Sample records for dual crosslinking mechanism

  1. Photocontrolled Cargo Release from Dual Cross-Linked Polymer Particles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shereen; Cui, Jiwei; Fu, Qiang; Nam, Eunhyung; Ladewig, Katharina; Ren, Jing M; Wong, Edgar H H; Caruso, Frank; Blencowe, Anton; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-03-09

    Burst release of a payload from polymeric particles upon photoirradiation was engineered by altering the cross-linking density. This was achieved via a dual cross-linking concept whereby noncovalent cross-linking was provided by cyclodextrin host-guest interactions, and irreversible covalent cross-linking was mediated by continuous assembly of polymers (CAP). The dual cross-linked particles (DCPs) were efficiently infiltrated (∼80-93%) by the biomacromolecule dextran (molecular weight up to 500 kDa) to provide high loadings (70-75%). Upon short exposure (5 s) to UV light, the noncovalent cross-links were disrupted resulting in increased permeability and burst release of the cargo (50 mol % within 1 s) as visualized by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. As sunlight contains UV light at low intensities, the particles can potentially be incorporated into systems used in agriculture, environmental control, and food packaging, whereby sunlight could control the release of nutrients and antimicrobial agents.

  2. Self-Healing and Thermo-Responsive Dual-Crosslinked Alginate Hydrogels based on Supramolecular Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Tianxin; Fenn, Spencer L.; Charron, Patrick N.; Oldinski, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), with a lipophilic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer surface, interacts with a large variety of non-polar guest molecules to form non-covalent inclusion complexes. Conjugation of β-CD onto biomacromolecules can form physically-crosslinked hydrogel networks upon mixing with a guest molecule. Herein describes the development and characterization of self-healing, thermo-responsive hydrogels, based on host-guest inclusion complexes between alginate-graft-β-CD and Pluronic® F108 (poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)). The mechanics, flow characteristics, and thermal response were contingent on the polymer concentrations, and the host-guest molar ratio. Transient and reversible physical crosslinking between host and guest polymers governed self-assembly, allowing flow under shear stress, and facilitating complete recovery of the material properties within a few seconds of unloading. The mechanical properties of the dual-crosslinked, multi-stimuli responsive hydrogels were tuned as high as 30 kPa at body temperature, and are advantageous for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cell transplantation. PMID:26509214

  3. Dual Sulfide-Disulfide Crosslinked Networks with Rapid and Room Temperature Self-Healability.

    PubMed

    An, So Young; Noh, Seung Man; Nam, Joon Hyun; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2015-07-01

    Polymer-based crosslinked networks with intrinsic self-repairing ability have emerged due to their built-in ability to repair physical damages. Here, novel dual sulfide-disulfide crosslinked networks (s-ssPxNs) are reported exhibiting rapid and room temperature self-healability within seconds to minutes, with no extra healing agents and no change under any environmental conditions. The method to synthesize these self-healable networks utilizes a combination of well-known crosslinking chemistry: photoinduced thiol-ene click-type radical addition, generating lightly sulfide-crosslinked polysulfide-based networks with excess thiols, and their oxidation, creating dynamic disulfide crosslinkages to yield the dual s-ssPxNs. The resulting s-ssPxN networks show rapid self-healing within 30 s to 30 min at room temperature, as well as self-healing elasticity with reversible viscoelastic properties. These results, combined with tunable self-healing kinetics, demonstrate the versatility of the method as a new means to synthesize smart multifunctional polymeric materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Multiscale mechanical effects of native collagen cross-linking in tendon.

    PubMed

    Eekhoff, Jeremy D; Fang, Fei; Lake, Spencer P

    2018-06-06

    The hierarchical structure of tendon allows for attenuation of mechanical strain down decreasing length scales. While reorganization of collagen fibers accounts for microscale strain attenuation, cross-linking between collagen molecules contributes to deformation mechanisms at the fibrillar and molecular scales. Divalent and trivalent enzymatic cross-links form during the development of collagen fibrils through the enzymatic activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX). By establishing connections between telopeptidyl and triple-helical domains of adjacent molecules within collagen fibrils, these cross-links stiffen the fibrils by resisting intermolecular sliding. Ultimately, greater enzymatic cross-linking leads to less compliant and stronger tendon as a result of stiffer fibrils. In contrast, nonenzymatic cross-links such as glucosepane and pentosidine are not produced during development but slowly accumulate through glycation of collagen. Therefore, these cross-links are only expected to be present in significant quantities in advanced age, where there has been sufficient time for glycation to occur, and in diabetes, where the presence of more free sugar in the extracellular matrix increases the rate of glycation. Unlike enzymatic cross-links, current evidence suggests that nonenzymatic cross-links are at least partially isolated to the surface of collagen fibers. As a result, glycation has been proposed to primarily impact tendon mechanics by altering molecular interactions at the fiber interface, thereby diminishing sliding between fibers. Thus, increased nonenzymatic cross-linking decreases microscale strain attenuation and the viscous response of tendon. In conclusion, enzymatic and nonenzymatic collagen cross-links have demonstrable and distinct effects on the mechanical properties of tendon across different length scales.

  5. Mechanically tunable actin networks using programmable DNA based cross-linkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnauss, Joerg; Lorenz, Jessica; Schuldt, Carsten; Kaes, Josef; Smith, David

    Cells employ multiple cross-linkers with very different properties. Studies of the entire phase space, however, were infeasible since they were restricted to naturally occurring cross-linkers. These components cannot be controllably varied and differ in many parameters. We resolve this limitation by forming artificial actin cross-linkers, which can be controllably varied. The basic building block is DNA enabling a well-defined length variation. DNA can be attached to actin binding peptides with known binding affinities. We used bulk rheology to investigate mechanical properties of these networks. We were able to reproduce mechanical features of actin networks cross-linked by fascin by using a short version of our artificial complex with a high binding affinity. Additionally, we were able to resemble findings for the cross-linker alpha-actinin by employing a long cross-linker with a low binding affinity. Between these natural limits we investigated three different cross-linker lengths each with two different binding affinities. With these controlled variations we are able to precisely screen the phase space of cross-linked actin networks by changing only one specific parameter and not the entire set of properties as in the case of naturally occurring cross-linking complexes.

  6. Influence of cross-link structure, density and mechanical properties in the mesoscale deformation mechanisms of collagen fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Shefelbine, Sandra J.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen is a ubiquitous protein with remarkable mechanical properties. It is highly elastic, shows large fracture strength and enables substantial energy dissipation during deformation. Most of the connective tissue in humans consists of collagen fibrils composed of a staggered array of tropocollagen molecules, which are connected by intermolecular cross-links. In this study, we report a three-dimensional coarse-grained model of collagen and analyze the influence of enzymatic cross-links on the mechanics of collagen fibrils. Two representatives immature and mature cross-links are implemented in the mesoscale model using a bottom-up approach. By varying the number, type and mechanical properties of cross-links in the fibrils and performing tensile test on the models, we systematically investigate the deformation mechanisms of cross-linked collagen fibrils. We find that cross-linked fibrils exhibit a three phase behavior, which agrees closer with experimental results than what was obtained using previous models. The fibril mechanical response is characterized by: (i) an initial elastic deformation corresponding to the collagen molecule uncoiling, (ii) a linear regime dominated by molecule sliding and (iii) the second stiffer elastic regime related to the stretching of the backbone of the tropocollagen molecules until the fibril ruptures. Our results suggest that both cross-link density and type dictate the stiffness of large deformation regime by increasing the number of interconnected molecules while cross-links mechanical properties determine the failure strain and strength of the fibril. These findings reveal that cross-links play an essential role in creating an interconnected fibrillar material of tunable toughness and strength. PMID:25153614

  7. Influence of cross-link structure, density and mechanical properties in the mesoscale deformation mechanisms of collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-12-01

    Collagen is a ubiquitous protein with remarkable mechanical properties. It is highly elastic, shows large fracture strength and enables substantial energy dissipation during deformation. Most of the connective tissue in humans consists of collagen fibrils composed of a staggered array of tropocollagen molecules, which are connected by intermolecular cross-links. In this study, we report a three-dimensional coarse-grained model of collagen and analyze the influence of enzymatic cross-links on the mechanics of collagen fibrils. Two representatives immature and mature cross-links are implemented in the mesoscale model using a bottom-up approach. By varying the number, type and mechanical properties of cross-links in the fibrils and performing tensile test on the models, we systematically investigate the deformation mechanisms of cross-linked collagen fibrils. We find that cross-linked fibrils exhibit a three phase behavior, which agrees closer with experimental results than what was obtained using previous models. The fibril mechanical response is characterized by: (i) an initial elastic deformation corresponding to the collagen molecule uncoiling, (ii) a linear regime dominated by molecule sliding and (iii) the second stiffer elastic regime related to the stretching of the backbone of the tropocollagen molecules until the fibril ruptures. Our results suggest that both cross-link density and type dictate the stiffness of large deformation regime by increasing the number of interconnected molecules while cross-links mechanical properties determine the failure strain and strength of the fibril. These findings reveal that cross-links play an essential role in creating an interconnected fibrillar material of tunable toughness and strength. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A highly efficient dual-diazonium reagent for protein crosslinking and construction of a virus-based gel.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dejun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Changyu; Men, Yuwen; Sun, Hongyan; Li, Lu-Yuan; Yi, Long; Xi, Zhen

    2018-05-09

    A new bench-stable reagent with double diazonium sites was designed and synthesized for protein crosslinking. Based on the highly efficient diazonium-Tyr coupling reaction, a direct mixture of the reagent and tobacco mosaic virus led to the formation of a new hydrogel, which could be degraded by chemicals and could be used to encapsulate small molecules for sustained release. Because plant viruses exhibit many chemical characteristics like protein labelling and nucleic acid packaging, the virus-based hydrogel will have large chemical space for further functionalization. Besides, this dual-diazonium reagent should be a generally useful crosslinker for chemical biology and biomaterials.

  9. Mechanical Strength Improvements of Carbon Nanotube Threads through Epoxy Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qingyue; Alvarez, Noe T.; Miller, Peter; Malik, Rachit; Haase, Mark R.; Schulz, Mark; Shanov, Vesselin; Zhu, Xinbao

    2016-01-01

    Individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have a great mechanical strength that needs to be transferred into macroscopic fiber assemblies. One approach to improve the mechanical strength of the CNT assemblies is by creating covalent bonding among their individual CNT building blocks. Chemical cross-linking of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs) within the fiber has significantly improved the strength of MWCNT thread. Results reported in this work show that the cross-linked thread had a tensile strength six times greater than the strength of its control counterpart, a pristine MWCNT thread (1192 MPa and 194 MPa, respectively). Additionally, electrical conductivity changes were observed, revealing 2123.40 S·cm−1 for cross-linked thread, and 3984.26 S·cm−1 for pristine CNT thread. Characterization suggests that the obtained high tensile strength is due to the cross-linking reaction of amine groups from ethylenediamine plasma-functionalized CNT with the epoxy groups of the cross-linking agent, 4,4-methylenebis(N,N-diglycidylaniline). PMID:28787868

  10. Mechanical and spectroscopic characterization of crosslinked zein films cast from solutions of acetic acid leading to a new mechanism for the crosslinking of oleic acid plasticized zein films.

    PubMed

    Turasan, Hazal; Barber, Emma A; Malm, Morgan; Kokini, Jozef L

    2018-06-01

    This study discovered through FTIR, FT-Raman and rheological measurements that glutaraldehyde binds to zein through the amine groups of glutamine turns by replacing the already-bonded oleic acid molecules and forming imine structures. As a secondary crosslinking mechanism, glutaraldehyde unfolds some of the α-helices and turns them into β-sheets. While crosslinking resulted in stiffer and less ductile zein films, it made the surface of the films rougher, measured using AFM, and more hydrophilic, measured using WCA. In the crosslinking conditions in this study, the number of crosslinks estimated from rubber elasticity theory were not enough to change the water vapor permeability of the films significantly. Improving the understanding of crosslinking mechanism and its effects on physical and chemical properties of zein films can be useful to develop stiffer, stronger and more durable platforms for biodegradable biosensors, microfluidic devices or scaffolds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photo-crosslinkable cyanoacrylate bioadhesive: shrinkage kinetics, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of adhesives containing TMPTMA and POSS nanostructures as crosslinking agents.

    PubMed

    Ghasaban, S; Atai, M; Imani, M; Zandi, M; Shokrgozar, M-A

    2011-11-01

    The study investigates the photo-polymerization shrinkage behavior, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of cyanoacrylate bioadhesives containing POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents. Adhesives containing 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) and different percentages of POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents were prepared. The 1-phenyl-1, 2-propanedione (PPD) was incorporated as photo-initiator into the adhesive in 1.5, 3, and 4 wt %. The shrinkage strain of the specimens was measured using bonded-disk technique. Shrinkage strain, shrinkage strain rate, maximum and time at maximum shrinkage strain rate were measured and compared. Mechanical properties of the adhesives were also studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Biocompatibility of the adhesives was examined by MTT method. The results showed that shrinkage strain increased with increasing the initiator concentration up to 3 wt % in POSS-containing and 1.5 wt % in TMPTMA-containing specimens and plateaued out at higher concentrations. By increasing the crosslinking agent, shrinkage strain, and shrinkage strain rate increased and the time at maximum shrinkage strain rate decreased. The study indicates that the incorporation of crosslinking agents into the cyanoacrylate adhesives resulted in improved mechanical properties. Preliminary MTT studies also revealed better biocompatibility profile for the adhesives containing crosslinking agents comparing to the neat specimens. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Profile extrusion and mechanical properties of crosslinked wood–thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    Magnus Bengtsson; Kristiina Oksman; Stark Nicole M.

    2006-01-01

    Challenges for wood-thermoplastic composites to be utilized in structural applications are to lower product weight and to improve the long-term load performance. Silane crosslinking of the composites is one way to reduce the creep during long-term loading and to improve the mechanical properties. In this study, silane crosslinked wood-polyethylene composites were...

  13. Control of crosslinking for tailoring collagen-based scaffolds stability and mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Davidenko, N.; Schuster, C.F.; Bax, D.V.; Raynal, N.; Farndale, R.W.; Best, S.M.; Cameron, R.E.

    2015-01-01

    We provide evidence to show that the standard reactant concentrations used in tissue engineering to cross-link collagen-based scaffolds are up to 100 times higher than required for mechanical integrity in service, and stability against degradation in an aqueous environment. We demonstrate this with a detailed and systematic study by comparing scaffolds made from (a) collagen from two different suppliers, (b) gelatin (a partially denatured collagen) and (c) 50% collagen–50% gelatin mixtures. The materials were processed, using lyophilisation, to produce homogeneous, highly porous scaffolds with isotropic architectures and pore diameters ranging from 130 to 260 μm. Scaffolds were cross-linked using a carbodiimide treatment, to establish the effect of the variations in crosslinking conditions (down to very low concentrations) on the morphology, swelling, degradation and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Carbodiimide concentration of 11.5 mg/ml was defined as the standard (100%) and was progressively diluted down to 0.1%. It was found that 10-fold reduction in the carbodiimide content led to the significant increase (almost 4-fold) in the amount of free amine groups (primarily on collagen lysine residues) without compromising mechanics and stability in water of all resultant scaffolds. The importance of this finding is that, by reducing cross-linking, the corresponding cell-reactive carboxylate anions (collagen glutamate or aspartate residues) that are essential for integrin-mediated binding remain intact. Indeed, a 10-fold reduction in carbodiimide crosslinking resulted in near native-like cell attachment to collagen scaffolds. We have demonstrated that controlling the degree of cross-linking, and hence retaining native scaffold chemistry, offers a major step forward in the biological performance of collagen- and gelatin-based tissue engineering scaffolds. Statement of Significance This work developed collagen and gelatine-based scaffolds with structural

  14. Effects of crosslinking on the mechanical properties, drug release and cytocompatibility of protein polymers.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Adam W; Caves, Jeffrey M; Ravi, Swathi; Li, Wehnsheng; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant elastin-like protein polymers are increasingly being investigated as component materials of a variety of implantable medical devices. This is chiefly a result of their favorable biological properties and the ability to tailor their physical and mechanical properties. In this report, we explore the potential of modulating the water content, mechanical properties, and drug release profiles of protein films through the selection of different crosslinking schemes and processing strategies. We find that the selection of crosslinking scheme and processing strategy has a significant influence on all aspects of protein polymer films. Significantly, utilization of a confined, fixed volume, as well as vapor-phase crosslinking strategies, decreased protein polymer equilibrium water content. Specifically, as compared to uncrosslinked protein gels, water content was reduced for genipin (15.5%), glutaraldehyde (GTA, 24.5%), GTA vapor crosslinking (31.6%), disulfide (SS, 18.2%) and SS vapor crosslinking (25.5%) (P<0.05). Distinct crosslinking strategies modulated protein polymer stiffness, strain at failure and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). In all cases, vapor-phase crosslinking produced the stiffest films with the highest UTS. Moreover, both confined, fixed volume and vapor-phase approaches influenced drug delivery rates, resulting in decreased initial drug burst and release rates as compared to solution phase crosslinking. Tailored crosslinking strategies provide an important option for modulating the physical, mechanical and drug delivery properties of protein polymers. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual Cross-Linked Biofunctional and Self-Healing Networks to Generate User-Defined Modular Gradient Hydrogel Constructs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhao; Lewis, Daniel M; Xu, Yu; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-08-01

    Gradient hydrogels have been developed to mimic the spatiotemporal differences of multiple gradient cues in tissues. Current approaches used to generate such hydrogels are restricted to a single gradient shape and distribution. Here, a hydrogel is designed that includes two chemical cross-linking networks, biofunctional, and self-healing networks, enabling the customizable formation of modular gradient hydrogel construct with various gradient distributions and flexible shapes. The biofunctional networks are formed via Michael addition between the acrylates of oxidized acrylated hyaluronic acid (OAHA) and the dithiol of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive cross-linker and RGD peptides. The self-healing networks are formed via dynamic Schiff base reaction between N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) and OAHA, which drives the modular gradient units to self-heal into an integral modular gradient hydrogel. The CEC-OAHA-MMP hydrogel exhibits excellent flowability at 37 °C under shear stress, enabling its injection to generate gradient distributions and shapes. Furthermore, encapsulated sarcoma cells respond to the gradient cues of RGD peptides and MMP-sensitive cross-linkers in the hydrogel. With these superior properties, the dual cross-linked CEC-OAHA-MMP hydrogel holds significant potential for generating customizable gradient hydrogel constructs, to study and guide cellular responses to their microenvironment such as in tumor mimicking, tissue engineering, and stem cell differentiation and morphogenesis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Contributions to the study of the mechanisms of photodynamic cross-linking of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hui-Rong

    The illumination of proteins in solution and in cells in the presence of photosensitizers may lead to the inter- and/or intramolecular crosslinking of the proteins (photosensitized or photodynamic crosslinking). This phenomenon appears to be involved in the photohemolysis of red cells, cataract development, skin photoaging, photodynamic therapy for cancers, laser welding of tissues, biomaterial modification, and other biological situations. Although the processes involved in the photocrosslinking of proteins have been extensively studied, the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. The main objectives of the studies reported in this dissertation were to investigate the detailed mechanisms involved in the photocrosslinking of proteins and to determine the chemical nature of the crosslinks formed. The first part of this study was devoted to the verification of the roles of His, Lys and Tyr in the photodynamic crosslinking of proteins. The crosslinking reaction was modeled using tailor-made water-soluble synthetic N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers containing epsilon-aminocaproic acid side chains terminating in His, Lys or tyrosinamide residues photosensitized by rose bengal (RB) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). RB typically produces singlet oxygen, whereas FMN produces both singlet oxygen and radicals. His-His and His-Lys crosslinks were formed with RB as the sensitizer. RB-sensitization did not crosslink Tyr residues, whereas FMN coupled two Tyr residues via a radical pathway. Protection of the His and/or Lys residues in ribonuclease A (RNase A) significantly inhibited the extent of intermolecular crosslinking, and confirmed the key roles played by His and Lys in crosslinking reactions. The second part of this study involved the elucidation of the detailed reaction mechanisms and the chemical structures of His-His and Tyr-Tyr crosslinks. N-benzoyl-histidine (Bz-His) and N-acetyl-tyrosine (Ac-Tyr) were used to model the photosensitized

  17. Dual-Stage Crosslinking of a Gel-Phase Bioink Improves Cell Viability and Homogeneity for 3D Bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Dubbin, Karen; Hori, Yuki; Lewis, Kazuomori K; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2016-10-01

    Current bioinks for cell-based 3D bioprinting are not suitable for technology scale-up due to the challenges of cell sedimentation, cell membrane damage, and cell dehydration. A novel bioink hydrogel is presented with dual-stage crosslinking specifically designed to overcome these three major hurdles. This bioink enables the direct patterning of highly viable, multicell type constructs with long-term spatial fidelity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chu; Shan, Meng; Li, Bingqiang; Wu, Guolin

    2017-09-01

    An injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel was successfully developed by combining the conceptions of injectable hydrogels and dual redox responsive diselenides. In the first step, four-armed PEG was modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated esters and thereafter, crosslinked by selenocystamine crosslinkers to form injectable hydrogels via the rapid reaction between NHS-activated esters and amino groups. The cross-sectional morphology, mechanical properties, and crosslinking modes of hydrogels were well characterized via scanning electron microscope (SEM), rheological measurements, and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. In addition, the oxidation- and reduction-responsive degradation behaviors of hydrogels were observed and analyzed. The model drug, rhodamine B, was encapsulated in the hydrogel. The drug-loaded hydrogel exhibited a dual redox responsive release profile, which was consistent with the degradation experiments. The results of all experiments indicated that the formulated injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing PEG hydrogel can have potential applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and stimuli-responsive drug release. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2451-2460, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cooperativity and redundancy in the mechanics of compositely crosslinked branched anisotropic cytoskeletal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J. M.; Zhang, Tao; Das, Moumita

    2013-03-01

    At the leading edge of a crawling cell, the actin cytoskeleton extends itself in a particular direction via a branched crosslinked network of actin filaments with some overall alignment. This network is known as the lamellipodium. Branching via the complex Arp2/3 occurs at a reasonably well-defined angle of 70 degrees from the plus end of the mother filament such that Arp2/3 can be modeled as an angle-constraining crosslinker. Freely-rotating crosslinkers, such as alpha-actinin, are also present in lamellipodia. Therefore, we study the interplay between these two types of crosslinkers, angle-constraining and free-rotating, both analytically and numerically, to begin to quantify the mechanics of lamellipodia. We also investigate how the orientational ordering of the filaments affects this interplay. Finally, while role of Arp2/3 as a nucleator for filaments along the leading edge of a crawling cell has been studied intensely, much less is known about its mechanical contribution. Our work seeks to fill in this important gap in modeling the mechanics of lamellipodia.

  20. In Situ Forming, Cytocompatible, and Self-Recoverable Tough Hydrogels Based on Dual Ionic and Click Cross-Linked Alginate.

    PubMed

    Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein

    2018-05-14

    A dual cross-linking strategy was developed to answer the urgent need for fatigue-resistant, cytocompatible, and in situ forming tough hydrogels. Clickable, yet calcium-binding derivatives of alginate were synthesized by partial substitution of its carboxyl functionalities with furan, which could come into Diels-Alder click reaction with maleimide end groups of a four arm poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker. Tuning the cooperative viscoelastic action of transient ionic and permanent click cross-links within the single network of alginate provided a soft tough hydrogel with a set of interesting features: (i) immediate self-recovery under cyclic loading, (ii) highly efficient and autonomous self-healing upon fracture, (iii) in situ forming ability for molding and minimally invasive injection, (iv) capability for viable cell encapsulation, and (v) reactivity for on-demand biomolecule conjugation. The facile strategy is applicable to a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers by introducing the calcium binding and click reacting functional groups and can broaden the use of tough hydrogels in load-bearing, cell-laden applications such as soft tissue engineering and bioactuators.

  1. Nano and micro mechanical properties of uncross-linked and cross-linked chitosan films

    PubMed Central

    Aryaei, Ashkan; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.; Jayasuriya, A. Champa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the nano and micro mechanical properties for uncross-linked and cross-linked chitosan films. Specifically, we looked at nanoindentation hardness, microhardness, and elastic modulus. It is important to study the nano and microscale mechanical properties of chitosan since chitosan has been widely used for biomedical applications. Using the solvent-cast method, the chitosan films were prepared at room temperature on the cleaned glass plates. The chitosan solution was prepared by dissolving chitosan in acetic acid 1% (v/v). Tripolyphosphate (TPP) was used to create the cross-links between amine groups in chitosan and phosphate groups in TPP. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to measure the nanoindentation hardness and surface topography of the uncross-linked and cross-linked chitosan films. Elastic modulus was then calculated from the nanoindentation results. The effective elastic modulus was determined by microhardness with some modifications to previous theories. The microhardness of the chitosan films were measured using Vicker’s hardness meter under three different loads. Our results show that the microhardness and elastic modulus for cross-linked chitosan films are higher than the uncross-linked films. However, the cross-linked chitosan films show increased brittleness when compared to uncross-linked films. By increasing the load magnitude, the microhardness increases for both uncross-linked and cross-linked chitosan films. PMID:22100082

  2. Influence of crosslinking on the mechanical behavior of 3D printed alginate scaffolds: Experimental and numerical approaches.

