrecte, 77,6% (n=85) ont reconnu l'existence d'un plan national de prévention et de contrôle du cancer (PNPCC) au Maroc, et 67,1 des MG ont rapporté l'existence d'un registre du cancer au Maroc. Le secteur d'activité était associé significativement avec les connaissances des MG sur le PNPCC et sur l'existence d'un guide de détection précoce du cancer du sein avec respectivement (p=0,003 et p=0,001). Une association significative entre l'ancienneté et l'existence d'un guide de détection précoce du cancer du sein et d'un registre du cancer du sein a été retrouvée avec (respectivement p=0,005 et p=0.002). Conclusion À la lumière de ces résultats il faudra renforcer les connaissances et les pratiques des MG par la promotion de la formation initiale et continue sur le dépistage. PMID:27800098

  4. Le cancer en Mauritanie : résultats sur 10 ans du registre hospitalier de Nouakchott

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Nacer Dine Ould Mohamed; Sauvaget, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Le fardeau du cancer reste mal connu en Mauritanie. Il n'est basé que sur des extrapolations de l'incidence des cancers des pays avoisinants. Les données du registre de l'hôpital national permettent de décrire les cas avec un diagnostic histologique. Tous les cas de cancers enregistrés par le service d'anatomo-pathologie de l'hôpital national de Nouakchott de 2000 à 2009 ont été analysés. En 10 ans, 3305 prélèvements histologiques ont été analysés (hommes:42%, femmes:58%). Chez l'homme, le cancer le plus fréquemment analysé était le cancer de la peau (218 cas au total, 189 cas en excluant mélanome), suivi de la prostate (203), des cancers digestifs (179, colorectal et ‘sophage), et des lymphomes (151). Chez la femme, un quart des biopsies était des cancers du sein (485), suivi du col utérin (344), de la sphère gynécologique (218, ovaire et corps utérin), et de la peau (114). Les cancers du foie, du poumon ou de la vessie étaient peu fréquents. Ces résultats ne reflètent pas l'incidence ni l'actuel fardeau du cancer en Mauritanie puisque de nombreux patients diagnostiqués avec un cancer ne reçoivent pas d'examen anatomopathologique. Si, comme dans les pays avoisinants du Maroc et du Mali, les cancers du col et du sein sont les pathologies les plus fréquentes chez la femme, la distribution des cancers chez l'homme dans ce registre hospitalier diffère des résultats des registres de population du Maroc et du Mali où les cancers du poumon, du foie, de la prostate et de la vessie dominent. PMID:23785554

  5. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  6. Age-Related Cognitive Deficits In Rhesus Monkeys Mirror Human Deficits on an Automated Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Nagahara, Alan H.; Bernot, Tim; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Aged non-human primates are a valuable model for gaining insight into mechanisms underlying neural decline with aging and during the course of neurodegenerative disorders. Behavioral studies are a valuable component of aged primate models, but are difficult to perform, time consuming, and often of uncertain relevance to human cognitive measures. We now report findings from an automated cognitive test battery in aged primates using equipment that is identical, and tasks that are similar, to those employed in human aging and Alzheimer’s disease studies. Young (7.1 ± 0.8 years) and aged (23.0 ± 0.5 years) rhesus monkeys underwent testing on a modified version of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB), examining cognitive performance on separate tasks that sample features of visuospatial learning, spatial working memory, discrimination learning, and skilled motor performance. We find selective cognitive impairments among aged subjects in visuospatial learning and spatial working memory, but not in delayed recall of previously learned discriminations. Aged monkeys also exhibit slower speed in skilled motor function. Thus, aged monkeys behaviorally characterized on a battery of automated tests reveal patterns of age-related cognitive impairment that mirror in quality and severity those of aged humans, and differ fundamentally from more severe patterns of deficits observed in Alzheimer’s Disease. PMID:18760505

  7. Brief experimental analysis of reading deficits for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fienup, Daniel M; Reyes-Giordano, Kimberly; Wolosik, Katarzyna; Aghjayan, Anto; Chacko, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Reading difficulties are especially high among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there are a number of empirically supported reading interventions for children with ADHD, there is little data to guide the selection of the most efficacious reading intervention for a specific child. Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a procedure that directly compares the efficacy of various academic interventions with the goal of guiding the selection of the intervention that results in optimal efficacy. The current proof of concept study examined the efficacy of the BEA methodology for determining the relative effectiveness of seven reading interventions for children with ADHD. The seven interventions included empirically supported ADHD interventions as well as traditional interventions found in the BEA literature. Six children diagnosed with ADHD completed the proof of concept study. Results indicated that the BEA successfully determined an efficacious intervention for each participant. The efficacy of the interventions and the optimal intervention based on BEA procedures varied for each child, suggesting the importance of a BEA approach when comparing various interventions for reading in children with ADHD. Implications and future directions for selecting effective reading interventions for children with ADHD are discussed.

  8. Identification of neuromotor deficits common to autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and imitation deficits specific to autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Müller, Cora; Irion, Lisa; Saville, Christopher W N; Schulz, Eberhard; Klein, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in motor and imitation abilities are a core finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but impaired motor functions are also found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given recent theorising about potential aetiological overlap between the two disorders, the present study aimed to assess difficulties in motor performance and imitation of facial movements and meaningless gestures in a sample of 24 ADHD patients, 22 patients with ASD, and 20 typically developing children, matched for age (6-13 years) and similar in IQ (>80). Furthermore, we explored the impact of comorbid ADHD symptoms on motor and imitation performance in the ASD sample and the interrelationships between the two groups of variables in the clinical groups separately. The results show motor dysfunction was common to both disorders, but imitation deficits were specific to ASD. Together with the pattern of interrelated motor and imitation abilities, which we found exclusively in the ASD group, our findings suggest complex phenotypic, and possibly aetiological, relationships between the two neurodevelopmental conditions.

  9. Luxation de l’épaule compliquée de paralysie du plexus brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; EL Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent l'observation d'une paralysie totale du plexus brachial survenue trois mois après un épisode de luxation antéro-interne sous coracoïdienne associée à une fracture du trochiter chez une patiente âgée de 88 ans. PMID:25426187

  10. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna F.; Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Kaur, Gurmeash; Jephcott, Lesley; Cornish, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder characteristics have not been evaluated in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes using robust assessments. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Social Communication Questionnaire were administered to 34 participants with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and a comparison group of 23 participants with Cri du Chat…

  11. Non-destructive analysis of DU content in the NIF hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibyan, Narek; Moody, Ken J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.

    2015-12-16

    The advantage of using depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums in high-yield deuterium-tritium (DT) shots at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is addressed by Döppner, et al., in great detail [1]. This DU based hohlraum incorporates a thin layer of DU, ~7 μm thick, on the inner surface along with a thin layer of a gold coating, ~0.7 μm thick, while the outer layer is ~22 μm thick gold. A thickness measurement of the DU layer can be performed using an optical microscope where the total DU weight can be computed provided a uniform DU layer. However, the uniformity of the thickness is not constant throughout the hohlraum since CAD drawing calculations of the DU weight do not agree with the computed values from optical measurements [2]. Therefore, a non-destructive method for quantifying the DU content in hohlraums has been established by utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy. The details of this method, along with results from several hohlraums, are presented in this report.

  12. Association between Fatigue and Autistic Symptoms in Children with Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Anthony; Cornish, Kim; Gruber, Reut

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the authors examined whether the fatigue level of children diagnosed with cri du chat syndrome was associated with the expression of autistic symptoms. Sixty-nine children with cri du chat syndrome were compared with 47 children with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities who did not differ on intellectual severity.…

  13. The GABAergic Deficit Hypothesis of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Luscher, Bernhard; Shen, Qiuying; Sahir, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an association between major depressive disorders (MDDs) and diverse types of GABAergic deficits. Here we summarize clinical and preclinical evidence supporting a central and causal role of GABAergic deficits in the etiology of depressive disorders. Studies of depressed patients indicate that MDDs are accompanied by reduced brain concentration of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as well as alterations in the subunit composition of the principal receptors (GABAA receptors) mediating GABAergic inhibition. In addition, there is abundant evidence that GABA plays a prominent role in the brain control of stress, the most important vulnerability factor in mood disorders. Furthermore, preclinical evidence suggests that currently used antidepressant drugs designed to alter monoaminergic transmission as well as non-pharmacologic therapies may ultimately act to counteract GABAergic deficits. In particular, GABAergic transmission plays an important role in the control of hippocampal neurogenesis and neural maturation, which are now established as cellular substrates of most if not all antidepressant therapies. Lastly, comparatively modest deficits in GABAergic transmission in GABAA-receptor-deficient mice are sufficient to cause behavioral, cognitive, neuroanatomical, and neuroendocrine phenotypes as well as antidepressant drug response characteristics expected of an animal model of MDD. The GABAergic hypothesis of MDD suggests that alterations in GABAergic transmission represent fundamentally important aspects of the etiological sequelae of major depressive disorders that are reversed by monoaminergic antidepressant drug action. PMID:21079608

  14. Dyspraxia in Autism: Association with Motor, Social, and Communicative Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuk, M. A.; Larson, J. C. Gidley; Apostu, A.; Mahone, E. M.; Denckla, M. B.; Mostofsky, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired performance of skilled gestures, referred to as dyspraxia, is consistently reported in children with autism; however, its neurological basis is not well understood. Basic motor skill deficits are also observed in children with autism and it is unclear whether dyspraxia observed in children with autism can be accounted for by problems with…

  15. Professor Perceptions of College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Teresa Ann; Weyandt, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: From April to June 2005, the authors investigated professor perceptions of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: 253 participants completed the ADHD Beliefs Survey-Revised, a 40-question survey measuring professor perceptions of ADHD. Methods: Analysis of variance measured false and…

  16. Timing Deficits Are Implicated in Motor Dysfunction in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly J.; Edgell, Dorothy; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed what role movement timing irregularities have in producing the motor deficits documented in Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Participants included males with AS (n = 14) and without (n = 16), matched by age (7-23 years) and with no significant IQ differences. They completed measures of timing perception (comparisons of tempo of…

  17. Neuropsychological deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fengqing; Kang, Hai; You, Libo; Rastogi, Priyanka; Venkatesh, D; Chandra, Mina

    2014-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most prevalent form of complex partial seizures with temporal lobe origin of electrical abnormality. Studies have shown that recurrent seizures affect all aspects of cognitive functioning, including memory, language, praxis, executive functions, and social judgment, among several others. In this article, we will review these cognitive impairments along with their neuropathological correlates in a comprehensive manner. We will see that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in TLE. Much of the effort has been laid on memory due to the notion that temporal lobe brain structures involved in TLE play a central role in consolidating information into memory. It seems that damage to the mesial structure of the temporal lobe, particularly the amygdale and hippocampus, has the main role in these memory difficulties and the neurobiological plausibility of the role of the temporal lobe in different aspects of memory. Here, we will cover the sub-domains of working memory and episodic memory deficits. This is we will further proceed to evaluate the evidences of executive function deficits in TLE and will see that set-shifting among other EFs is specifically affected in TLE as is social cognition. Finally, critical components of language related deficits are also found in the form of word-finding difficulties. To conclude, TLE affects several of cognitive function domains, but the etiopathogenesis of all these dysfunctions remain elusive. Further well-designed studies are needed for a better understanding of these disorders. PMID:25506156

  18. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Taylor, Michele M.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Mathews, Tiffany A.; Jones, Sara R.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Miller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8–12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6–15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.—Richardson, J. R., Taylor, M. M., Shalat, S. L., Guillot III, T. S., Caudle, W. M., Hossain, M. M., Mathews, T. A., Jones, S. R., Cory-Slechta, D. A., Miller, G. W. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25630971

  19. Challenging the "Distance Education Deficit" through "Motivational Emails"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelaar, Tom; Simpson, Ormond

    2015-01-01

    Graduation rates in distance higher education are low compared with full-time higher education--often less than 20% compared with full-time UK rates of around 80%--the "distance education deficit". In the University of London International Programmes, the difference between the face-to-face graduation rate of 61.5% and the distance…

  20. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  1. Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

  2. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  3. Communication Deficits in Infants and Toddlers with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Turygin, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research that focuses on detecting and assessing the presence of communication impairments in children with developmental disabilities exists. However, more research is needed which compares these deficits across individuals with various developmental disabilities. This information could inform the assessment process and treatment programs.…

  4. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  5. [Management of learning disorders and attention deficit in children

    PubMed

    Araújo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz C

    2002-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims at providing pediatricians with an update on the main causes involved in low school achievement. A more detailed approach is given for the management and treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. SOURCES: Data was obtained by a systematic review of published literature in Medline, through a search on Pubmed in the last five years. The key words used were learning disability, attention deficit, dyslexia (reading disorder) and dyscalculia (mathematical disorder). Studies focusing evaluation and management were retrieved. Governmental population educational data on literacy was also included. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Statistical medical Brazilian data on the subject is scarce. Hearing, visual and mental deficiency, together with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and specific learning disorders should be part of the differential diagnosis of children with poor school achievement. Development should be carefully followed until school entrance, particularly in children at risk. CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with stimulants, anti-depressive drugs or cloninidine with multimodal treatment improves school achievement in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder. PMID:14676873

  6. Depression and Helplessness-Induced Cognitive Deficits in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Kevin J.; And Others

    To explore the effects of depression and learned helplessness on cognitive task deficits, 66 community-residing elderly adults were categorized as depressed or nondepressed based on Beck Depression Inventory scores. After a pre-test battery measuring short-term memory and components of crystallized/fluid intelligence, the subjects responded to a…

  7. 7 CFR 1435.309 - Reassignment of deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.309 Reassignment of deficits. (a) CCC will determine, from time to time, whether sugar beet or sugarcane processors will be unable to market their allocations. (b) Sugar beet and sugar...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.309 - Reassignment of deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.309 Reassignment of deficits. (a) CCC will determine, from time to time, whether sugar beet or sugarcane processors will be unable to market their allocations. (b) Sugar beet and sugar...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.309 - Reassignment of deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.309 Reassignment of deficits. (a) CCC will determine, from time to time, whether sugar beet or sugarcane processors will be unable to market their allocations. (b) Sugar beet and sugar...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.309 - Reassignment of deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.309 Reassignment of deficits. (a) CCC will determine, from time to time, whether sugar beet or sugarcane processors will be unable to market their allocations. (b) Sugar beet and sugar...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.309 - Reassignment of deficits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.309 Reassignment of deficits. (a) CCC will determine, from time to time, whether sugar beet or sugarcane processors will be unable to market their allocations. (b) Sugar beet and sugar...