    PubMed

    Naghieh, Saman; Karamooz-Ravari, Mohammad Reza; Sarker, M D; Karki, Eva; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2018-04-01

    Tissue scaffolds fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting are attracting considerable attention for tissue engineering applications. Because the mechanical properties of hydrogel scaffolds should match the damaged tissue, changing various parameters during 3D bioprinting has been studied to manipulate the mechanical behavior of the resulting scaffolds. Crosslinking scaffolds using a cation solution (such as CaCl 2 ) is also important for regulating the mechanical properties, but has not been well documented in the literature. Here, the effect of varied crosslinking agent volume and crosslinking time on the mechanical behavior of 3D bioplotted alginate scaffolds was evaluated using both experimental and numerical methods. Compression tests were used to measure the elastic modulus of each scaffold, then a finite element model was developed and a power model used to predict scaffold mechanical behavior. Results showed that crosslinking time and volume of crosslinker both play a decisive role in modulating the mechanical properties of 3D bioplotted scaffolds. Because mechanical properties of scaffolds can affect cell response, the findings of this study can be implemented to modulate the elastic modulus of scaffolds according to the intended application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. To Cross-Link or Not to Cross-Link? Cross-Linking Associated Foreign Body Response of Collagen-Based Devices

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Luis M.; Bayon, Yves; Pandit, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-based devices, in various physical conformations, are extensively used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Given that the natural cross-linking pathway of collagen does not occur in vitro, chemical, physical, and biological cross-linking methods have been assessed over the years to control mechanical stability, degradation rate, and immunogenicity of the device upon implantation. Although in vitro data demonstrate that mechanical properties and degradation rate can be accurately controlled as a function of the cross-linking method utilized, preclinical and clinical data indicate that cross-linking methods employed may have adverse effects on host response, especially when potent cross-linking methods are employed. Experimental data suggest that more suitable cross-linking methods should be developed to achieve a balance between stability and functional remodeling. PMID:25517923

  4. Influence of heat treatment on structural, mechanical and wear properties of crosslinked UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, R; Moscatelli, M; Giordano, C; Siccardi, F; Cigada, A

    2004-01-01

    New crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) have recently been developed, characterized and introduced in clinical applications. UHMWPE cross-linking treatments are very promising for reducing osteolysis induced by wear debris. The irradiation type, gamma or beta, the dosage and the thermal treatment performed during or following the irradiation process are all factors affecting polyethylene wear resistance. Thermal stabilization treatments performed after or during the irradiation process at a temperature above melting point (i.e. >130 degrees C) have been proven to effectively remove the free radicals generated during irradiation from UHMWPE, but their effect on the mechanical properties of UHMWPE are not completely clear. In addition to wear rate reduction, maintaining good mechanical properties is fundamental aspect in designing the new generation of crosslinked UHMWPE for artificial load bearing materials, especially considering the application in total knee replacements. In this study, we investigated the influence of different stabilization treatments, performed after gamma irradiation, on structural, wear and mechanical properties of UHMWPE. We performed four different stabilization treatments, with different temperatures and cooling rates, on 100 kGy gamma irradiated UHMWPE. Structural properties of UHMWPE were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To assess the mechanical performance of the materials, uni-axial tensile tests were performed according to the ASTM D638 standard, bi-axial tension performance was evaluated by small punch tests (ASTM F2183-02), toughness resistance was evaluated by the Izod method (ASTM F648), and cold flow resistance was analysed by a dynamic compressive test. Evaluation of wear resistance was by a multidirectional pin-on-disk screening machine. Materials considered were in "aged" and "non-aged" conditions. Results confirmed that cross-linking greatly enhances UHMWPE wear resistance, but

  5. Micro-Mechanical Viscoelastic Properties of Crosslinked Hydrogels Using the Nano-Epsilon Dot Method.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Giorgio; Cacopardo, Ludovica; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2017-08-02

    Engineering materials that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanical properties of native tissues in vitro is of interest for the development of biomimetic organ models. To date, the majority of studies have focused on designing hydrogels for cell cultures which mimic native tissue stiffness or quasi-static elastic moduli through a variety of crosslinking strategies, while their viscoelastic (time-dependent) behavior has been largely ignored. To provide a more complete description of the biomechanical environment felt by cells, we focused on characterizing the micro-mechanical viscoelastic properties of crosslinked hydrogels at typical cell length scales. In particular, gelatin hydrogels crosslinked with different glutaraldehyde (GTA) concentrations were analyzed via nano-indentation tests using the nano-epsilon dot method. The experimental data were fitted to a Maxwell Standard Linear Solid model, showing that increasing GTA concentration results in increased instantaneous and equilibrium elastic moduli and in a higher characteristic relaxation time. Therefore, not only do gelatin hydrogels become stiffer with increasing crosslinker concentration (as reported in the literature), but there is also a concomitant change in their viscoelastic behavior towards a more elastic one. As the degree of crosslinking alters both the elastic and viscous behavior of hydrogels, caution should be taken when attributing cell response merely to substrate stiffness, as the two effects cannot be decoupled.

  6. Genipin crosslinking decreases the mechanical wear and biochemical degradation of impacted cartilage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bonitsky, Craig M; McGann, Megan E; Selep, Michael J; Ovaert, Timothy C; Trippel, Stephen B; Wagner, Diane R

    2017-03-01

    High energy trauma to cartilage causes surface fissures and microstructural damage, but the degree to which this damage renders the tissue more susceptible to wear and contributes to the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is unknown. Additionally, no treatments are currently available to strengthen cartilage after joint trauma and to protect the tissue from subsequent degradation and wear. The purposes of this study were to investigate the role of mechanical damage in the degradation and wear of cartilage, to evaluate the effects of impact and subsequent genipin crosslinking on the changes in the viscoelastic parameters of articular cartilage, and to test the hypothesis that genipin crosslinking is an effective treatment to enhance the resistance to biochemical degradation and mechanical wear. Results demonstrate that cartilage stiffness decreases after impact loading, likely due to the formation of fissures and microarchitectural damage, and is partially or fully restored by crosslinking. The wear resistance of impacted articular cartilage was diminished compared to undamaged cartilage, suggesting that mechanical damage that is directly induced by the impact may contribute to the progression of PTOA. However, the decrease in wear resistance was completely reversed by the crosslinking treatments. Additionally, the crosslinking treatments improved the resistance to collagenase digestion at the impact-damaged articular surface. These results highlight the potential therapeutic value of collagen crosslinking via genipin in the prevention of cartilage degeneration after traumatic injury. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:558-565, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mechanical Properties and Morphologies of Carboxyl-Terminated Butadiene Acrylonitrile Liquid Rubber/Epoxy Blends Compatibilized by Pre-Crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiai; Song, Xiaoxue; Cai, Yangben

    2016-07-29

    In order to enhance the compatibilization and interfacial adhesion between epoxy and liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber, an initiator was introduced into the mixture and heated to initiate the cross-linking reaction of CTBN. After the addition of curing agents, the CTBN/epoxy blends with a localized interpenetrating network structure were prepared. The mechanical properties and morphologies of pre-crosslinked and non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends were investigated. The results show that the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength of pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends are significantly higher than those of non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends, which is primarily due to the enhanced interfacial strength caused by the chemical bond between the two phases and the localized interpenetrating network structure. Both pre-crosslinked and non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends show a bimodal distribution of micron- and nano-sized rubber particles. However, pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends have smaller micron-sized rubber particles and larger nano-sized rubber particles than non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows that the storage modulus of pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends is higher than that of non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends. The glass transition temperature of the CTBN phase in pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends increases slightly compared with the CTBN/epoxy system. The pre-crosslinking of rubber is a promising method for compatibilization and controlling the morphology of rubber-modified epoxy materials.

  8. Mechanical Properties and Morphologies of Carboxyl-Terminated Butadiene Acrylonitrile Liquid Rubber/Epoxy Blends Compatibilized by Pre-Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shiai; Song, Xiaoxue; Cai, Yangben

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance the compatibilization and interfacial adhesion between epoxy and liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber, an initiator was introduced into the mixture and heated to initiate the cross-linking reaction of CTBN. After the addition of curing agents, the CTBN/epoxy blends with a localized interpenetrating network structure were prepared. The mechanical properties and morphologies of pre-crosslinked and non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends were investigated. The results show that the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength of pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends are significantly higher than those of non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends, which is primarily due to the enhanced interfacial strength caused by the chemical bond between the two phases and the localized interpenetrating network structure. Both pre-crosslinked and non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends show a bimodal distribution of micron- and nano-sized rubber particles. However, pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends have smaller micron-sized rubber particles and larger nano-sized rubber particles than non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows that the storage modulus of pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends is higher than that of non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends. The glass transition temperature of the CTBN phase in pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends increases slightly compared with the CTBN/epoxy system. The pre-crosslinking of rubber is a promising method for compatibilization and controlling the morphology of rubber-modified epoxy materials. PMID:28773762

  9. Dual crosslinked pectin-alginate network as sustained release hydrophilic matrix for repaglinide.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Rajendra; Kulkarni, Giriraj T; Ramana, Malipeddi Venkata; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Molim Ghisleni, Daniela Dal; de Souza Braga, Marina; De Bank, Paul; Dua, Kamal

    2017-04-01

    Repaglinide, an oral antidiabetic agent, has a rapid onset of action and short half-life of approximately 1h. Developing a controlled and prolonged release delivery system is required to maintain its therapeutic plasma concentration and to eliminate its adverse effects particularly hypoglycemia. The present study aimed to develop controlled release repaglinide loaded beads using sodium alginate and pectin with dual cross-linking for effective control of drug release. The prepared beads were characterized for size, percentage drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and the morphological examination using scanning electron microscope. For the comparative study, the release profile of a marketed conventional tablet of repaglinide (Prandin ® tablets 2mg, Novo Nordisk) was determined by the same procedure as followed for beads. The particle size of beads was in the range of 698±2.34-769±1.43μm. The drug entrapment efficiency varied between 55.24±4.61 to 82.29±3.42%. The FTIR results suggest that there was no interaction between repaglinide and excipients. The XRD and DSC results suggest partial molecular dispersion and amorphization of the drug throughout the system. These results suggest that repaglinide did not dissolve completely in the polymer composition and seems not to be involved in the cross-linking reaction. The percent drug release was decreased with higher polymer concentrations. In conclusion, the developed beads could enhance drug entrapment efficiency, prolong the drug release and enhance bioavailability for better control of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A self-healable and highly stretchable supercapacitor based on a dual crosslinked polyelectrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Zhong, Ming; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Xie, Xuming; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Superior self-healability and stretchability are critical elements for the practical wide-scale adoption of personalized electronics such as portable and wearable energy storage devices. However, the low healing efficiency of self-healable supercapacitors and the small strain of stretchable supercapacitors are fundamentally limited by conventional polyvinyl alcohol-based acidic electrolytes, which are intrinsically neither self-healable nor highly stretchable. Here we report an electrolyte comprising polyacrylic acid dual crosslinked by hydrogen bonding and vinyl hybrid silica nanoparticles, which displays all superior functions and provides a solution to the intrinsic self-healability and high stretchability problems of a supercapacitor. Supercapacitors with this electrolyte are non-autonomic self-healable, retaining the capacitance completely even after 20 cycles of breaking/healing. These supercapacitors are stretched up to 600% strain with enhanced performance using a designed facile electrode fabrication procedure. PMID:26691661

  11. A self-healable and highly stretchable supercapacitor based on a dual crosslinked polyelectrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Zhong, Ming; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Xie, Xuming; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-12-01

    Superior self-healability and stretchability are critical elements for the practical wide-scale adoption of personalized electronics such as portable and wearable energy storage devices. However, the low healing efficiency of self-healable supercapacitors and the small strain of stretchable supercapacitors are fundamentally limited by conventional polyvinyl alcohol-based acidic electrolytes, which are intrinsically neither self-healable nor highly stretchable. Here we report an electrolyte comprising polyacrylic acid dual crosslinked by hydrogen bonding and vinyl hybrid silica nanoparticles, which displays all superior functions and provides a solution to the intrinsic self-healability and high stretchability problems of a supercapacitor. Supercapacitors with this electrolyte are non-autonomic self-healable, retaining the capacitance completely even after 20 cycles of breaking/healing. These supercapacitors are stretched up to 600% strain with enhanced performance using a designed facile electrode fabrication procedure.

  12. Hydrothermal growth of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kakihana, Masato

    2012-06-01

    A facile and surfactant-free approach has been developed for the synthesis of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex as a precursor and oxalic acid as a reducing and structure-directing agent. The synthesized particles are composed of highly branched nanostructures with unusual cross-linked hierarchical networks. The formation of copper dendrites can be explained in view of both diffusion control and aggregation-based growth model accompanied by the chelation-assisted assembly. Oxalic acid was found to play dual roles as reducing and structure-directing agent based on the investigation results. The understanding on the crystal growth and the roles of oxalic acid provides clear insight into the formation mechanism of hyperbranched metal dendrites.

  13. Improving mechanical properties of carbon nanotube fibers through simultaneous solid-state cycloaddition and crosslinking

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lu, Xinyi; Hiremath, Nitilaksha; Hong, Kunlun

    Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. However, difficulties remain in fully realizing these properties in CNT macro-assemblies, because the weak inter-tube forces result in the CNTs sliding past one another. Here in this study, a simple solid-state reaction is presented that enhances the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube fibers (CNTFs) through simultaneous covalent functionalization and crosslinking. This is the first chemical crosslinking proposed without the involvement of a catalyst or byproducts. The specific tensile strength of CNTFs obtained from the treatment employing a benzocyclobutene-based polymer is improved by 40%. Such improvement can be attributed to a reduced numbermore » of voids, impregnation of the polymer, and the formation of covalent crosslinks. This methodology is confirmed using both multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) powders and CNTFs. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of the treated MWNT powders confirm the covalent functionalization and formation of inter-tube crosslinks. This simple one-step reaction can be applied to industrial-scale production of high-strength CNTFs.« less

  14. Improving mechanical properties of carbon nanotube fibers through simultaneous solid-state cycloaddition and crosslinking

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Xinyi; Hiremath, Nitilaksha; Hong, Kunlun; ...

    2017-03-13

    Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. However, difficulties remain in fully realizing these properties in CNT macro-assemblies, because the weak inter-tube forces result in the CNTs sliding past one another. Here in this study, a simple solid-state reaction is presented that enhances the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube fibers (CNTFs) through simultaneous covalent functionalization and crosslinking. This is the first chemical crosslinking proposed without the involvement of a catalyst or byproducts. The specific tensile strength of CNTFs obtained from the treatment employing a benzocyclobutene-based polymer is improved by 40%. Such improvement can be attributed to a reduced numbermore » of voids, impregnation of the polymer, and the formation of covalent crosslinks. This methodology is confirmed using both multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) powders and CNTFs. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of the treated MWNT powders confirm the covalent functionalization and formation of inter-tube crosslinks. This simple one-step reaction can be applied to industrial-scale production of high-strength CNTFs.« less

  15. Effects of alkanolamide addition on crosslink density, mechanical and morphological properties of chloroprene rubber compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya, I.; Hayeemasae, N.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of alkanolamide (ALK) addition on crosslink density, mechanical and morphological properties of unfilled polychloroprene rubber (CR) compounds were investigated. The ALK was prepared from Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin (RBDPS) and diethanolamine and -together with magnesium and zinc oxides-incorporated into the unfilled CR compounds. The ALK loadings were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 phr. It was found that ALK enhanced crosslink density, tensile modulus, tensile strength and hardness especially up to a 1.5 phr loading. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) proved that the 1.5 phr of ALK exhibited the greatest matrix tearing line and surface roughness, due to the highest degree of crosslink density and mechanical properties.

  16. Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanied by a decrease in axial mechanical properties of the nanotube material upon crosslinking.

  17. How actin crosslinking and bundling proteins cooperate to generate an enhanced cell mechanical response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Yiider; Kole, Thomas P.; Lee, Jerry S H.; Fedorov, Elena; Almo, Steven C.; Schafer, Benjamin W.; Wirtz, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Actin-crosslinking proteins organize actin filaments into dynamic and complex subcellular scaffolds that orchestrate important mechanical functions, including cell motility and adhesion. Recent mutation studies have shown that individual crosslinking proteins often play seemingly non-essential roles, leading to the hypothesis that they have considerable redundancy in function. We report live-cell, in vitro, and theoretical studies testing the mechanical role of the two ubiquitous actin-crosslinking proteins, alpha-actinin and fascin, which co-localize to stress fibers and the basis of filopodia. Using live-cell particle tracking microrheology, we show that the addition of alpha-actinin and fascin elicits a cell mechanical response that is significantly greater than that originated by alpha-actinin or fascin alone. These live-cell measurements are supported by quantitative rheological measurements with reconstituted actin filament networks containing pure proteins that show that alpha-actinin and fascin can work in concert to generate enhanced cell stiffness. Computational simulations using finite element modeling qualitatively reproduce and explain the functional synergy of alpha-actinin and fascin. These findings highlight the cooperative activity of fascin and alpha-actinin and provide a strong rationale that an evolutionary advantage might be conferred by the cooperative action of multiple actin-crosslinking proteins with overlapping but non-identical biochemical properties. Thus the combination of structural proteins with similar function can provide the cell with unique properties that are required for biologically optimal responses.

  18. Quantitative Evaluation of Collagen Crosslinks and Corresponding Tensile Mechanical Properties in Mouse Cervical Tissue during Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kyoko; Jiang, Hongfeng; Kim, MiJung; Vink, Joy; Cremers, Serge; Paik, David; Wapner, Ronald; Mahendroo, Mala; Myers, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the mechanical integrity of the cervix during pregnancy have implications for a successful delivery. Cervical collagens are known to remodel extensively in mice with progressing gestation leading to a soft cervix at term. During this process, mature crosslinked collagens are hypothesized to be replaced with immature less crosslinked collagens to facilitate cervical softening and ripening. To determine the mechanical role of collagen crosslinks during normal mouse cervical remodeling, tensile load-to-break tests were conducted for the following time points: nonpregnant (NP), gestation day (d) 6, 12, 15, 18 and 24 hr postpartum (PP) of the 19-day gestation period. Immature crosslinks (HLNL and DHLNL) and mature crosslinks (DPD and PYD) were measured using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). There were no significant changes in the total immature crosslink density (HLNL+DHLNL mol per collagen mol) throughout normal mouse gestation (range: 0.31–0.49). Total mature crosslink density (PYD+DPD mol per collagen mol) decreased significantly in early softening from d6 to d15 (d6: 0.17, d12: 0.097, d15: 0.026) and did not decrease with further gestation. The maturity ratio (total mature to total immature crosslinks) significantly decreased in early softening from d6 to d15 (d6: 0.2, d15: 0.074). All of the measured crosslinks correlated significantly with a measure of tissue stiffness and strength, with the exception of the immature crosslink HLNL. This data provides quantitative evidence to support the hypothesis that as mature crosslinked collagens decline, they are replaced by immature collagens to facilitate increased tissue compliance in the early softening period from d6 to d15. PMID:25397407

  19. Genipin crosslinker releasing sutures for improving the mechanical/repair strength of damaged connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Sundararaj, Sharath; Slusarewicz, Paul; Brown, Matt; Hedman, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The most common mode of surgical repair of ruptured tendons and ligaments involves the use of sutures for reattachment. However, there is a high incidence of rerupture and repair failure due to pulling out of the suture material from the damaged connective tissue. The main goal of this research was to achieve a localized delivery of crosslinking agent genipin (GP) from rapid-release biodegradable coatings on sutures, for strengthening the repair of ruptured connective tissue. Our hypothesis is that GP released from the suture coating will lead to exogenous crosslinking of native connective tissue resulting in beneficial effects on clinically relevant mechanical parameters such as tear resistance, tissue strength, and energy required to rupture the tissue (toughness). Sutures were successfully coated with a biodegradable polymer layer loaded with the crosslinking agent genipin, without compromising the mechanical properties of the suture. The rapid-release of genipin was achieved under both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Exogenous crosslinking using these genipin releasing sutures was demonstrated using equine tendons. The tendons treated with genipin releasing sutures showed significant improvement in failure load, energy required for pull-out failure, and stiffness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2199-2205, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A General Bioinspired, Metals-Based Synergic Cross-Linking Strategy toward Mechanically Enhanced Materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Ding, Jin; Zhang, Shuhao; Tang, Xuke; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin

    2017-03-28

    Creating lightweight engineering materials combining high strength and great toughness remains a significant challenge. Despite possessing-enhanced strength and stiffness, bioinspired/polymeric materials usually suffer from clearly reduced extensibility and toughness when compared to corresponding bulk polymer materials. Herein, inspired by tiny amounts of various inorganic impurities for mechanical improvement in natural materials, we present a versatile and effective metal ion (M n+ )-based synergic cross-linking (MSC) strategy incorporating eight types of metal ions into material bulks that can drastically enhance the tensile strength (∼24.1-70.8%), toughness (∼18.6-110.1%), modulus (∼21.6-66.7%), and hardness (∼6.4-176.5%) of multiple types of pristine materials (from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and from unary to binary). More importantly, we also explore the primarily elastic-plastic deformation mechanism and brittle fracture behavior (indentation strain of >5%) of the synergic cross-linked graphene oxide (Syn-GO) paper by means of in situ nanoindentation SEM. The MSC strategy for mechanically enhanced integration can be readily attributed to the formation of the complicated metals-based cross-linking/complex networks in the interfaces and intermolecules between functional groups of materials and various metal ions that give rise to efficient energy dissipation. This work suggests a promising MSC strategy for designing advanced materials with outstanding mechanical properties by adding low amounts (<1.0 wt %) of synergic metal ions serving as synergic ion-bonding cross-linkers.

  1. Cross-linkable graphene oxide embedded nanocomposite hydrogel with enhanced mechanics and cytocompatibility for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xifeng; Miller, A Lee; Waletzki, Brian E; Lu, Lichun

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive material that can be utilized to enhance the modulus and conductivities of substrates and hydrogels. To covalently cross-link graphene oxide sheets into hydrogels, abundant cross-linkable double bonds were introduced to synthesize the graphene-oxide-tris-acrylate sheet (GO-TrisA). Polyacrylamide (PAM) nanocomposite hydrogels were then fabricated with inherent covalently and permanently cross-linked GO-TrisA sheets. Results showed that the covalently cross-linked GO-TrisA/PAM nanocomposite hydrogel had enhanced mechanical strength, thermo stability compared with GO/PAM hydrogel maintained mainly by hydrogen bonding between PAM chains and GO sheets. In vitro cell study showed that the covalently cross-linked rGO-TrisA/PAM nanocomposite hydrogel had excellent cytocompatibility after in situ reduction. These results suggest that rGO-TrisA/PAM nanocomposite hydrogel holds great potential for tissue engineering applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1247-1257, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Synthesis and mechanical properties of double cross-linked gelatin-graphene oxide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Piao, Yongzhe; Chen, Biqiong

    2017-08-01

    Gelatin is an interesting biological macromolecule for biomedical applications. Here, double cross-linked gelatin nanocomposite hydrogels with incorporation of graphene oxide (GO) were synthesized in one pot using glutaraldehyde (GTA) and GTA-grafted GO as double chemical cross-linkers. The nanocomposite hydrogels, in contrast to the neat gelatin hydrogel, exhibited significant increases in mechanical properties by up to 288% in compressive strength, 195% in compressive modulus, 267% in compressive fracture energy and 160% shear storage modulus with the optimal GO concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and swelling tests were implemented to characterize the nanocomposite hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tuning chemical and physical cross-links in silk electrogels for morphological analysis and mechanical reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yinan; Xia, Xiaoxia; Shang, Ke; Elia, Roberto; Huang, Wenwen; Cebe, Peggy; Leisk, Gary; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L

    2013-08-12

    Electrochemically controlled, reversible assembly of biopolymers into hydrogel structures is a promising technique for on-demand cell or drug encapsulation and release systems. An electrochemically sol-gel transition has been demonstrated in regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin, offering a controllable way to generate biocompatible and reversible adhesives and other biomedical materials. Despite the involvement of an electrochemically triggered electrophoretic migration of the silk molecules, the mechanism of the reversible electrogelation remains unclear. It is, however, known that the freshly prepared silk electrogels (e-gels) adopt a predominantly random coil conformation, indicating a lack of cross-linking as well as thermal, mechanical, and morphological stabilities. In the present work, the tuning of covalent and physical β-sheet cross-links in silk hydrogels was studied for programming the structural properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed delicate morphology, including locally aligned fibrillar structures, in silk e-gels, preserved by combining glutaraldehyde-cross-linking and ethanol dehydration. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of either electrogelled, vortex-induced or spontaneously formed silk hydrogels showed that the secondary structure of silk e-gels was tunable between non-β-sheet-dominated and β-sheet-dominated states. Dynamic oscillatory rheology confirmed the mechanical reinforcement of silk e-gels provided by controlled chemical and physical cross-links. The selective incorporation of either chemical or physical or both cross-links into the electrochemically responsive, originally unstructured silk e-gel should help in the design for electrochemically responsive protein polymers.

  4. Effects of cross-linking on mechanical, biological properties and biodegradation behavior of Nile tilapia skin collagen sponge as a biomedical material.

    PubMed

    Sun, Leilei; Li, Bafang; Yao, Di; Song, Wenkui; Hou, Hu

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) and glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linking on mechanical, biological properties and biodegradation behavior of Nile tilapia skin collagen sponge fabricated by freeze-drying technology. It was found that the GTA cross-linked collagen sponge exhibited a higher degree of cross-linking in comparison with DHT. The extent of increased tensile strength as well as hygroscopicity indicated that GTA cross-linking was superior to DHT in mechanical properties and liquid absorption, which was attributed to different cross-linking mechanisms. Hygroscopicity assay indicated that cross-linking could improve stability of collagen in solutions. No obvious changes in porosity and blood coagulation time were observed whether cross-linking or not. Results from collagenase biodegradation assay in vitro illustrated that GTA-treated collagen sponge was more resistant to collagenase biodegradation, while DHT exhibited negligible resistance. In addition, photochemical stability of collagen sponge was studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which indicated that both cross-linking treatments could not change the backbone structure of collagen. Furthermore, the microstructure of collagen sponge was stable after cross-linking. The highly porous and interconnected structure of collagen sponge was helpful to the absorption of wound exudates, supplement of oxygen and cell proliferation, accompanied with good blood compatibility, which indicated that our fabricated collagen sponge could be applied in biomedical materials field as wound dressings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Durability and mechanical properties of silane cross-linked wood thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    Magnus Bengtsson; Nicole M. Stark; Kristiina Oksman

    2007-01-01

    In this study, silane cross-linked wood–polyethylene composite profiles were manufactured by reactive extrusion. These composites were evaluated regarding their durability and mechanical properties in comparison with two non-cross-linked wood– polyethylene composites. An addition of only 2% w/w of silane solution during manufacturing was enough to achieve almost 60%...

  6. Effects of alginate hydrogel cross-linking density on mechanical and biological behaviors for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jinah; Seol, Young-Joon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Kundu, Joydip; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    An effective cross-linking of alginate gel was made through reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). We used human chondrocytes as a model cell to study the effects of cross-linking density. Three different pore size ranges of cross-linked alginate hydrogels were fabricated. The morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties of various alginate hydrogels were characterized and responses of biosynthesis of cells encapsulated in each gel to the variation in cross-linking density were investigated. Desired outer shape of structure was maintained when the alginate solution was cross-linked with the applied method. The properties of alginate hydrogel could be tailored through applying various concentrations of CaCO3. The rate of synthesized GAGs and collagens was significantly higher in human chondrocytes encapsulated in the smaller pore structure than that in the larger pore structure. The expression of chondrogenic markers, including collagen type II and aggrecan, was enhanced in the smaller pore structure. It was found that proper structural morphology is a critical factor to enhance the performance and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High performances of dual network PVA hydrogel modified by PVP using borax as the structure-forming accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Hou, Yi; Li, Yubao; Wang, Danqing; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A dual network hydrogel made up of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) crosslinked by borax and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared by means of freezing-thawing circles. Here PVP was incorporated by linking with PVA to form a network structure, while the introduction of borax played the role of crosslinking PVA chains to accelerate the formation of a dual network structure in PVA/PVP composite hydrogel, thus endowing the hydrogel with high mechanical properties. The effects of both PVP and borax on the hydrogels were evaluated by comparing the two systems of PVA/PVP/borax and PVA/borax hydrogels. In the former system, adding 4.0% PVP not only increased the water content and the storage modulus but also enhanced the mechanical strength of the final hydrogel. But an overdose of PVP just as more than 4.0% tended to undermine the structure of hydrogels, and thus deteriorated hydrogels’ properties because of the weakened secondary interaction between PVP and PVA. Likewise, increasing borax could promote the gel crosslinking degree, thus making gels show a decrease in water content and swelling ratio, meanwhile shrinking the pores inside the hydrogels and finally enhancing the mechanical strength of hydrogels prominently. The developed hydrogel with high performances holds great potential for applications in biomedical and industrial fields. PMID:29491822

  8. The mechanism of collagen cross-linking in diabetes: a puzzle nearing resolution.

    PubMed

    Monnier, V M; Glomb, M; Elgawish, A; Sell, D R

    1996-07-01

    Considerable interest has been focused in recent years on the mechanism of collagen cross-linking by high glucose in vitro and in vivo. Experiments in both diabetic humans and in animals have shown that over time collagen becomes less soluble, less digestible by collagenase, more stable to heat-induced denaturation, and more glycated. In addition, collagen becomes more modified by advanced products of the Maillard reaction, i.e., immunoreactive advanced glycation end products and the glycoxidation markers carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine. Mechanistic studies have shown that collagen cross-linking in vitro can be uncoupled from glycation by the use of antioxidants and chelating agents. Experiments in the authors' laboratory revealed that approximately 50% of carboxymethyllysine formed in vitro originates from pathways other than oxidation of Amadori products, i.e., most likely the oxidation of Schiff base-linked glucose. In addition, the increase in thermal stability of rat tail tendons exposed to high glucose in vitro or in vivo was found to strongly depend on H2O2 formation. The final missing piece of the puzzle is that of the structure of the major cross-link. We speculate that it is a nonfluorescent nonultraviolet active cross-link between two lysine residues, which includes a fragmentation product of glucose linked in a nonreducible bond labile to both strong acids and bases.

  9. The Impact of HA Oligomer Content on Physical, Mechanical, and Biologic Properties of Divinyl Sulfone-Crosslinked HA Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Samir; Kang, Qian K; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2009-01-01

    In recent studies, we showed that exogenous hyaluronic acid oligomers (HA-o) stimulate functional endothelialization, though native long-chain HA is more bioinert and possibly more biocompatible. Thus, in this study, hydrogels containing high molecular weight (HMW) HA (1×106 Da) and HA oligomer mixtures (HA-o: 0.75–10 kDa) were created by crosslinking with divinyl sulfone (DVS). The incorporation of HA oligomers was found to compromise the physical and mechanical properties of the gels (rheology, apparent crosslinking density, swelling ratio, degradation) and to very mildly enhance inflammatory cell recruitment in vivo; increasing the DVS crosslinker content within the gels in general, had the opposite effect, though the relatively high concentration of DVS within these gels (necessary to create a solid gel) also stimulated a mild sub-cutaneous inflammatory response in vivo and VCAM-1 expression by ECs cultured atop; ICAM-expression levels remained very low irrespective extent of DVS crosslinking or HA-o content. The greatest EC attachment and proliferation (MTT assay) was observed on gels that contained the highest amount of HA-o. The study shows that the beneficial EC response to HA oligomers and biocompatibility of HA is mostly unaltered by their chemical derivatization and crosslinking into a hydrogel. However, the study also demonstrates that the relatively high concentrations of DVS, necessary to create solid gels, compromises their biocompatibility. Moreover, the poor mechanics of even these heavily crosslinked gels, in the context of vascular implantation, necessitates the investigation of other, more appropriate crosslinking agents. Alternately, the outcomes of this study may be used to guide an approach based on chemical immobilization and controlled surface-presentation of both bioactive HA oligomers and more biocompatible HMW HAon synthetic or tissue engineered grafts already in use, without the use of a crosslinker, so that improved, predictable

  10. Guest-Release Control in Enzyme-Sensitive, Amphiphilic-Dendrimer-Based Nanoparticles through Photochemical Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Krishna R.; Azagarsamy, Malar A.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli sensitive, facially amphiphilic dendrimers have been synthesized and their enzyme-responsive nature has been determined with dual fluorescence responses of both covalently conjugated and non-covalently bound reporter units. These dual responses are correlated to ascertain the effect of enzymatic action on micellar aggregates and the consequential guest release. The release of the guest molecule is conveniently tuned by stabilizing the micellar aggregates through photochemical crosslinking of hydrophobic coumarin units. This photo-crosslinking is also utilized as a tool to investigate the mode of enzyme-substrate interaction in the context of aggregate-monomer equilibrium. PMID:21887830

  11. Preparation and mechanical properties of photo-crosslinked poly(trimethylene carbonate) and nano-hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Geven, Mike A; Barbieri, Davide; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost D; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials of photo-crosslinked poly(trimethylene carbonate) and nanoscale hydroxyapatite were prepared and their mechanical characteristics for application as orbital floor implants were assessed. The composites were prepared by solvent casting poly(trimethylene carbonate) macromers with varying amounts of nano-hydroxyapatite and subsequent photo-crosslinking. The incorporation of the nano-hydroxyapatite into the composites was examined by thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and gel content measurements. The mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing and trouser tearing experiments. Our results show that nano-hydroxyapatite particles can readily be incorporated into photo-crosslinked poly(trimethylene carbonate) networks. Compared to the networks without nano-hydroxyapatite, incorporation of 36.3 wt.% of the apatite resulted in an increase of the E modulus, yield strength and tensile strength from 2.2 MPa to 51 MPa, 0.5 to 1.4 N/mm2 and from 1.3 to 3.9 N/mm2, respectively. We found that composites containing 12.4 wt.% nano-hydroxyapatite had the highest values of strain at break, toughness and average tear propagation strength (376% , 777 N/mm2 and 3.1 N/mm2, respectively).

  12. Early experience with dual mobility acetabular systems featuring highly cross-linked polyethylene liners for primary hip arthroplasty in patients under fifty five years of age: an international multi-centre preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Epinette, Jean-Alain; Harwin, Steven F; Rowan, Fiachra E; Tracol, Philippe; Mont, Michael A; Chughtai, Morad; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate early performance of contemporary dual mobility acetabular systems with second generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene for primary hip arthroplasty of patients under 55 years of age. A prospective observational five years study across five centers in Europe and the USA of 321 patients with a mean age of 48.1 years was performed. Patients were assessed for causes of revision, hip instability, intra-prosthetic dissociation, Harris hip score and radiological signs of osteolysis. There were no dislocations and no intra-prosthetic dissociations. Kaplan Meier analysis demonstrated 97.51% survivorship for all cause revision and 99.68% survivorship for acetabular component revision at five years. Mean Harris hip score was 93.6. Two acetabular shells were revised for neck-rim implant impingement without dislocation and ten femoral stems were revised for causes unrelated to dual mobility implants. Contemporary highly cross-linked polyethylene dual mobility systems demonstrate excellent early clinical, radiological, and survivorship results in a cohort of patients that demand high performance from their implants. It is envisaged that DM and second generation annealed HXLPE may reduce THA instability and wear, the two most common causes of THA revision in hip arthroplasty.

  13. Bio-Orthogonally Crosslinked, Engineered Protein Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanics and Biochemistry for Cell Encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Madl, Christopher M; Katz, Lily M; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2016-06-07

    Covalently-crosslinked hydrogels are commonly used as 3D matrices for cell culture and transplantation. However, the crosslinking chemistries used to prepare these gels generally cross-react with functional groups present on the cell surface, potentially leading to cytotoxicity and other undesired effects. Bio-orthogonal chemistries have been developed that do not react with biologically relevant functional groups, thereby preventing these undesirable side reactions. However, previously developed biomaterials using these chemistries still possess less than ideal properties for cell encapsulation, such as slow gelation kinetics and limited tuning of matrix mechanics and biochemistry. Here, engineered elastin-like proteins (ELPs) are developed that cross-link via strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) or Staudinger ligation. The SPAAC-crosslinked materials form gels within seconds and complete gelation within minutes. These hydrogels support the encapsulation and phenotypic maintenance of human mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and murine neural progenitor cells. SPAAC-ELP gels exhibit independent tuning of stiffness and cell adhesion, with significantly improved cell viability and spreading observed in materials containing a fibronectin-derived arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) domain. The crosslinking chemistry used permits further material functionalization, even in the presence of cells and serum. These hydrogels are anticipated to be useful in a wide range of applications, including therapeutic cell delivery and bioprinting.

  14. Tribological characterisation of UHMWPE used in dual mobility total hip prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essefi, I.; Hakkouna, H.; Ouenzerfi, G.; Mollon, G.; Hamza, S.; Renault, E.; Berthier, Y.; Trunfio-Sfarghiu, A.-M.

    2016-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty represents an effective solution for bone and joint diseases. Nevertheless, the hip prosthesis has a limited lifetime, in the average around fifteen years. Their improvement, especially their dual mobility is the objective of this study. Therefore, our strategy is focused on improving the material by comparing three types of polyethylene to determine the best one from a friction mechanism and wear rate minimization standpoint. A dual mobility hip prosthesis, containing a two-sided steel and cobalt chrome cup, was tested with a TORNIER hip joint simulator in calf serum. The rubbed surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. All these multiscale characterization techniques (from nanoscale to millimeter and micro- scale) showed that the velocity accommodation mechanism is different from one type of polyethylene to another. The wear in the case of standard polyethylene was noticeable and the particles were large and scattered between the surface of polyethylene, the surface of the cup and in the calf serum. For the crosslinked polyethylene, the particles coming from the wear, were not as large, but they were spread the same way as the first case. Even though it shares the same accommodation principle on the detachment of the material with the crosslinked polyethylene the wear particles for the crosslinked vitaminized polyethylene were large and they were only found on the surface of the polyethylene.

  15. Architectural and Mechanical Cues Direct Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with Crosslinked Gelatin Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    McAndrews, Kathleen M.; Kim, Min Jeong; Lam, Tuyet Y.; McGrail, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally derived biomaterials have emerged as modulators of cell function and tissue substitutes. Here, we developed crosslinked glutaraldehyde (GTA) scaffolds for the expansion and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The mechanical and architectural properties of the scaffolds were altered by varying the concentration of gelatin and GTA. Higher GTA concentrations were associated with an increase in more confined pores and osteogenic differentiation. In addition, myogenic potential varied with crosslinking degree, although bulk mechanical properties were unaltered. Correlation analysis revealed that ALP activity of differentiated MSCs on higher gelatin concentration scaffolds was dependent on traditional effectors, including environment elasticity and spread area. In contrast, the differentiation capacity of cells cultured on lower gelatin concentration scaffolds did not correlate with these factors, instead it was dependent on the hydrated pore structure. These results suggest that scaffold composition can determine what factors direct differentiation and may have critical implications for biomaterial design. PMID:24873687

  16. The effects of crosslinkers on physical, mechanical, and cytotoxic properties of gelatin sponge prepared via in-situ gas foaming method as a tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Poursamar, S Ali; Lehner, Alexander N; Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Antunes, A P M

    2016-06-01

    In this study porous gelatin scaffolds were prepared using in-situ gas foaming, and four crosslinking agents were used to determine a biocompatible and effective crosslinker that is suitable for such a method. Crosslinkers used in this study included: hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (epoxy), glutaraldehyde (GTA), and genipin. The prepared porous structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal and mechanical analysis as well as water absorption analysis. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of the crosslinking agents were studied on the cytotoxicity of the porous structure indirectly using MTT analysis. The affinity of L929 mouse fibroblast cells for attachment on the scaffold surfaces was investigated by direct cell seeding and DAPI-staining technique. It was shown that while all of the studied crosslinking agents were capable of stabilizing prepared gelatin scaffolds, there are noticeable differences among physical and mechanical properties of samples based on the crosslinker type. Epoxy-crosslinked scaffolds showed a higher capacity for water absorption and more uniform microstructures than the rest of crosslinked samples, whereas genipin and GTA-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated higher mechanical strength. Cytotoxicity analysis showed the superior biocompatibility of the naturally occurring genipin in comparison with other synthetic crosslinking agents, in particular relative to GTA-crosslinked samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  18. Influence of natural and synthetic crosslinking reagents on the structural and mechanical properties of chitosan-based hybrid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Garnica-Palafox, I M; Sánchez-Arévalo, F M

    2016-10-20

    The objective of this work was to correlate the physical and chemical properties of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/genipin (CS/PVA/GEN) and chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/glutaraldehyde (CS/PVA/GA) hydrogels with their structural and mechanical responses. In addition, their molecular structures were determined and confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. The results indicated that the hybrid hydrogels crosslinked with genipin showed similar crystallinity, thermal properties, elongation ratio and structural parameters as those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. However, it was found that the elastic moduli of the two hybrid hydrogels were slightly different: 2.82±0.33MPa and 2.08±0.11MPa for GA and GEN, respectively. Although the hybrid hydrogels crosslinked with GEN presented a lower elastic modulus, the main advantage is that GEN is five to ten thousand times less cytotoxic than GA. This means that the structural and mechanical properties of hybrid hydrogels crosslinked with GEN can easily be tuned and could have potential applications in the tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, food, agriculture and environmental industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J; Li, Jiaqi; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo; Shapiro, David A; Monteiro, Paulo J M

    2017-03-10

    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is more deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca 2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as 'columns' to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a 'bottom-up' approach.

  20. A Single Molecular Diels-Alder Crosslinker for Achieving Recyclable Cross-Linked Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengli; Wang, Fenfen; Peng, Yongjin; Chen, Tiehong; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Pingchuan

    2015-09-01

    A triol-functional crosslinker combining the thermoreversible properties of Diels-Alder (DA) adducts in one molecule is designed, synthesized, and used as an ideal substitute of a traditional crosslinker to prepare thermal recyclable cross-linked polyurethanes with excellent mechanical properties and recyclability in a very simple and efficient way. The recycle property of these materials achieved by the DA/retro-DA reaction at a suitable temperature is verified by differential scanning calorimetry and in situ variable temperature solid-state NMR experiments during the cyclic heating and cooling processes. The thermal recyclability and remending ability of the bulk polyurethanes is demonstrated by three polymer processing methods, including hot-press molding, injection molding, and solution casting. It is notable that all the recycled cross-linked polymers display nearly invariable elongation/stress at break compared to the as-synthesized samples. Further end-group functionalization of this single molecular DA crosslinker provides the potential in preparing a wide range of recyclable cross-linked polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Continuum mechanical model for cross-linked actin networks with contractile bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, J. P. S.; Parente, M. P. L.; Natal Jorge, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of a mechanical approach to cell biology, there is a close relationship between cellular function and mechanical properties. In recent years, an increasing amount of attention has been given to the coupling between biochemical and mechanical signals by means of constitutive models. In particular, on the active contractility of the actin cytoskeleton. Given the importance of the actin contraction on the physiological functions, this study propose a constitutive model to describe how the filamentous network controls its mechanics actively. Embedded in a soft isotropic ground substance, the network behaves as a viscous mechanical continuum, comprised of isotropically distributed cross-linked actin filaments and actomyosin bundles. Trough virtual rheometry experiments, the present model relates the dynamics of the myosin motors with the network stiffness, which is to a large extent governed by the time-scale of the applied deformations/forces.

  2. Improved thermal-stability and mechanical properties of type I collagen by crosslinking with casein, keratin and soy protein isolate using transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Liu, Yaowei; Liu, Anjun; Wang, Wenhang

    2017-05-01

    The inferior thermal- stability of collagen hinders its extensive application in food industry, including edible packaging. To improve the thermal- stability and mechanical properties of collagen, we attempted to crosslink collagen with some proteins possessing excellent thermal stability (i. e., casein, keratin and soy protein isolate (SPI)). Observed from the SDS- PAGE and particle size distribution, some complexes with higher molecule weight and relative bigger size particle occurred in the protein mixture, especially after TGase crosslinking. Importantly, the crosslinking greatly improved the thermal- stable property of protein complex, especially that of the collagen- casein complex judged from differential scanning calorimetric (DSC). Moreover, the crosslinking enhanced the mechanical properties of the combined films in terms of tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB). Also, some obvious differences in morphology of proteins before and after TGase crosslinking were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These impacts of TGase crosslinking with heat- resistant proteins on collagen features were associated with the conformational changes of the protein complex analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In conclusion, TGase crosslinking with higher thermally stable proteins could be an effective method to contribute to collagen' application in food packaging field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. Themore » results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.« less

  4. Study on structure, mechanical property and cell cytocompatibility of electrospun collagen nanofibers crosslinked by common agents.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xueshi; Guo, Zhenzhao; He, Ping; Chen, Tian; Li, Lihua; Ding, Shan; Li, Hong

    2018-07-01

    Collagen electrospun scaffolds properly reproduce the framework of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues that are natural with the fibrous morphology of the protein by coupling large biomimetism of the biological material. However, traditional solvents employed for collagen electrospinning lead to poor mechanical attributes and bad hydro-stability. In this work, by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride with N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (EDC-NHS), glutaraldehyde (GTA) and genipin (GP) respectively, electrospun collagen fibers cross-linked, effectively stabilized the fiber morphology over 2months and improved the mechanical properties in both dry and wet state, especially EDC-NHS with large ultimate tensile stress and ε b . The secondary structure of collagen structure still remained and had no obvious difference among various crosslinked samples according to FTIR. On the cell assessment, electrospun collagen fibers crosslinked by EDC-NHS, GTA and GP, were found to support cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation of MC3T3-E1. By contrast, GTA was more effective in preserving explicit fibrous morphology with a relatively lower cell viability both in FBS and BSA soaked mats. Interestingly, GP also had the similar cytocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 as EDC-NHS did. The study proved the feasibility of chemical crosslinker to electrospun collagen for biomedical application. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Borate cross-linking chitosan/graphene oxide films: Toward the simultaneous enhancement of gases barrier and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ning; Capezzuto, Filomena; Buonocore, Giovanna G.; Tescione, Fabiana; Lavorgna, Marino; Xia, Hesheng; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Borate adducts, originated from hydrolysis of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), have been used to crosslink chitosan (CS) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets for the production of innovative composite sustainable materials. CS/GO film consisting of 10wt% borax and 1wt% GO exhibits a significant improvement of both toughness and oxygen barrier properties in comparison to pristine chitosan. In particular the tensile strength increases by about 100% and 150% after thermal annealing of samples at 90°C for 50min whereas the oxygen permeability reduces of about 90% compared to pristine chitosan. The enhancement of both mechanical and barrier properties is ascribed to the formation of a resistant network due to the chemical crosslinking, including borate orthoester bonds and hydroxyl moieties complexes, formed among borate ions, chitosan, and GO nanoplatelets. The crosslinked graphene-based chitosan material with its enhanced mechanical and barrier properties may significantly broad the range of applications of chitosan based-materials which presently are very limited and addressed only to packaging.

  6. Chitosan membranes for tissue engineering: comparison of different crosslinkers.

    PubMed

    Ruini, F; Tonda-Turo, C; Chiono, V; Ciardelli, G

    2015-11-03

    Chitosan (CS), a derivative of the naturally occurring biopolymer chitin, is an attractive material for biomedical applications thanks to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, antibacterial properties and ability to enhance cell adhesion and growth compared to other biopolymers. However, the physical and mechanical stability of CS based materials in aqueous solutions is limited and crosslinking agents are required to increase CS performances in a biological environment. In this work, the effect of three highly-biocompatible crosslinkers as genipin (GP), γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), dibasic sodium phosphate (DSP) and a combination of GPTMS and DSP (GPTMS_DSP) on CS physicochemical, thermal, morphological, mechanical properties, swelling and degradation behavior was investigated. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses confirmed the chemical reaction between CS and the different crosslinkers. CS wettability was enhanced when CS was DSP ionically crosslinked showing contact angle values of about 65° and exhibiting a higher swelling behavior compared to covalently crosslinked films. Moreover, all the crosslinking methods analyzed improved the stability of CS in aqueous media, showed model molecule permeation in time and increased the mechanical properties when compared with non-crosslinked films. The possibility to tailor the final properties of CS scaffolds through crosslinking is a key strategy in applying CS in different biomedical and tissue engineering applications. The obtained results reveal that the optimization of the crosslinking mechanism provides CS membrane properties required in different biomedical applications.

  7. Molecular structure, mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the C-terminal cross-link domain in type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Uzel, Sebastien G M; Buehler, Markus J

    2011-02-01

    Collagen is a key constituent in structural materials found in biology, including bone, tendon, skin and blood vessels. Here we report a first molecular level model of an entire overlap region of a C-terminal cross-linked type I collagen assembly and carry out a nanomechanical characterization based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulation in explicit water solvent. Our results show that the deformation mechanism and strength of the structure are greatly affected by the presence of the cross-link, and by the specific loading condition of how the stretching is applied. We find that the presence of a cross-link results in greater strength during deformation as complete intermolecular slip is prevented, and thereby particularly affects larger deformation levels. Conversely, the lack of a cross-link results in the onset of intermolecular sliding during deformation and as a result an overall weaker structure is obtained. Through a detailed analysis of the distribution of deformation by calculating the molecular strain we show that the location of largest strains does not occur around the covalent bonding region, but is found in regions further away from this location. The insight developed from understanding collagenous materials from a fundamental molecular level upwards could play a role in advancing our understanding of physiological and disease states of connective tissues, and also enable the development of new scaffolding material for applications in regenerative medicine and biologically inspired materials. Copyright © 2011. Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Encoding Hydrogel Mechanics via Network Cross-Linking Structure.

    PubMed

    Schweller, Ryan M; West, Jennifer L

    2015-05-11

    The effects of mechanical cues on cell behaviors in 3D remain difficult to characterize as the ability to tune hydrogel mechanics often requires changes in the polymer density, potentially altering the material's biochemical and physical characteristics. Additionally, with most PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels, forming materials with compressive moduli less than ∼10 kPa has been virtually impossible. Here, we present a new method of controlling the mechanical properties of PEGDA hydrogels independent of polymer chain density through the incorporation of additional vinyl group moieties that interfere with the cross-linking of the network. This modification can tune hydrogel mechanics in a concentration dependent manner from <1 to 17 kPa, a more physiologically relevant range than previously possible with PEG-based hydrogels, without altering the hydrogel's degradation and permeability. Across this range of mechanical properties, endothelial cells (ECs) encapsulated within MMP-2/MMP-9 degradable hydrogels with RGDS adhesive peptides revealed increased cell spreading as hydrogel stiffness decreased in contrast to behavior typically observed for cells on 2D surfaces. EC-pericyte cocultures exhibited vessel-like networks within 3 days in highly compliant hydrogels as compared to a week in stiffer hydrogels. These vessel networks persisted for at least 4 weeks and deposited laminin and collagen IV perivascularly. These results indicate that EC morphogenesis can be regulated using mechanical cues in 3D. Furthermore, controlling hydrogel compliance independent of density allows for the attainment of highly compliant mechanical regimes in materials that can act as customizable cell microenvironments.

  9. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo; Shapiro, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2017-03-01

    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is more deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach.

  10. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate

    DOE PAGES

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi; ...

    2017-03-10

    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is moremore » deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca 2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach.« less

  11. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi

    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is moremore » deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca 2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach.« less

  12. Visible-Light Initiated Free-Radical/Cationic Ring-Opening Hybrid Photopolymerization of Methacrylate/Epoxy: Polymerization Kinetics, Crosslinking Structure, and Dynamic Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xueping; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2015-04-01

    The effects of polymerization kinetics and chemical miscibility on the crosslinking structure and mechanical properties of polymers cured by visible-light initiated free-radical/cationic ring-opening hybrid photopolymerization are determined. A three-component initiator system is used and the monomer system contains methacrylates and epoxides. The photopolymerization kinetics is monitored in situ by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance. The crosslinking structure is studied by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. X-ray microcomputed tomography is used to evaluate microphase separation. The mechanical properties of polymers formed by hybrid formed by free-radical polymerization. These investigations mark the first time that the benefits of the chain transfer reaction between epoxy and hydroxyl groups of methacrylate, on the crosslinking network and microphase separation during hybrid visible-light initiated photopolymerization, have been determined.

  13. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte for direct methanol fuel cells applications based on a novel sulfonated cross-linker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingyu; Zhang, Gang; Xu, Shuai; Zhao, Chengji; Han, Miaomiao; Zhang, Liyuan; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Zhongguo; Na, Hui

    2014-06-01

    A novel type of cross-linked proton exchange membrane of lower methanol permeation and high proton conductivity is prepared, based on a newly synthesized sulfonated cross-linker: carboxyl terminated benzimidazole trimer bearing sulfonic acid groups (s-BI). Compared to membranes cross-linked with non-sulfonated cross-linker (BI), SPEEK/s-BI-n membranes show higher IEC values and proton conductivities. Meanwhile, oxidative stability and mechanical property of SPEEK/s-BI-n membranes are obviously improved. Among SPEEK/s-BI-n membranes, SPEEK/s-BI-2 exhibits high proton conductivity, low swelling ratio (0.122 S cm-1 and 15.2% at 60 °C, respectively) and low methanol permeability coefficient. These results imply that the cross-linked membranes prepared with the newly sulfonated cross-linker are promising for the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) application.

  14. Formation mechanism of glyoxal-DNA adduct, a DNA cross-link precursor.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, B; Fernández, D; Casasnovas, R; Pomar, A M; Alvarez-Idaboy, J R; Hernández-Haro, N; Grand, A; Adrover, M; Donoso, J; Frau, J; Muñoz, F; Ortega-Castro, J

    2017-05-01

    DNA nucleobases undergo non-enzymatic glycation to nucleobase adducts which can play important roles in vivo. In this work, we conducted a comprehensive experimental and theoretical kinetic study of the mechanisms of formation of glyoxal-guanine adducts over a wide pH range in order to elucidate the molecular basis for the glycation process. Also, we performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate how open or cyclic glyoxal-guanine adducts can cause structural changes in an oligonucleotide model. A thermodynamic study of other glycating agents including methylglyoxal, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-deoxyglucosone revealed that, at neutral pH, cyclic adducts were more stable than open adducts; at basic pH, however, the open adducts of 3-deoxyglucosone, methylglyoxal and glyoxal were more stable than their cyclic counterparts. This result can be ascribed to the ability of the adducts to cross-link DNA. The new insights may contribute to improve our understanding of the connection between glycation and DNA cross-linking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation-induced DNA-protein cross-links: Mechanisms and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Xu, Xu; Salem, Amir M H; Shoulkamy, Mahmoud I; Ide, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Ionizing radiation produces various DNA lesions such as base damage, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Of these, the biological significance of DPCs remains elusive. In this article, we focus on radiation-induced DPCs and review the current understanding of their induction, properties, repair, and biological consequences. When cells are irradiated, the formation of base damage, SSBs, and DSBs are promoted in the presence of oxygen. Conversely, that of DPCs is promoted in the absence of oxygen, suggesting their importance in hypoxic cells, such as those present in tumors. DNA and protein radicals generated by hydroxyl radicals (i.e., indirect effect) are responsible for DPC formation. In addition, DPCs can also be formed from guanine radical cations generated by the direct effect. Actin, histones, and other proteins have been identified as cross-linked proteins. Also, covalent linkages between DNA and protein constituents such as thymine-lysine and guanine-lysine have been identified and their structures are proposed. In irradiated cells and tissues, DPCs are repaired in a biphasic manner, consisting of fast and slow components. The half-time for the fast component is 20min-2h and that for the slow component is 2-70h. Notably, radiation-induced DPCs are repaired more slowly than DSBs. Homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the repair of radiation-induced DPCs as well as DSBs. Recently, a novel mechanism of DPC repair mediated by a DPC protease was reported, wherein the resulting DNA-peptide cross-links were bypassed by translesion synthesis. The replication and transcription of DPC-bearing reporter plasmids are inhibited in cells, suggesting that DPCs are potentially lethal lesions. However, whether DPCs are mutagenic and induce gross chromosomal alterations remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rheological properties of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked collagen solutions analyzed quantitatively using mechanical models.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhenhua; Duan, Lian; Wu, Lei; Shen, Lirui; Li, Guoying

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the rheological behavior of collagen solutions crosslinked by various amounts of glutaraldehyde (GTA) [GTA/collagen (w/w)=0-0.1] is fundamental either to design optimized products or to ensure stable flow. Under steady shear, all the samples exhibited pseudoplasticity with shear-thinning behavior, and the flow curves were well described by Ostwald-de Waele model and Carreau model. With increased amounts of GTA, the viscosity increased from 6.15 to 168.54 Pa·s at 0.1s(-1), and the pseudoplasticity strengthened (the flow index decreased from 0.549 to 0.117). Additionally, hysteresis loops were evaluated to analyze the thixotropy of the native and crosslinked collagen solutions, and indicated that stronger thixotropic behavior was associated with higher amount of GTA. Furthermore, the values of apparent yield stress were negative, and a flow index <1 for all the systems obtained via Herschel-Bulkley model confirmed that the native and crosslinked collagen solutions belonged to pseudoplastic fluid without apparent yield stress. However, the increment of dynamic denaturation temperature determined by dynamic temperature sweep was not obvious. The viscoelastic properties were examined based on creep-recovery measurements and then simulated using Burger model and a semi-empirical model. The increase in the proportion of recoverable compliance (instantaneous and retardant compliance) reflected that the crosslinked collagen solutions were more resistant to the deformation and exhibited more elastic behavior than the native collagen solution, accompanied by the fact that the compliance value decreased from 39.317 to 0.152 Pa(-1) and the recovery percentage increased from 1.128% to 87.604%. These data indicated that adjusting the amount of GTA could be a suitable mean for manipulating mechanical properties of collagen-based biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical, Physical, and Mechanical Characterization of Isocyanate Cross-linked Amine-Modified Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Atul; Shimpi, Nilesh; Roy, Samit; Lu, Hongbing; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Dass, Amala; Capadona, Lynn A.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new mechanically strong lightweight porous composite material obtained by encapsulating the skeletal framework of amine-modified silica aerogels with polyurea. The conformal polymer coating preserves the mesoporous structure of the underlying silica framework and the thermal conductivity remains low at 0.041 plus or minus 0.001 W m(sup -1 K(sup -1). The potential of the new cross-linked silica aerogels for load-carrying applications was determined through characterization of their mechanical behavior under compression, three-point bending, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). A primary glass transition temperature of 130 C was identified through DMA. At room temperature, results indicate a hyperfoam behavior where in compression cross-linked aerogels are linearly elastic under small strains (less than 4%) and then exhibit yield behavior (until 40% strain), followed by densification and inelastic hardening. At room temperature the compressive Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio were determined to be 129 plus or minus 8 MPa and 0.18, respectively, while the strain at ultimate failure is 77% and the average specific compressive stress at ultimate failure is 3.89 x 10(exp 5) N m kg(sup -1). The specific flexural strength is 2.16 x 10(exp 4) N m kg(sup -1). Effects on the compressive behavior of strain rate and low temperature were also evaluated.