  12. Affective Deficit in Clients: The Role of the Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Sterling K.; And Others

    One of the maladies of living that seems to be of endemic proportions in Western society is affective deficit, experienced as emptiness, lack of fulfillment, dissatisfaction with obvious success, or a sense of not being complete nor even of being okay. This paper establishes a case for the importance of recognizing and developing interventions for…

  13. Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…

  14. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  15. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  16. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  17. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  18. Temporal processing deficits in letter-by-letter reading.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2007-01-01

    Theories of the cognitive impairment underlying letter-by-letter reading vary widely, including prelexical and lexical level deficits. One prominent prelexical account proposes that the disorder results from difficulty in processing multiple letters simultaneously. We investigated whether this deficit extends to letters presented in rapid temporal succession. A letter-by-letter reader, G.M., was administered a rapid serial visual presentation task that has been used widely to study the temporal processing characteristics of the normal visual system. Comparisons were made to a control group of 6 brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. Two target letters were embedded at varying temporal positions in a stream of rapidly presented single digits. After each stream, the identities of the two letters were reported. G.M. required an extended period of time after he had processed one letter before he was able to reliably identify a second letter, relative to the controls. In addition, G.M.'s report of the second letter was most impaired when it immediately followed the first letter, a pattern not seen in the controls, indicating that G.M. had difficulty processing the two items together. These data suggest that a letter-by-letter reading strategy may be adopted to help compensate for a deficit in the temporal processing of letters.

  19. Brain and behavioral correlates of action semantic deficits in autism

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hauk, Olaf; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Action-perception circuits containing neurons in the motor system have been proposed as the building blocks of higher cognition; accordingly, motor dysfunction should entail cognitive deficits. Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are marked by motor impairments but the implications of such motor dysfunction for higher cognition remain unclear. We here used word reading and semantic judgment tasks to investigate action-related motor cognition and its corresponding fMRI brain activation in high-functioning adults with ASC. These participants exhibited hypoactivity of motor cortex in language processing relative to typically developing controls. Crucially, we also found a deficit in semantic processing of action-related words, which, intriguingly, significantly correlated with this underactivation of motor cortex to these items. Furthermore, the word-induced hypoactivity in the motor system also predicted the severity of ASC as expressed by the number of autistic symptoms measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen etal., 2001). These significant correlations between word-induced activation of the motor system and a newly discovered semantic deficit in a condition known to be characterized by motor impairments, along with the correlation of such activation with general autistic traits, confirm critical predictions of causal theories linking cognitive and semantic deficits in ASC, in part, to dysfunctional action-perception circuits and resultant reduction of motor system activation. PMID:24265609

  20. Attention Deficit Syndrome: Educational Bugaboo of the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Svea J.

    The increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and the characteristics and treatment of ADD using sensory motor exercises are discussed. Reasons for the disability are explored, including neurological differences and difficulties in interpreting sensory input. Problems with focusing and hearing as well as hypersensitivity to…

  1. Theory of Mind Abilities and Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimhi, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological disorder that significantly impairs children's social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and behaviors. Questions about theory of mind (ToM) deficits in ASD have generated a large number of empirical studies. This article reviews current studies of the relationship between ToM and…

  2. Language Deficits in Children at High Risk for Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najam, Najma; Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirisci, Levent

    1997-01-01

    Compared the language capacities of children at high risk for substance abuse to low-risk children to uncover focal areas of deficit. Results indicate that high-risk subjects' performance was significantly poorer on several measures of language ability. Findings suggest that poor language mediation increases the risk for substance abuse. (RJM)

  3. Social Skills Deficits in Learning Disabilities: The Psychiatric Comorbidity Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Stephanie K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that social skill deficits among children with learning disabilities are associated with high rates of undetected psychiatric diagnoses. The maladaptive social skills patterns of children with specific subtypes of learning disabilities appear to mimic the symptom patterns of children with attention deficit…

  4. The Psychoeducational Link between Attention Deficit Disorder and Learning Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This paper examines cognitive processing problems associated with attention deficit disorders (ADD) and their relationship to learning disabilities in elementary and secondary students. Children with ADD, medicated (N=20) and unmedicated (N=21), were compared on the Raven test of Progressive Matrices and other tests with children who had been…

  5. The Use of Medication for Children with Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of medications used to treat children with attention deficit disorders is reviewed, along with the importance of monitoring the medications' side effects. Medications reviewed include psychostimulants, tricyclic antidepressants, clonidine, and thyroid hormone. Factors to consider before recommendation of medication are listed.…

  6. Plant Morphological and Biochemical Responses to Field Water Deficits 1

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Richard F.; Burke, John J.; Quisenberry, Jerry E.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of water deficits on leaf glycerolipid composition were analyzed in two photoperiodic strains of field grown cotton (Gossypium kirsutum L.) that differ in sensitivity to drought. Leaves from plants grown under dryland conditions exhibited increased dry weight and specific leaf weight. The average midday leaf water potential in the dryland treatment decreased to −1.9 and −2.4 megapascals, respectively, for the T25 and T185 genotypes. Total leaf lipid content of plants exposed to dryland conditions was 5.9 and 7.5% of leaf dry weight for strain T25 and T185, respectively. The difference in leaf lipid content between these genotypes was caused by water deficits and was attributed to loss of both phospholipids and glycolipids in strain T25. There was no apparent loss of phospholipids due to water deficits in the T185 genotype; however, a significant loss of glycolipids was partially compensated by a 2-fold increase in triacylglycerol. No change in triacylglycerol was found between treatments in T25 leaves. Water deficit caused a significant decline in the relative degree of acylunsaturation in phospholipids and glycolipids from both genotypes; however, the double bond index for triacylglycerol increased in both genotypes. It is believed that the observed responses of leaf lipid composition to dryland conditions may be an additional criterion for characterization and selection of new drought-tolerant cotton genotypes. PMID:16665425

  7. Motivational Deficit in Depression: People's Expectations X Outcomes' Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Christopher

    1980-01-01

    Concludes that depression consists of low reward motivation and high punisher motivation. Depressed people exhibit their most severe motivational deficits in ambiguous social situations. Depressed people engage in few instrumental and operant behaviors, and in many escape and avoidance behaviors. (Author)

  8. Addressing Nature Deficit Disorder through Primitive Camping Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kevin; Varner, Keegan; Sallee, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth suffer from Nature Deficit Disorder, a condition that has been connected to ADHD, shortage of creativity, and general lack of knowledge about the outdoors. A team of educators and specialists are addressing this issue with primitive camping. County educators were trained using experiential learning and train-the-trainer techniques.…

  9. Interference Control in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mourik, Rosa; Papanikolau, Alky; van Gellicum-Bijlhout, Joyce; van Oostenbruggen, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Post-Uiterweer, Annebeth; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naive children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments…

  10. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan,…

  11. Deficits in recall following partial and complete commissurotomy.

    PubMed

    Phelps, E A; Hirst, W; Gazzaniga, M S

    1991-01-01

    There have been reports in the literature of both impaired (Zaidel and Sperry, 1974) and intact (LeDoux et al., 1977) memory performance following callosotomy. In the present article, memory is examined in patients who received either partial or complete callosotomy in an effort to determine (1) if there is a memory deficit following callosotomy, (2) if certain types of callosotomy are more likely to lead to a deficit (i.e., anterior vs posterior), and (3) if there is a global memory deficit or if some mnemonic functions are affected more than others. Patients receiving either partial or complete section of the corpus callosum were examined pre- and postoperatively on standardized memory tests and tests of recall and recognition. In addition, two patients with complete callosotomy and matched control subjects were given tests of verbal recall and recognition. A deficit in both visual and verbal recall was found in patients with posterior section, but not those receiving anterior section. No impairment was found on tests of verbal recognition for any patients. Posterior callosal section generally includes the hippocampal commissure and other hippocampal connections, while anterior sectioning does not. Given the known importance of the hippocampus (Milner, 1970) and the differences between recall and recognition memory (Bransford and Johnson, 1972) in normal memory functioning, several hypotheses are proposed as to why these results might be expected.

  12. The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

  13. Challenging Myths of the Deficit Perspective: Honoring Children's Literacy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Dinah; Long, Susi

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss some myths about culture and literacy based on the deficit perspective, and add their voices to those advocating a contrasting transformational perspective. They present evidence for the importance of looking closely and respectfully at interactions among children and families to better understand their many…

  14. Bernstein's "Codes" and the Linguistics of "Deficit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the key linguistic arguments underpinning Basil Bernstein's theory of "elaborated" and "restricted" "codes". Building on a review of selected highlights from the collective critical response to Bernstein, the paper attempts to clarify the relationship of the theory to "deficit" views…

  15. From Single to Multiple Deficit Models of Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for…

  16. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  17. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Decade of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This guide to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is organized in three parts which address understanding the problem, getting help, and sustaining hope. A question-and-answer format addresses the following topics: symptoms of ADHD; other conditions which may produce similar symptoms; other disorders which may accompany ADHD; causes of…

  19. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. PMID:24184415

  20. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  1. EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterman, M. Barry

    2000-01-01

    Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

  2. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  3. Language Deficits in Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Margaret M.

    The study was designed to determine if there was an identifiable pattern of language deficit in 10 children (6 to 12 years old) undergoing treatment in a hospital inpatient psychiatry ward for behavioral and emotional problems. Ss were administered the standard hearing and speech clinic test battery which included the Binet Memory for Sentences,…

  4. Temporal Preparation and Inhibitory Deficit in Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Angel; Miro, Elena; Martinez, M. Pilar; Sanchez, Ana I.; Lupianez, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in fibromyalgia may be specifically related to controlled processes, such as those measured by working memory or executive function tasks. This hypothesis was tested here by measuring controlled temporal preparation (temporal orienting) during a response inhibition (go no-go) task. Temporal orienting effects (faster reaction…

  5. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  6. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Accommodations for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold Walker; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Silvia, Loretta; Rosenquist, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: With the increase in diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, it is expected that more resident physicians will require accommodations so that their academic performance and clinical competency can be measured adequately. The authors provide an overview of the requirements and issues…

  8. Maize and sunflower root distribution in response to deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to meet world demand for food under anticipated water shortages, we need to increase crop productivity per evapotranspiration (ET), not just the amount of irrigation applied in agricultural systems. Quantifying root distribution in response to deficit irrigation is crucial to mechanistical...

  9. Deficit Irrigated Corn Evapotranspiration Estimates Using Canopy Temperature Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainability of irrigated agriculture with declining water supplies is a primary agricultural issue in the US Great Plains. Consequently, the paradigm of maximizing production through full irrigation must be abandoned. Imposing water deficits on crops during non-critical growth periods must be i...

  10. Rosmarinic acid prevents against memory deficits in ischemic mice.

    PubMed

    Fonteles, Analu Aragão; de Souza, Carolina Melo; de Sousa Neves, Julliana Catharina; Menezes, Ana Paula Fontenele; Santos do Carmo, Marta Regina; Fernandes, Francisco Diego Pinheiro; de Araújo, Patrícia Rodrigues; de Andrade, Geanne Matos

    2016-01-15

    Polyphenols have neuroprotective effects after brain ischemia. It has been demonstrated that rosmarinic acid (RA), a natural phenolic compound, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To evaluate the effectiveness of RA against memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) mice were treated with RA (0.1, 1, and 20mg/kg/day, i.p. before ischemia and during 5 days). Animals were evaluated for locomotor activity and working memory 72 h after pMCAO, and spatial and recognition memories 96 h after pMCAO. In addition, in another set of experiments brain infarction, neurological deficit score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluates 24h after the pMCAO. Finally, immunohistochemistry, and western blot, and ELISA assay were used to analyze glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and synaptophysin (SYP) expression, and BDNF level, respectively. The working, spatial, and recognition memory deficits were significantly improved with RA treatment (20mg/kg). RA reduced infarct size and neurological deficits caused by acute ischemia. The mechanism for RA neuroprotection involved, neuronal loss suppression, and increase of synaptophysin expression, and increase of BDNF. Furthermore, the increase of MPO activity and GFAP immunireactivity were prevented in MCAO group treated with RA. These results suggest that RA exerts memory protective effects probably due to synaptogenic activity and anti-inflammatory action.

  11. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Measures in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    WU, STEVE W; GILBERT, DONALD L; SHAHANA, NASRIN; HUDDLESTON, DAVID A; MOSTOFSKY, STEWART H

    2012-01-01

    Children affected by Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have diminished intra-hemispheric inhibition (Short Interval Cortical Inhibition) as measured by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. This study’s objective is to determine whether inter-hemispheric inhibition (Ipsilateral Silent Period Latency) correlates with clinical behavioral rating and motor control deficits of affected children. In 114 8–12 year old, right-handed children (age/sex-matched, 50 affected, 64 controls), we performed comprehensive assessments of behavior, motor skills and cognition. Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we reliably elicited Ipsilateral Silent Period in 54 children (23 affected) - all were on average older than those who had unobtainable measures. Mean Ipsilateral Silent Period latency was 5 milliseconds longer in the affected group (p=0.007). Longer latencies correlated with more severe behavioral symptom scores (r=0.38, p=0.007), particularly hyperactivity (r=0.39, p=0.006), as well as with worse motor ratings on the Physical and Neurological Examination for Soft Signs (r=0.27, p=0.05). Longer latency also correlated with Short Interval Cortical Inhibition (r=0.36, p=0.008). In conclusion, longer Ipsilateral Silent Period latencies suggest interhemispheric inhibitory signaling is slower in affected children. The deficit in this inhibitory measure may underlie developmental, behavioral and motor impairments in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. PMID:22883282

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Early Identification Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewell, Rebecca R.

    A major aim of this study was to determine if Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) type behaviors observed at the age of 30 months in low birth weight children are predictive of ADHD and school difficulties at 5 and 8 years of age. Three major questions were addressed: (1) Do children who exhibit ADHD characteristics at 30 months differ…

  13. Attention Demand and Postural Control in Children with Hearing Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…

  14. Spatial Learning Deficits in Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schandler, Steven L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated whether visuospatial deficits displayed by chronic alcoholics are present in persons at risk for alcoholism. Compared 17 social drinkers who were children of alcoholics and 17 who had no family alcoholism history. Visuospatial learning of children of alcoholics was significantly poorer than that of subjects with no family alcoholism…

  15. Central Timing Deficits in Subtypes of Primary Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a proposed speech disorder subtype that interferes with motor planning and/or programming, affecting prosody in many cases. Pilot data (Peter & Stoel-Gammon, 2005) were consistent with the notion that deficits in timing accuracy in speech and music-related tasks may be associated with CAS. This study replicated…

  16. Working Memory Deficits and Social Problems in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2011-01-01

    Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N = 39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation…

  17. Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

  18. Frontal and posterior subtypes of neuropsychological deficit in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ivy N; Neargarder, Sandy; Risi, Megan M; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2013-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is heterogeneous in regard to affected domains. Although patterns of cognitive performance that may predict later dementia are as yet undetermined, posterior- versus frontal-type assessments show promise for differential predictive value. The present study included 70 individuals: 42 with idiopathic PD without dementia and 28 age- and education-matched healthy control adults (HC). Participants completed assessments of cognition with emphasis on tests that are sensitive to frontal and posterior deficits. PD patients were classified into cognitive subgroups and the subgroups were compared on demographic and disease variables. Individual performance across neuropsychological tests was evaluated for the PD group. Patients with PD performed more poorly than HC on several measures of cognition, and they were classified into frontal (12), posterior (3), both (10) and neither subgroups (17), the latter two in reference to frontal- and posterior-type deficits. The neither subgroup was distinguished by less motor impairment than the both subgroup, but the four subgroups did not otherwise differ on demographic or disease variables. Across patients, the tests most sensitive to cognitive impairment included measures of attention and executive functioning (frontal-type tests). Examination of individual test performance for PD revealed substantial heterogeneity across tests with respect to number and severity of deficits. The current study provides insight into which commonly used neuropsychological tests are most sensitive to cognitive deficits (strictly defined) in a nondemented, well characterized PD sample, and into the relation of cognitive subgroups to demographic and disease-specific variables.

  19. Speech Deficits in Persons with Autism: Etiology and Symptom Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Speech and other communication deficits are core features of the autism spectrum. This topic has become one of the most heavily studied in the child health/mental health field. Even within this group of disorders, considerable variability in symptoms is evident. A variety of subtopics within this area have been studied. Topics include types of…

  20. Characterizing Discourse Deficits Following Penetrating Head Injury: A Preliminary Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Hamilton, Mark; Tyler, Elizabeth; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse analyses have demonstrated utility for delineating subtle communication deficits following closed head injuries (CHIs). The present investigation examined the discourse performance of a large group of individuals with penetrating head injury (PHI). Performance was also compared across 6 subgroups of PHI based on lesion locale. A…

  1. Temporal Processing Deficits in Hebrew Speaking Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent specific reading disabilities and poor phonologic processing in children who read Hebrew, a primarily consonant orthography, are related to central auditory temporal processing deficits (TPDs). Twenty-four Hebrew-speaking children (ages 10-13) with and without reading disabilities were asked…

  2. Auditory Temporal Processing Deficits in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The role of central auditory processing in reading skill development and reading disorders is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals with specific reading disabilities (SRD) have deficits in processing rapidly presented, serially ordered non-speech auditory signals. To this end, we compared 12 children with SRD and…

  3. DSM-5 further inflates attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmful consequences of further expansion of this already broad, defined, and inflated DSM category.

  4. Cognitive Deficits in Nonretarded Adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Kimberley A.; Don, Audrey; Mateer, Catherine A.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen nonretarded young adults with fetal alcohol syndrome were divided into two groups, one with average to above average IQ and one with borderline to low average IQ. Subjects in both groups manifested clear deficits on neuropsychological measures sensitive to complex attention, verbal learning, and executive function at a frequency and…

  5. Assessing deficit irrigation strategies for corn using simulation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining groundwater levels in the Ogallala aquifer due to withdrawals exceeding annual recharge result in diminished well capacities that eventually become incapable of meeting full crop water needs. Producers need recommendations for deficit irrigation strategies that can maximize net returns in ...

  6. Assessing the Executive Function Deficits of Patients with Parkinsons Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, William; Moberg, Paul; Duda, John; Stern, Matthew; Weintraub, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of the Tower of London-Drexel (TOL DX ) in assessing the executive deficits associated with Parkinsons disease (PD). We sought to determine whether the TOL DX would differentiate between (a) patients with PD and healthy control participants (HCP), (b) demented and nondemented patients, and (c)…

  7. Is the "Naming" Deficit in Dyslexia a Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Hatzidaki, Anna; Obregon, Mateo

    2010-01-01

    We report a study that investigated the widely held belief that naming-speed deficits in developmental dyslexia reflect impaired access to lexical-phonological codes. To investigate this issue, we compared adult dyslexic and adult non-dyslexic readers' performance when naming and semantically categorizing arrays of objects. Dyslexic readers…

  8. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  9. Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

  10. Issues in the Definition and Classification of Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This discussion of issues of definition and classification of attention deficit disorder (ADD) emphasizes the heterogeneity of the diagnosis, the overlap of ADD with reading disability, and lack of consistency across studies. A systematic classification study is proposed to develop a unitary, empirically derived classification for ADD. (Author/DB)

  11. Executive Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Preeti; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess executive functions in medication naive children with attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD). Method: Group matched (age and gender) children with ADHD (N=30) and healthy children (N=30) in the age range of 6-14 years were compared on measures of executive functions (response inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility,…

  12. Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are…

  13. Specificity of Facial Expression Labeling Deficits in Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure, Erin B.; Adler, Abby D.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rich, Brendan A.; Kimes, Alane S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Background: We examined whether face-emotion labeling deficits are illness-specific or an epiphenomenon of generalized impairment in pediatric psychiatric disorders involving mood and behavioral dysregulation. Method: Two hundred fifty-two youths (7-18 years old) completed child and adult facial expression recognition subtests from the Diagnostic…

  14. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  15. Levi-Civita cylinders with fractional angular deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2011-05-01

    The angular deficit factor in the Levi-Civita vacuum metric has been parametrized using a Riemann-Liouville fractional integral. This introduces a new parameter into the general relativistic cylinder description, the fractional index α. When the fractional index is continued into the negative α region, new behavior is found in the Gott-Hiscock cylinder and in an Israel shell.

  16. The Efficacy of PACE in the Remediation of Naming Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Edith Chin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study compared PACE (Promoting Aphasics' Communicative Effectiveness) and traditional stimulation therapy in the remediation of naming deficits in a 66-year-old conduction aphasic. In PACE, client and clinician engage in natural interaction sequences using multiple channels, including gestures, to communicate. PACE resulted in greater gains in…

  17. International Trade, Budget Deficits, and the Interest Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Martin

    1985-01-01

    A tight money policy, budget deficits, and greater after-tax profitability of investment in the United States have contributed to the strength of the dollar and to the flow of funds into this country. The consequence and implication of this are examined, both with respect to the past and near future. (Author/RM)

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effective Methods for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on two facets of treatment for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: educational accommodations and interventions for promoting appropriate behavior. It provides information on environmental adaptations, guidelines for effective class rules, implementing response cost, levels of time out, implementing a token…

  19. Teens' Perceptions about Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipp, Diana K.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study describes teens' perceptions about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and medications. The four modes of adaptation of the Roy Adaptation Model were the framework for this study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 15 high school teens aged 14-17 with parent-reported AD/HD. An inductive…

  20. The Categorical Perception Deficit in Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordenbos, Mark W.; Serniclaes, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception in dyslexia is characterized by a categorical perception (CP) deficit, demonstrated by weaker discrimination of acoustic differences between phonemic categories in conjunction with better discrimination of acoustic differences within phonemic categories. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that examined the reliability of the…

  1. 78 FR 45556 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Lac du Flambeau...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Lac du Flambeau Band Fee-to-Trust Acquisition and Casino Project in Shullsburg, Wisconsin AGENCY... fee-to-trust transfer and casino project in the City of Shullsburg, Wisconsin, proposed by the Lac du... address and the caption specifying ``Scoping Comments for Proposed Lac du Flambeau Band Casino'' on...

  2. Dysfonctionnements radio-induits du transport colique chez le rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Lebrun, F.; Ksas, B.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; MacNaughton, W. K.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptom commonly associated with whole body irradiation is diarrhoea, a still quite obscure phenomenon, which leads to decreased chance of cure of irradiated people. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for dysfunction of intestinal water and electrolyte transport regulation by the enteric nervous system after exposure to ionising radiation. This study shows decreased capacity of enteric nervous system to influence colonic transport 3days after irradiation, correlated to a diminished response to a neurotransmitter: serotonin. Radio-induced diarrhea may result from epithelial structural injury but also from impaired regulatory processes of intestinal transport. L'un des symptômes majeurs d'une irradiation corporelle totale ou abdominale est l'apparition de diarrhées, dont les causes sont encore mal connues, et qui mettent en jeu le pronostique vital de l'individu irradié. Cette étude vise à mettre en évidence l'atteinte de la régulation du transport intestinal d'eau et d'électrolytes par les rayonnements ionisants. On observe une diminution de la capacité du système nerveux entérique à influencer le transport colique 3jours après irradiation, corrélée à une diminution de la réponse épithéliale à un neurotransmetteur : la sérotonine. Les diarrhées radio-induites résulteraient d'une atteinte structurelle de l'épithélium mais également des processus de régulation du transport intestinal.

  3. Cancer du sein historique à propos d'un cas!!! Comment réagir

    PubMed Central

    Laghzaoui, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Le cancer du sein localement avancé est une entité qui se fait rare dans les pays développés alors qu'on continue de recevoir des patientes à un stade avancé dans les pays africains. Nous proposant le cas d'une patiente intellectuelle prise en charge à l'hôpital militaire, Meknès, Maroc; qui a décelé la présence d'un nodule du sein droit par l'autopalpation mais elle n'a consulté le médecin que six mois après, dans un état historique de cancer du sein localement avancé. Le but de notre publication est donc de soulever les anomalies contemporaines aboutissant au retard diagnostic du cancer du sein et de proposer des solutions pour mieux sensibiliser la population. PMID:27642397

  4. The association between Cri du chat syndrome and dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charmaine; Hallett, Kerrod; Manton, David

    2014-01-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CdcS), also known as 5p deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the partial deletion of chromatin from the short arm of chromosome 5. There is a paucity of literature on the dental manifestations in CdcS. The purposes of this report are to present the case of a nine-year-old girl with the syndrome, CdcS and to review its dental and clinical manifestations and their management in children. PMID:25514263

  5. Quantification du champ electromagnetique et description quantique de la generation du second harmonique a l'interieur d'une microcavite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Marc

    L'existence de particules virtuelles qui surgissent spontanement du vide pour disparaitre tres peu de temps apres leur apparition (les fluctuations du vide) trouve son origine dans le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg. Par ailleurs, on sait que le phenomene de resonance par confinement explique l'amplification de l'intensite lumineuse a l'interieur d'une cavite ouverte aux frequences de resonances de celle-ci. C'est pourquoi le taux d'apparition des photons virtuels au sein des modes propres d'une cavite est lui aussi amplifie par le resonateur. Mathematiquement, cet effet quantique est decrit par l'existence d'un commutateur " anomal " entre les operateurs d'annihilation et de creation des photons. Nous decrivons les consequences de ce commutateur sur la generation du second harmonique optique (GSH), un processus photonique ou, dans un materiau optiquement non lineaire, deux photons de meme energie fusionnent pour n'en former qu'un seul. On commence ce travail avec un traitement complet et original sur la quantification du champ electromagnetique. On montre ensuite que les fluctuations du vide stimulent le signal de la GSH a l'interieur du milieu confine. Cependant, on constate aussi que les fluctuations du vide jouent le role d'un inhibiteur au declenchement du processus, c'est-a-dire que le seuil de la GSH augmente (il est superieur au seuil minimal de deux photons seulement). En conclusion, les mecanismes intimes de certains processus optiques non lineaires doivent etre reconsideres lorsqu'ils surviennent en presence d'un confinement electromagnetique.

  6. Therapy may explain recent deficits in AIDS incidence.

    PubMed

    Gail, M H; Rosenberg, P S; Goedert, J J

    1990-01-01

    Since the middle of 1987, fewer consistently defined AIDS cases have been reported than expected among homosexual and bisexual men in the United States. This "AIDS deficit" was greater among homosexual and bisexual men in New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, but was also striking among all homosexual and bisexual men in the United States. Deficits were virtually absent among intravenous drug users (IVDUs) in the United States. Three independent sources of data--placebo-controlled trials, pharmaceutical company reports, and the San Francisco Men's Health Study--were used to demonstrate that the amounts of zidovudine (AZT) given prophylactically to those at highest risk of AIDS since March 1987 have been sufficient to account for most of the observed AIDS deficits. Other advances in the medical care of pre-AIDS patients may have combined with AZT to produce the deficits. Other hypothesized explanations were examined and found insufficient to account for the observed AIDS deficits, including: (a) a sudden halt in new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections during the early or mid-1980s; (b) misspecification of the distribution of AIDS incubation times following HIV infection; (c) increasing delays in the reporting of AIDS cases; (d) changes in the surveillance definition of AIDS in 1987; and (e) evolution of attenuated HIV strains. The hypothesis that therapy is affecting national AIDS rates has important implications. Failure to take the effects of therapy into account can lead to serious underestimates by back-calculation of the cumulative numbers infected with HIV and of AIDS incidence over the longer term. Moreover, it appears that AIDS incidence could be retarded in underserved groups, such as IVDUs, by making AZT and other state-of-the-art treatments readily available to AIDS-free patients with advanced immunodeficiency.

  7. Speech Deficits in Serious mental Illness: A Cognitive Resource Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; McGovern, Jessica E.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; Covington, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production (“alogia”), variability (“blunted vocal affect”) and content (“poverty of content of speech”). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  8. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tony J H; Gutierrez, Carolina; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2015-06-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%-8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls) who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher's Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD) to produce a score for "Total Disruptive Behavior" and subscale scores for "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles.

  9. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tony J H; Gutierrez, Carolina; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2015-06-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%-8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls) who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher's Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD) to produce a score for "Total Disruptive Behavior" and subscale scores for "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles. PMID:26084001

  10. Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview.

    PubMed

    Bleise, A; Danesi, P R; Burkart, W

    2003-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU), a waste product of uranium enrichment, has several civilian and military applications. It was used as armor-piercing ammunition in international military conflicts and was claimed to contribute to health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome and recently as the Balkan Syndrome. This led to renewed efforts to assess the environmental consequences and the health impact of the use of DU. The radiological and chemical properties of DU can be compared to those of natural uranium, which is ubiquitously present in soil at a typical concentration of 3 mg/kg. Natural uranium has the same chemotoxicity, but its radiotoxicity is 60% higher. Due to the low specific radioactivity and the dominance of alpha-radiation no acute risk is attributed to external exposure to DU. The major risk is DU dust, generated when DU ammunition hits hard targets. Depending on aerosol speciation, inhalation may lead to a protracted exposure of the lung and other organs. After deposition on the ground, resuspension can take place if the DU containing particle size is sufficiently small. However, transfer to drinking water or locally produced food has little potential to lead to significant exposures to DU. Since poor solubility of uranium compounds and lack of information on speciation precludes the use of radioecological models for exposure assessment, biomonitoring has to be used for assessing exposed persons. Urine, feces, hair and nails record recent exposures to DU. With the exception of crews of military vehicles having been hit by DU penetrators, no body burdens above the range of values for natural uranium have been found. Therefore, observable health effects are not expected and residual cancer risk estimates have to be based on theoretical considerations. They appear to be very minor for all post-conflict situations, i.e. a fraction of those expected from natural radiation.