  18. Enzymatically crosslinked silk-hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Raia, Nicole R; Partlow, Benjamin P; McGill, Meghan; Kimmerling, Erica Palma; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Kaplan, David L

    2017-07-01

    In this study, silk fibroin and hyaluronic acid (HA) were enzymatically crosslinked to form biocompatible composite hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties similar to that of native tissues. The formation of di-tyrosine crosslinks between silk fibroin proteins via horseradish peroxidase has resulted in a highly elastic hydrogel but exhibits time-dependent stiffening related to silk self-assembly and crystallization. Utilizing the same method of crosslinking, tyramine-substituted HA forms hydrophilic and bioactive hydrogels that tend to have limited mechanics and degrade rapidly. To address the limitations of these singular component scaffolds, HA was covalently crosslinked with silk, forming a composite hydrogel that exhibited both mechanical integrity and hydrophilicity. The composite hydrogels were assessed using unconfined compression and infrared spectroscopy to reveal of the physical properties over time in relation to polymer concentration. In addition, the hydrogels were characterized by enzymatic degradation and for cytotoxicity. Results showed that increasing HA concentration, decreased gelation time, increased degradation rate, and reduced changes that were observed over time in mechanics, water retention, and crystallization. These hydrogel composites provide a biologically relevant system with controllable temporal stiffening and elasticity, thus offering enhanced tunable scaffolds for short or long term applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Actin Cross-link Assembly and Disassembly Mechanics for α-Actinin and Fascin*

    PubMed Central

    Courson, David S.; Rock, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Self-assembly of complex structures is commonplace in biology but often poorly understood. In the case of the actin cytoskeleton, a great deal is known about the components that include higher order structures, such as lamellar meshes, filopodial bundles, and stress fibers. Each of these cytoskeletal structures contains actin filaments and cross-linking proteins, but the role of cross-linking proteins in the initial steps of structure formation has not been clearly elucidated. We employ an optical trapping assay to investigate the behaviors of two actin cross-linking proteins, fascin and α-actinin, during the first steps of structure assembly. Here, we show that these proteins have distinct binding characteristics that cause them to recognize and cross-link filaments that are arranged with specific geometries. α-Actinin is a promiscuous cross-linker, linking filaments over all angles. It retains this flexibility after cross-links are formed, maintaining a connection even when the link is rotated. Conversely, fascin is extremely selective, only cross-linking filaments in a parallel orientation. Surprisingly, bundles formed by either protein are extremely stable, persisting for over 0.5 h in a continuous wash. However, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence decay experiments, we find that the stable fascin population can be rapidly competed away by free fascin. We present a simple avidity model for this cross-link dissociation behavior. Together, these results place constraints on how cytoskeletal structures assemble, organize, and disassemble in vivo. PMID:20551315

  20. A novel mechanism of UV-A and riboflavin-mediated corneal cross-linking through induction of tissue transglutaminases.

    PubMed

    Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis T; Kruse, Friedrich E; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich

    2013-07-01

    Collagen cross-linking using UV-A irradiation combined with the photosensitizer riboflavin is a new technique for treating progressive keratoconus. The purposes of this study were to examine whether primary human corneal keratocytes (HCKs) are capable of expressing and secreting fibronectin and tissue transglutaminase (tTgase), an enzyme cross-linking extracellular matrix protein, and to examine whether fibronectin and tTgase are increased after the treatment of HCK cells with UV-A irradiation combined with riboflavin (RFUV-A), thus providing another possible physiological mechanism of the cross-linking pathway. Cell cultures established from HCKs were treated with 0.025% riboflavin solution and UV-A (370 nm) irradiance 3 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Induction of fibronectin and tTgase was investigated by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Cell viability was quantified by a microscopic live-dead assay. External tTgase activity was measured by the ability to form polymerized fibronectin and the incorporation of biotinylated cadaverine into fibronectin. Treatment of cultured HCK cells with RFUV-A increased the fibronectin and tTgase messenger RNA and protein levels. This effect was not observed in cells treated with riboflavin or UV-A radiation alone. Incorporation of biotinylated cadaverine was significantly increased when HCK cells were treated with RFUV-A. The enzymes tTgase and fibronectin are expressed by RFUV-A treatment in cultured HCK cells. This mechanism provides more information about the physiology of corneal cross-linking.

  1. Preparation of decellularized vascular matrix by co-crosslinking of procyanidins and glutaraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaotong; Ma, Bing; Chang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Vascular extracellular matrices (vECMs) have shown potential for small-diameter blood vessel tissue engineering applications. However, problems such as chemical instability and easy calcification are still remained. Chemical crosslinking using crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde (GA) can improve mechanical properties and proteolysis resistance of vECMs, but leads to calcification and cytotoxicity. Procyanidins (PC) can crosslink ECMs with anti-calcification property and cytocompatibility, but the mechanical properties and chemical stability are unsatisfactory. A novel co-crosslinking technique using PC and GA was developed, which combines the advantages of both PC and GA for enhancing mechanical properties and stability of vECMs with reduced calcification and cytotoxicity. Fresh carotid were decellularized and then crosslinked by PC and subsequent GA for 6 h respectively. The mechanical properties, dynamic release of PC, enzymatic degradation, calcification and cytotoxicity of crosslinked samples were evaluated. The co-crosslinked vECMs showed enhanced tensile strength, chemical and biological stability, comparable anti-calcification property as compared to pure PC-crosslinked samples. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the co-crosslinked vECMs were cytocompatible for supporting the adhesion and proliferation of HUVECs. Co-crosslinking with PC and GA might be a useful method for preparation of vECM scaffolds with potential applications in small-diameter blood vessel tissue engineering.

  2. Desmosine-Inspired Cross-Linkers for Hyaluronan Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagel, Valentin; Mateescu, Markus; Southan, Alexander; Wegner, Seraphine V.; Nuss, Isabell; Haraszti, Tamás; Kleinhans, Claudia; Schuh, Christian; Spatz, Joachim P.; Kluger, Petra J.; Bach, Monika; Tussetschläger, Stefan; Tovar, Günter E. M.; Laschat, Sabine; Boehm, Heike

    2013-06-01

    We designed bioinspired cross-linkers based on desmosine, the cross-linker in natural elastin, to prepare hydrogels with thiolated hyaluronic acid. These short, rigid cross-linkers are based on pyridinium salts (as in desmosine) and can connect two polymer backbones. Generally, the obtained semi-synthetic hydrogels are form-stable, can withstand repeated stress, have a large linear-elastic range, and show strain stiffening behavior typical for biopolymer networks. In addition, it is possible to introduce a positive charge to the core of the cross-linker without affecting the gelation efficiency, or consequently the network connectivity. However, the mechanical properties strongly depend on the charge of the cross-linker. The properties of the presented hydrogels can thus be tuned in a range important for engineering of soft tissues by controlling the cross-linking density and the charge of the cross-linker.

  3. Enzyme-catalyzed crosslinkable hydrogels: emerging strategies for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Liliana S Moreira; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Dijkstra, Pieter J; Karperien, Marcel

    2012-02-01

    State-of-the-art bioactive hydrogels can easily and efficiently be formed by enzyme-catalyzed mild-crosslinking reactions in situ. Yet this cell-friendly and substrate-specific method remains under explored. Hydrogels prepared by using enzyme systems like tyrosinases, transferases and lysyl oxidases show interesting characteristics as dynamic scaffolds and as systems for controlled release. Increased attention is currently paid to hydrogels obtained via crosslinking of precursors by transferases or peroxidases as catalysts. Enzyme-mediated crosslinking has proven its efficiency and attention has now shifted to the development of enzymatically crosslinked hydrogels with higher degrees of complexity, mimicking extracellular matrices. Moreover, bottom-up approaches combining biocatalysts and self-assembly are being explored for the development of complex nano-scale architectures. In this review, the use of enzymatic crosslinking for the preparation of hydrogels as an innovative alternative to other crosslinking methods, such as the commonly used UV-mediated photo-crosslinking or physical crosslinking, will be discussed. Photo-initiator-based crosslinking may induce cytotoxicity in the formed gels, whereas physical crosslinking may lead to gels which do not have sufficient mechanical strength and stability. These limitations can be overcome using enzymes to form covalently crosslinked hydrogels. Herewith, we report the mechanisms involved and current applications, focusing on emerging strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorescence spectroscopy for non-invasive measurement of mechanical stiffness after photo-crosslinking of rabbit cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Maura; Lewis, William; Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Franco, Walfre

    2017-02-01

    Background and Objectives: Keratoconus is a disease characterized by progressive steepening and thinning of the cornea, altering visual acuity and sometimes potentiating the need for corneal transplant if the disease progresses.1-3 Corneal crosslinking, a procedure that uses topical riboflavin and UV light to increase the stiffness of the cornea through the creation of collagen crosslinks was recently approved by the FDA for use in the U.S. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous collagen fluorescence changes following treatment can be correlated to alterations in the stiffness of the cornea, thereby guiding treatment parameters. Study Design and Results: 78 ex-vivo rabbit eyes divided into three groups: riboflavin solution plus UV irradiation, dextran solution plus UV irradiation, and riboflavin solution only. An additional group of eyes received no treatment. The epithelium was removed from each sample and topical riboflavin was applied. Eyes were irradiated with a 365 nm black ray UV lamp for various treatment times, ranging from half the clinical treatment time to three times the length. Mechanical testing was performed to determine the force/displacement relationship for the various treatment times. Fluorescence spectral changes following treatment corresponded with changes in stiffness. In particular, a decrease in the value of fluorescence intensity at 290/340 nm excitation/emission wavelengths corresponded to an increase in corneal stiffness following treatment. It may be possible to use fluorescence spectral changes of endogenous corneal crosslinks to evaluate mechanical stiffness changes non-invasively.

  5. Crosslinking Amine-Modified Silica Aerogels with Epoxies: Mechanically Strong Lightweight Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Ilhan, Faysal; Dass, Amala; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Vassilaras, Plousia; Johnston, J. Chris; Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The mesoporous surfaces of TMOS-derived silica aerogels have been modified with amines by co-polymerization of TMOS with APTES. The amine sites have become anchors for crosslinking the nanoparticles of the skeletal backbone of the aerogel by attachment of di-, tri and tetra-functional epoxies. The resulting conformal coatings increase the density of the native aerogels by a factor of 2-3 but the strength of the resulting materials may increase by more than two orders of magnitude. Processing variables such as amount of APTES used to make the gels, the epoxy type and concentration used for crosslinking, as well as the crosslinking temperature and time were varied according to a multivariable design-of-experiments (DOE) model. It was found that while elastic modulus follows a similar trend with density, maximum strength is attained neither at the maximum density nor at the highest concentration of -NH2 groups, suggesting surface saturation effects. Aerogels crosslinked with the tri-functional epoxide always show improved strength compared with aerogels crosslinked with the other two epoxides under identical conditions. Solid C-13 NMR studies show residual unreacted epoxides, which condense with ne another by heating crosslinked aerogels at 150 C.

  6. Liquid droplets of cross-linked actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayan; Gardel, Margaret

    Soft materials constructed from biomolecules self-assemble into a myriad of structures that work in concert to support cell physiology. One critical soft material is the actin cytoskeleton, a viscoelastic gel composed of cross-linked actin filaments. Although actin networks are primarily known for their elastic properties, which are crucial to regulating cell mechanics, the viscous behavior has been theorized to enable shape changes and flows. We experimentally demonstrate a fluid phase of cross-linked actin, where cross-linker condenses dilute short actin filaments into spindle-shaped droplets, or tactoids. Tactoids have shape dynamics consistent with a continuum model of liquid crystal droplets. The cross-linker, which acts as a long range attractive interaction, analogous to molecular cohesion, controls the tactoid shape and dynamics, which reports on the liquid's interfacial tension and viscosity. We investigate how the cross-linker properties and filament length influence the liquid properties. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism to control organization of the actin cytoskeleton and provide insight into design principles for complex, macromolecular liquid phases.

  7. Repair of DNA-polypeptide crosslinks by human excision nuclease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Joyce T.; Sancar, Aziz

    2006-03-01

    DNA-protein crosslinks are relatively common DNA lesions that form during the physiological processing of DNA by replication and recombination proteins, by side reactions of base excision repair enzymes, and by cellular exposure to bifunctional DNA-damaging agents such as platinum compounds. The mechanism by which pathological DNA-protein crosslinks are repaired in humans is not known. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of recognition and repair of protein-DNA and oligopeptide-DNA crosslinks by the human excision nuclease. Under our assay conditions, the human nucleotide excision repair system did not remove a 16-kDa protein crosslinked to DNA at a detectable level. However, 4- and 12-aa-long oligopeptides crosslinked to the DNA backbone were recognized by some of the damage recognition factors of the human excision nuclease with moderate selectivity and were excised from DNA at relatively efficient rates. Our data suggest that, if coupled with proteolytic degradation of the crosslinked protein, the human excision nuclease may be the major enzyme system for eliminating protein-DNA crosslinks from the genome. damage recognition | nucleotide excision repair

  8. Killing mechanism of stable N-halamine cross-linked polymethacrylamide nanoparticles that selectively target bacteria.

    PubMed

    Natan, Michal; Gutman, Ori; Lavi, Ronit; Margel, Shlomo; Banin, Ehud

    2015-02-24

    Increased resistance of bacteria to disinfection and antimicrobial treatment poses a serious public health threat worldwide. This has prompted the search for agents that can inhibit both bacterial growth and withstand harsh conditions (e.g., high organic loads). In the current study, N-halamine-derivatized cross-linked polymethacrylamide nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by copolymerization of the monomer methacrylamide (MAA) and the cross-linker monomer N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAA) and were subsequently loaded with oxidative chlorine using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The chlorinated NPs demonstrated remarkable stability and durability to organic reagents and to repetitive bacterial loading cycles as compared with the common disinfectant NaOCl (bleach), which was extremely labile under these conditions. The antibacterial mechanism of the cross-linked P(MAA-MBAA)-Cl NPs was found to involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) only upon exposure to organic media. Importantly, ROS were not generated upon suspension in water, revealing that the mode of action is target-specific. Further, a unique and specific interaction of the chlorinated NPs with Staphylococcus aureus was discovered, whereby these microorganisms were all specifically targeted and marked for destruction. This bacterial encircling was achieved without using a targeting module (e.g., an antibody or a ligand) and represents a highly beneficial, natural property of the P(MAA-MBAA)-Cl nanostructures. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of action of P(MAA-MBAA)-Cl NPs and demonstrate the superior efficacy of the NPs over bleach (i.e., stability, specificity, and targeting). This work underscores the potential of developing sustainable P(MAA-MBAA)-Cl NP-based devices for inhibiting bacterial colonization and growth.

  9. Early biocompatibility of crosslinked and non-crosslinked biologic meshes in a porcine model of ventral hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Melman, L; Jenkins, E D; Hamilton, N A; Bender, L C; Brodt, M D; Deeken, C R; Greco, S C; Frisella, M M; Matthews, B D

    2011-04-01

    Biologic meshes have unique physical properties as a result of manufacturing techniques such as decellularization, crosslinking, and sterilization. The purpose of this study is to directly compare the biocompatibility profiles of five different biologic meshes, AlloDerm(®) (non-crosslinked human dermal matrix), PeriGuard(®) (crosslinked bovine pericardium), Permacol(®) (crosslinked porcine dermal matrix), Strattice(®) (non-crosslinked porcine dermal matrix), and Veritas(®) (non-crosslinked bovine pericardium), using a porcine model of ventral hernia repair. Full-thickness fascial defects were created in 20 Yucatan minipigs and repaired with the retromuscular placement of biologic mesh 3 weeks later. Animals were euthanized at 1 month and the repair sites were subjected to tensile testing and histologic analysis. Samples of unimplanted (de novo) meshes and native porcine abdominal wall were also analyzed for their mechanical properties. There were no significant differences in the biomechanical characteristics between any of the mesh-repaired sites at 1 month postimplantation or between the native porcine abdominal wall without implanted mesh and the mesh-repaired sites (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Histologically, non-crosslinked materials exhibited greater cellular infiltration, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and neovascularization compared to crosslinked meshes. While crosslinking differentiates biologic meshes with regard to cellular infiltration, ECM deposition, scaffold degradation, and neovascularization, the integrity and strength of the repair site at 1 month is not significantly impacted by crosslinking or by the de novo strength/stiffness of the mesh.

  10. Mechano-responsive hydrogels crosslinked by reactive block copolymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Longxi

    Hydrogels are crosslinked polymeric networks that can swell in water without dissolution. Owing to their structural similarity to the native extracelluar matrices, hydrogels have been widely used in biomedical applications. Synthetic hydrogels have been designed to respond to various stimuli, but mechanical signals have not incorporated into hydrogel matrices. Because most tissues in the body are subjected to various types of mechanical forces, and cells within these tissues have sophisticated mechano-transduction machinery, this thesis is focused on developing hydrogel materials with built-in mechano-sensing mechanisms for use as tissue engineering scaffolds or drug release devices. Self-assembled block copolymer micelles (BCMs) with reactive handles were employed as the nanoscopic crosslinkers for the construction of covalently crosslinked networks. BCMs were assembled from amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) partially modified with acrylate. Radical polymerization of acrylamide in the presence of micellar crosslinkers gave rise to elastomeric hydrogels whose mechanical properties can be tuned by varying the BCM composition and concentration. TEM imaging revealed that the covalently integrated BCMs underwent strain-dependent reversible deformation. A model hydrophobic drug, pyrene, loaded into the core of BCMs prior to the hydrogel formation, was dynamically released in response to externally applied mechanical forces, through force-induced reversible micelle deformation and the penetration of water molecules into the micelle core. The mechano-responsive hydrogel has been studied for tissue repair and regeneration purposes. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-modified hyaluronic acid (HA) was photochemically crosslinked in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX)-loaded crosslinkable BCMs. The resultant HA gels (HAxBCM) contain covalently integrated micellar compartments with DEX being sequestered in the hydrophobic core. Compared

  11. Di-isodityrosine is the intermolecular cross-link of isodityrosine-rich extensin analogs cross-linked in vitro.

    PubMed

    Held, Michael A; Tan, Li; Kamyab, Abdolreza; Hare, Michael; Shpak, Elena; Kieliszewski, Marcia J

    2004-12-31

    Extensins are cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that form covalent networks putatively involving tyrosyl and lysyl residues in cross-links catalyzed by one or more extensin peroxidases. The precise cross-links remain to be chemically identified both as network components in muro and as enzymic products generated in vitro with native extensin monomers as substrates. However, some extensin monomers contain variations within their putative cross-linking motifs that complicate cross-link identification. Other simpler extensins are recalcitrant to isolation including the ubiquitous P3-type extensin whose major repetitive motif, Hyp)(4)-Ser-Hyp-Ser-(Hyp)(4)-Tyr-Tyr-Tyr-Lys, is of particular interest, not least because its Tyr-Tyr-Tyr intramolecular isodityrosine cross-link motifs are also putative candidates for further intermolecular cross-linking to form di-isodityrosine. Therefore, we designed a set of extensin analogs encoding tandem repeats of the P3 motif, including Tyr --> Phe and Lys --> Leu variations. Expression of these P3 analogs in Nicotiana tabacum cells yielded glycoproteins with virtually all Pro residues hydroxylated and subsequently arabinosylated and with likely galactosylated Ser residues. This was consistent with earlier analyses of P3 glycopeptides isolated from cell wall digests and the predictions of the Hyp contiguity hypothesis. The tyrosine-rich P3 analogs also contained isodityrosine, formed in vivo. Significantly, these isodityrosine-containing analogs were further cross-linked in vitro by an extensin peroxidase to form the tetra-tyrosine intermolecular cross-link amino acid di-isodityrosine. This is the first identification of an inter-molecular cross-link amino acid in an extensin module and corroborates earlier suggestions that di-isodityrosine represents one mechanism for cross-linking extensins in muro.

  12. Highly Crosslinked-remelted versus Less-crosslinked Polyethylene in Posterior Cruciate-retaining TKAs in the Same Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik; Lee, June-Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Concern regarding osteolysis attributable to polyethylene wear after TKA, particularly in younger patients, has prompted the introduction of highly crosslinked-remelted polyethylene (HXLPE) for TKAs. However, few in vivo comparative results of TKAs using HXLPE and less-crosslinked polyethylene inserts in the same patients are available, regarding fracture or failure of the locking mechanism of tibial polyethylene inserts or of osteolysis in patients younger than 60 years. We wanted to determine whether (1) survivorship free from aseptic loosening in knees with HXLPE inserts was different from survivorship in knees with less-crosslinked polyethylene inserts, (2) the prevalence of fracture or failure of the locking mechanism of the tibial polyethylene insert was greater in knees with HXLPE than in those with less-crosslinked polyethylene, and (3) the proportion of patients who had osteolysis develop was greater with HXLPE than with less-crosslinked polyethylene inserts. One hundred seventy-one patients with a mean age of 58 ± 8 years (range, 35-59 years) received posterior cruciate-retaining prostheses with a less-crosslinked polyethylene tibial insert in one knee and a HXLPE tibial insert in the contralateral knee. From January 2007 to January 2010, we performed 366 same-day bilateral simultaneous sequential posterior cruciate-retaining TKAs in 183 patients, of whom 171 (93%) participated in this study. All patients during this study period underwent posterior cruciate-retaining TKAs regardless of deformity of the knees and we did not perform posterior-stabilized TKAs during the same period. Patients who had bilateral end-stage osteoarthritis and were younger than 60 years were selected for inclusion. Six patients (4%) were lost to followup before 5 years. Twenty-six patients were males and 145 were females. The mean duration of followup was 6 years (range, 5-8 years). At each followup, patients were assessed for loosening of the components, fracture or failure of

  13. In Situ Cross-Linking of Stimuli-Responsive Hemicellulose Microgels during Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼1–4 μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as a matrix and poly(acrylic acid), aniline pentamer (AP), and iron as functional additives, which are responsive to external changes in pH, electrochemical stimuli, magnetic field, or dual-stimuli. The surface morphologies, chemical compositions, charge, pH, and mechanical properties of these smart microgels were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, IR, zeta potential measurements, pH evaluation, and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, respectively. Different oxidation states were observed when AP was introduced, as confirmed by UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Systematic blood compatibility evaluations revealed that the SRHMGs have good blood compatibility. This bottom-up strategy to synthesize SRHMGs enables a new route to the production of smart microgels for biomedical applications. PMID:25630464

  14. In situ cross-linking of stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels during spray drying.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weifeng; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N; Odelius, Karin; Edlund, Ulrica; Zhao, Changsheng; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2015-02-25

    Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼ 1-4 μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as a matrix and poly(acrylic acid), aniline pentamer (AP), and iron as functional additives, which are responsive to external changes in pH, electrochemical stimuli, magnetic field, or dual-stimuli. The surface morphologies, chemical compositions, charge, pH, and mechanical properties of these smart microgels were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, IR, zeta potential measurements, pH evaluation, and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, respectively. Different oxidation states were observed when AP was introduced, as confirmed by UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Systematic blood compatibility evaluations revealed that the SRHMGs have good blood compatibility. This bottom-up strategy to synthesize SRHMGs enables a new route to the production of smart microgels for biomedical applications.

  15. Data of thermal degradation and dynamic mechanical properties of starch–glycerol based films with citric acid as crosslinking agent

    PubMed Central

    González Seligra, Paula; Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Famá, Lucía; Goyanes, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Interest in biodegradable edible films as packaging or coating has increased because their beneficial effects on foods. In particular, food products are highly dependents on thermal stability, integrity and transition process temperatures of the packaging. The present work describes a complete data of the thermal degradation and dynamic mechanical properties of starch–glycerol based films with citric acid (CA) as crosslinking agent described in the article titled: “Biodegradable and non-retrogradable eco-films based on starch–glycerol with citric acid as crosslinking agent” González Seligra et al. (2016) [1]. Data describes thermogravimetric and dynamical mechanical experiences and provides the figures of weight loss and loss tangent of the films as a function of the temperature. PMID:27158645

  16. Hydrogels Prepared from Cross-Linked Nanofibrillated Cellulose

    Treesearch

    Sandeep S. Nair; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels were developed by cross-linking nanofibrillated cellulose with poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) and polyethylene glycol. The cross-linked hydrogels showed enhanced water absorption and gel content with the addition of nanocellulose. In addition, the thermal stability, mechanical strength, and modulus increased with an increase in the...

  17. Immobilization of a phosphonated analog of matrix phosphoproteins within cross-linked collagen as a templating mechanism for biomimetic mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Li-sha; Kim, Young Kyung; Liu, Yan; Takahashi, Kei; Arun, Senthil; Wimmer, Courtney E.; Osorio, Raquel; Ling, Jun-qi; Looney, Stephen W.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2010-01-01

    Immobilization of phosphoproteins on a collagen matrix is important for induction of intrafibrillar apatite mineralization. Unlike phosphate esters, polyphosphonic acid has no reactive sites for covalent binding to collagen amine groups. Binding of polyvinylphosphonic acid (PVPA), a biomimetic templating analog of matrix phosphoproteins, to collagen was found to be electrostatic in nature. Thus, an alternative retention mechanism was designed for immobilization of PVPA to collagen by cross-linking the latter with carbodiimide (EDC). This mechanism is based on the principle of size exclusion entrapment of PVPA molecules within the internal water compartments of collagen. By cross-linking collagen with EDC, a zero-length cross-linking agent, the sieving property of collagen is increased, enabling the PVPA to be immobilized within the collagen. Absence of covalent cross-linking between PVPA and collagen was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Based on these results, a concentration range for immobilized PVPA to template intrafibrillar apatite deposition was established and validated using a single-layer reconstituted type I collagen mineralization model. In the presence of a polyacrylic acid-containing mineralization medium, optimal intrafibrillar mineralization of the EDC-cross-linked collagen was achieved using 500 and 1,000 μg/mL PVPA. The mineralized fibrils exhibited a hierarchical order of intrafibrillar mineral infiltration, as manifested by the appearance of electron-dense periodicity within unstained fibrils. Understanding the basic processes in intrafibrillar mineralization of reconstituted collagen creates opportunities for the design of tissue engineering materials for hard tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:20688200

  18. Mechanism of cell death resulting from DNA interstrand cross-linking in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, T; Davies, D; Hartley, J A

    2011-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are critical cytotoxic lesions produced by cancer chemotherapeutic agents such as the nitrogen mustards and platinum drugs; however, the exact mechanism of ICL-induced cell death is unclear. Here, we show a novel mechanism of p53-independent apoptotic cell death involving prolonged cell-cycle (G2) arrest, ICL repair involving HR, transient mitosis, incomplete cytokinesis, and gross chromosomal abnormalities resulting from ICLs in mammalian cells. This characteristic ‘giant' cell death, observed by using time-lapse video microscopy, was reduced in ICL repair ERCC1- and XRCC3-deficient cells. Collectively, the results illustrate the coordination of ICL-induced cellular responses, including cell-cycle arrest, DNA damage repair, and cell death. PMID:21814285

  19. Nitrile crosslinked polyphenyl-quinoxaline/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were performed to reduce the 600 F thermoplasticity of polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) matrix resins by introducing crosslinking by the reaction of terminal nitrile groups. Seven solvents and solvent mixtures were studied as the crosslinking catalysts and used to fabricate crosslinked PPQ/HMS graphite fiber composites. The room temperature and 600 F composite mechanical properties after short time and prolonged 600 F air exposure and the 600 F composite weight loss were determined and compared to those properties of high molecular weight, linear PPQ/HMS graphite fiber composites.