  11. Portage vaginal du streptocoque du groupe B chez la femme enceinte au niveau de la région de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Bassir, Ahlam; Dhibou, Hanane; Farah, Majdi; Mohamed, Lharmis; Amal, Addebous; Nabila, Souraa; Abderahim, Aboulfalah; Asmouki, Hamid; Soummani, Abderraouf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le streptocoque du groupe B est le principal agent impliqué dans les infections materno-fœtales, les septicémies et les méningites du nouveau-né à terme. L'objectif est de déterminer le taux de portage maternel du streptocoque du groupe B (SGB) à terme. Méthodes Un prélèvement vaginal a été réalisé de manière prospective chez 275 parturientes lors de l'entrée en salle d'accouchement sur une période de 06 mois. Résultats Le taux de portage était de 20,2%. Le portage était variable en fonction de l’âge gestationnel, il constitue 57.5% entre 37 et 38 semaines d'aménorrhée. Aucun des facteurs de risque n'a était statistiquement prédictif du portage maternel du SGB. Conclusion Le dépistage doit être réalisé à partir de 37 semaines d'aménorrhée, et comme le portage est intermittent, un prélèvement négatif ne garantirait pas que le portage soit négatif à l'accouchement. PMID:27222693

  12. Neuropsychological Functioning of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Prospectively into Adolescence: Evidence for Continuing Deficits?

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Carte, Estol T.; Fan, Catherine; Jassy, Jonathan S.; Owens, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), along with a matched comparison sample, five years after childhood neuropsychological assessments. Follow-up neuropsychological measures emphasized attentional skills, executive functions, and language abilities. Paralleling childhood findings, the childhood-diagnosed ADHD group displayed moderate to large deficits in executive/attentional performance as well as rapid naming, relative to the comparison group, at follow-up (M age = 14.2 years). ADHD-Inattentive vs. ADHD-Combined contrasts were nonsignificant and of negligible effect size, even when a refined, “sluggish cognitive tempo” subgroup of the Inattentive type was examined. Although ADHD vs. comparison differences largely withstood statistical control of baseline demographics and comorbidities, control of childhood IQ reduced EF differences to nonsignificance. Yet when the subset of girls meeting diagnostic criteria for ADHD in adolescence were compared to the remainder of the participants, neuropsychological deficits emerged even with full statistical control. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological and executive deficits that persist for at least 5 years. PMID:17402826

  13. Working Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Contribution of Central Executive and Subsystem Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Alderson, R. Matt; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sims, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated contradictory findings from recent experimental and meta-analytic studies concerning working memory deficits in ADHD. Working memory refers to the cognitive ability to temporarily store and mentally manipulate limited amounts of information for use in guiding behavior. Phonological (verbal) and visuospatial…

  14. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  15. Larger Deficits in Brain Networks for Response Inhibition than for Visual Selective Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.; Meyer, Joel R.; Lei, Zhang; Trommer, Barbara L.; Davenport, Nicholas D.; Li, Wei; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2005-01-01

    Background: Brain activation differences between 12 control and 12 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children (9- to 12-year-olds) were examined on two cognitive tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Visual selective attention was measured with the visual search of a conjunction target (red triangle) in a…

  16. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  17. Sensory-motor deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Dyck, Murray J

    2004-10-01

    Children who have been diagnosed with any one developmental disorder are very likely to meet diagnostic criteria for some other developmental disorder. Although comorbidity has long been acknowledged in childhood disorders, little is understood about the mechanisms that are responsible for the high level of comorbidity. In a series of studies, we have investigated the link between sensory-motor deficits and developmental disorders. Poor sensory-motor integration has long been implicated as a cause of motor problems in developmental disorders such as developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and our recent research has also investigated sensory-motor deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic disorder. Based on a critical examination of relevant literature and some of our recent research findings, we argue that the importance of poor sensory-motor functioning in discriminating children with different disorders has been underestimated. Poor sensory-motor coordination appears to be linked to DCD, but not ADHD. Also, sensory-motor deficits in children with DCD and autistic disorder may provide insight into some of the social difficulties found in these groups of children. This research will increase our understanding of why children with one developmental disorder typically also have problems in other areas.

  18. Aspects of grammar sensitive to procedural memory deficits in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Sengottuvel, Kuppuraj; Rao, Prema K S

    2013-10-01

    Procedural deficit hypothesis claims that language deficit in children with specific language impairment is affiliated to sequence learning problems. However, studies did not explore on aspects of grammar vulnerable to sequence learning deficits. The present study makes predictions for aspects of grammar that could be sensitive to procedural deficits based on core ideas of procedural deficit hypothesis. The hypothesis for the present study was that the grammatical operations that require greater sequencing abilities (such as inflectional operations) would be more affected in children with language impairment. Further, the influence of sequencing difficulties would be even greater in agglutinating inflectional languages. An adapted serial reaction time task for sequence learning measurements along with grammatical tasks on derivation, inflection, and sentence complexity were examined on typically developing and language impaired children. Results were in favor of procedural deficit hypothesis and its close relation to non-adjacent grammatical operations. The findings were discussed using procedural deficits, declarative compensatory mechanism, and statistical learning deficits.

  19. Les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2007-02-01

    Explosions d'étoiles, comètes, durée du jour, taches solaires, dans tous ces domaines, des observations chinoises datant de plusieurs siècles sont encore utilisées aujourd'hui. Pendant plus de 4000 ans, les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu, organisés dans les grands observatoires impériaux, ont noté jour après jour, mois après mois, avec la plus grande précision tous les phénomènes célestes. Et ce sont des milliers de textes couvrant des périodes depuis au moins le Ve siècle avant l'ère moderne jusqu'à fin de la dernière dynastie des Qing en 1911, qui ont été conservés et dont une grande partie n'a pu encore être véritablement étudiée. Un véritable trésor, malheureusement très mal connu en Europe et, de façon incompréhensible, largement ignoré par l'histoire moderne des sciences.

  20. Neurodevelopmental Characteristics of Children with Learning Impairments Classified According to the Double-Deficit Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waber, Deborah P.; Forbes, Peter W.; Wolff, Peter H.; Weiler, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The double-deficit model has been examined primarily in relation to reading. We investigated whether children classified according to the double-deficit model would exhibit differences in other neuropsychological domains. Children referred for learning problems (N = 188), ages 7 to 11, were classified by double-deficit subtype. Only three of the…

  1. Cognitive Profiling in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Won Shing Raymond; Hung, Se Fong; Liu, Suet Nga; Lee, Cheuk Kiu Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive profiles of children with Developmental Reading Disorder (RD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) have been extensively studied in alphabetic language communities. Deficits in phonological processing and rapid naming have been implicated as core features of RD although whether the latter is a deficit specific to RD…

  2. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Siegel, Linda S.

    2006-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia proposes that deficits in phonological processing and naming speed represent independent sources of dysfunction in dyslexia. The present article is a review of the evidence for the double-deficit hypothesis, including a discussion of recent findings related to the hypothesis. Studies in this…

  3. Psychostimulant and Sensory Stimulation Interventions That Target the Reading and Math Deficits of Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving…

  4. Social deficits in children with chronic tic disorders: phenomenology, clinical correlates and quality of life.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Joseph F; Hanks, Camille; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K

    2013-10-01

    Youth with chronic tic disorders (CTD) experience social problems that have been associated with functional impairment and a diminished quality of life. Previous examinations have attributed social difficulties to either tic severity or the symptom severity of coexisting conditions, but have not directly explored performance deficits in social functioning. This report examined the presence and characteristics of social deficits in youth with CTD and explored the relationship between social deficits, social problems, and quality of life. Ninety-nine youth (8-17years) and their parents completed a battery of assessments to determine diagnoses, tic severity, severity of coexisting conditions, social responsiveness, and quality of life. Parents reported that youth with CTD had increased social deficits, with 19% reported to have severe social deficits. The magnitude of social deficits was more strongly associated with inattention, hyperactivity, and oppositionality than with tic severity. Social deficits predicted internalizing and social problems, and quality of life above and beyond tic severity. Social deficits partially mediated the relationship between tic severity and social problems, as well as tic severity and quality of life. Findings suggest that youth with CTD have social deficits, which are greater in the presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. These social deficits play an influential role in social problems and quality of life. Future research is needed to develop interventions to address social performance deficits among youth with CTD.

  5. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  6. Is the Movement Deficit in Syntactic SLI Related to Traces or to Thematic Role Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, N.; Novogrodsky, R.

    2007-01-01

    Children with Syntactic Specific Language Impairment (S-SLI) have difficulties understanding object relative clauses, which have been ascribed to a deficit in syntactic movement. The current study explores the nature of the deficit in movement, and specifically whether it is related to a deficit in the construction of syntactic structure and…

  7. Helping Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder www.chadd.org Tel: 301.306.7070 Federation ... information, contact: 4 Helping Children and Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care Attention -Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder Helping ...

  8. Cognitive Deficits and Positively Biased Self-Perceptions in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Julia D.; Tomb, Meghan; Hoza, Betsy; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Vaughn, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between cognitive deficits and positive bias in a sample of 272 children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; 7-12 years old). Results indicated that children with ADHD with and without biased self-perceptions exhibit differences in specific cognitive deficits (executive processes,…

  9. Three studies of deficits in pantomimic expression and pantomimic recognition in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Duffy, R J; Duffy, J R

    1981-03-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate aphasic deficits in pantomimic behaviors. Three groups of subjects were used: 47 aphasics; 27 right-hemisphere-damaged; and 11 controls. Study I replicates a previous study of pantomimic recognition deficits (Duffy, Duffy, & Pearson, 1975) and essentially duplicates the previous findings of significant deficits of pantomimic recognition in aphasic subjects that are highly correlated with their verbal deficits. Study II examines the relationship between deficits in pantomimic recognition and expression; and the relationships between these two nonverbal behaviors and aphasic verbal deficits. Zero order correlations, partial correlations, and multiple regression analyses are presented. The results show that aphasics exhibit significant deficits in both pantomimic expression and recognition; and, that both of these are highly correlated with aphasic verbal deficits. Study III is an investigation of four causal theories of aphasic deficits in pantomimic expression. Zero order correlations, partial correlations, and multiple regression analyses are presented. It is concluded that aphasic pantomimic expressive deficits are not caused by general intellectual deficit or limb apraxia; but, they are associated with a central symbolic disorder or a verbal mediation deficit. The implications of these studies for an understanding of the nature of aphasia as a syndrome which includes both verbal and nonverbal impairments are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of the Double-Deficit Hypothesis Subtype Classification of Readers in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escribano, Carmen Lopez

    2007-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis acknowledges both phonological processing deficits and serial naming speed deficits as two dimensions associated with reading disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine these two dimensions of reading as they were related to the reading skills of 29 Spanish average readers and poor readers (mean age 9…

  11. Anévrysme ventriculaire gauche et communication interventriculaire compliquant un infarctus du myocarde

    PubMed Central

    Belkhadir, Mohammed; MoutakiAllah, Younes; Raissouni, Zainab; Abdou, Abdessamad; Bamous, Mehdi; Nya, Fouad; Atmani, Noureddine; Houssa, Mahdi Ait; El Bekkali, Youssef; Boulahya, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    L'association d'une communication interventriculaire post infarctus du myocarde et d'un anévrysme du ventricule gauche chez un même patient est extrêmement rare et survient habituellement durant la première semaine qui suit un infarctus du myocarde. Nous rapportons le cas insolite d'un patient âgé de 63 ans, admis pour choc cardiogénique en rapport avec une communication inter ventriculaire apicale et un anévrysme ventriculaire gauche causés par un infarctus du myocarde antérieur. La correction chirurgicale a consisté en une fermeture du défect septal par un patch en dacron via une ventriculotomie gauche associée à une anévrysectomie et un mono pontage coronaire. Cette observation illustre d'une part la rareté de l'association communication inter ventriculaire-anévrysme ventriculaire gauche post infarctus du myocarde, et d'autre part l'efficacité du traitement chirurgical qui reste la seule option salvatrice pour cette pathologie. PMID:25328617

  12. Carcinome colloïde du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Laabadi, Kamilia; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazohra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, My Abdelilah

    2013-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'une tumeur colloïde du sein chez un homme. Cette situation rare interpelle par son mode de découverte. Nous avons pris en charge un homme de 60 ans atteint d'une lésion rétro-aréolaire droite classée cliniquement T4b N1 M0 et suspecte radiologiquement. L'analyse histologique (microbiopsie) a conclu à un carcinome colloïde muqueux associé à une petite composante canalaire classique de grade I de SBR du sein. Les traitements complémentaires associent mastectomie, curage, chimiothérapie, radiothérapie et hormonothérapie. Le cancer du sein est rare chez l'homme. Le carcinome colloïde est exceptionnel puisqu'il représente seulement 1 à 6% de l'ensemble des cancers du sein. Il est encore plus rare chez l'homme. Ces tumeurs touchent une population spécifique et ont un meilleur pronostic que les autres types prépondérant dans les cancers du sein chez l'homme. A travers cette observation et une revue de la littérature, nous essaierons de discuter les principales caractéristiques anatomo-cliniques et évolutives de cette forme rare du cancer du sein. PMID:24772222

  13. A systematic review of the oral and craniofacial manifestations of cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corcuera-Flores, José-Ramón; Casttellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Serrera-Figallo, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is an autosomal disorder. Because it affects few people in the population it is considered a rare disease, yet it is one of the most common autosomal chromosomal syndromes in humans. It entails pathognomonic alterations that affect the craniofacial and oral anatomy of patients. The aim of this study is to review these craniofacial and oral abnormalities in patients with Cri du chat syndrome. The PubMed Medline database was searched using two different strategies. First, we used "Dentistry" and "Cri du chat" as keywords; second, we used "Cri du chat" and "craniofacial." Seven articles in which the main orofacial and cranio-skeletal characteristics of patients with Cri du chat syndrome were described were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cri du Chat syndrome entails pathognomonic characteristics in the craniofacial area (epicanthus, short philtrum, and wide nasal bridge), the oral area (mandibular retrognathism and anterior open bite) and the cranial region (alterations at the cranial base angle and a small upper airway). However, more studies on larger samples are needed to specify the orofacial and craniofacial characteristics of patients with Cri du chat syndrome more accurately. Clin. Anat. 29:555-560, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26457586

  14. Working memory deficits in children with specific learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Maehler, Claudia; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    This article examines working memory functioning in children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills as defined by ICD-10. Ninety-seven second to fourth graders with a minimum IQ of 80 are compared using a 2 x 2 factorial (dyscalculia vs. no dyscalculia; dyslexia vs. no dyslexia) design. An extensive test battery assesses the three subcomponents of working memory described by Baddeley (1986): phonological loop, visual-spatial sketchpad, and central executive. Children with dyscalculia show deficits in visual-spatial memory; children with dyslexia show deficits in phonological and central executive functioning. When controlling for the influence of the phonological loop on the performance of the central executive, however, the effect is no longer significant. Although children with both reading and arithmetic disorders are consistently outperformed by all other groups, there is no significant interaction between the factors dyscalculia and dyslexia. PMID:18625783

  15. The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Levy, F

    1991-06-01

    Clinical, animal and neuroanatomical studies of differential isomer and dosage effects of CNS stimulant medications on behaviour are reviewed. Wender's hypothesis that an underlying biochemical abnormality and a disorder of reinforcement was the primary deficit in "MBD" children is restated in terms of a disorder of polysynaptic dopaminergic circuits, between prefrontal and striate centres. Wender's notion of a disorder of reinforcement is broadened to include a disorder of planning and correction of behaviour, including capacity for cortical control of automatic instinctual motor programmes. The dopamine hypothesis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is examined from the point of view of differential dose effects of CNS stimulant medications, and theories of neural control. Clinical, animal and neuropharmacological studies are reviewed. Implications of the findings for understanding clinical and side effects in ADHD children of stimulants are discussed.