  20. Liquid behavior of cross-linked actin bundles.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Kimberly L; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Witten, Thomas A; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Gardel, Margaret L

    2017-02-28

    The actin cytoskeleton is a critical regulator of cytoplasmic architecture and mechanics, essential in a myriad of physiological processes. Here we demonstrate a liquid phase of actin filaments in the presence of the physiological cross-linker, filamin. Filamin condenses short actin filaments into spindle-shaped droplets, or tactoids, with shape dynamics consistent with a continuum model of anisotropic liquids. We find that cross-linker density controls the droplet shape and deformation timescales, consistent with a variable interfacial tension and viscosity. Near the liquid-solid transition, cross-linked actin bundles show behaviors reminiscent of fluid threads, including capillary instabilities and contraction. These data reveal a liquid droplet phase of actin, demixed from the surrounding solution and dominated by interfacial tension. These results suggest a mechanism to control organization, morphology, and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton.

  1. Platinum covalent shell cross-linked micelles designed to deliver doxorubicin for synergistic combination cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Caiying; Xiao, Jingjing; Tang, Ming; Feng, Hua; Chen, Wulian; Du, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The preparation of polymer therapeutics capable of controlled release of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs has remained a tough problem in synergistic combination cancer therapy. Herein, a novel dual-drug co-delivery system carrying doxorubicin (DOX) and platinum(IV) (Pt[IV]) was developed. An amphiphilic diblock copolymer, PCL-b-P(OEGMA-co-AzPMA), was synthesized and used as a nanoscale drug carrier in which DOX and Pt(IV) could be packaged together. The copolymers were shell cross-linked by Pt(IV) prodrug via a click reaction. Studies on the in vitro drug release and cellular uptake of the dual-drug co-delivery system showed that the micelles were effectively taken up by the cells and simultaneously released drugs in the cells. Futhermore, the co-delivery polymer nanoparticles caused much higher cell death in HeLa and A357 tumor cells than either the free drugs or single-drug-loaded micelles at the same dosage, exhibiting a synergistic combination of DOX and Pt(IV). The results obtained with the shell cross-linked micelles based on an anticancer drug used as a cross-linking linkage suggested a promising application of the micelles for multidrug delivery in combination cancer therapy. PMID:28553108

  2. Comparative investigation of thermal and mechanical properties of cross-linked epoxy polymers with different curing agents by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Jeyranpour, F; Alahyarizadeh, Gh; Arab, B

    2015-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to predict the thermal and mechanical properties of the cross-linked epoxy system composed of DGEBA resin and the curing agent TETA. To investigate the effects of curing agents, a comprehensive and comparative study was also performed on the thermal and mechanical properties of DGEBA/TETA and DGEBA/DETDA epoxy systems such as density, glass transition temperature (Tg), coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and elastic properties of different cross-linking densities and different temperatures. The results indicated that the glass transition temperature of DGEBA/TETA system calculated through density-temperature data, ∼ 385-395 °K, for the epoxy system with the cross-linking density of 62.5% has a better agreement with the experimental value (Tg, ∼ 400 °K) in comparison to the value calculated through the variation of cell volume in terms of temperature, 430-440 °K. They also indicated that CTE related parameters and elastic properties including Young, Bulk, and shear's moduli, and Poisson's ratio have a relative agreement with the experimental results. Comparison between the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy systems of DGEBA/TETA and DGEBA/DETDA showed that the DGEBA/DETDA has a higher Tg in all cross linking densities than that of DGEBA/TETA, while higher mechanical properties was observed in the case of DGEBA/TETA in almost all cross linking densities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Crosslinking of Chitosan with Dialdehyde Derivatives of Nucleosides and Nucleotides. Mechanism and Comparison with Glutaraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, Sergey N; Zakharova, Alexandra N; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Ershov, Andrey V; Kasatkina, Mariya A; Vladimirov, Leonid V; Novikov, Valentin V; Kildeeva, Natalia R

    2016-01-01

    In medical and pharmaceutical applications, chitosan is used as a component of hydrogels-macromolecular networks swollen in water. Chemical hydrogels are formed by covalent links between the crosslinking reagents and amino functionalities of chitosan. To date, the most commonly used chitosan crosslinkers are dialdehydes, such as glutaraldehyde (GA). We have developed novel GA like crosslinkers with additional functional groups-dialdehyde derivatives of uridine (oUrd) and nucleotides (oUMP and oAMP)-leading to chitosan-based biomaterials with new properties. The process of chitosan crosslinking was investigated in details and compared to crosslinking with GA. The rates of crosslinking with oUMP, oAMP, and GA were essentially the same, though much higher than in the case of oUrd. The remarkable difference in the crosslinking properties of nucleoside and nucleotide dialdehydes can be clearly attributed to the presence of the phosphate group in nucleotides that participates in the gelation process through ionic interactions with the amino groups of chitosan. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have not observed the formation of aldimine bonds. It can be concluded that the real number of crosslinks needed to cause gelation of chitosan chains may be less than 1%.

  4. Mechanics of dual-mode dilative failure in subaqueous sediment deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yao; Flemings, Peter; Mohrig, David

    2014-07-01

    We introduce dual-mode dilative failure with flume experiments. Dual-mode dilative failure combines slow and steady release of sediments by breaching with periodic sliding, which rapidly releases an internally coherent wedge of sediments. It occurs in dilative sandy deposits. This periodic slope failure results from cyclic evolution of the excess pore pressure in the deposit. Sliding generates large, transient, negative excess pore pressure that strengthens the deposit and allows breaching to occur. During breaching, negative excess pore pressure dissipates, the deposit weakens, and ultimately sliding occurs once again. We show that the sliding frequency is proportional to the coefficient of consolidation. We find that thicker deposits are more susceptible to dual-mode dilative failure. Discovery of dual-mode dilative failure provides a new mechanism to consider when interpreting the sedimentary deposits linked to submarine slope failures.

  5. Reversibly crosslinked nanocarriers for on-demand drug delivery in cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yu; Huang, Wenzhe; Shi, Changying; Atkinson, Sean T; Luo, Juntao

    2013-01-01

    Polymer micelles have proven to be one of the most versatile nanocarriers for anticancer drug delivery. However, the in vitro and in vivo stability of micelles remains a challenge due to the dynamic nature of these self-assembled systems, which leads to premature drug release and nonspecific biodistribution in vivo. Recently, reversibly crosslinked micelles have been developed to provide solutions to stabilize nanocarriers in blood circulation. Increased stability allows nanoparticles to accumulate at tumor sites efficiently via passive and/or active tumor targeting, while cleavage of the micelle crosslinkages, through internal or external stimuli, facilitates on-demand drug release. In this review, various crosslinking chemistries as well as the choices for reversible linkages in these nanocarriers will be introduced. Then, the development of reversibly crosslinked micelles for on-demand drug release in response to single or dual stimuli in the tumor microenvironment is discussed, for example, acidic pH, reducing microenvironment, enzymatic microenvironment, photoirradiation and the administration of competitive reagents postmicelle delivery. PMID:23323559

  6. Ab initio simulations of bond breaking in sulfur crosslinked isoprene oligomer units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, Sascha; Alznauer, Hans Tobias; Karimi-Varzaneh, Hossein Ali; Becker, Jörg August

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur crosslinked polyisoprene (rubber) is used in important material components for a number of technical tasks (e.g., in tires and sealings). If mechanical stress, like tension or shear, is applied on these material components, the sulfur crosslinks suffer from homolytic bond breaking. In this work, we have simulated the bond breaking mechanism of sulfur crosslinks between polyisoprene chains using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamic simulations and investigated the maximum forces which can be resisted by the crosslinks. Small model systems with crosslinks formed by chains of N = 1 to N = 6 sulfur atoms have been simulated with the slow growth-technique, known from the literature. The maximum force can be thereby determined from the calculated energies as a function of strain (elongation). The stability of the crosslink under strain is quantified in terms of the maximum force that can be resisted by the system before the crosslink breaks. As shown by our simulations, this maximum force decreases with the sulfur crosslink length N in a step like manner. Our findings indicate that in bridges with N = 1, 2, and 3 sulfur atoms predominantly, carbon-sulfur bonds break, while in crosslinks with N > 3, the breaking of a sulfur-sulfur bond is the dominant failure mechanism. The results are explained within a simple chemical bond model, which describes how the delocalization of the electrons in the generated radicals can lower their electronic energy and decrease the activation barriers. It is described which of the double bonds in the isoprene units are involved in the mechanochemistry of crosslinked rubber.

  7. Effect of crosslink torsional stiffness on elastic behavior of semiflexible polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami-Marbini, H.

    2018-02-01

    Networks of semiflexible filaments are building blocks of different biological and structural materials such as cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. The mechanical response of these systems when subjected to an applied strain at zero temperature is often investigated numerically using networks composed of filaments, which are either rigidly welded or pinned together at their crosslinks. In the latter, filaments during deformation are free to rotate about their crosslinks while the relative angles between filaments remain constant in the former. The behavior of crosslinks in actual semiflexible networks is different than these idealized models and there exists only partial constraint on torques at crosslinks. The present work develops a numerical model in which two intersecting filaments are connected to each other by torsional springs with arbitrary stiffness. We show that fiber networks composed of rigid and freely rotating crosslinks are the limiting case of the present model. Furthermore, we characterize the effects of stiffness of crosslinks on effective Young's modulus of semiflexible networks as a function of filament flexibility and crosslink density. The effective Young's modulus is determined as a function of the mechanical properties of crosslinks and is found to vanish for networks composed of very weak torsional springs. Independent of the stiffness of crosslinks, it is found that the effective Young's modulus is a function of fiber flexibility and crosslink density. In low density networks, filaments primarily bend and the effective Young's modulus is much lower than the affine estimate. With increasing filament bending stiffness and/or crosslink density, the mechanical behavior of the networks becomes more affine and the stretching of filaments depicts itself as the dominant mode of deformation. The torsional stiffness of the crosslinks significantly affects the effective Young's modulus of the semiflexible random fiber networks.

  8. Crosslinked Polyamide

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Zhi H.; McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2002-06-04

    A crosslinked polyamide material and a process for preparing the crosslinked polyamide material are disclosed. The crosslinked polyamide material comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (1) a polyamide of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n is between about 50 and 10,000, wherein each R is between 1 and 50 carbon atoms alone and is optionally substituted with heteroatoms, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone forming the polyamide, and wherein two or more of the R contain an amino group; and (2) a crosslinking agent containing at least two functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups of the polyamide. In one embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic or aromatic isocyanate compound having 2 or more --N.dbd.C.dbd.O groups. In another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic aldehyde or aromatic aldehyde compound having 2 or more --CHO groups. In still another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.2 P(B) and mixtures thereof, wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, and B is hydroxyalkyl, alkyl, or aryl. In yet another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins having more than one epoxide group per molecule.

  9. Influence of different crosslinking systems on the mechanical and morphological properties of thermoplastic vulcanizates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patermann, Simone; Altstädt, Volker

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) combine the elastic properties of thermoset cross-linked rubbers with the melt processability of thermoplastics. The most representative examples of this class are the TPVs based on polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM). The PP/EPDM blends were produced by dynamic vulcanization in a continuous extrusion process. The influence of different crosslinking systems was studied with regard to cross-link density, compression set, tensile strength/elongation at break and morphology. With increasing peroxide concentration, the cross-link density increases, leading to a reduction of the compression set by 50 %. The same improvement is only reachable with twice the concentration of phenolic resin. Only the peroxide cross-linked blends show smaller dispersed EPDM particles with increasing peroxide concentration. With a peroxide concentration between 0.2 and 0.5 wt. %, a maximum in tensile strength and elongation at break was found. For the phenolic resin cross-linked blends, the tensile strength stays almost constant with increasing phenolic resin concentration and the elongation at break shows best results at 0.5 wt. % phenolic resin. Compared to batch processes, the results show different values, but comparable trends.

  10. Mechanical Properties of a Superalloy Disk with a Dual Grain Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Timothy; Kantzos, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical properties from an advanced, nickel-base superalloy disk, with a dual grain structure consisting of a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim, were evaluated. The dual grain structure was produced using NASA's low cost Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment (DMHT) process. The results showed the DMHT disk to have a high strength, fatigue resistant bore comparable to a subsolvus (fine grain) heat treated disk, and a creep resistant rim comparable to a supersolvus (coarse grain) heat treated disk. Additional work on subsolvus solutioning before or after the DMHT conversion appears to be a viable avenue for further improvement in disk properties.

  11. Advances in the mechanical modeling of filamentous actin and its cross-linked networks on multiple scales.

    PubMed

    Unterberger, Michael J; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2014-11-01

    The protein actin is a part of the cytoskeleton and, therefore, responsible for the mechanical properties of the cells. Starting with the single molecule up to the final structure, actin creates a hierarchical structure of several levels exhibiting a remarkable behavior. The hierarchy spans several length scales and limitations in computational power; therefore, there is a call for different mechanical modeling approaches for the different scales. On the molecular level, we may consider each atom in molecular dynamics simulations. Actin forms filaments by combining the molecules into a double helix. In a model, we replace molecular subdomains using coarse-graining methods, allowing the investigation of larger systems of several atoms. These models on the nanoscale inform continuum mechanical models of large filaments, which are based on worm-like chain models for polymers. Assemblies of actin filaments are connected with cross-linker proteins. Models with discrete filaments, so-called Mikado models, allow us to investigate the dependence of the properties of networks on the parameters of the constituents. Microstructurally motivated continuum models of the networks provide insights into larger systems containing cross-linked actin networks. Modeling of such systems helps to gain insight into the processes on such small scales. On the other hand, they call for verification and hence trigger the improvement of established experiments and the development of new methods.

  12. Variation of mechanical properties and oxidation with radiation dose and source in highly crosslinked remelted UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Fung, Mitchell; Bowsher, John G; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2018-06-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the current gold standard for bearing materials used in total joint arthroplasty. High-dose radiation is commonly used to crosslink UHMWPE, thereby improving its wear resistance. A subsequent remelting step eliminates trapped residual free radicals to promote oxidative stability on the shelf, and to prevent material degradation over the long term. Assessment of clinically retrieved, highly crosslinked UHMWPE devices shows signs of unanticipated oxidation occurring in vivo, despite the absence of free radicals prior to implantation. These findings warrant further investigation into possible factors impacting this phenomenon along with its clinical implications. The overall objective of this work is to quantify the influence of irradiation dose and source on UHMWPE's oxidative stability, along with the effects of oxidation on the ultimate mechanical properties, including strength, ductility, and toughness. The results showed a strong positive correlation between maximum oxidation and initial transvinylene content. Critical oxidation levels in the context of mechanical property loss were determined for e-beam and gamma treatments at various radiation doses. Further, it was shown that critical oxidation was more dependent on radiation dose and less dependent on source. If in vivo oxidation persists in these devices, this can potentially lead to mechanical failure (e.g. fatigue damage) as observed in terminally gamma-sterilized devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication of chemically cross-linked porous gelatin matrices.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Petrini, Paola; Altomare, Lina; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to chemically cross-link gelatin, by reacting its free amino groups with an aliphatic diisocyanate. To produce hydrogels with controllable properties, the number of reacting amino groups was carefully determined. Porosity was introduced into the gelatin-based hydrogels through the lyophilization process. Porous and non-porous matrices were characterized with respect to their chemical structure, morphology, water uptake and mechanical properties. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the porous matrices are related to the extent of their cross-linking, showing that they can be controlled by varying the reaction parameters. Water uptake values (24 hours) vary between 160% and 200% as the degree of cross-linking increases. The flexibility of the samples also decreases by changing the extent of cross-linking. Young's modulus shows values between 0.188 KPa, for the highest degree, and 0.142 KPa for the lowest degree. The matrices are potential candidates for use as tissue-engineering scaffolds by modulating their physical chemical properties according to the specific application.

  14. Cross-linking Chemistry of Squid Beak*

    PubMed Central

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J. Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  15. Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak.

    PubMed

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J Herbert

    2010-12-03

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed.

  16. Supramolecular Cross-Links in Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Impact on the Mechanical and Reversible Adhesive Properties.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Salz, Ulrich; Moszner, Norbert; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Hydrogen-bonded, side-chain-functionalized supramolecular poly(alkyl methacrylate)s were investigated as light- and temperature-responsive reversible adhesives that are useful for bonding and debonding on demand applications. Here, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) via a hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) linker, to create a monomer (UPy-HMDI-HEMA) that serves to form supramolecular cross-links by way of forming quadruple hydrogen bonded dimers. UPy-HMDI-HEMA was copolymerized with either hexyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate to create copolymers comprising 2.5, 5, or 10 mol % of the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of all (co)polymers were investigated with stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, the adhesive properties were studied at temperatures between 20 and 60 °C by testing single lap joints formed with stainless steel substrates. It was found that increasing the concentration of the UPy-HMDI-HEMA cross-linker leads to improved mechanical and adhesive properties at elevated temperatures. Concurrently, the reversibility of the bond formation remained unaffected, where rebonded samples displayed the same adhesive strength as regularly bonded samples. Debonding on demand abilities were also tested exemplarily for one copolymer, which for light-induced debonding experiments was blended with a UV-absorber that served as light-heat converter. Single lap joints were subjected to a constant force and heated or irradiated with UV light until debonding occurred. The necessary debonding temperature was comparable for direct heating and UV irradiation and varied between 28 and 82 °C, depending on the applied force. The latter also influenced the debonding time, which under the chosen conditions ranged from 30 s to 12 min.

  17. Mechanisms of Practice-Related Reductions of Dual-Task Interference with Simple Tasks: Data and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Torsten, Schubert

    2017-01-01

    In dual-task situations, interference between two simultaneous tasks impairs performance. With practice, however, this impairment can be reduced. To identify mechanisms leading to a practice-related improvement in sensorimotor dual tasks, the present review applied the following general hypothesis: Sources that impair dual-task performance at the beginning of practice are associated with mechanisms for the reduction of dual-task impairment at the end of practice. The following types of processes provide sources for the occurrence of this impairment: (a) capacity-limited processes within the component tasks, such as response-selection or motor response stages, and (b) cognitive control processes independent of these tasks and thus operating outside of component-task performance. Dual-task practice studies show that, under very specific conditions, capacity-limited processes within the component tasks are automatized with practice, reducing the interference between two simultaneous tasks. Further, there is evidence that response-selection stages are shortened with practice. Thus, capacity limitations at these stages are sources for dual-task costs at the beginning of practice and are overcome with practice. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the existence of practice-related mechanisms associated with capacity-limited motor-response stages. Further, during practice, there is an acquisition of executive control skills for an improved allocation of limited attention resources to two tasks as well as some evidence supporting the assumption of improved task coordination. These latter mechanisms are associated with sources of dual-task interference operating outside of component task performance at the beginning of practice and also contribute to the reduction of dual-task interference at its end. PMID:28439319

  18. Enhanced wear performance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene crosslinked by organosilane.

    PubMed

    Tang, C Y; Xie, X L; Wu, X C; Li, R K Y; Mai, Y W

    2002-11-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) crosslinked by organosilane was thermal compression molded. The organosilane used was the tri-ethyloxyl vinyl silane. Its gelation, melting behavior, crystallinity, mechanical and wear-resisting properties were systematically investigated. The results showed that the gel ratio of UHMWPE increases with the incorporation of organosilane. At a low content of organosilane, the melting point and crystallinity of the crosslinked UHMWPE increase, and hence the mechanical and wear-resisting properties are improved. However, at a high content of organosilane, these performances of the crosslinked UHMWPE become worse. At 0.4 phr silane, the wear resistance of crosslinked UHMWPE reaches its optimum value.

  19. J-integral fracture toughness and tearing modulus measurement of radiation cross-linked UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Gomoll, A; Wanich, T; Bellare, A

    2002-11-01

    Radiation and chemical cross-linking of medical grade ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has recently been utilized in an effort to improve wear performance of total joint replacement components. However, reductions in mechanical properties with cross-linking are cause for concern regarding the use of cross-linked UHMWPE for high-stress applications such as in total knee replacement prostheses. In this study, the fracture behavior of radiation cross-linked UHMWPE was compared to that of uncross-linked UHMWPE. The Rice and Sorensen model that utilizes mechanical parameters obtained from uniaxial tensile and compact tension tests was used to calculate the steady state J-integral fracture toughness, Jss, for radiation cross-linked UHMWPE. Jss decreased monotonically with increase in radiation dose. UHMWPE exhibited tough, ductile tearing behavior with stable crack growth when it was cross-linked using a gamma radiation dose of 0-50 kGy. However, in cross-linked UHMWPE irradiated to a dose of 100 and 200 kGy, unstable fracture occurred spontaneously upon attaining the initial crack driving force, J1c. This indicates that a high degree of cross-linking is less desirable for high-stress applications in orthopaedic implants. However, a substantial increase in J1c, even at a low degree of cross-linking, suggests that a low degree of cross-linking may be beneficial for resistance to delamination and catastrophic failure, both of which require an initiation step for the fracture to propagate in the material. This mechanical test should, however, be considered along with fatigue tests and joint simulator testing before determination of an appropriate amount of cross-linking for total joint replacement prostheses that experience high stresses.

  20. Characterization of the Deoxyguanosine–Lysine Cross-Link of Methylglyoxal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Methylglyoxal is a mutagenic bis-electrophile that is produced endogenously from carbohydrate precursors. Methylglyoxal has been reported to induce DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) in vitro and in cultured cells. Previous work suggests that these cross-links are formed between guanine and either lysine or cysteine side chains. However, the chemical nature of the methylglyoxal induced DPC have not been determined. We have examined the reaction of methylglyoxal, deoxyguanosine (dGuo), and Nα-acetyllysine (AcLys) and determined the structure of the cross-link to be the N2-ethyl-1-carboxamide with the lysine side chain amino group (1). The cross-link was identified by mass spectrometry and the structure confirmed by comparison to a synthetic sample. Further, the cross-link between methylglyoxal, dGuo, and a peptide (AcAVAGKAGAR) was also characterized. The mechanism of cross-link formation is likely to involve an Amadori rearrangement. PMID:24801980

  1. Visible Light Crosslinking of Methacrylated Hyaluronan Hydrogels for Injectable Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Spencer L.; Oldinski, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering hydrogels are primarily cured in situ using ultraviolet (UV) radiation which limits the use of hydrogels as drug or cell carriers. Visible green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a safe alternative to UV photocrosslinked hydrogels, without compromising material properties such as viscosity and stiffness. The objective of this study was to fabricate and characterize photocrosslinked hydrogels with well-regulated gelation kinetics and mechanical properties for the repair or replacement of soft tissue. An anhydrous methacrylation of hyaluronan (HA) was performed to control the degree of modification (DOM) of HA, verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. UV activated crosslinking was compared to visible green light activated crosslinking. While the different photocrosslinking techniques resulted in varied crosslinking times, comparable mechanical properties of UV and green light activated crosslinked hydrogels were achieved using each photocrosslinking method by adjusting time of light exposure. Methacrylated HA (HA-MA) hydrogels of varying molecular weight, DOM and concentration exhibited compressive moduli ranging from 1 kPa to 116 kPa, for UV crosslinking, and 3 kPa to 146 kPa, for green light crosslinking. HA-MA molecular weight and concentration were found to significantly influence moduli values. HA-MA hydrogels did not exhibit any significant cytotoxic affects towards human mesenchymal stem cells. Green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a viable method to form natural-based hydrogels in situ. PMID:26097172

  2. Prestressed F-actin networks cross-linked by hinged filamins replicate mechanical properties of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardel, M. L.; Nakamura, F.; Hartwig, J. H.; Crocker, J. C.; Stossel, T. P.; Weitz, D. A.

    2006-02-01

    We show that actin filaments, shortened to physiological lengths by gelsolin and cross-linked with recombinant human filamins (FLNs), exhibit dynamic elastic properties similar to those reported for live cells. To achieve elasticity values of comparable magnitude to those of cells, the in vitro network must be subjected to external prestress, which directly controls network elasticity. A molecular requirement for the strain-related behavior at physiological conditionsis a flexible hinge found in FLNa and some FLNb molecules. Basic physical properties of the in vitro filamin-F-actin network replicate the essential mechanical properties of living cells. This physical behavior could accommodate passive deformation and internal organelle trafficking at low strains yet resist externally or internally generated high shear forces. cytoskeleton | cell mechanics | nonlinear rheology

  3. Cross-Linked Nanohybrid Polymer Electrolytes With POSS Cross-Linker for Solid-State Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Ying; Wang, Huiqi; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Yanzhong; Hu, Shengliang; Wei, Weifeng

    2018-01-01

    A new class of freestanding cross-linked hybrid polymer electrolytes (HPEs) with POSS as the cross-linker was prepared by a one-step free radical polymerization reaction. Octavinyl octasilsesquioxane (OV-POSS) with eight functional corner groups was used to provide cross-linking sites for the connection of polymer segments and the required mechanical strength to separate the cathode and anode. The unique cross-linked structure offers additional free volume for the motion of EO chains and provides fast and continuously interconnected ion-conducting channels along the nanoparticles/polymer matrix interface. The HPE exhibits the highest ionic conductivity of 1.39 × 10 -3 S cm -1 , as well as excellent interfacial compatibility with the Li electrode at 80°C. In particular, LiFePO 4 /Li cells based on the HPE deliver good rate capability and long-term cycling performance with an initial discharge capacity of 152.1 mAh g -1 and a capacity retention ratio of 88% after 150 cycles with a current density of 0.5 C at 80°C, demonstrating great potential application in high-performance LIBs at elevated temperatures.

  4. Cross-linked Nanohybrid Polymer Electrolytes with POSS Cross-linker for Solid-state Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Ying; Wang, Huiqi; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Yanzhong; Hu, Shengliang; Wei, Weifeng

    2018-05-01

    A new class of freestanding cross-linked hybrid polymer electrolytes (HPEs) with POSS as the cross-linker was prepared by a one-step free radical polymerization reaction. Octavinyl octasilsesquioxane (OV-POSS) with eight functional corner groups was used to provide cross-linking sites for the connection of polymer segments and the required mechanical strength to separate the cathode and anode. The unique cross-linked structure offers additional free volume for the motion of EO chains and provides fast and continuously interconnected ion-conducting channels along the nanoparticles/polymer matrix interface. The HPE exhibits the highest ionic conductivity of 1.39×10-3 S cm-1, as well as excellent interfacial compatibility with the Li electrode at 80 oC. In particular, LiFePO4/Li cells based on the HPE deliver good rate capability and long-term cycling performance with an initial discharge capacity of 152.1 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention ratio of 88% after 150 cycles with a current density of 0.5 C at 80 oC, demonstrating great potential application in high-performance LIBs at elevated temperatures.