  16. A peripheral reading deficit under conditions of diffuse visual attention.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, G W; Mayall, K

    2001-09-01

    We report a single case study of a patient, FL, who has a peripheral dyslexia with symptoms resembling attentional dyslexia. FL demonstrated impaired identification of letters within strings, and better identification of words than their constituent letters. We found that FL was impaired at both letter counting and same-case letter matching with letter strings, and his matching and naming performance were strongly affected by letter spacing. The effects of these visual variables on performance suggest an early locus to FL's deficit. We propose that letter identification was disrupted by abnormal lateral masking and poor location coding within words. These peripheral processing deficits were reduced when the task required focused attention on the central letter location. Nevertheless, even with impaired letter coding, word representations could be accessed to some degree, via supra-letter units. We discuss the implications of the data for understanding normal reading.

  17. Deficits in saccade target selection after inactivation of superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    McPeek, Robert M; Keller, Edward L

    2004-07-01

    Saccades are rapid eye movements that orient gaze toward areas of interest in the visual scene. Neural activity correlated with saccade target selection has been identified in several brain regions, including the superior colliculus (SC), but it is not known whether the SC is directly involved in target selection, or whether the SC merely receives selection-related signals from cortex in preparation for the execution of eye movements. In monkeys, we used focal reversible inactivation to test the functional contributions of the SC to target selection during visual search, and found that inactivation resulted in clear deficits. When a target appeared in the inactivated field, saccades were often misdirected to distractor stimuli. Control tasks showed that this deficit was not caused by low-level visual or motor impairments. Our results indicate that, in addition to its well-established involvement in movement execution, the SC has an important functional role in target selection. PMID:15195099

  18. A neurobiological approach to the cognitive deficits of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; O'Hara, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    Deficits in brain networks that support cognitive regulatory functions are prevalent in many psychiatric disorders. Findings across neuropsychology and neuroimaging point to broad-based impairments that cross traditional diagnostic boundaries. These dysfunctions are largely separate from the classical symptoms of the disorders, and manifest in regulatory problems in both traditional cognitive and emotional domains. As such, they relate to the capacity of patients to engage effectively in their daily lives and activity, often persist even in the face of symptomatically effective treatment, and are poorly targeted by current treatments. Advances in cognitive neuroscience now allow us to ground an understanding of these cognitive regulatory deficits in the function and interaction of key brain networks. This emerging neurobiological understanding furthermore points to several promising routes for novel neuroscience-informed treatments targeted more specifically at improving cognitive function in a range of psychiatric disorders.

  19. Visoconstructive deficits and risk of developing eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Sánchez, Nayelli; Silva-Gutiérrez, Cecilia; Salvador-Cruz, Judith

    2009-11-01

    In order to explore if neuropsychological deficits on visual constructional ability could be related to risk eating behaviors, a total of 102 women were evaluated, 51 of the participants had been formally diagnosed with eating disorders and 51 did not. All participants were given the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40), The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and The Tower of London Task. Results revealed the existence of a deficit on visual integration similar to those observed in other studies with diagnosed patients. The group at risk showed a comparatively reduced ability on the tasks and the control participants' execution was on the average. Findings revealed the need for designing studies to evaluate neuropsychological processes as possible risk factors which predict eating disorders.

  20. Climate change impacts on global agricultural water deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Cai, Ximing

    2013-03-01

    This paper assesses the change in crop water deficits (the difference between crop evapotranspiration and precipitation that is effective for crop growth) of 26 crops (including rainfed and irrigated) under current (1961-1990) and projected climates (2070-2099). We found that despite the universally rising mean temperature, crop water deficits are likely to decline slightly at the global scale, although changes vary by region. While the increasing precipitation and changing intra-annual precipitation distribution in many areas can lead to more effective rainfall for crop growth, the declining diurnal temperature range will play a key role in offsetting the warming effect at the global scale. Regionally, Africa and China are likely to benefit from lower water requirements, but the impacts on other regions, including Europe, India, South America, and the United States, are subject to the land-use types (rainfed or irrigated) and the uncertainty involved in the assessment approaches.

  1. Perfusion deficits, inflammation and aging precipitate depressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Buga, Ana Maria; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Albu, Carmen Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe psychiatric illness that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in the treatment of major depression, one-third of depressed patients fail to respond to conventional antidepressant medication. One pathophysiologic mechanism hypothesized to contribute to treatment resistance in depression is inflammation. Inflammation has been linked to depression by a number of putative mechanisms involving perfusion deficits that can trigger microglial activation and subsequent neuroinflammation in the elderly. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. This review focusses on recent studies addressing the complex relationships between depression, aging, inflammation and perfusion deficits in the elderly. We expect that a better understanding of neuroinflammatory mechanisms associated with age-related diseases may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers of MDD and development of new therapeutic interventions.

  2. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  3. Empathy deficits and cognitive distortions in child molesters.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W L; Hamilton, K; Fernandez, Y

    2001-04-01

    An attempt was made to examine the thesis that the apparent empathy deficits in child molesters are simply another aspect of their self-serving tendency to distort information by, in this case, failing to recognize victim harm. Thirty-four child molesters were compared on a victim empathy measure and a measure of cognitive distortions, with 24 nonsex offenders and 28 nonoffending males. Child molesters displayed greater cognitive distortions than the other subjects and their greatest empathy deficits were toward their own victims. Consistent with the theory being examined it was found that the empathy scores of the child molesters toward their own victims were significantly correlated with the responses to the cognitive distortions scale. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for theory and practice.

  4. Energy deficit in Huntington disease: why it matters

    PubMed Central

    Mochel, Fanny; Haller, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease with complete penetrance. Although the understanding of the cellular mechanisms that drive neurodegeneration in HD and account for the characteristic pattern of neuronal vulnerability is incomplete, defects in energy metabolism, particularly mitochondrial function, represent a common thread in studies of HD pathogenesis in humans and animal models. Here we review the clinical, biochemical, and molecular evidence of an energy deficit in HD and discuss the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial and related alterations. PMID:21285522

  5. Evidence for distinct cognitive deficits after focal cerebellar lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gottwald, B; Wilde, B; Mihajlovic, Z; Mehdorn, H

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Anatomical evidence and lesion studies, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, indicate that the cerebellum contributes to higher cognitive functions. Cerebellar posterior lateral regions seem to be relevant for cognition, while vermal lesions seem to be associated with changes in affect. However, the results remain controversial. Deficits of patients are sometimes still attributed to motor impairment. Methods: We present data from a detailed neuropsychological examination of 21 patients with cerebellar lesions due to tumour or haematoma, and 21 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education. Results: Patients showed deficits in executive function, and in attentional processes such as working memory and divided attention. Further analysis revealed that patients with right-sided lesions were in general more impaired than those with left-sided lesions. Conclusions: Those hypotheses that suggest that lesions of the right cerebellar hemisphere lead to verbal deficits, while those of the left lead to non-verbal deficits, have in part been confirmed. The generally greater impairment of those patients with a right-sided lesion has been interpreted as resulting from the connection of the right cerebellum to the left cerebral hemisphere, which is dominant for language functions and crucial for right hand movements. Motor impairment was correlated with less than half of the cognitive measures, with no stronger tendency for correlation with cognitive tests that require motor responses discernible. The results are discussed on the basis of an assumption that the cerebellum has a predicting and preparing function, indicating that cerebellar lesions lead to a "dysmetria of thought." PMID:15489381

  6. Implications of CI therapy for visual deficit training.

    PubMed

    Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2014-01-01

    We address here the question of whether the techniques of Constraint Induced (CI) therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), multiple sclerosis (MS), other central nervous system (CNS) degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia. The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a "transfer package" to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies. CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the gray matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNCs) in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the DNCs. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the treatment

  7. Cloning humans, cloning literature: genetics and the imagination deficit.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, J

    1999-01-01

    After the birth of Dolly, media stories on cloning were replete with references to well-known science fiction plots. This essay criticizes the 'imagination deficit' of scientists and journalists, first by problematizing the uncritical adoption of attentuated science fiction plots in the media coverage of Dolly, and second, by proposing to look at more expansive science fiction novels that carefully examine issues such as uniqueness and identity in relation to the new genetics.

  8. Neurally dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Boukrina, Olga; Barrett, A M; Alexander, Edward J; Yao, Bing; Graves, William W

    2015-01-01

    According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling), phonological (sound), and semantic (meaning) information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here, we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (<=5 weeks post-stroke). Patients completed tasks assessing cognitive components of reading such as semantics (matching picture or word choices to a target based on meaning), phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming), and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible non-word). They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive

  9. ADHD and executive functioning deficits in OCD youths who hoard.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer M; Samuels, Jack F; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Krasnow, Janice; Murphy, Dennis L; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Knowles, James A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Nestadt, Gerald; Geller, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD.

  10. Implications of CI therapy for visual deficit training

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W.; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2014-01-01

    We address here the question of whether the techniques of Constraint Induced (CI) therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), multiple sclerosis (MS), other central nervous system (CNS) degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia. The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a “transfer package” to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies. CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the gray matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNCs) in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the DNCs. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the

  11. Neurally dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Boukrina, Olga; Barrett, A M; Alexander, Edward J; Yao, Bing; Graves, William W

    2015-01-01

    According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling), phonological (sound), and semantic (meaning) information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here, we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (<=5 weeks post-stroke). Patients completed tasks assessing cognitive components of reading such as semantics (matching picture or word choices to a target based on meaning), phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming), and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible non-word). They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive

  12. ADHD and executive functioning deficits in OCD youths who hoard.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer M; Samuels, Jack F; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Krasnow, Janice; Murphy, Dennis L; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Knowles, James A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Nestadt, Gerald; Geller, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD. PMID:27501140

  13. Chronic Nicotine Exposure Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Deficits.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; McFadden, Lisa M; Nielsen, Shannon M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Walters, Elliot T; Stout, Kristen A; McIntosh, J Michael; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-12-01

    Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administrations cause persistent dopaminergic deficits resembling aspects of Parkinson's disease. Many METH abusers smoke cigarettes and thus self-administer nicotine; yet few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on METH-induced dopaminergic deficits. This interaction is of interest because preclinical studies demonstrate that nicotine can be neuroprotective, perhaps owing to effects involving α4β2 and α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study revealed that oral nicotine exposure beginning in adolescence [postnatal day (PND) 40] through adulthood [PND 96] attenuated METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits when METH was administered at PND 89. This protection did not appear to be due to nicotine-induced alterations in METH pharmacokinetics. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure also protected when administered from PND 40 to PND 61 (with METH at PND 54), but this protective effect did not persist. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure did not protect when administered postadolescence (i.e., beginning at PND 61, with METH at PND 75). However, protection was engendered if the duration of nicotine exposure was extended to 39 days (with METH at PND 93). Autoradiographic analysis revealed that nicotine increased striatal α4β2 expression, as assessed using [(125)I]epibatidine. Both METH and nicotine decreased striatal α6β2 expression, as assessed using [(125)I]α-conotoxin MII. These findings indicate that nicotine protects against METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits, perhaps by affecting α4β2 and/or α6β2 expression, and that both age of onset and duration of nicotine exposure affect this protection.

  14. Models of cognitive deficit and statistical hypotheses: multiple sclerosis, an example.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L; Clark, C M; Klonoff, H; Paty, D

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe four models of cognitive deficit and to outline the statistical hypotheses underlying each model. The four models of cognitive deficit were (a) specific deficit; (b) subgroup deficit; (c) a syndrome dissociation model; and (d) a global function dissociation model. Neuropsychological data are analyzed to examine each of these four models in a sample of mild Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. The results suggest that for these subjects and tests, the specific deficit model best fits the data. The results are reviewed initially in the context of MS. There follows a consideration of statistical caveats and finally, general applications of the proposed procedures. PMID:8354709

  15. Motivational Deficits in Schizophrenia and the Representation of Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    Waltz, James A.; Gold, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Motivational deficits (avolition and anhedonia) have historically been considered important negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Numerous studies have attempted to identify the neural substrates of avolition and anhedonia in schizophrenia, but these studies have not produced much agreement. Deficits in various aspects of reinforcement processing have been observed in individuals with schizophrenia, but it is not exactly clear which of these deficits actually engender motivational impairments in SZ. The purpose of this chapter is to examine how various reinforcement-related behavioral and neural signals could contribute to motivational impairments in both schizophrenia, and psychiatric illness, in general. In particular, we describe different aspects of the concept of expected value (EV), such as the distinction between the EV of stimuli and the expected value of actions, the acquisition of value vs. the estimation of value, and the discounting of value as a consequence of time or effort required. We conclude that avolition and anhedonia in SZ are most commonly tied to aberrant signals for expected value, in the context of learning. We discuss implications for further research on the neural substrates of motivational impairments in psychiatric illness. PMID:26370946

  16. Short-term memory deficit after focal parietal damage.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, H J; Kalbe, E; Kessler, J; von Stockhausen, H M; Ghaemi, M; Heiss, W D

    1999-12-01

    The neuropsychological symptomatology is reported for a 44-year-old patient of normal intelligence, EE, after removal of a circumscribed left hemispheric tumor the major part of which was located in the angular gyrus and in the subcortical white matter. EE had a distinct and persistent short-term memory impairment together with an equally severe impairment in transcoding numbers. On the other hand, his performance was flawless in calculation tasks and in all other tests involving number processing. Impairments in language tests could be attributed to his short-term memory deficit, which furthermore was characterized by a strong primacy effect in the absence of a recency effect. His graphomotoric output was temporarily inhibited. The patient, with a strong left-sided dominance, manifested a bi-hemispherical activation of the Broca and Wernicke regions in a positron-emission-tomographic investigation when required to produce verbs which he was to derive from nouns. The findings in EE suggest that unilateral and restricted lateral parietal damage can result in a profound short-term memory deficit together with a transcoding deficit for stimuli extending over only a few digits or syllables in the absence of any symptoms of the Gerstmann syndrome.