  5. Development of dual field magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection technology to detect mechanical damage.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    This report details the development and testing of a dual magnetization in-line inspection (ILI) : tool for detecting mechanical damage in operating pipelines, including the first field trials of a : fully operational dual-field magnetic flux leakage...

  6. Genipin-crosslinked silk fibroin/hydroxybutyl chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue-engineering application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuihua; Qian, Yongfang; Wang, Hongsheng; Fan, Linpeng; Huang, Chen; Yin, Anlin; Mo, Xiumei

    2010-12-01

    To improve water-resistant ability and mechanical properties of silk fibroin (SF)/hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications, genipin, glutaraldehyde (GTA), and ethanol were used to crosslink electrospun nanofibers, respectively. The mechanical properties of nanofibrous scaffolds were obviously improved after 24 h of crosslinking with genipin and were superior to those crosslinked with GTA and ethanol for 24 h. SEM indicated that crosslinked nanofibers with genipin and GTA vapor had good water-resistant ability. Characterization of the microstructure (porosity and pore structure) demonstrated crosslinked nanofibrous scaffolds with genipin and GTA vapor had lager porosities and mean diameters than those with ethanol. Characterization of FTIR-ATR and (13)C NMR clarified both genipin and GTA acted as crosslinking agents for SF and HBC. Furthermore, genipin could induce SF conformation from random coil or α-helix to β-sheet. Although GTA could also successfully crosslink SF/HBC nanofibrous scaffolds, in long run, genipin maybe a better method due to lower cytotoxicity than GTA. Cell viability studies and wound-healing test in rats clarified that the genipin-crosslinked SF/HBC nanofibrous scaffolds had a good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggested that genipin-crosslinked SF/HBC nanofibrous scaffolds might be potential candidates for wound dressing and tissue-engineering scaffolds. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  7. A Systematic Evaluation of Collagen Crosslinks in the Human Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Zork, Noelia M; Myers, Kristin Marie; Yoshida, Ms. Kyoko; Cremers, Serge; Jiang, Hongfeng; Ananth, Cande V; Wapner, Ronald; Kitajewski, Jan; Vink, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Objective The mechanical strength of the cervix relies on crosslinking of the tissue’s collagen network. Clinically, the internal os is functionally distinct from the external os. We sought to detect specific collagen crosslinks in human cervical tissue and determine if crosslink profiles were similar at the internal and external os. Study Design Transverse slices of cervical tissue were obtained at the internal and external os from 13 non-pregnant, premenopausal women undergoing a benign hysterectomy. To understand how crosslinks were distributed throughout the entire cervix and at the internal and external os, biopsies were obtained from three circumferential zones in four quadrants from each slice. Biopsies were pulverized, lyophilized, reduced with sodium borohydride, hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid and reconstituted in heptafluorobutyric acid buffer. Hydroxyproline was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS), converted to total collagen, and normalized by dry weight. Collagen crosslinks pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), dihydroxylysinonorleucine (DHLNL), and the nonenzymatic advanced glycation end product pentosidine [PEN] were measured by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and reported as crosslink density ratio (crosslink:total collagen). Generalized estimated equation analysis was used to compare results between the internal and external os and to compare quadrants and zones within slices from the internal and external os to determine if crosslink profiles were similar. Results 592 samples from 13 patients were analyzed. Collagen crosslinks are detectable in the human cervix by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. When comparing all samples from the internal and external os, similar levels of collagen content, PYD, DHLNL and DPD were found but PEN density was higher at the external os (0.005 vs 0.004, P=0.001). When comparing all internal os samples, significant heterogeneity was found in collagen content

  8. Nonlinear optical collagen cross-linking and mechanical stiffening: a possible photodynamic therapeutic approach to treating corneal ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Dongyul; Juhasz, Tibor; Brown, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In this study we test the hypothesis that nonlinear optical (NLO) multiphoton photoactivation of riboflavin using a focused femtosecond (FS) laser light can be used to induce cross-linking (CXL) and mechanically stiffen collagen as a potential clinical therapy for the treatment of keratoconus and corneal ectasia. Riboflavin-soaked, compressed collagen hydrogels are cross-linked using a FS laser tuned to 760 nm and set to either 100 mW (NLO CXL I) or 150 mW (NLO CXL II) of laser power. FS pulses are focused into the hydrogel using a 0.75 NA objective lens, and the hydrogel is three-dimensionally scanned. Measurement of hydrogel stiffness by indentation testing show that the calculated elastic modulus (E) values are significantly increased over twofold following NLO CXL I and II compared with baseline values (P<0.05). Additionally, no significant differences are detected between NLO CXL and single photon, UVA CXL (P>0.05). This data suggests that NLO CXL has a comparable effect to conventional UVA CXL in mechanically stiffening collagen and may provide a safe and effective approach to localize CXL at different regions and depths within the cornea. PMID:23515869

  9. Regulation Mechanism of Salt Ions for Superlubricity of Hydrophilic Polymer Cross-Linked Networks on Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caixia; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Hongyu; Cheng, Qiang; Yang, Congbin

    2017-03-07

    Poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) cross-linked networks on Ti 6 Al 4 V show superlubricity behavior when sliding against polytetrafluoroethylene in water-based lubricants. The superlubricity can occur but only with the existence of salt ions in the polymer cross-linked networks. This is different from the phenomenon in most polymer brushes. An investigation into the mechanism revealed that cations and anions in the lubricants worked together to yield the superlubricity even under harsh conditions. It is proposed that the preferential interactions of cations with PVPA molecules rather than water molecules are the main reason for the superlubricity in water-based lubricants. The interaction of anions with water molecules regulates the properties of the tribological interfaces, which influences the magnitude of the friction coefficient. Owing to the novel cross-linked networks and the interactions between cations and polymer molecules, their superlubricity can be maintained even at a high salt ion concentration of 5 M. These excellent properties make PVPA-modified Ti 6 Al 4 V a potential candidate for application in artificial implants.

  10. Fanconi anemia (cross)linked to DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Niedernhofer, Laura J; Lalai, Astrid S; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2005-12-29

    Fanconi anemia is characterized by hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and susceptibility to tumor formation. Despite the identification of numerous Fanconi anemia (FANC) genes, the mechanism by which proteins encoded by these genes protect a cell from DNA interstrand crosslinks remains unclear. The recent discovery of two DNA helicases that, when defective, cause Fanconi anemia tips the balance in favor of the direct involvement of the FANC proteins in DNA repair and the bypass of DNA lesions.

  11. Formation and cleaning function of physically cross-linked dual strengthened water-soluble chitosan-based core-shell particles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanrui; Xiao, Congming

    2017-09-01

    Facile and mild ionic cross-linking and freezing/thawing technologies were applied to prepare double strengthened core-shell particles by using water-soluble chitosan (WSC), sodium alginate (SA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as starting materials. The aqueous solution contained WSC and PVA was dropped in ethanol to form beads. The beads were converted into WSC/PVA hydrogel particles by being subjected to three freeze/thaw cycles. Subsequently, ionic cross-linked hydrogel layer was formed around each WSC/PVA particle to generate core-shell particulates. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the combination among various components. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis indicated that the storage modulus of the core-shell hydrogel was improved obviously. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibited the thermal stability of the particles was also enhanced by incorporation of PVA. It was found that the particles were able to adsorb carbon dioxide, lead ion and copper ion. The adsorption capacities of dry particles toward carbon dioxide, Pb(II) and Cu(II) could reach 199.62, 39.28 and 26.03mg/g, respectively. The rates of the particles for binding Pb(II) and Cu(II) at initial stage were 26.57 and 4.30%/min, respectively. These experimental results suggested that the particles were an efficient sorbent for removing hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide and heavy-metal ions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards aging mechanisms of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation materials in nuclear power plants

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Shuaishuai; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bowler, Nicola

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation material undergoes simultaneous, accelerated thermal and gamma-radiation aging to simulate the long-term aging environment within nuclear power plants (NPPs). A variety of materials characterization tests, including scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, oxidation induction time, gel-fraction and dielectric properties measurement, are conducted on pristine and differently aged XLPE samples. A preliminary model of one possible aging mechanism of XLPE cable insulation material under gamma radiation at elevated temperature of 115 °C is suggested.

  13. Dual UV/thermally curable plastisols

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Morgan, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    Photoactive, thermally curable plastisol compositions are made by mixing a thermoplastic (preferably poly(vinyl chloride)), a (meth)acrylate, a thermal initiator, a photoinitiator, and a conventional plasticizer. A short exposure of these compositions to UV results in a tack-free skin cure. Heating after UV irradiation gives simultaneous crosslinking and fusion. These dual UV/thermally curable plastisols are useful as adhesives, sealants, encapsulants, and in many other applications.

  14. Crosslinked polyethylene foams, via EB radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, E. C. L.; Lugão, A. B.; Andrade E. Silva, L. G.

    1998-06-01

    Polyethylene foams, produced by radio-induced crosslinking, show a smooth and homogeneous surface, when compared to chemical crosslinking method using peroxide as crosslinking agent. This process fosters excellent adhesive and printability properties. Besides that, closed cells, intrinsic to theses foams, imparts opitmum mechanical, shocks and insulation resistance, indicating these foams to some markets segments as: automotive and transport; buoyancy, flotation and marine: building and insulation: packaging: domestic sports and leisure goods. We were in search of an ideal foam, by adding 5 to 15% of blowing agent in LDPE. A series of preliminary trials defined 203° C as the right blowing agent decomposition temperature. At a 22.7 kGy/dose ratio, the lowest dose for providing an efficient foam was 30 kGy, for a formulation comprising 10% of azodicarbonamide in LDPE, within a 10 minutes foaming time.

  15. Sulfonyl 3-alkynyl pantetheinamides as mechanism-based crosslinkers of ACP dehydratase

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Haushalter, Robert W.; Lee, D. John; Finzel, Kara; Burkart, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The acyl carrier protein (ACP) plays a central function in acetate biosynthetic pathways, serving as a tether for substrates and growing intermediates. Activity and structural studies have highlighted the complexities of this role, and its protein-protein interactions have recently come under scrutiny as a regulator of catalysis. As existing methods to interrogate these interactions have fallen short, we have sought to develop new tools to aid their study. Here we describe the design, synthesis, and application of pantetheinamides capable of crosslinking ACPs with catalytic β-hydroxyacyl carrier protein dehydratase (DH) domains based upon a 3-alkynyl sulfone warhead. We demonstrate this process by application to the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthase and apply it to probe protein-protein interactions with non-cognate carrier proteins. Finally, we use solution phase protein NMR to demonstrate that sulfonyl-3-alkynyl pantetheinamide is fully sequestered by the ACP, indicating that the crypto-ACP closely mimics the natural DH substrate. This crosslinking technology offers immediate potential to lock these biosynthetic enzymes in their native binding states by providing access to mechanistically-crosslinked enzyme complexes, presenting a solution to ongoing structural challenges. PMID:23718183

  16. Physical Properties and Cellular Responses to Crosslinkable Poly(Propylene Fumarate)/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Shanfeng; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Lu, Lichun

    2008-01-01

    A series of crosslinkable nanocomposites has been developed using hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). PPF/HA nanocomposites with four different weight fractions of HA nanoparticles have been characterized in terms of thermal and mechanical properties. To assess surface chemistry of crosslinked PPF/HA nanocomposites, their hydrophilicity and capability of adsorbing proteins have been determined using static contact angle measurement and MicroBCA protein assay kit after incubation with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), respectively. In vitro cell studies have been performed using MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblast cells to investigate the ability of PPF/HA nanocomposites to support cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation after 1, 4, and 7 days. By adding HA nanoparticles to PPF, the mechanical properties of crosslinked PPF/HA nanocomposites have not been increased due to the initially high modulus of crosslinked PPF. However, hydrophilicity and serum protein adsorption on the surface of nanocomposites have been significantly increased, resulting in enhanced cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation after 4 days of cell seeding. These results indicate that crosslinkable PPF/HA nanocomposites are useful for hard tissue replacement because of excellent mechanical strength and osteoconductivity. PMID:18403013

  17. Enzymatically Crosslinked Emulsion Gels Using Star-Polymer Stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; An, Zesheng

    2016-10-01

    A novel type of emulsion gel based on star-polymer-stabilized emulsions is highlighted, which contains discrete hydrophobic oil and hydrophilic aqueous solution domains. Well-defined phenol-functionalized core-crosslinked star polymers are synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated dispersion polymerization and are used as stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. Horseradish-peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of the phenol moieties in the presence of H 2 O 2 enables rapid formation of crosslinked emulsion gels under mild conditions. The crosslinked emulsion gels exhibit enhanced mechanical strength, as well as widely tunable composition. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Preparation and characterizations of EGDE crosslinked chitosan electrospun membranes.

    PubMed

    Aqil, A; Tchemtchoua, V T; Colige, A; Atanasova, G; Poumay, Y; Jérôme, C

    2015-01-01

    Composite Crosslinked nanofibrous membranes of chitosan, ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) and polyethylene oxide was successfully prepared with bead free morphology via electrospinning technique followed by heat mediated chemical crosslinking. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by chemical crosslinking of only 1% EGDE, and tensile strength tests revealed that increasing EGDE content has considerably enhance the elastic modulus of nanofibers. The structure, morphology and mechanical properties of nanofibers were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Instron machine, respectively. Skin fibroblasts and endothelial cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on crosslinked electrospun membranes. The results indicate a good biocompatibility and non-toxic nature of the resulted membrane.

  19. Characterization of the crosslinking reaction in high performance phenolic resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jigneshkumar; Zou, Guo Xiang; Hsu, Shaw Ling; university of massachusetts/Polymer science; Engineering Team

    In this study, a combination of thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy (near and mid) in conjunction with low field NMR, was used to characterize the crosslinking reaction involving phenol formaldehyde resin and a crosslinking agent, Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The strong hydrogen bonds in the resin and the completely crystalline HMTA (Tm = 280 °C) severely hamper the crosslinking process. Yet the addition of a small amount of plasticizer can induce a highly efficient crosslinking reaction to achieve the desired mechanical properties needed in a number of high performance organic-inorganic composites. The infrared spectroscopy clarifies the dissolution process of the crystalline crosslinker and the specific interactions needed to achieve miscibility of the reactants. The thermal analysis enabled us to follow the changing mobility of the system as a function of temperature. The low field NMR with the T1 inverse recovery technique allowed us to monitor the crosslinking process directly. For the first time, it is now possible to identify the functionality of the plasticizer and correlate the crosslinked structure achieved to the macroscopic performance needed for high performance organic-inorganic composites.

  20. N(4)C-ethyl-N(4)C cross-linked DNA: synthesis and characterization of duplexes with interstrand cross-links of different orientations.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Anne M; Noll, David M; Wilds, Christopher J; Miller, Paul S

    2002-01-22

    , in which the cross-linked base pairs can still maintain hydrogen bond contacts, molecular models suggest that formation of the -GC- staggered cross-link disrupts hydrogen bonding and may also perturb adjacent base pairs leading to an overall reduction in helix stability. Duplexes with specifically positioned and oriented cross-links can be used as substrates to study DNA repair mechanisms.

  1. Probing the Selectivity and Protein•Protein Interactions of a Non-Reducing Fungal Polyketide Synthase Using Mechanism-Based Crosslinkers

    PubMed Central

    Bruegger, Joel; Haushalter, Bob; Vagstad, Anna; Shakya, Gaurav; Mih, Nathan; Townsend, Craig A.; Burkart, Michael D.; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein•protein interactions, which often involve interactions between an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and its partner enzymes, are important for coordinating polyketide biosynthesis. However, the nature of such interactions is not well understood, especially in the fungal non-reducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) that biosynthesize toxic and pharmaceutically important polyketides. Here, we employ a mechanism-based crosslinker to successfully probe ACP and ketosynthase (KS) domain interactions in NR-PKSs. We found that crosslinking efficiency is closely correlated with the strength of ACP•KS interactions, and that KS demonstrates strong starter unit selectivity. We further identified positively charged surface residues by KS mutagenesis, which mediate key interactions with the negatively-charged ACP surface. Such complementary/matching contact pairs can serve as “adapter surfaces” for future efforts to generate new polyketides using NR-PKSs. PMID:23993461

  2. Resemblance of actin-binding protein/actin gels to covalently crosslinked networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul A.; Hvidt, Søren; Lamb, Jennifer; Stossel, Thomas P.

    1990-05-01

    THE maintainance of the shape of cells is often due to their surface elasticity, which arises mainly from an actin-rich cytoplasmic cortex1,2. On locomotion, phagocytosis or fission, however, these cells become partially fluid-like. The finding of proteins that can bind to actin and control the assembly of, or crosslink, actin filaments, and of intracellular messages that regulate the activities of some of these actin-binding proteins, indicates that such 'gel sol' transformations result from the rearrangement of cortical actin-rich networks3. Alternatively, on the basis of a study of the mechanical properties of mixtures of actin filaments and an Acanthamoeba actin-binding protein, α-actinin, it has been proposed that these transformations can be accounted for by rapid exchange of crosslinks between actin filaments4: the cortical network would be solid when the deformation rate is greater than the rate of crosslink exchange, but would deform or 'creep' when deformation is slow enough to permit crosslinker molecules to rearrange. Here we report, however, that mixtures of actin filaments and actin-binding protein (ABP), an actin crosslinking protein of many higher eukaryotes, form gels Theologically equivalent to covalently crosslinked networks. These gels do not creep in response to applied stress on a time scale compatible with most cell-surface movements. These findings support a more complex and controlled mechanism underlying the dynamic mechanical properties of cortical cytoplasm, and can explain why cells do not collapse under the constant shear forces that often exist in tissues.

  3. NMR measurements of gaseous sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) to probe the cross-linking of EPDM rubber.

    PubMed

    Terekhov, M; Neutzler, S; Aluas, M; Hoepfel, D; Oellrich, L R

    2005-11-01

    The effects of embedding gaseous SF6 into EPDM rubber were investigated using NMR methods. It was found that observed sorption and desorption processes follow the behavior of the dual mode sorption model. A strong correlation was found between EPDM cross-linking and transversal relaxation time of embedded SF6. EPDM samples with different cross-link densities, preliminarily determined by 1H transversal relaxation using the Gotlib model and Litvinov's method, were investigated using embedded SF6. The sensitivity of the 19F transversal relaxation rate of SF6 to the EPDM cross-link density variation was found to be at least 10 times higher than for 1H in the polymer chain. First experiments on probing the swelling effects in EPDM due to its contact with polar liquids have been performed. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Cell protein cross-linking by erbstatin and related compounds | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The scheme depicts a possible mechanism of cross-linking by erbstatin and related analogues. A mechanism of action is proposed which involves initial oxidation to reactive quinone intermediates that subsequently cross-link protein nucleophiles via multiple 1,4-Michael-type additions. Similar alkylation of protein by protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as herbimycin A, has

  5. Modulation of biomechanical properties of hyaluronic acid hydrogels by crosslinking agents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Chul; Yoo, Mi Ae; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Hyun Ji; Son, Dong Hoon; Jung, Jessica; Noh, Insup; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2015-09-01

    Modulation of both mechanical properties and biocompatibilities of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels is very importance for their applications in biomaterials. Pure HA solution was converted into a hydrogel by using butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) as a crosslinking agent. Mechanical properties of the HA hydrogels have been evaluated by adding up different amount of BDDEs. While the mechanical properties of the obtained HA hydrogels were evaluated by measuring their crosslinking degrees, elastic modulus and viscosity, their in vitro biocompatibilities were done by measuring the degrees of anti-inflammatory reactions, cell viabilities and cytotoxicity. The degrees of anti-inflammatory reactions were determined by measuring the amount of nitric oxides (NOs) released from lipopolysaccharide(LPS)(+)-induced macrophages; cell viability was evaluated by observing differences in the behaviors of fibroblasts covered with the HA hydrogels, compared with those covered with the films of Teflon and Latex. Cytotoxicity of the HA hydrogels was also evaluated by measuring the degrees of viability of the cells exposed on the extracts of the HA hydrogels over those of Teflon, Latex and pure HA solutions by the assays of thiazoly blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral reds, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The results showed that employment of BDDEs beyond critical amounts showed lower biocompatibility of the crosslinked HA hydrogels but higher crosslinking degrees and mechanical properties, indicating the importance of controlling the HA concentrations, BDDE amounts and their reaction times for the synthesis of the crosslinked HA hydrogels for their clinical applications as biomaterials. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-09-19

    Dual-comb lasers simultaneously generating asynchronous ultrashort pulses could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser comb source. When generated through a common light path, the low common-mode noises and good coherence between the pulse trains could be realized. Here we demonstrate the completely common-path, unidirectional dual-comb lasing using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber with additional pulse narrowing and broadening mechanisms. The interactions between multiple soliton formation mechanisms result in bifurcation into unusual two-pulse states with pulses of four-fold bandwidth difference and tens-of-Hz repetition rate difference. Coherence between the pulses is verified by the asynchronous cross-sampling and dual-comb spectroscopy measurements.

  7. UV laser-induced cross-linking in peptides

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Gabriella; Altucci, Carlo; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Gravagnuolo, Alfredo M.; Esposito, Rosario; Marino, Gennaro; Costello, Catherine E.; Velotta, Raffaele; Birolo, Leila

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE The aim of this study was to demonstrate, and to characterize by high resolution mass spectrometry, that it is possible to preferentially induce covalent cross-links in peptides by using high energy femtosecond UV laser pulses. The cross-link is readily formed only when aromatic amino acids are present in the peptide sequence. METHODS Three peptides, xenopsin, angiotensin I, interleukin, individually or in combination, were exposed to high energy femtosecond UV laser pulses, either alone or in the presence of spin trapping molecules, the reaction products being characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS High resolution mass spectrometry and spin trapping strategies showed that cross-linking occurs readily, proceeds via a radical mechanism, and is the highly dominant reaction, proceeding without causing significant photo-damage in the investigated range of experimental parameters. CONCLUSIONS High energy femtosecond UV laser pulses can be used to induce covalent cross-links between aromatic amino acids in peptides, overcoming photo-oxidation processes, that predominate as the mean laser pulse intensity approaches illumination conditions achievable with conventional UV light sources. PMID:23754800

  8. Comparison of glutaraldehyde and carbodiimides to crosslink tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by decellularized porcine menisci.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Guo, Weimin; Chen, Mingxue; Liu, Shuyun; Xi, Tingfei; Guo, Quanyi

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to fabricate porous scaffolds using decellularized meniscus, and to explore a preferable crosslinking condition to enhance mechanical properties of scaffolds. Moreover, the microstructure, porosity, biodegradation and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. EDAC or GTA in different concentration was used to crosslink scaffolds. FTIR demonstrated functional groups change in crosslinking process. SEM photography showed that crosslinked scaffolds had blurry edges, which resulted scaffolds crosslinked by 1.2mol/l EDAC had smaller porosity than other groups. The structure change enhanced antidegradation property. After immersing in enzyme solution for 96h, scaffolds crosslinked by GTA and EDAC could maintain their mass >70% and 80%. Most importantly, mechanical properties of crosslinked scaffolds were also improved. Uncrosslinked Scaffolds had only 0.49kPa in compression modulus and 12.81kPa in tensile modulus. The compression and tensile modulus of scaffolds crosslinked by 1.0% GTA were 1.42 and 567.44kPa respectively. The same value of scaffolds crosslinked by 1.2mol/l EDAC were 1.49 and 532.50kPa. Scaffolds crosslinked by 1.0% and 2.5% GTA were toxic to cells, while EDAC groups showed no cytotoxicity. Chondrocytes could proliferate and infiltrate within scaffolds after seeding. Overall, 1.2mol/l EDAC was a preferable crosslinking condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for the Phospholipid Sponge Effect as the Biocidal Mechanism in Surface-Bound Polyquaternary Ammonium Coatings with Variable Cross-Linking Density.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; White, Evan M; Liu, Qiaohong; Locklin, Jason

    2017-03-01

    Poly quaternary "-oniums" derived from polyethylenimine (PEI), poly(vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium), or chitosan belong to a class of cationic polymers that are efficient antimicrobial agents. When dissolved in solution, the positively charged polycations are able to displace the divalent cations of the cellular phospholipid bilayer and disrupt the ionic cross-links and structural integrity of the membrane. However, when immobilized to a surface where confinement limits diffusion, poly -oniums still show excellent antimicrobial activity, which implies a different biocidal mode of action. Recently, a proposed mechanism, named phospholipid sponge effect, suggested that surface-bound polycationic networks are capable of recruiting negatively charged phospholipids out of the bacterial cell membrane and sequestering them within the polymer matrix.1 However, there has been insufficient evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, a surface-bound N,N-dodecyl methyl-co-N,N-methylbenzophenone methyl quaternary PEI (DMBQPEI) was prepared to verify the phospholipid sponge effect. By tuning the irradiation time, the cross-linking densities of surface-bound DMBQPEI films were mediated. The modulus of films was measured by PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (QNM) to indicate the cross-linking density variation with increasing irradiation time. A negative correlation between the film cross-linking density and the absorption of a negatively charged phospholipid (DPhPG) was observed, but no such correlations were observed with a neutral phospholipid (DPhPC), which strongly supported the action of anionic phospholipid suction proposed in the lipid sponge effect. Moreover, the killing efficiency toward S. aureus and E. coli was inversely affected by the cross-linking density of the films, providing evidence for the phospholipid sponge effect. The relationship between killing efficiency and film cross-linking density is discussed.

  10. Effect of carbon nanotube functionalization on mechanical and thermal properties of cross-linked epoxy-carbon nanotube nanocomposites: role of strengthening the interfacial interactions.

    PubMed

    Khare, Ketan S; Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Rajesh

    2014-05-14

    We have used amido-amine functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that form covalent bonds with cross-linked epoxy matrices to elucidate the role of the matrix-filler interphase in the enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties in these nanocomposites. For the base case of nanocomposites of cross-linked epoxy and pristine single-walled CNTs, our previous work (Khare, K. S.; Khare, R. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 7444-7454) has shown that weak matrix-filler interactions cause the interphase region in the nanocomposite to be more compressible. Furthermore, because of the weak matrix-filler interactions, the nanocomposite containing dispersed pristine CNTs has a glass transition temperature (Tg) that is ∼66 K lower than the neat polymer. In this work, we demonstrate that in spite of the presence of stiff CNTs in the nanocomposite, the Young's modulus of the nanocomposite containing dispersed pristine CNTs is virtually unchanged compared to the neat cross-linked epoxy. This observation suggests that the compressibility of the matrix-filler interphase interferes with the ability of the CNTs to reinforce the matrix. Furthermore, when the compressibility of the interphase is reduced by the use of amido-amine functionalized CNTs, the mechanical reinforcement due to the filler is more effective, resulting in a ∼50% increase in the Young's modulus compared to the neat cross-linked epoxy. Correspondingly, the functionalization of the CNTs also led to a recovery in the Tg making it effectively the same as the neat polymer and also resulted in a ∼12% increase in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite containing functionalized CNTs compared to that containing pristine CNTs. These results demonstrate that the functionalization of the CNTs facilitates the transfer of both mechanical load and thermal energy across the matrix-filler interface.

  11. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-03-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100-300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating-cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase.

  12. Mechanically Strong, Polymer Cross-linked Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Aerogels comprise a class of low-density, high porous solid objects consisting of dimensionally quasi-stable self-supported three-dimensional assemblies of nanoparticles. Aerogels are pursued because of properties above and beyond those of the individual nanoparticles, including low thermal conductivity, low dielectric constant and high acoustic impedance. Possible applications include thermal and vibration insulation, dielectrics for fast electronics, and hosting of functional guests for a wide variety of optical, chemical and electronic applications. Aerogels, however, are extremely fragile materials, hence they have found only limited application in some very specialized environments, for example as Cerenkov radiation detectors in certain types of nuclear reactors, aboard spacecraft as collectors of hypervelocity particles (refer to NASA's Stardust program) and as thermal insulators on planetary vehicles on Mars (refer to Sojourner Rover in 1997 and Spirit and Opportunity in 2004). Along these lines, the X-Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material that has resolved the fragility problem of traditional (native) aerogels. X-Aerogels are made by applying a conformal polymer coating on the surfaces of the skeletal nanoparticles of native aerogels (see Scanning Electron Micrographs). Since the relative amounts of the polymeric crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X-Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by the templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by remplated casting of polymer on a nanostructured framework. The most striking feature of X-Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density (still a ultralighweight material), the mechanical strength can be up to 300 times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X-Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. X

  13. Cross-linked polyimides for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kenneth D.; Kowalczyk, Tony C.; Nguyen, Hung D.; Beuhler, Allyson J.; Wargowski, David A.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated a promising class of polyimide materials for both passive and active electro-optic devices, namely crosslinkable polyimides. These fluorinated polyimides are soluble in the imidized form and are both thermally and photo-crosslinkable leading to easy processability into waveguide structures and the possibility of stable electro-optic properties. We have fabricated channel and slab waveguides and investigated the mechanism of optical propagation loss using photothermal deflection spectroscopy and waveguide loss spectroscopy, and found the losses to arise from residual absorption due to the formation of charge transfer states. The absorption is inhibited by fluorination leading to propagation losses as low as 0.3 dB/cm in the near infrared. Because of the ability to photocrosslink, channel waveguides are fabricated using a simple wet-etch process. Channel waveguides so formed are observed to have no excess loss over slab structures. Solubility followed by thermal cross-linking allows the formation of multilayer structures. We have produced electro-optic polymers by doping with the nonlinear optical chromophores, DCM and DADC; and a process of concurrent poling and thermal crosslinking. Multilayer structures have been investigated and poling fields optimized in the active layer by doping the cladding with an anti-static agent. The high glass-transition temperature and cross-linking leads to very stable electro-optic properties. We are currently building electro-optic modulators based on these materials. Progress and results in this area also are reported.

  14. Memory Dynamics in Cross-linked Actin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheff, Danielle; Majumdar, Sayantan; Gardel, Margaret

    Cells demonstrate the remarkable ability to adapt to mechanical stimuli through rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, a cross-linked network of actin filaments. In addition to its importance in cell biology, understanding this mechanical response provides strategies for creation of novel materials. A recent study has demonstrated that applied stress can encode mechanical memory in these networks through changes in network geometry, which gives rise to anisotropic shear response. Under later shear, the network is stiffer in the direction of the previously applied stress. However, the dynamics behind the encoding of this memory are unknown. To address this question, we explore the effect of varying either the rigidity of the cross-linkers or the length of actin filament on the time scales required for both memory encoding and over which it later decays. While previous experiments saw only a long-lived memory, initial results suggest another mechanism where memories relax relatively quickly. Overall, our study is crucial for understanding the process by which an external stress can impact network arrangement and thus the dynamics of memory formation.

  15. Visible light-induced crosslinking and physiological stabilization of diselenide-rich nanoparticles for redox-responsive drug release and combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shaodong; Hu, Xianglong; Hu, Yongjun; Wu, Baoyan; Xing, Da

    2017-03-01

    Undesired physiological instability of nanocarriers and premature drug leakage during blood circulation result in compromised therapeutic efficacy and severe side effects, which have significantly impeded the development of nanomedicine. Facile crosslinking of drug-loaded nanocarriers while keeping the potency of site-specific degradation and drug release has emerged as a viable strategy to overcome these drawbacks. Additionally, combination therapy has already shown advantages in inhibiting advanced tumors and life extension than single drug therapy. Herein, three kinds of diselenide-rich polymers were fabricated with distinct hydrophobic side chains. The component effect was interrogated to screen out PEG-b-PBSe diblock copolymer due to its favorable self-assembly controllability and high drug loading of camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) that had synergistic antitumor property. Facile visible light-induced diselenide metathesis and regeneration was employed to crosslink nanocarriers for the first time. The dual drug-loaded crosslinked micelles (CPT/DOX-CCM) were stable in physiological conditions with minimal drug leakage, possessing extended blood circulation, whereas hand-in-hand dual drug release was significantly accelerated in tumor's redox microenvironments. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation and in vivo tumor suppression with low dosage drugs further demonstrated the favorable potency of the redox-responsive nanoplatform in tumor combination chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Primal-dual techniques for online algorithms and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaghat, Vahid

    An offline algorithm is one that knows the entire input in advance. An online algorithm, however, processes its input in a serial fashion. In contrast to offline algorithms, an online algorithm works in a local fashion and has to make irrevocable decisions without having the entire input. Online algorithms are often not optimal since their irrevocable decisions may turn out to be inefficient after receiving the rest of the input. For a given online problem, the goal is to design algorithms which are competitive against the offline optimal solutions. In a classical offline scenario, it is often common to see a dual analysis of problems that can be formulated as a linear or convex program. Primal-dual and dual-fitting techniques have been successfully applied to many such problems. Unfortunately, the usual tricks come short in an online setting since an online algorithm should make decisions without knowing even the whole program. In this thesis, we study the competitive analysis of fundamental problems in the literature such as different variants of online matching and online Steiner connectivity, via online dual techniques. Although there are many generic tools for solving an optimization problem in the offline paradigm, in comparison, much less is known for tackling online problems. The main focus of this work is to design generic techniques for solving integral linear optimization problems where the solution space is restricted via a set of linear constraints. A general family of these problems are online packing/covering problems. Our work shows that for several seemingly unrelated problems, primal-dual techniques can be successfully applied as a unifying approach for analyzing these problems. We believe this leads to generic algorithmic frameworks for solving online problems. In the first part of the thesis, we show the effectiveness of our techniques in the stochastic settings and their applications in Bayesian mechanism design. In particular, we introduce new

  17. Preparation and properties of adjacency crosslinked polyurethane-urea elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yang; Wu, Shou-Peng; Li, Zai-Feng

    2012-12-01

    Adjacency crosslinked polyurethane-urea (PUU) elastomers with different crosslinking density were prepared by using hydroxyl-terminated liquid butadiene-nitrile (HTBN), toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and chain extender 3,5-dimethyl thio-toluene diamine (DMTDA) as raw materials, dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator, and N,N'-m-phenylene dimaleimide (HVA-2) as the crosslinking agent. The influences of the crosslinking density and temperature on the structure and properties of such elastomers were investigated. The crosslinking density of PUU elastomer was tested by the NMR method. It is found that when the content of HVA-2 is 1.5%, the mechanical properties of polyurethane elastomer achieve optimal performance. By testing thermal performance of PUU, compared with linear PUU, the thermal stability of the elastomers has a marked improvement. With the addition of HVA-2, the loss factor tan δ decreases. FT-IR spectral studies of PUU elastomer at various temperatures were performed. From this study, heat-resistance polyurethane could be prepared, and the properties of PUU at high temperature could be improved obviously.

  18. A PI 4. 6 peroxidase that specifically crosslinks extensin precursors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Upham, B.L; Alizadeh, H.; Ryan, K.J.

    1991-05-01

    The primary cell wall is a microcomposite of cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and protein. The warp-weft model of the primary cell wall hypothesize that extensin monomers are intermolecularly crosslinked orthogonal to the cellulose microfibril thus mechanically coupling the major load-bearing polymer: cellulose. Media of tomato cell cultures contains heat labile, peroxide dependent crosslinking activity, as determined by the rate of decrease in monomer concentration analyzed via Superose-6. Isoelectric focusing of tomato cell culture media indicated crosslinking was predominantly in the acidic peroxidase fraction (pI4.6). This peroxidase was partially purified by ultracentrifugation, DEAE-Trisacryl and HPLC-DEAE chromatography techniques resulting in a 90 foldmore » purification and 45% yield. A second acidic peroxidase eluted from the HPLC-DEAE column had 25% of the crosslinking activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase. Purified basic peroxidase had only 0.7% of the activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase. The specific activity of the pI 4.6 peroxidase was 5,473 mg extensin crosslinked/min/mg peroxidase. The pI 4.6 peroxidase crosslinked the following extensins: tomato I and II, carrot, Ginkgo II and did not crosslink Ginkgo I, Douglas Fir, Maize, Asparagus I and II, and sugarbeet extensins as well as bovine serum albumin. Comparison of motifs common to extensins that are crosslinked by the pI 4.6 peroxidase may help identify the crosslink domain(s) of extension.« less

  19. Biohybrid Fibro-Porous Vascular Scaffolds: Effect of Crosslinking on Properties

    PubMed Central

    Nozik, Danna; Patel, Harsh; Singh, Raj K.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Tubular grafts were fabricated from blends of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(glycolide -co-caprolactone) (PGC) polymers and coated with an extracellular matrix containing collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans, but not growth factors (HuBiogel™). Multifunctional scaffolds from polymer blends and membrane proteins provide the necessary biomechanics and biological functions for tissue regeneration. Two crosslinking agents, a natural crosslinker namely genipin (Gp) and a carbodiimide reagent namely 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), were used for further stabilizing the protein matrix and the effect of crosslinking was evaluated for structural, morphological, mechanical properties using SEM, DSC and DMA. SEM images and fiber diameter distribution showed fiber-size between 0.2 µm to 1 µm with the majority of fiber diameters being under 500 nm, indicating upper range of protein fiber-sizes (for example, collagen fibers in extracellular matrix are in 50 to 500 nm diameter range). HB coating did not affect the mechanical properties, but increased its hydrophilicity of the graft. Overall data showed that PCL/PGC blends with 3:1 mass ratio exhibited mechanical properties comparable to those of human native arteries (tensile strength of 1–2 MPa and Young’s modulus of <10 MPa). Additionally, the effect of crosslinking on coating stability was investigated to assure the retention of proteins on scaffold for effective cell-matrix interactions. PMID:26082566

  20. Biohybrid Fibro-Porous Vascular Scaffolds: Effect of Crosslinking on Properties.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vinoy; Nozik, Danna; Patel, Harsh; Singh, Raj K; Vohra, Yogesh K

    Tubular grafts were fabricated from blends of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(glycolide -co-caprolactone) (PGC) polymers and coated with an extracellular matrix containing collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans, but not growth factors (HuBiogel™). Multifunctional scaffolds from polymer blends and membrane proteins provide the necessary biomechanics and biological functions for tissue regeneration. Two crosslinking agents, a natural crosslinker namely genipin (Gp) and a carbodiimide reagent namely 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), were used for further stabilizing the protein matrix and the effect of crosslinking was evaluated for structural, morphological, mechanical properties using SEM, DSC and DMA. SEM images and fiber diameter distribution showed fiber-size between 0.2 µm to 1 µm with the majority of fiber diameters being under 500 nm, indicating upper range of protein fiber-sizes (for example, collagen fibers in extracellular matrix are in 50 to 500 nm diameter range). HB coating did not affect the mechanical properties, but increased its hydrophilicity of the graft. Overall data showed that PCL/PGC blends with 3:1 mass ratio exhibited mechanical properties comparable to those of human native arteries (tensile strength of 1-2 MPa and Young's modulus of <10 MPa). Additionally, the effect of crosslinking on coating stability was investigated to assure the retention of proteins on scaffold for effective cell-matrix interactions.

  1. Probe Into the Influence of Crosslinking on CO2 Permeation of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinghui; Chen, Zhuo; Umar, Ahmad; Liu, Yang; Shang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Crosslinking is an effective way to fabricate high-selective CO2 separation membranes because of its unique crosslinking framework. Thus, it is essentially significant to study the influence of crosslinking degree on the permeation selectivities of CO2. Herein, we report a successful and facile synthesis of a series of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based diblock copolymers (BCP) incorporated with an unique UV-crosslinkable chalcone unit using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization (RAFT) process. The membranes of as-prepared BCPs show superior carbon dioxide (CO2) separation properties as compared to nitrogen (N2) after UV-crosslinking. Importantly, the influence of different proportions of crosslinked chalcone on CO2 selectivities was systematically investigated, which revealed that CO2 selectivities increased obviously with the enhancement of chalcone fractions within a certain limit. Further, the CO2 selectivities of block copolymer with the best block proportion was studied by varying the crosslinking time which confirmed that the high crosslinking degree exhibited a better CO2/N2 (αCO2/N2) selectivities. A possible mechanism model revealing that the crosslinking degree played a key role in the gas separation process was also proposed. PMID:28051190

  2. Probe Into the Influence of Crosslinking on CO2 Permeation of Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinghui; Chen, Zhuo; Umar, Ahmad; Liu, Yang; Shang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Crosslinking is an effective way to fabricate high-selective CO2 separation membranes because of its unique crosslinking framework. Thus, it is essentially significant to study the influence of crosslinking degree on the permeation selectivities of CO2. Herein, we report a successful and facile synthesis of a series of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based diblock copolymers (BCP) incorporated with an unique UV-crosslinkable chalcone unit using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization (RAFT) process. The membranes of as-prepared BCPs show superior carbon dioxide (CO2) separation properties as compared to nitrogen (N2) after UV-crosslinking. Importantly, the influence of different proportions of crosslinked chalcone on CO2 selectivities was systematically investigated, which revealed that CO2 selectivities increased obviously with the enhancement of chalcone fractions within a certain limit. Further, the CO2 selectivities of block copolymer with the best block proportion was studied by varying the crosslinking time which confirmed that the high crosslinking degree exhibited a better CO2/N2 (αCO2/N2) selectivities. A possible mechanism model revealing that the crosslinking degree played a key role in the gas separation process was also proposed.

  3. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Falamarzpour, Pouria; Behzad, Tayebeh; Zamani, Akram

    2017-01-01

    Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80–100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min) were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured), chemically cross-linked (cured), and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid) films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials. PMID:28208822

  4. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid.

    PubMed

    Falamarzpour, Pouria; Behzad, Tayebeh; Zamani, Akram

    2017-02-13

    Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80-100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min) were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured), chemically cross-linked (cured), and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid) films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  5. Radiation cross-linking in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Ebru; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2007-12-01

    The motivation for radiation cross-linking of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is to increase its wear resistance to be used as bearing surfaces for total joint arthroplasty. However, radiation also leaves behind long-lived residual free radicals in this polymer, the reactions of which can detrimentally affect mechanical properties. In this review, we focus on the radiation cross-linking and oxidative stability of first and second generation highly cross-linked UHMWPEs developed in our laboratory.

  6. Mechanism and Regulation of DNA-Protein Crosslink Repair by the DNA-Dependent Metalloprotease SPRTN

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stingele, Julian; Bellelli, Roberto; Alte, Ferdinand

    Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are toxic DNA lesions that interfere with essential chromatin transactions, such as replication and transcription. Little was known about DPC-specific repair mechanisms until the recent identification of a DPC-processing protease in yeast. The existence of a DPC protease in higher eukaryotes is inferred from data in Xenopus laevis egg extracts, but its identity remains elusive. Here we identify the metalloprotease SPRTN as the DPC protease acting in metazoans. Loss of SPRTN results in failure to repair DPCs and hypersensitivity to DPC-inducing agents. SPRTN accomplishes DPC processing through a unique DNA-induced protease activity, which is controlled bymore » several sophisticated regulatory mechanisms. Cellular, biochemical, and structural studies define a DNA switch triggering its protease activity, a ubiquitin switch controlling SPRTN chromatin accessibility, and regulatory autocatalytic cleavage. Our data also provide a molecular explanation on how SPRTN deficiency causes the premature aging and cancer predisposition disorder Ruijs-Aalfs syndrome.« less

  7. Mechanism and Regulation of DNA-Protein Crosslink Repair by the DNA-Dependent Metalloprotease SPRTN

    DOE PAGES

    Stingele, Julian; Bellelli, Roberto; Alte, Ferdinand; ...

    2016-10-27

    Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are toxic DNA lesions that interfere with essential chromatin transactions, such as replication and transcription. Little was known about DPC-specific repair mechanisms until the recent identification of a DPC-processing protease in yeast. The existence of a DPC protease in higher eukaryotes is inferred from data in Xenopus laevis egg extracts, but its identity remains elusive. Here we identify the metalloprotease SPRTN as the DPC protease acting in metazoans. Loss of SPRTN results in failure to repair DPCs and hypersensitivity to DPC-inducing agents. SPRTN accomplishes DPC processing through a unique DNA-induced protease activity, which is controlled bymore » several sophisticated regulatory mechanisms. Cellular, biochemical, and structural studies define a DNA switch triggering its protease activity, a ubiquitin switch controlling SPRTN chromatin accessibility, and regulatory autocatalytic cleavage. Our data also provide a molecular explanation on how SPRTN deficiency causes the premature aging and cancer predisposition disorder Ruijs-Aalfs syndrome.« less

  8. The effect of ionotropic gelation residence time on alginate cross-linking and properties.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mitulkumar A; AbouGhaly, Mohamed H H; Schryer-Praga, Jacqueline V; Chadwick, Keith

    2017-01-02

    The ability to engineer biocompatible polymers with controllable properties is highly desirable. One such approach is to cross-link carbohydrate polymers using ionotropic gelation (IG). Previous studies have investigated the effect of curing time on alginate cross-linking. Herein, we discuss a novel study detailing the effect of IG residence time (IGRT) on the cross-linking of alginate with calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) along with water migration (syneresis) and their subsequent impact on the pharmaceutical properties of alginate particles. IGRT was shown to have a significant effect on particle size, porosity, density, mechanical strength and swelling of calcium alginate particles as well as drug release mechanism. Furthermore, we describe a novel application of electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), in conjunction with Fourier Transform- infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, to analyze and monitor the changes in Ca 2+ concentration during cross-linking. A simple procedure to determine the concentration and distribution of the surface and internal Ca 2+ involved in alginate cross-linking was successfully developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ROMP-based thermosetting polymers from modified castor oil with various cross-linking agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Rui

    Polymers derived from bio-renewable resources are finding an increase in global demand. In addition, polymers with distinctive functionalities are required in certain advanced fields, such as aerospace and civil engineering. In an attempt to meet both these needs, the goal of this work aims to develop a range of bio-based thermosetting matrix polymers for potential applications in multifunctional composites. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), which recently has been explored as a powerful method in polymer chemistry, was employed as a unique pathway to polymerize agricultural oil-based reactants. Specifically, a novel norbornyl-functionalized castor oil alcohol (NCA) was investigated to polymerize different cross-linking agents using ROMP. The effects of incorporating dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and a norbornene-based crosslinker (CL) were systematically evaluated with respect to curing behavior and thermal mechanical properties of the polymers. Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the conversion during cure. Dynamic DSC scans at multiple heating rates revealed conversion-dependent activation energy by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall analysis. The glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and loss modulus for NCA/DCPD and NCA/CL copolymers with different cross-linking agent loading were compared using dynamic mechanical analysis. Cross-link density was examined to explain the very different dynamic mechanical behavior. Mechanical stress-strain curves were developed through tensile test, and thermal stability of the cross-linked polymers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis to further investigate the structure-property relationships in these systems.

  10. The Preparation and Properties of Thermo-reversibly Cross-linked Rubber Via Diels-Alder Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Polgar, Lorenzo Massimo; van Duin, Martin; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-08-25

    A method for using Diels Alder thermo-reversible chemistry as cross-linking tool for rubber products is demonstrated. In this work, a commercial ethylene-propylene rubber, grafted with maleic anhydride, is thermo-reversibly cross-linked in two steps. The pending anhydride moieties are first modified with furfurylamine to graft furan groups to the rubber backbone. These pendant furan groups are then cross-linked with a bis-maleimide via a Diels-Alder coupling reaction. Both reactions can be performed under a broad range of experimental conditions and can easily be applied on a large scale. The material properties of the resulting Diels-Alder cross-linked rubbers are similar to a peroxide-cured ethylene/propylene/diene rubber (EPDM) reference. The cross-links break at elevated temperatures (> 150 °C) via the retro-Diels-Alder reaction and can be reformed by thermal annealing at lower temperatures (50-70 °C). Reversibility of the system was proven with infrared spectroscopy, solubility tests and mechanical properties. Recyclability of the material was also shown in a practical way, i.e., by cutting a cross-linked sample into small parts and compression molding them into new samples displaying comparable mechanical properties, which is not possible for conventionally cross-linked rubbers.

  11. Toward an understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying dual-task performance: Contribution of comparative approaches using animal models.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2018-01-01

    The study of dual-task performance in human subjects has received considerable interest in cognitive neuroscience because it can provide detailed insights into the neural mechanisms underlying higher-order cognitive control. Despite many decades of research, our understanding of the neurobiological basis of dual-task performance is still limited, and some critical questions are still under debate. Recently, behavioral and neurophysiological studies of dual-task performance in animals have begun to provide intriguing evidence regarding how dual-task information is processed in the brain. In this review, we first summarize key evidence in neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies in humans and discuss possible reasons for discrepancies across studies. We then provide a comprehensive review of the literature on dual-task studies in animals and provide a novel working hypothesis that may reconcile the divergent results in human studies toward a unified view of the mechanisms underlying dual-task processing. Finally, we propose possible directions for future dual-task experiments in the framework of comparative cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The counterbend phenomenon in flagellar axonemes and cross-linked filament bundles

    PubMed Central

    Gadêlha, Hermes; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Goriely, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of flagellar counterbend in sea urchin sperm show that the mechanical induction of curvature in one part of a passive flagellum induces a compensatory countercurvature elsewhere. This apparent paradoxical effect cannot be explained using the standard elastic rod theory of Euler and Bernoulli, or even the more general Cosserat theory of rods. Here, we develop a geometrically exact mechanical model to describe the statics of microtubule bundles that is capable of predicting the curvature reversal events observed in eukaryotic flagella. This is achieved by allowing the interaction of deformations in different material directions, by accounting not only for structural bending, but also for the elastic forces originating from the internal cross-linking mechanics. Large-amplitude static configurations can be described analytically, and an excellent match between the model and the observed counterbend deformation was found. This allowed a simultaneous estimation of multiple sperm flagellum material parameters, namely the cross-linking sliding resistance, the bending stiffness, and the sperm head junction compliance ratio. We further show that small variations on the empirical conditions may induce discrepancies for the evaluation of the flagellar material quantities, so that caution is required when interpreting experiments. Finally, our analysis demonstrates that the counterbend emerges as a fundamental property of sliding resistance in cross-linked filamentous polymer bundles, which also suggests that cross-linking proteins may contribute to the regulation of the flagellar waveform in swimming sperm via counterbend mechanics. PMID:23824293

  13. Thermo- and electro-dual responsive poly(ionic liquid) electrolyte based smart windows.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Yongyuan; Guo, Jiangna; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-31

    Thermo- and electro-dual responsive poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) based electrolytes were synthesized by co-polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with (or without) 3-butyl-1-vinyl-imidazolium bromide ([BVIm][Br]) using diallyl-viologen (DAV) as both the cross-linking agent and electrochromic material.

  14. Properties of crosslinked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G

    2001-02-01

    Substantially reducing the rate of generation of wear particles at the surfaces of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) orthopedic implant bearing components, in vivo, is widely regarded as one of the most formidable challenges in modern arthroplasty. In the light of this, much research attention has been paid to the myriad of endogenous and exogenous factors that have been postulated to affect this wear rate, one such factor being the polymer itself. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in crosslinking the polymer as a way of improving its properties that are considered relevant to its use for fabricating bearing components. Such properties include wear resistance, fatigue life, and fatigue crack propagation rate. Although a large volume of literature exists on the topic on the impact of crosslinking on the properties of UHMWPE, no critical appraisal of this literature has been published. This is one of the goals of the present article, which emphasizes three aspects. The first is the trade-off between improvement in wear resistance and depreciation in other mechanical and physical properties. The second aspect is the presentation of a method of estimating the optimal value of a crosslinking process variable (such as dose in radiation-induced crosslinking) that takes into account this trade-off. The third aspect is the description of a collection of under- and unexplored research areas in the field of crosslinked UHMWPE, such as the role of starting resin on the properties of the crosslinked polymer, and the in vitro evaluation of the wear rate of crosslinked tibial inserts and other bearing components that, in vivo, are subjected to nearly unidirectional motion.

  15. Recyclable Cu(II)-Coordination Crosslinked Poly(benzimidazolyl pyridine)s as High-Performance Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Li; Chang, Guanjun

    2018-03-01

    Crosslinked high-performance polymers have many industrial applications, but are difficult to recycle or rework. A novel class of recyclable crosslinking Cu(II)-metallo-supramolecular coordination polymers are successfully prepared, which possess outstanding thermal stability and mechanical property. More importantly, the Cu 2+ coordination interactions can be further removed via external pyrophosphate to recover the linear polymers, which endow the crosslinking polymers with recyclability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Yield and Failure Behavior Investigated for Cross-Linked Phenolic Resins Using Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Joshua D.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to fundamentally evaluate the yield and failure behavior of cross-linked phenolic resins at temperatures below the glass transition. Yield stress was investigated at various temperatures, strain rates, and degrees of cross-linking. The onset of non-linear behavior in the cross-linked phenolic structures was caused by localized irreversible molecular rearrangements through the rotation of methylene linkers followed by the formation or annihilation of neighboring hydrogen bonds. The yield stress results, with respect to temperature and strain rate, could be fit by existing models used to describe yield behavior of amorphous glasses. The degree of cross-linking only indirectly influences the maximum yield stress through its influence on glass transition temperature (Tg), however there is a strong relationship between the degree of cross-linking and the failure mechanism. Low cross-linked samples were able to separate through void formation, whereas the highly cross-linked structures exhibited bond scission.

  17. Visualizing the chain-flipping mechanism in fatty-acid biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Cang, Hu; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-29

    The acyl carrier protein (ACP) from fatty acid synthases sequesters elongating products within its hydrophobic core, but this dynamic mechanism remains poorly understood. In this paper, we exploited solvatochromic pantetheine probes attached to ACP that fluoresce when sequestered. The addition of a catalytic partner lures the cargo out of the ACP and into the active site of the enzyme, thus enhancing fluorescence to reveal the elusive chain-flipping mechanism. This activity was confirmed by the use of a dual solvatochromic cross-linking probe and solution-phase NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the chain-flipping mechanism was visualized by single-molecule fluorescence techniques, thus demonstrating specificity between themore » Escherichia coli ACP and its ketoacyl synthase catalytic partner KASII.« less

  18. Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.

    1988-01-01

    PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

  19. Preparation of Thermo-Responsive and Cross-Linked Fluorinated Nanoparticles via RAFT-Mediated Aqueous Polymerization in Nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiachen; Zhang, Luqing; Geng, Bing; Azhar, Umair; Xu, Anhou; Zhang, Shuxiang

    2017-01-25

    In this work, a thermo-responsive and cross-linked fluoropolymer poly(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl) methacrylate (PTFEMA) was successfully prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated aqueous polymerization with a thermo-responsive diblock poly(dimethylacrylamide- b - N -isopropylacrylamide) (PDMA- b -PNIPAM) that performed a dual function as both a nanoreactor and macro-RAFT agent. The cross-linked polymer particles proved to be in a spherical-like structure of about 50 nm in diameter and with a relatively narrow particle size distribution. ¹H-NMR and 19 F-NMR spectra showed that thermo-responsive diblock P(DMA- b -NIPAM) and cross-linked PTFEMA particles were successfully synthesized. Influence of the amount of ammonium persulfate (APS), the molar ratio of monomers to RAFT agent, influence of the amount of cross-linker on aqueous polymerization and thermo-responsive characterization of the particles are investigated. Monomer conversion increased from 44% to 94% with increasing the molar ratio of APS and P(DMA- b -NIPAM) from 1:9 to1:3. As the reaction proceeded, the particle size increased from 29 to 49 nm due to the consumption of TFEMA monomer. The size of cross-linked nanoparticles sharply decreased from 50.3 to 40.5 nm over the temperature range 14-44 °C, suggesting good temperature sensitivity for these nanoparticles.