  17. Emotion perception in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bisch, Jeanne; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Bretscher, Johannes; Wildgruber, Dirk; Fallgatter, Andreas; Ethofer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This study examined identification of emotional information in facial expression, prosody, and their combination in 23 adult patients with combined attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus 31 healthy controls (HC) matched for gender, age, and education. We employed a stimulus set which was carefully balanced for valence as well as recognizability of the expressed emotions as determined in an independent sample of HC to avoid potential biases due to different levels of task difficulty. ADHD patients were characterized by impaired recognition of all employed categories (neutral, happiness, eroticism, disgust, anger). Basic cognitive functions as assessed by neuropsychological testing, such as sustained attention, constancy of alertness, and verbal intelligence partially explained lower recognition rates. Removal of the correlated variance by means of regression analyses did not abolish lower performance in ADHD indicating deficits in social cognition independent of these neuropsychological factors (p < 0.05). Lower performance correlated with self-rated emotional intelligence (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) indicating that adults with ADHD are aware of their problems in emotion perception. ADHD patients could partly compensate their deficit in unimodal emotion perception by audiovisual integration as revealed by larger gains in emotion recognition accuracy during bimodal presentation (p < 0.05) as compared to HC. These behavioral results can serve as foundation for future neuroimaging studies and point rather towards sensory-specific regions than audiovisual integration areas in perception of emotional information in adult ADHD. PMID:26850439

  18. Motivational Deficits in Schizophrenia and the Representation of Expected Value.

    PubMed

    Waltz, James A; Gold, James M

    2016-01-01

    Motivational deficits (avolition and anhedonia) have historically been considered important negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ). Numerous studies have attempted to identify the neural substrates of avolition and anhedonia in schizophrenia , but these studies have not produced much agreement. Deficits in various aspects of reinforcement processing have been observed in individuals with schizophrenia, but it is not exactly clear which of these deficits actually engender motivational impairments in SZ. The purpose of this chapter is to examine how various reinforcement-related behavioral and neural signals could contribute to motivational impairments in both schizophrenia and psychiatric illness, in general. In particular, we describe different aspects of the concept of expected value (EV), such as the distinction between the EV of stimuli and the expected value of actions, the acquisition of value versus the estimation of value, and the discounting of value as a consequence of time or effort required. We conclude that avolition and anhedonia in SZ are most commonly tied to aberrant signals for expected value, in the context of learning. We discuss implications for further research on the neural substrates of motivational impairments in psychiatric illness. PMID:26370946

  19. Transfer component skill deficit rates among Veterans who use wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Alicia M; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Boninger, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the deficit rates for transfer component skills in a Veteran cohort and explore the relationship between deficit rates and subject characteristics. Seventy-four men and 18 women performed up to four transfers independently from their wheelchair to a mat table while a therapist evaluated their transfer techniques using the Transfer Assessment Instrument. The highest deficit rates concerned the improper use of handgrips (63%). Other common problems included not setting the wheelchair up at the proper angle (50%) and not removing the armrest (58%). Veterans over 60 yr old and Veterans with moderate shoulder pain were more likely to set up their wheelchairs inappropriately than younger Veterans (p = 0.003) and Veterans with mild shoulder pain (p = 0.004). Women were less likely to remove their armrests than men (p = 0.03). Subjects with disabilities other than spinal cord injury were less inclined to set themselves up for a safe and easy transfer than the subjects with spinal cord injury (p ≤ 0.001). The results provide insight into the disparities present in transfer skills among Veterans and will inform the development of future transfer training programs both within and outside of the Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:27149389

  20. A neural model of mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Zajkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    From a multidimensional perspective, empathy is a process that includes affective sharing and imagining and understanding the emotions of others. The primary brain structures involved in mediating the components of empathy are the anterior insula (AI), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The AI and ACC are the main nodes in the salience network (SN), which selects and coordinates the information flow from the intero- and exteroreceptors. AI might play a role as a crucial hub – a dynamic switch between 2 separate networks of cognitive processing: the central executive network (CEN), which is concerned with effective task execution, and the default mode network (DMN), which is involved with self-reflective processes. Given various classifications, a deficit in empathy may be considered a central dysfunctional trait in narcissism. A recent fMRI study suggests that deficit in empathy is due to a dysfunction in the right AI. Based on the acquired data, we propose a theoretical model of imbalanced SN functioning in narcissism in which the dysfunctional AI hub is responsible for constant DMN activation, which, in turn, centers one’s attention on the self. This might hinder the ability to affectively share and understand the emotions of others. This review paper on neural mechanisms of empathy deficits in narcissism aims to inspire and direct future research in this area. PMID:24189465

  1. Interoceptive sensitivity deficits in women recovered from bulimia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Klabunde, Megan; Acheson, Dean; Boutelle, Kerri; Matthews, Scott; Kaye, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Self-report studies suggest that patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) evidence difficulties with interoceptive awareness. Indeed, interoceptive deficits may persist after recovery of BN and may be a biological trait that predisposes symptom development in BN. However, no studies to date have directly assessed interoceptive sensitivity, or accuracy in detecting and perceiving internal body cues, in patients with or recovered from BN. Nine women who had recovered from BN and 10 healthy control women completed the Heart Beat Perception Task (HBPT) in which individuals were required to estimate the number of heartbeats between intervals of time. Accuracy scores were compared between groups. Significant differences were found between the groups on the HBPT ((F 1,19)= 7.78, p=.013, Cohen’s d= 1.16) when controlling for age. These results suggest that deficits in interoceptive sensitivity are present in individuals recovered from BN. Thus interoceptive deficits may be one factor that bridges the gap between brain dysfunction and symptom presentation in BN. PMID:24183142

  2. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Wang, Wei-ping; Jia, Li-jing; Mao, Zhuo-feng; Qu, Zhen-zhen; Luan, Shao-qun; Kan, Min-chen

    2012-08-27

    Maternal seizure has adverse effects on brain histology as well as on learning and memory ability in progeny. An enriched environment (EE) is known to promote structural changes in the brain and improve cognitive and motor deficits following a variety of brain injuries. Whether EE treatment in early postnatal periods could restore cognitive impairment induced by prenatal maternal seizure is unknown. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and were injected intraperitoneally either saline or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) for 30 days. Then the fully kindled rats and control animals were allowed to mate. PTZ administration was continued until delivery, while the control group received saline at the same time. After weaning at postnatal day 22, one-half of the male offspring in the control and in the prenatal maternal group were given the environmental enrichment treatment through all the experiments until they were tested. Morris water maze testing was performed at 8 weeks of age. Western blot and synaptic ultrastructure analysis were then performed. We found that EE treatment reversed spatial learning deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure. An EE also reversed the changes in synaptic ultrastructure following prenatal maternal seizure. In addition, prenatal maternal seizure significantly decreased phosphorylation states of cAMP response element binding (CREB) in the hippocampus, whereas EE reversed this reduced expression. These findings suggest that EE treatment on early postnatal periods could be a potential therapy for improving cognitive deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure.

  3. Motivational Deficits in Schizophrenia and the Representation of Expected Value.

    PubMed

    Waltz, James A; Gold, James M

    2016-01-01

    Motivational deficits (avolition and anhedonia) have historically been considered important negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ). Numerous studies have attempted to identify the neural substrates of avolition and anhedonia in schizophrenia , but these studies have not produced much agreement. Deficits in various aspects of reinforcement processing have been observed in individuals with schizophrenia, but it is not exactly clear which of these deficits actually engender motivational impairments in SZ. The purpose of this chapter is to examine how various reinforcement-related behavioral and neural signals could contribute to motivational impairments in both schizophrenia and psychiatric illness, in general. In particular, we describe different aspects of the concept of expected value (EV), such as the distinction between the EV of stimuli and the expected value of actions, the acquisition of value versus the estimation of value, and the discounting of value as a consequence of time or effort required. We conclude that avolition and anhedonia in SZ are most commonly tied to aberrant signals for expected value, in the context of learning. We discuss implications for further research on the neural substrates of motivational impairments in psychiatric illness.

  4. Evaluation of hearing deficit in patients with oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parvathi; Singh, Ipsa; Setru, Ravindra; Tyagi, Kuber; Singh, Dharamveer; Thiyam, Bellona

    2015-06-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a well recognized premalignant condition predominantly affecting the oral cavity, but sometimes extending to the pharynx, esophagus or even the larynx. OSMF may lead to stiffness of the oral cavity, resulting in trismus and inability to eat, difficulty with speech or swallowing, pain in the throat and ears, and a relative loss of auditory acuity. To evaluate the hearing deficit in patients with OSMF, we examined a study group comprising 40 patients, and also 10 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. All of the subjects were evaluated for hearing loss by pure tone audiometry. The OSMF group showed a significant degree of hearing loss relative to the control group. OSMF in advanced stages was significantly associated with mild conductive hearing loss (P < 0.01). The present study revealed a significant association between OSMF and hearing deficit. Involvement of the palatal muscles with OSMF may decrease the patency of the Eustachian tube, leading to conductive hearing loss. Therefore, all patients with OSMF should be evaluated for hearing deficit and advised about appropriate treatment. PMID:26062859

  5. Attentional enhancements and deficits in deaf populations: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Dye, Matthew W G; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    The literature on visual attention in deaf individuals presents two competing views. On one hand, the deficit view proposes that auditory input is necessary for the development of visual attention; on the other hand, the compensation view holds that visual attention reorganizes to allow the individual to compensate for the lack of auditory input. While apparently contradictory, we suggest that these views shed complementary light on the cross-modal reorganization of visual attention after early deafness. First, these two fields of inquiry look at different aspects of attention. The deficit view is mostly supported by studies of allocation of attention in time, whereas the compensation view is backed by studies measuring the allocation of attention across space. Second, they focus on groups of different age and different background. Deficits have been documented mostly in children with mixed hearing loss aetiologies, whereas reorganization has been documented in a less representative, but more homogenous group of Deaf adults. We propose a more integrative view in which early auditory deprivation does not result in better or worse visual attention. Rather, selected aspects of visual attention are modified in various ways along the developmental trajectory as a result of early deafness. PMID:20404407

  6. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kerns, John G

    2009-11-01

    An important issue in understanding the nature of conflict processing is whether it is a unitary or multidimensional construct. One way to examine this is to study whether people with impaired conflict processing exhibit a general pattern of deficits or whether they exhibit impairments in distinct aspects of conflict processing. One group who might exhibit conflict deficits are people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder, with one way to break down the heterogeneity of schizophrenia is to examine specific symptoms. Previous research has found that specific symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with specific deficits in conflict processing. In particular, disorganization is associated with increased response conflict, alogia is associated with increased retrieval conflict, and anhedonia is associated with increased emotional conflict. Moreover, there is evidence that different types of conflict processing are unassociated with each other. This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict. PMID:19034500

  7. Morphine tolerance offers protection from radiogenic performance deficits

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Burrows, J.M.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-02-01

    When rats are exposed to a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation they exhibit lethargy, hypokinesia, and deficits in performance. These and other behavioral changes parallel those often observed in this species after a large dose of morphine. Since the release of endogenous opiates has been implicated in some stress reactions, we sought to determine if they might play a part in radiogenic behavioral deficits. Rats were trained to criterion on a signaled avoidance task. Some subjects were then implanted with a pellet containing 75 mg of morphine. Other animals received placebo implants. Over a number of days, morphine tolerance was evaluated by measurement of body temperature changes. Prior to 2500 rad /sup 60/Co exposure or sham irradiation, morphine (or placebo) pellets were removed. Twenty-four hours later rats were retested to assess their performance on the avoidance task. Morphine-tolerant subjects performed significantly better than the irradiated placebo-implanted group and no differently than morphine-tolerant/sham-irradiated animals. Morphine tolerance seems to provide a degree of behavioral radiation resistance. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous opiate hyperexcretion may play some part in the behavioral deficits often observed after irradiation.

  8. Do visual field deficits exacerbate visuo-spatial neglect?

    PubMed Central

    Halligan, P W; Marshall, J C; Wade, D T

    1990-01-01

    A significant association between visual field deficits (VFD) and visuo-spatial neglect is well established, although cases of double-dissociation between the two conditions are not uncommon. It has been argued that VFD typically exacerbates the behavioural manifestations of neglect. We examined a series of 51 patients with unilateral right-hemisphere stroke for the presence of visual field deficit and visuo-spatial neglect. Patients were assigned to the neglect group (N+) or the non-neglect group (N-) on the basis of their aggregate scores on the recently standardised Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT). The association between neglect and VFD was confirmed. Four groups of eight patients (N+, VFD+; N+, VFD-; N-, VFD+; N-, VFD-) were then selected from the initial sample so that they were matched for age, IQ, and days post onset of stroke. Within the neglect groups, the severity of neglect did not differ significantly between those patients with and without VFD; within the non-neglect groups, scores on subtests of the BIT likewise did not differ (with the sole exception of Letter Cancellation) between the VFD+ and the VFD- subgroups. It was concluded that visual field deficits do not exacerbate neglect, and that poor functional recovery in many patients with VFDs is due to the association of sensory loss with the underlying causal factor of neglect. PMID:2380729

  9. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  10. Motor Response Deficits of Unilateral Neglect: Assessment, Therapy, and Neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Saevarsson, Styrmir

    2013-04-16

    The clinical impact of the motor deficits of unilateral neglect is indisputable. The diagnosis criteria are confusing and complicated, and assessment has been extended and modified gradually during the last few decades, which has led to inconsistency and confusion. Many different attempts have been made to overcome various assessment shortcomings. In this article, different examinations of previous studies and analyses are discussed in a systematic and critical way. Research databases were used to identify 254 reports, including 26 different empirical studies on motor neglect and 44 studies on premotor neglect. Most of the studies address the gross neuroanatomical location of lesions. The main findings indicate that frontal lesions are more common in motor neglect than in premotor neglect, and parietal lesions are more common in premotor neglect than in motor neglect. Few studies have evaluated therapeutic programs for the motor deficits of neglect. Unfortunately, most studies suffer from various diagnostic problems that result in inconsistent and controversial findings. Different assessment issues need to be addressed systematically in future studies in light of current findings to increase our understanding and awareness of these important neuropsychological motor deficits. Implications of and possible solutions to the current assessment shortcomings are discussed.

  11. College students' conceptualizations of deficits involved in mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Musso, Mandi W; Barker, Alyse A; Proto, Daniel A; Gouvier, Wm Drew

    2012-01-01

    Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the public's conceptualizations of individuals with ID. This study sought to examine 890 college students' conceptualizations of the deficits involved in mild ID. Students were asked to respond to two online surveys about the cognitive and adaptive behavior deficits that people with mild ID may experience. While most students were correct about basic facts, such as ID is not contagious and not curable, there was no clear consensus regarding beliefs about individuals with ID getting married, having children, or engaging in other mainstream activities of adult living. Students' responses are examined in light of results of studies that identify and examine bona fide deficits and areas of successful mainstreaming among persons with ID. Implications of misconceptions are discussed.

  12. Respiratory deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tuppy, M; Barna, B F; Alves-Dos-Santos, L; Britto, L R G; Chiavegatto, S; Moreira, T S; Takakura, A C

    2015-06-25

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. In addition to deficits in voluntary movement, PD involves a disturbance of breathing regulation. However, the cause and nature of this disturbance are not well understood. Here, we investigated breathing at rest and in response to hypercapnia (7% CO2) or hypoxia (8% O2), as well as neuroanatomical changes in brainstem regions essential for breathing, in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. Bilateral injections of 6-OHDA (24μg/μl) into the striatum decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH(+))-neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), transcription factor phox2b-expressing neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus and neurokinin-1 receptors in the ventral respiratory column. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, respiratory rate was reduced at rest, leading to a reduction in minute ventilation. These animals also showed a reduction in the tachypneic response to hypercapnia, but not to hypoxia challenge. These results suggest that the degeneration of TH(+) neurons in the SNpc leads to impairment of breathing at rest and in hypercapnic conditions. Our data indicate that respiratory deficits in a 6-OHDA rat model of PD are related to downregulation of neural systems involved in respiratory rhythm generation. The present study suggests a new avenue to better understand the respiratory deficits observed in chronic stages of PD.

  13. College students' conceptualizations of deficits involved in mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Musso, Mandi W; Barker, Alyse A; Proto, Daniel A; Gouvier, Wm Drew

    2012-01-01

    Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the public's conceptualizations of individuals with ID. This study sought to examine 890 college students' conceptualizations of the deficits involved in mild ID. Students were asked to respond to two online surveys about the cognitive and adaptive behavior deficits that people with mild ID may experience. While most students were correct about basic facts, such as ID is not contagious and not curable, there was no clear consensus regarding beliefs about individuals with ID getting married, having children, or engaging in other mainstream activities of adult living. Students' responses are examined in light of results of studies that identify and examine bona fide deficits and areas of successful mainstreaming among persons with ID. Implications of misconceptions are discussed. PMID:22093668

  14. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning has been well-documented in individuals with ADHD. Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms of the disorder. Language problems are also common in ADHD, with accumulating evidence of pragmatic language difficulties. Pragmatic deficits are associated with social impairment in several neurodevelopmental disorders. This study systematically examined pragmatic language functioning in children with ADHD and whether social impairment in ADHD is mediated by pragmatic deficits. Method 63 children (28 ADHD; 35 typically-developing), ages 7-11 years, underwent a comprehensive assessment of pragmatic language, including parent ratings, standardized tests, and a narrative task. Parents also rated children's social skills on the Social Skills Improvement System. Results Children with ADHD had poorer pragmatic language skills relative to peers across all measures, even after controlling for general language abilities. Furthermore, pragmatic abilities as measured by parent ratings, mediated the relation between ADHD and social skills. Conclusions Pragmatic language skills are impaired in many children with ADHD and may partially account for high rates of social impairment. Implications for treatment and possible prevention of social problems in children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:23682627

  15. Early writing deficits in preschoolers with oral language difficulties.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A group of 293 preschool children were administered an assessment battery that included measures to examine oral language, nonverbal cognition, emergent reading, and writing. Children were divided into four groups based on their language and cognitive performance. The findings from this study show that as early as preschool, children with weaker oral language skills lag behind their peers with stronger oral language skills in terms of their writing-related skills. Children with oral language and cognitive deficits performed more poorly than children whose deficits were confined to oral language. A child's cognitive ability also has an impact on emergent writing skills, but it appears to be moderated by oral language skills. These results are consistent with research documenting links between preschool language and emergent reading in children with a history of LI. PMID:22043027

  16. Ventral pallidum mediates amygdala-evoked deficits in prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Forcelli, Patrick A.; West, Elizabeth A.; Murnen, Alice T.; Malkova, Ludise

    2012-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. It is defined as a reduction in magnitude of a startle response when a startling stimulus is preceded by a weaker “prepulse”. PPI has been found to be altered in patients with schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and other neuropsychiatric illnesses. As such, the neural substrates regulating PPI are of particular interest. Previous studies using lesions, selective blockade of NMDA receptors and pharmacological disinhibition have demonstrated that impairment of basolateral amygdala (BLA) function disrupts PPI. However, transient GABA-mediated inactivation of BLA has not been evaluated for effects on PPI. Furthermore, the downstream projection targets that mediate BLA-evoked disruptions of PPI have not been elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effect on PPI of bilateral and unilateral inactivation of BLA, by microinfusion of the GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol. We found that either bilateral or unilateral inactivation impaired PPI. Because unilateral inactivation was sufficient to impair PPI, we hypothesized that this was due to an indirect activation of a downstream target of BLA, the ventral pallidum (VP). Because VP inhibition normalizes PPI deficits evoked from nucleus accumbens (Kodsi & Swerdlow, 1994), we next tested the degree to which VP inhibition would normalize PPI deficits evoked from BLA. We unilaterally inactivated BLA with concurrent inactivation of VP and found that VP inactivation blocked BLA-evoked deficits in PPI. We suggest that BLA inactivation disrupts PPI through disinhibition of VP. PMID:22250771

  17. Models of misbelief: Integrating motivational and deficit theories of delusions.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2007-12-01

    The impact of our desires and preferences upon our ordinary, everyday beliefs is well-documented [Gilovich, T. (1991). How we know what isn't so: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. New York: The Free Press.]. The influence of such motivational factors on delusions, which are instances of pathological misbelief, has tended however to be neglected by certain prevailing models of delusion formation and maintenance. This paper explores a distinction between two general classes of theoretical explanation for delusions; the motivational and the deficit. Motivational approaches view delusions as extreme instances of self-deception; as defensive attempts to relieve pain and distress. Deficit approaches, in contrast, view delusions as the consequence of defects in the normal functioning of belief mechanisms, underpinned by neuroanatomical or neurophysiological abnormalities. It is argued that although there are good reasons to be sceptical of motivational theories (particularly in their more floridly psychodynamic manifestations), recent experiments confirm that motives are important causal forces where delusions are concerned. It is therefore concluded that the most comprehensive account of delusions will involve a theoretical unification of both motivational and deficit approaches. PMID:17331741

  18. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  19. Localisation inhabituelle de la tuberculose: ostéoarthrite tuberculose du pouce

    PubMed Central

    Mortaji, Aziz; Koulali, Khalid; Galuia, Farid

    2014-01-01

    L'ostéoarthrite tuberculose est rare au niveau des doigts. Nous rapportons une observation d'atteinte du pouce chez un patient de 55 ans. Il avait présenté une tuméfaction douloureuse du pouce droit suite à un traumatisme du pouce. L’étude bactériologique et une biopsie avaient permis de confirmer le diagnostic. Un traitement antibacillaire de 12 mois avait donné des résultats satisfaisants. Les particularités de la prise en charge sont discutées par rapport aux données de la littérature. PMID:25932075

  20. Functional neuroanatomical evidence for the double-deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth S; Black, Jessica M; Stanley, Leanne M; Tanaka, Hiroko; Gabrieli, John D E; Sawyer, Carolyn; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2014-08-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis of dyslexia posits that both rapid naming and phonological impairments can cause reading difficulties, and that individuals who have both of these deficits show greater reading impairments compared to those with a single deficit. Despite extensive behavioral research, the brain basis of poor reading with a double-deficit has never been investigated. The goal of the study was to evaluate the double-deficit hypothesis using functional MRI. Activation patterns during a printed word rhyme judgment task in 90 children with a wide range of reading abilities showed dissociation between brain regions that were sensitive to phonological awareness (left inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions) and rapid naming (right cerebellar lobule VI). More specifically, the double-deficit group showed less activation in the fronto-parietal reading network compared to children with only a deficit in phonological awareness, who in turn showed less activation than the typically-reading group. On the other hand, the double-deficit group showed less cerebellar activation compared to children with only a rapid naming deficit, who in turn showed less activation than the typically-reading children. Functional connectivity analyses revealed that bilateral prefrontal regions were key for linking brain regions associated with phonological awareness and rapid naming, with the double-deficit group being the most aberrant in their connectivity. Our study provides the first functional neuroanatomical evidence for the double-deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia.

  1. Response of grassland ecosystems to prolonged soil moisture deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Morgan A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Hottenstein, John D.; Moran, M. Susan

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is commonly used for predictions of plant response and productivity. Climate change is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and duration of droughts over the next century, which will result in prolonged periods of below-normal soil moisture. This, in turn, is expected to impact regional plant production, erosion and air quality. In fact, the number of consecutive months of soil moisture content below the drought-period mean has recently been linked to regional tree and shrub mortality in the southwest United States. This study investigated the effects of extended periods of below average soil moisture on the response of grassland ANPP to precipitation. Grassland ecosystems were selected for this study because of their ecological sensitivity to precipitation patterns. It has been postulated that the quick ecological response of grasslands to droughts can provide insight to large scale functional responses of regions to predicted climate change. The study sites included 21 grassland biomes throughout arid-to-humid climates in the United States with continuous surface soil moisture records for 2-13 years during the drought period from 2000-2013. Annual net primary production (ANPP) was estimated from the 13-year record of NASA MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index extracted for each site. Prolonged soil moisture deficit was defined as a period of at least 10 consecutive months during which soil moisture was below the drought-period mean. ANPP was monitored before, during and after prolonged soil moisture deficit to quantify shifts in the functional response of grasslands to precipitation, and in some cases, new species assemblages that included invasive species. Preliminary results indicated that when altered climatic conditions on grasslands led to an increase in the duration of soil water deficit, then the precipitation-to-ANPP relation became non-linear. Non-linearity was associated with extreme grassland dieback and changes in the historic

  2. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  3. Visual imagery deficits, impaired strategic retrieval, or memory loss: disentangling the nature of an amnesic person's autobiographical memory deficit.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, R Shayna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions about the duration of hippocampal contributions to our autobiographical record of personal episodes have come under intense scrutiny in recent years. Interpretation is complicated by such factors as extent and site of lesions as well as test sensitivity. We describe the case of an amnesic person, K.C., with large, bilateral hippocampal lesions who figured prominently in the development of theories of remote memory due to his severely impoverished autobiographical memory extending across his entire lifetime. However, the presence of lesions in higher-order visual cortex raises the possibility that K.C.'s retrograde autobiographical amnesia is mediated by loss of long-term visual images, whereas widespread frontal lesions suggest that his impairment may relate to deficits in strategic retrieval rather than storage. Normal performance on an extensive battery of visual imagery tests refutes the imagery loss interpretation. To test for deficits in strategic retrieval, we used a more formal autobiographical memory test requiring generation of personal events under varying levels of retrieval support. However, even with rigorous contextual prompting, K.C. produced few pre-injury recollections; all were schematic, lacking the richness of detail produced by control participants, raising doubt that his deficit is one of retrieval. Findings are discussed in the context of theories concerning the duration of hippocampal-neocortical interactions in supporting autobiographical re-experiencing. The approach we used to investigate the effects of different lesions on memory provides a framework for dealing with other patients who present with an interesting functional deficit whose neuroanatomical source is difficult to specify due to widespread lesions.

  4. Cirque du Monde en tant qu’intervention en santé

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter le programme Cirque du Monde du Cirque du Soleil et son potentiel en tant qu’intervention en soins de santé de première ligne pour les médecins de famille. Sources des données Une revue de la littérature menée dans les bases de données PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, La Presse, Eureka, Google Scholar et Érudit à l’aide des mots-clés circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde et Cirque du Soleil. Une initiative à Montréal nommée Espace Transition qui s’inspire directement de Cirque du Monde. Communication personnelle avec le conseiller principal en formation en cirque social du Cirque du Soleil. Sélection d’études Les 50 premiers articles ou sites Internet répertoriés pour chaque mot-clé dans chacune des bases de données ciblées ont été révisés sur la base des titres et des résumés, s’il s’agissait d’un article, ou sur la base du titre et du contenu de la page, s’il s’agissait d’une page Internet. Ensuite, les articles et les sites Internet qui étudiaient un aspect du cirque social ou qui présentaient une intervention impliquant le cirque étaient retenus pour une révision. Aucune contrainte d’année de publication n’a été appliquée étant donné qu’on cherchait une littérature générale sur le cirque social. Synthèse Aucun article n’a été trouvé sur le cirque social en tant qu’intervention en santé. Nous avons trouvé une étude sur l’utilisation du cirque en tant qu’intervention en milieu scolaire. Cette étude a démontré une augmentation de l’estime personnelle des enfants grâce à l’intervention. Nous avons trouvé une étude sur l’utilisation du cirque en tant qu’intervention sur une réserve amérindienne. Cette étude présente des résultats qualitatifs non spécifiques au programme du cirque social. Les autres articles répertoriés n’étaient que des descriptions du cirque social. Un site web concernant l’utilisation du cirque social pour

  5. Are the deficits in navigational abilities present in the Williams syndrome related to deficits in the backward inhibition?

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Francesca; Sdoia, Stefano; Menghini, Deny; Mandolesi, Laura; Vicari, Stefano; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with a distinct profile of relatively proficient skills within the verbal domain compared to the severe impairment of visuo-spatial processing. Abnormalities in executive functions and deficits in planning ability and spatial working memory have been described. However, to date little is known about the influence of executive function deficits on navigational abilities in WS. This study aimed at analyzing in WS individuals a specific executive function, the backward inhibition (BI) that allows individuals to flexibly adapt to continuously changing environments. A group of WS individuals and a mental age- and gender-matched group of typically developing children were subjected to three task-switching experiments requiring visuospatial or verbal material to be processed. Results showed that WS individuals exhibited clear BI deficits during visuospatial task-switching paradigms and normal BI effect during verbal task-switching paradigm. Overall, the present results suggest that the BI involvement in updating environment representations during navigation may influence WS navigational abilities. PMID:25852605

  6. Working Memory Deficits Affect Risky Decision-Making in Methamphetamine Users with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Nichole A.; Woods, Steven Paul; Rooney, Alexandra; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur and are independently associated with dysregulation of frontostriatal loops and risky decision-making; however, whether their comorbidity exacerbates risky decision-making is not known. This study evaluated 23 participants with histories of MA dependence and ADHD (MA+ADHD+), 25 subjects with MA dependence alone (MA+ADHD−), and 22 healthy adults (MA−ADHD−), who completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) as part of a larger neuropsychiatric research evaluation. Results showed a significant interaction between ADHD, MA, and working memory, such that individuals with working memory deficits in the ADHD+MA+ cohort demonstrated the strongest propensity to select cards from “disadvantageous” versus “advantageous” decks on the IGT. This effect was unique to working memory and was not better explained by other psychiatric, substance use, or neuromedical factors. Findings suggest that working memory deficits may moderate the expression of risky decision-making in MA users with ADHD. PMID:22305489

  7. Consonant production and intelligibility in cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Kristian E; Garmann, Nina Gram; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2014-10-01

    This article focuses on consonant productions by a group of children with cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) and examines how various aspects of these productions contribute to these children's overall intelligibility. Eight children and adolescents with CdCS participated in the study, and the following four questions were addressed: (1) What are the characteristic features of the consonant inventories of the subjects in terms of size and types of consonants; (2) how do the subjects render the consonant phonemes of the target language; (3) to what degree do the subjects produce target-like words; and (4) what is the relationship between consonant production and intelligibility? For the majority of our subjects, we found low proportions of correctly produced consonants, small consonant inventories with several recurrent types of deviant consonants, inaccuracy in realization of target phonemes and variable similarity to target words, all of which may contribute to reduced intelligibility. PMID:24689530

  8. Cri du chat syndrome: a series of five cases.

    PubMed

    Dangare, Harsha M; Oommen, Samuel P; Sheth, Amisha N; Koshy, Beena; Roshan, Reeba; Thomas, Maya M; Danda, Sumita; Srivastava, Vivi M

    2012-01-01

    The cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) is a chromosomal deletion syndrome associated with a partial deletion of the short (p) arm of chromosome 5. We describe five children who were diagnosed to have CdCS by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The deletion was at 5p15 in four patients, whereas the fifth had a larger, more proximal deletion at 5p14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the deletion of the CdCS critical region at 5p15.2. All five children had global developmental delay and dysmorphism with microcephaly. The other clinical features were variable. Since the clinical diagnosis of CdCS may not always be evident because of the phenotypic heterogeneity, cytogenetic analysis is necessary to establish the diagnosis and confirm that the deletion involves the CdCS critical region. This will enable early intervention which plays an important role in improving the outcome. PMID:23455788

  9. Nondestructive Testing Qualification of Main Circulatory Tube Pipes DU 500

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakova, Bojana M.; Tzokov, Petio

    2004-07-01

    The criteria for safe operation of nuclear energetic installations is given a higher priority in the policy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant. An efficient non-destructive inspection is the key point for the safe service. Kozloduy NPP keeps on making investments in equipment and qualification of specialists in this field. The processes of qualification of the NDT components, important for the nuclear and radiation safety, make considerable improvement in Kozloduy NPP, thanks to the accumulated in the years experience in the activities of NDT inspection qualification, and to the help of our partners Serco Assurance and the Institute of Rzes. The results obtained by ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of circulation tube mains DU 500 WWER 440 type are under discussion in this report. (authors)

  10. Restauration fonctionnelle du rachis : effet du niveau initial de douleur sur les performances des sujets lombalgiques chroniques

    PubMed Central

    Caby, Isabelle; Olivier, N; Mendelek, F; Kheir, R Bou; Vanvelcenaher, J; Pelayo, P

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : La lombalgie chronique est une douleur lombaire persistante d’origine multifactorielle. Le niveau de douleur initial reste faiblement utilisé pour analyser et comparer les réponses des patients lombalgiques au programme de reconditionnement. OBJECTIFS : Apprécier et évaluer les réponses des sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux à une prise en charge dynamique et intensive. MÉTHODOLOGIE : 144 sujets atteints de lombalgie chronique ont été inclus dans un programme de restauration fonctionnelle du rachis de 5 semaines. Les sujets ont été classés en deux groupes de niveau de douleur: un groupe atteint de douleur sévère (n = 28) et un groupe atteint de douleur légère à modérée (n = 106). L’ensemble des sujets ont bénéficié d’une prise en charge identique comprenant principalement de la kinésithérapie, de l’ergothérapie, du reconditionnement musculaire et cardio-vasculaire ainsi qu’un suivi psychologique. Les paramètres physiques (flexibilité, force musculaire) et psychologiques (qualité de vie) ont été mesurés avant (T0) et après le programme (T5sem). RÉSULTATS : L’ensemble des performances physiques et fonctionnelles des sujets très douloureux sont moins bonnes et le retentissement de la lombalgie sur la qualité de vie, pour ces mêmes sujets, est majoré à T0. Toutes les différences significatives constatées à T0 entre les deux groupes s’effacent à T5sem. CONCLUSIONS : Les sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux répondent favorablement au programme dynamique et intensif. L’intensité douloureuse de la lombalgie n’aurait pas d’effet sur les réponses au programme. La restauration fonctionnelle du rachis apporterait aux sujets la possibilité de mieux gérer leur douleur quel que soit son niveau. PMID:25299476

  11. Abnormal Corpus Callosum Connectivity, Socio-Communicative Deficits, and Motor Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Matsuzaki, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako

    2014-01-01

    In addition to social and communicative deficits, many studies have reported motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the macro and microstructural properties of the corpus callosum (CC) of 18 children with ASD and 12 typically developing controls using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We aimed to explore…

  12. [Schedule for evaluation of the deficit syndrome in schizophrenia: Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS) (Kirkpatrick et al.). Importance pertinence of the SDS. Introduction of the French version].

    PubMed

    Ribeyre, J M; Dollfus, S; Lesieur, P; Ménard, J F; Petit, M

    1994-01-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia have generated a great interest leading some authors (Crow, Andreasen, Kay) to delineate schizophrenic subtypes based on their presence or absence. Carpenter et al. have recently proposed another subtype, the deficit syndrome, based on Kraepelin's clinical description. This differs from other proposed negative subtypes and refers to the presence or absence of prominent, enduring and primary negative symptoms. Primary negative symptoms have to be due to psychophrenia itself, in other words, independent of factors such as depression, anxiety, akinesia... Kirkpatrick et al. have proposed the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) to reliably identify this deficit syndrome. Some studies using this instrument have supported the validity of the deficit syndrome concept. Particularly, deficit patients have clinical, neuropsychological, neurological, eye-tracking and brain imaging impairments compared to nondeficit patients. We realized a french translation of SDS and used it to study a biological index (plasma homovanillic acid, pHVA) among deficit and nondeficit schizophrenic patients. Our data suggest a specific biochemical basis for the deficit syndrome, ie, significant lower mean pHVA levels with a lack of diurnal variation for deficit patients. The french version of SDS was validated by Kirkpatrick after english back translation. We present here our psychometric data regarding reliability (assessed by weighted and unweighted kappa coefficients) and cohesiveness of the construct (assessed by rank-order correlations of each negative symptoms with the other five, using Spearman's rho). These data are quite significant and in agreement with the SDS authors.

  13. 76 FR 33401 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook and DuPage Counties, Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... will be prepared for the Elgin O'Hare--West Bypass in Cook and DuPage Counties, Illinois. FOR FURTHER...-- West Bypass. The study area for the EIS is along the Elgin-O'Hare Expressway/Thorndale Avenue...

  14. Lymphome malin non hodgkinien du cavum: protocoles thérapeutiques et facteurs pronostiques

    PubMed Central

    Ouraini, Saloua; Nakkabi, Ismail; Benariba, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Le lymphome malin non hodgkinien est une entité histologique rare parmi les cancers du cavum, la plupart des tumeurs du nasopharynx étant des carcinomes indifférenciés ou Undifferencied Carcinoma of Nasopharyngeal Type (UCNT); Il pose souvent un problème de diagnostic positif clinique et histologique. La symptomatologie est généralement peu spécifique et la démarche étiologique repose sur la biopsie du cavum faite à l'examen endoscopique avec examen immuno-histochimique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un lymphome non hodgkinien avec atteinte du nasopharynx, l'analyse anatomopathologique est en faveur d'un lymphome malin non hodgkinien de phénotype B. Les aspects cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques et thérapeutiques sont décrits. PMID:26889334

  15. ON NONLINEAR EQUATIONS OF THE FORM F(x,\\, u,\\, Du,\\, \\Delta u) = 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanov, K. N.

    1995-02-01

    The Dirichlet problem for equations of the form F(x,\\, u,\\, Du,\\, \\Delta u) = 0 and also the initial boundary value problem for a parabolic equation with a nonlinearity are studied.Bibliography: 11 titles.

  16. Une angiocholite secondaire à un thrombus tumoral d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive du foie

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hicham; Allaoui, Mohamed; Elfahssi, Mohammed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Oukabli, Mohamed; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas exceptionnel d'une patiente de 54 ans prise en charge pour une angiocholite due à un thrombus tumoral, d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive (TNE Ive) du foie, dans la voie biliaire principale. PMID:26966504

  17. Classification of Double Deficit Groups across Time: An Analysis of Group Stability from Kindergarten to Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steacy, Laura M.; Kirby, John R.; Parrila, Rauno; Compton, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    The Double Deficit Hypothesis of dyslexia is one approach to classifying students with reading disabilities. The theory offers four distinct groups of readers: (a) average readers, (b) students with phonological deficits, (c) students with naming speed deficits, and (d) students with double deficits: those having both (b) and (c). This study…

  18. Investigating the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek: findings from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Georgiou, George K; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinally the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek, an orthographically consistent language, following a group of children from kindergarten to Grade 2. Four groups were formed on the basis of two composite scores of phonological and naming-speed criterion measures: a double-deficit group (DD; n = 17), a phonological deficit group (PD; n = 33), a naming deficit group (ND; n = 33), and a control group exhibiting no deficits (CnD; n = 159). The four groups were identified in Grade 1, and they were compared retrospectively in kindergarten only on the criterion measures, and in Grades 1 and 2 on measures of word-reading fluency and accuracy, orthographic processing, and passage comprehension. The effects of verbal and nonverbal ability, age, gender, and parental education were controlled among the groups. Results showed that the DD group exhibited greater dysfunction in reading and orthographic processing compared to the single-deficit and CnD groups. Also, although the three deficit groups were not easily differentiated in kindergarten, their differences were maximized in Grade 1 and retained in Grade 2. The type and severity of reading deficits found in the ND group were mostly associated with naming speed at both the word- and text-reading levels, deficits that persisted across development. The PD group showed mostly deficient orthographic and poor decoding skills that improved across development. Implications of the findings for the double-deficit hypothesis in languages with transparent orthographies are discussed. PMID:19723979

  19. Behavioral response inhibition in psychotic disorders: diagnostic specificity, familiality and relation to generalized cognitive deficit.

    PubMed

    Ethridge, Lauren E; Soilleux, Melanie; Nakonezny, Paul A; Reilly, James L; Hill, S Kristian; Keefe, Richard S E; Gershon, Elliot S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Sweeney, John A

    2014-11-01

    Difficulty inhibiting context-inappropriate behavior is a common deficit in psychotic disorders. The diagnostic specificity of this impairment, its familiality, and its degree of independence from the generalized cognitive deficit associated with psychotic disorders remain to be clarified. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar patients with history of psychosis (n=523), their available first-degree biological relatives (n=656), and healthy participants (n=223) from the multi-site B-SNIP study completed a manual Stop Signal task. A nonlinear mixed model was used to fit logistic curves to success rates on Stop trials as a function of parametrically varied Stop Signal Delay. While schizophrenia patients had greater generalized cognitive deficit than bipolar patients, their deficits were similar on the Stop Signal task. Further, only bipolar patients showed impaired inhibitory control relative to healthy individuals after controlling for generalized cognitive deficit. Deficits accounted for by the generalized deficit were seen in relatives of schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients, but not in relatives of bipolar patients. In clinically stable patients with psychotic bipolar disorder, impaired inhibitory behavioral control was a specific cognitive impairment, distinct from the generalized neuropsychological impairment associated with psychotic disorders. Thus, in bipolar disorder with psychosis, a deficit in inhibitory control may contribute to risk for impulsive behavior. Because the deficit was not familial in bipolar families and showed a lack of independence from the generalized cognitive deficit in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, it appears to be a trait related to illness processes rather than one tracking familial risk factors.

  20. A yeast artificial chromosome contig of the critical region for cri-du-chat syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Goodart, S.A.; Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J.

    1994-11-01

    Cri-du-chat is a chromosomal deletion syndrome characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical symptoms include growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hyptonia, and a high-pitched monochromatic cry that is usually considered diagnostic for the syndrome. Recently, a correlation between clinical features and the extent of the chromosome 5 deletions has identified two regions of the short arm that appear to be critical for the abnormal development manifested in this syndrome. Loss of a small region in 5p15.2 correlates with all of the clinical features of cri-du-chat with the exception of the cat-like cry, which maps to 5p15.3. Here the authors report the construction of a YAC contig that spans the chromosomal region in 5p15.2 that plays a major role in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. YACs that span the 2-Mb cri-du-chat critical region have been identified and characterized. This YAC contig lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in the clinical features associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. It also provides a new diagnostic tool for cri-du-chat in the shape of a YAC clone that may span the entire critical region. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.