  20. Photouncaged Sequence-specific Interstrand DNA Cross-Linking with Photolabile 4-oxo-enal-modified Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingjing; Tang, Xinjing

    2015-01-01

    DNA cross-linking technology is an attractive tool for the detection, regulation, and manipulation of genes. In this study, a series of photolabile 4-oxo-enal-modified oligonucleotides functionalized with photosensitive ο-nitrobenzyl derivatives were rationally designed as a new kind of photocaged cross-linking agents. A comprehensive evaluation of cross-linking reactions for different nucleobases in complementary strands under different conditions suggested that the modified DNA oligonucleotides tended to form interstrand cross-linking to nucleobases with the potential of thymidine > guanosine » cytidine ~ adenosine. Different from previous literature reports that cytidine and adenosine were preferential cross-linked nucleobases with 4-oxo-enal moieties, our study represents the first example of DNA cross-linking for T and G selectivity using 4-oxo-enal moiety. The cross-linked adducts were identified and their cross-linking mechanism was also illustrated. This greatly expands the applications of 4-oxo-enal derivatives in the studies of DNA damage and RNA structure PMID:26020694

  1. Photouncaged Sequence-specific Interstrand DNA Cross-Linking with Photolabile 4-oxo-enal-modified Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingjing; Tang, Xinjing

    2015-05-28

    DNA cross-linking technology is an attractive tool for the detection, regulation, and manipulation of genes. In this study, a series of photolabile 4-oxo-enal-modified oligonucleotides functionalized with photosensitive ο-nitrobenzyl derivatives were rationally designed as a new kind of photocaged cross-linking agents. A comprehensive evaluation of cross-linking reactions for different nucleobases in complementary strands under different conditions suggested that the modified DNA oligonucleotides tended to form interstrand cross-linking to nucleobases with the potential of thymidine > guanosine » cytidine ~ adenosine. Different from previous literature reports that cytidine and adenosine were preferential cross-linked nucleobases with 4-oxo-enal moieties, our study represents the first example of DNA cross-linking for T and G selectivity using 4-oxo-enal moiety. The cross-linked adducts were identified and their cross-linking mechanism was also illustrated. This greatly expands the applications of 4-oxo-enal derivatives in the studies of DNA damage and RNA structure.

  2. Do dual-thread orthodontic mini-implants improve bone/tissue mechanical retention?

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang-Sung; Chang, Yau-Zen; Yu, Jian-Hong; Lin, Chun-Li

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand whether the pitch relationship between micro and macro thread designs with a parametrical relationship in a dual-thread mini-implant can improve primary stability. Three types of mini-implants consisting of single-thread (ST) (0.75 mm pitch in whole length), dual-thread A (DTA) with double-start 0.375 mm pitch, and dual-thread B (DTB) with single-start 0.2 mm pitch in upper 2-mm micro thread region for performing insertion and pull-out testing. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in these specimens in evaluating peri-implant bone defects using a non-contact vision measuring system. The maximum inserted torque (Tmax) in type DTA was found to be the smallest significantly, but corresponding values found no significant difference between ST and DTB. The largest pull-out strength (Fmax) in the DTA mini-implant was found significantly greater than that for the ST mini-implant regardless of implant insertion orientation. Mini-implant engaged the cortical bone well as observed in ST and DTA types. Dual-thread mini-implant with correct micro thread pitch (parametrical relationship with macro thread pitch) in the cortical bone region can improve primary stability and enhanced mechanical retention.

  3. Levels of mature cross-links and advanced glycation end product cross-links in human vitreous.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Masaaki; Chikuda, Makoto; Arai, Kiyomi

    2002-01-01

    To determine the levels of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline, two mature enzymatic cross-links, and pentosidine, an advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-link, in the human vitreous, and to investigate the correlations among the cross-links and the effects of aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) on the levels of cross-links. Forty-five vitreous samples were collected from 32 patients (32 eyes) undergoing vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy (DM group) and from 13 patients (13 eyes) (control group) who were age- and sex-matched patients with idiopathic macular hole or epiretinal membrane with no systemic conditions. The levels of the cross-links were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis and pretreatment with SP-Sephadex. The levels of pentosidine, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were 27.3 +/- 23.1 (mean +/- SD) pmol/mL (detectable in 45 of 45 specimens), 79.0 +/- 40.2 ng/mL (43 of 45 specimens), and 54.0 +/- 9.5 (32 of 45 specimens) ng/mL, respectively. When the vitreous samples from the DM and the control groups were compared, a significant difference (P <.05) was found in the pentosidine level but not in the levels of pyridinoline or deoxypyridinoline. No significant correlations were found between age and the cross-links. Significant correlations (P <.01) were found among the cross-links. The results indicate that mature cross-link substances exist in the human vitreous. The results also suggest that glycation may occur in the vitreous after mature cross-links form and result in the formation of AGE cross-links. In human vitreous from patients with DM, increased levels of AGE cross-links may stabilize the formation of mature cross-links, but they did not increase the mature cross-links.

  4. The dual boundary element formulation for elastoplastic fracture mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, V.; Aliabadi, M. H.; Rooke, D. P.

    1993-08-01

    The extension of the dual boundary element method (DBEM) to the analysis of elastoplastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) problems is presented. The dual equations of the method are the displacement and the traction boundary integral equations. When the displacement equation is applied to one of the crack surfaces and the traction equation on the other, general mixed-mode crack problems can be solved with a single-region formulation. In order to avoid collocation at crack tips, crack kinks, and crack-edge corners, both crack surfaces are discretized with discontinuous quadratic boundary elements. The elastoplastic behavior is modeled through the use of an approximation for the plastic component of the strain tensor on the region expected to yield. This region is discretized with internal quadratic, quadrilateral, and/or triangular cells. A center-cracked plate and a slant edge-cracked plate subjected to tensile load are analyzed and the results are compared with others available in the literature. J-type integrals are calculated.

  5. Assembly of bipolar microtubule structures by passive cross-linkers and molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johann, D.; Goswami, D.; Kruse, K.

    2016-06-01

    During cell division, sister chromatids are segregated by the mitotic spindle, a bipolar assembly of interdigitating antiparallel polar filaments called microtubules. The spindle contains the midzone, a stable region of overlapping antiparallel microtubules, that is essential for maintaining bipolarity. Although a lot is known about the molecular players involved, the mechanism underlying midzone formation and maintenance is still poorly understood. We study the interaction of polar filaments that are cross-linked by molecular motors moving directionally and by passive cross-linkers diffusing along microtubules. Using a particle-based stochastic model, we find that the interplay of motors and passive cross-linkers can generate a stable finite overlap between a pair of antiparallel polar filaments. We develop a mean-field theory to study this mechanism in detail and investigate the influence of steric interactions between motors and passive cross-linkers on the overlap dynamics. In the presence of interspecies steric interactions, passive cross-linkers mimic the behavior of molecular motors and stable finite overlaps are generated even for non-cross-linking motors. Finally, we develop a mean-field theory for a bundle of aligned polar filaments and show that they can self-organize into a spindlelike pattern. Our work suggests possible ways as to how cells can generate spindle midzones and control their extensions.

  6. Preparation and characterization of electrospun in-situ cross-linked gelatin-graphite oxide nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jianchao; Morsi, Yosry; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun gelatin(Gel) nanofibers scaffold has such defects as poor mechanical property and quick degradation due to high solubility. In this study, the in situ cross-linked electrospinning technique was used for the production of gelatin nanofibers. Deionized water was chosen as the spinning solvent and graphite oxide (GO) was chosen as the enhancer. The morphological structure, porosity, thermal property, moisture absorption, and moisture retention performance, hydrolysis resistance, mechanical property, and biocompatibility of the produced nanofibers were investigated. Compared with in situ cross-linked gelatin nanofibers scaffold, in situ cross-linked Gel-GO nanofibers scaffold has the following features: (1) the hydrophilicity, moisture absorption, and moisture retention performance slightly reduce, while the hydrolysis resistance is improved; (2) the breaking strength, breaking elongation, and Young's modulus are significantly improved; (3) the porosity slightly reduces while the biocompatibility considerably increases. The in situ cross-linked Gel-GO nanofibers scaffold is likely to be applied in such fields as drug delivery and scaffold for skin tissue engineering.

  7. Riboflavin-induced photo-crosslinking of collagen hydrogel and its application in meniscus tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jiseung; Koh, Rachel H; Shim, Whuisu; Kim, Hwan D; Yim, Hyun-Gu; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2016-04-01

    A meniscus tear is a common knee injury, but its regeneration remains a clinical challenge. Recently, collagen-based scaffolds have been applied in meniscus tissue engineering. Despite its prevalence, application of natural collagen scaffold in clinical setting is limited due to its extremely low stiffness and rapid degradation. The purpose of the present study was to increase the mechanical properties and delay degradation rate of a collagen-based scaffold by photo-crosslinking using riboflavin (RF) and UV exposure. RF is a biocompatible vitamin B2 that showed minimal cytotoxicity compared to conventionally utilized photo-initiator. Furthermore, collagen photo-crosslinking with RF improved mechanical properties and delayed enzyme-triggered degradation of collagen scaffolds. RF-induced photo-crosslinked collagen scaffolds encapsulated with fibrochondrocytes resulted in reduced scaffold contraction and enhanced gene expression levels for the collagen II and aggrecan. Additionally, hyaluronic acid (HA) incorporation into photo-crosslinked collagen scaffold showed an increase in its retention. Based on these results, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinked collagen-HA hydrogels can be potentially applied in the scaffold-based meniscus tissue engineering.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a new photo-crosslinkable glycol chitosan thermogel for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ik Sung; Cho, Myeong Ok; Li, Zhengzheng; Nurunnabi, Md; Park, Sung Young; Kang, Sun-Woong; Huh, Kang Moo

    2016-06-25

    The major limitations of typical thermogelling polymers for practical applications are low gel stability and weak mechanical properties under physiological conditions. In this study, we have synthesized a new polysaccharide-based thermogelling polymer that can be photo-crosslinked by UV irradiation to form a mechanically resilient and elastic hydrogel. Methacrylated hexanoyl glycol chitosan (M-HGC), was synthesized by a series of chemical modifications, N-hexanoylation and N-methacrylation, of glycol chitosan (GC). Various M-HGC polymers with different methacryl group contents were synthesized and their thermogelling and photo-crosslinkable properties were evaluated. The M-HGCs demonstrated a thermo-reversible sol-gel transition behavior in aqueous solutions. The thermally-induced hydrogels could be chemically crosslinked by UV-triggered photo-crosslinking. From the cytotoxicity studies using MTT and the live/dead assay, the M-HGC hydrogels showed non-cytotoxicity. These photo-crosslinkable thermogelling M-HGC polymers may hold great promises for various biomedical applications, such as an injectable delivery system and 3D cell culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly crosslinked polyethylene: a safe alternative to conventional polyethylene for dual mobility cup mobile component. A biomechanical validation.

    PubMed

    Malatray, Matthieu; Roux, Jean-Paul; Gunst, Stanislas; Pibarot, Vincent; Wegrzyn, Julien

    2017-03-01

    Dual mobility cup (DMC) consists of a cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy cup articulated with a polyethylene (PE) mobile component capturing the femoral head in force using a snap-fit technique. This biomechanical study was the first to evaluate and compare the generation of cracks in the retentive area of DMC mobile components made of highly crosslinked PE (XLPE) or conventional ultra-high molecular weight PE (UHMWPE). Eighty mobile components designed for a 52-mm diameter Symbol® DMC (Dedienne Santé, Mauguio, France) and a 28-mm diameter femoral head were analyzed. Four groups of 20 mobile components were constituted according to the PE material: raw UHMWPE, sterilized UHMWPE, annealed XLPE and remelted XLPE. Ten mobile components in each group were impacted with a 28-mm diameter CoCr femoral head using a snap-fit technique. The occurrence, location and area of the cracks in the retentive area were investigated using micro-CT (Skyscan 1176®, Bruker, Aarsellar, Belgium) with a 35 μm nominal isotropic voxel size by two observers blinded to the PE material and impaction or not of the mobile components. Compared to conventional UHMWPE, the femoral head snap-fit did not generate more or wider cracks in the retentive area of annealed or remelted XLPE mobile components. This biomechanical study suggests that XLPE in DMC could be a safe alternative to conventional UHMWPE regarding the generation of cracks in the retentive area related to the femoral head snap-fit.

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of collagen cross-links in bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschalis, E. P.; Verdelis, K.; Doty, S. B.; Boskey, A. L.; Mendelsohn, R.; Yamauchi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein of the organic matrix in mineralizing tissues. One of its most critical properties is its cross-linking pattern. The intermolecular cross-linking provides the fibrillar matrices with mechanical properties such as tensile strength and viscoelasticity. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and FTIR imaging (FTIRI) analyses were performed in a series of biochemically characterized samples including purified collagen cross-linked peptides, demineralized bovine bone collagen from animals of different ages, collagen from vitamin B6-deficient chick homogenized bone and their age- and sex-matched controls, and histologically stained thin sections from normal human iliac crest biopsy specimens. One region of the FTIR spectrum of particular interest (the amide I spectral region) was resolved into its underlying components. Of these components, the relative percent area ratio of two subbands at approximately 1660 cm(-1) and approximately 1690 cm(-1) was related to collagen cross-links that are abundant in mineralized tissues (i.e., pyridinoline [Pyr] and dehydrodihydroxylysinonorleucine [deH-DHLNL]). This study shows that it is feasible to monitor Pyr and DHLNL collagen cross-links spatial distribution in mineralized tissues. The spectroscopic parameter established in this study may be used in FTIRI analyses, thus enabling the calculation of relative Pyr/DHLNL amounts in thin (approximately 5 microm) calcified tissue sections with a spatial resolution of approximately 7 microm.

  11. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb generation from a completely common-path, unidirectional lasing cavity would be an interesting territory to explore. In this paper, we demonstrate such a dual-comb lasing scheme based on a nanomaterial saturable absorber with additional pulse narrowing and broadening mechanisms concurrently introduced into a mode-locked fiber laser. The interactions between multiple soliton formation mechanisms result in unusual bifurcation into two-pulse states with quite different characteristics. Simultaneous oscillation of pulses with four-fold difference in pulsewidths and tens of Hz repetition rate difference is observed. The coherence between these spectral-overlapped, picosecond and femtosecond pulses is further verified by the corresponding asynchronous cross-sampling and dual-comb spectroscopy measurements.

  12. Dual boundary element formulation for elastoplastic fracture mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, V.; Aliabadi, M. H.; Rooke, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the extension of the dual boundary element method (DBEM) to the analysis of elastoplastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) problems is presented. The dual equations of the method are the displacement and the traction boundary integral equations. When the displacement equation is applied on one of the crack surfaces and the traction equation on the other, general mixed-mode crack problems can be solved with a single-region formulation. In order to avoid collocation at crack tips, crack kinks and crack-edge corners, both crack surfaces are discretized with discontinuous quadratic boundary elements. The elasto-plastic behavior is modelled through the use of an approximation for the plastic component of the strain tensor on the region expected to yield. This region is discretized with internal quadratic, quadrilateral and/or triangular cells. This formulation was implemented for two-dimensional domains only, although there is no theoretical or numerical limitation to its application to three-dimensional ones. A center-cracked plate and a slant edge-cracked plate subjected to tensile load are analysed and the results are compared with others available in the literature. J-type integrals are calculated.

  13. Microrheology of highly crosslinked microtubule networks is dominated by force-induced crosslinker unbinding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yali; Bai, Mo; Klug, William S.; Levine, Alex J.

    2012-01-01

    We determine the time- and force-dependent viscoelastic responses of reconstituted networks of microtubules that have been strongly crosslinked by biotin-streptavidin bonds. To measure the microscale viscoelasticity of such networks, we use a magnetic tweezers device to apply localized forces. At short time scales, the networks respond nonlinearly to applied force, with stiffening at small forces, followed by a reduction in the stiffening response at high forces, which we attribute to the force-induced unbinding of crosslinks. At long time scales, force-induced bond unbinding leads to local network rearrangement and significant bead creep. Interestingly, the network retains its elastic modulus even under conditions of significant plastic flow, suggesting that crosslinker breakage is balanced by the formation of new bonds. To better understand this effect, we developed a finite element model of such a stiff filament network with labile crosslinkers obeying force-dependent Bell model unbinding dynamics. The coexistence of dissipation, due to bond breakage, and the elastic recovery of the network is possible because each filament has many crosslinkers. Recovery can occur as long as a sufficient number of the original crosslinkers are preserved under the loading period. When these remaining original crosslinkers are broken, plastic flow results. PMID:23577042

  14. Photoinduced DNA Interstrand Cross-Link Formation by Naphthalene Boronates via a Carbocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibin; Lin, Zechao; Fan, Heli; Peng, Xiaohua

    2016-07-18

    Most photoinduced DNA cross-link formation by a bifunctional aryl derivative is through a bisquinone methide. DNA cross-linking via a bisarylcarbocation remains a less explored area. We designed and synthesized a series of naphthalene boronates that produce DNA interstrand cross-links via a carbocation upon UV irradiation. A free radical was generated from the naphthalene boronates with 350 nm irradiation and further converted to a carbocation by electron transfer. The activation mechanism was determined using the orthogonal traps, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and methoxyamine that react with either the free radical or the carbocation but not both. This represents a novel example of photoinduced DNA cross-link formation via carbocations generated from a bisaryl derivative. This work provides information useful for the design of novel photoactivated DNA cross-linking agents. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Guo, Haiquan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide networks are provided. The networks comprise an anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomer. The oligomer (i) comprises a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and terminal anhydride groups, (ii) has an average degree of polymerization of 10 to 50, (iii) has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups, and (iv) has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide network. Also provided are porous cross-linked polyimide aerogels comprising a cross-linked and imidized anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomer, wherein the oligomer comprises a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine, and the aerogel has a density of 0.10 to 0.333 g/cm.sup.3 and a Young's modulus of 1.7 to 102 MPa. Also provided are thin films comprising aerogels, and methods of making porous cross-linked polyimide networks.

  16. Application of molecular simulation to investigate chrome(III)-crosslinked collagen problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yun-Qiao; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Gu, Qi-Rui; Liao, Jun-Min; Chuang, Po-Hsiang

    2014-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation with a modified CHARMM (Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics) force field was carried out to investigate the properties of chrome-tanned collagen in comparison with chrome-free collagen under hydrated and dehydrated conditions. An attempt has been made to explain the microcosmic origins of the various properties of the chromium(III)-crosslinked collagen. The present simulation describes the clear crosslinking topology of polychromiums to peptide chains, identifies the linking site and the capacity of the linkage, explains why the efficiency is not 100% in a practical tanning process and provides a new viewpoint on the crosslinking of the polychromium with the side chains of the collagen.

  17. Evaluation of different crosslinking agents on hybrid biomimetic collagen-hydroxyapatite composites for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Gopal Shankar; Gostynska, Natalia; Dapporto, Massimiliano; Campodoni, Elisabetta; Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Tampieri, Anna; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Sprio, Simone; Sandri, Monica

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of novel bone-like scaffolds by bio-inspired, pH-driven, mineralization of type I collagen matrix with magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite nanophase (MgHA/Coll). To this aim, this study evaluates the altered modifications in the obtained composite due to different crosslinkers such as dehydrothermal treatment (DHT), 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) and ribose in terms of morphological, physical-chemical and biological properties. The physical-chemical properties of the composites evaluated by XRD, FTIR, ICP and TGA demonstrated that the chemical mimesis of bone was effectively achieved using the in-lab biomineralization process. Furthermore, the presence of various crosslinkers greatly promoted beneficial enzymatic resistivity and swelling ability. The morphological results revealed highly porous and fibrous micro-architecture with total porosity above 85% with anisotropic pore size within the range of 50-200μm in all the analysed composites. The mechanical behaviour in response to compressive forces demonstrated enhanced compressive modulus in all crosslinked composites, suggesting that mechanical behaviour is largely dependent on the type of crosslinker used. The biomimetic compositional and morphological features of the composites elicited strong cell-material interaction. Therefore, the results showed that by activating specific crosslinking mechanisms, hybrid composites can be designed and tailored to develop tissue-specific biomimetic biomaterials for hard tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermoresponsive, in situ crosslinkable hydrogels based on N-isopropylacrylamide: Fabrication, characterization and mesenchymal stem cell encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Klouda, Leda; Perkins, Kevin R.; Watson, Brendan M.; Hacker, Michael C.; Bryant, Stephanie J.; Raphael, Robert M.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels that solidify in response to a dual, physical and chemical, mechanism upon temperature increase were fabricated and characterized. The hydrogels were based on N-isopropylacrylamide, which renders them thermoresponsive, and contained covalently crosslinkable moieties in the macromers. The effects of the macromer end group, namely acrylate or methacrylate, and the fabrication conditions were investigated on the degradative and swelling properties of the hydrogels. The hydrogels exhibited higher swelling below their lower critical solution temperature (LCST). When immersed in cell culture media at physiological temperature, which was above their LCST, hydrogels showed constant swelling and no degradation over eight weeks, with methacrylated hydrogels having higher swelling than their acrylated analogs. In addition, hydrogels immersed in cell culture media under the same conditions showed lower swelling as compared to phosphate buffered saline. The interplay between chemical crosslinking and thermally induced phase separation affected the swelling characteristics of hydrogels in different media. Mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in the hydrogels in vitro were viable over three weeks and markers of osteogenic differentiation were detected when the cells were cultured with osteogenic supplements. Hydrogel mineralization in the absence of cells was observed in cell culture medium with the addition of fetal bovine serum and β-glycerol phosphate. The results suggest that these hydrogels may be suitable as carriers for cell delivery in tissue engineering. PMID:21187170

  19. Crosslinked polybenzimidazoles containing branching structure as membrane materials with excellent cell performance and durability for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Meishao; Ni, Jiangpeng; Zhang, Boping; Neelakandan, Sivasubramaniyan; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Crosslinking is an effective method to improve the properties of high temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazole. However, the compact structure of crosslinked polybenzimidazole hinders the phosphoric acid absorption of the membranes, resulting in a relatively poor fuel cell performance. Recently, we find that branched polymers can absorb more phosphoric acid with a larger free volume, but suffer from deteriorated mechanical strength. In this work, a new method is proposed to obtain excellent over-all properties of high temperature proton exchange membranes. A series of crosslinked polybenzimidazoles containing branching structure as membrane materials are successfully prepared for the first time. Compared with conventional crosslinked membranes, these crosslinked polybenzimidazole membranes containing branching structure exhibit a higher phosphoric acid doping level and proton conductivity, improved durability, lower swelling rate and comparable mechanical strength. In particular, the fuel cell base on the crosslinked and branched membrane with a 10% ratio of crosslinker in non-humidified hydrogen/air at 160 °C achieves a power density of 404 mW cm-2. The results indicate that the combination of crosslinking and branching is an effective approach to improve the properties of polybenzimidazole membrane materials.

  20. The effect of collagen crosslinking on the biphasic poroviscoelastic cartilage properties determined from a semi-automated microindentation protocol for stress relaxation.

    PubMed

    McGann, Megan E; Bonitsky, Craig M; Ovaert, Timothy C; Wagner, Diane R

    2014-06-01

    Given the important role of the collagenous structure in cartilage mechanics, there is considerable interest in the relationship between collagen crosslinking and the mechanical behavior of the cartilage matrix. While crosslink-induced alterations to the elastic modulus of cartilage have been described, changes to time-dependent behavior have not yet been determined. The objective of the study was to quantify changes to cartilage material properties, including viscoelastic coefficients, with crosslinking via indentation. To accomplish this, a semi-autonomous microindentation stress relaxation protocol was first developed, validated and then applied to cartilage specimens before and after crosslinking. The change in mechanical properties with crosslinking was analyzed both in the unloading portions of the test via the Oliver-Pharr method and in the holding portion with an inverse iterative finite element model that represented cartilage as a biphasic poroviscoelastic material. Although both techniques suggested a similar increase in equilibrium modulus in the crosslinked specimens as compared to the controls, distinct differences in the control specimens were apparent, suggesting that the two different techniques may be capturing different aspects of the material behavior. No differences in time-dependent properties were observed between the crosslinked and the control specimens. These results give further insight into the effects of crosslinking in cartilage mechanical behavior. Additionally, the microindentation stress relaxation protocol may enable increased automation for high-throughput testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of different crosslinking treatments on the physical properties of collagen membranes.

    PubMed

    Charulatha, V; Rajaram, A

    2003-02-01

    The physical properties of collagen-based biomaterials are profoundly influenced by the method and extent of crosslinking. In this study, the influence of various crosslinking treatments on the physical properties of reconstituted collagen membranes was assessed. Five crosslinking agents viz., GTA, DMS, DTBP, a combination of DMS and GTA and acyl azide method were used to stabilize collagen matrices. Crosslinking density, swelling ratio, thermo-mechanical properties, stress-strain characteristics and resistance to collagenase digestion were determined to evaluate the physical properties of crosslinked matrices. GTA treatment induced the maximum number of crosslinks (13) while DMS treatment induced the minimum (7). Of the two diimidoesters (DMS and DTBP), DTBP was a more effective crosslinking agent due to the presence of disulphide bonds in the DTBP crosslinks. T(s) for DTBP and DMS crosslinked collagen were 80 degrees C and 70 degrees C, and their HIT values were 5.4 and 2.85MN/m(2), respectively. Low concentration of GTA (0.01%) increased the crosslinking density of an already crosslinked matrix (DMS treated matrix) from 7 to 12. Lowest fracture energy was observed for the acyl azide treated matrix (0.61MJ/m(3)) while the highest was observed for the GTA treated matrix (1.97MJ/m(3)). The tensile strength of GTA treated matrix was maximum (12.4MPa) and that of acyl azide treated matrix was minimum (7.2MPa). GTA, DTBP and acyl azide treated matrices were equally resistant to collagenase degradation with approximately 6% solubilization after 5h while the DMS treated was least stable with 52.4% solubilization after the same time period. The spatial orientation of amino acid side chain residues on collagen plays an important role in determining the crosslinking density and consequent physical properties of the collagen matrix.

  2. Cross-linking of type I collagen with microbial transglutaminase: identification of cross-linking sites.

    PubMed

    Stachel, Ines; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Henle, Thomas; Meyer, Michael

    2010-03-08

    Collagen is a popular biomaterial. To deal with its lack of thermal stability and its weak resistance to proteolytic degradation, collagen-based materials are stabilized via different cross-linking procedures. Regarding the potential toxicity of residual cross-linking agents, enzyme-mediated cross-linking would provide an alternative and nontoxic method for collagen stabilization. The results of this study show that type I collagen is a substrate for mTG. However, epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine cross-links are only incorporated at elevated temperatures when the protein is partially or completely denatured. A maximum number of 5.4 cross-links per collagen monomer were found for heat-denatured collagen. Labeling with the primary amine monodansylcadaverine revealed that at least half of the cross-links are located within the triple helical region of the collagen molecule. Because the triple helix is highly ordered in its native state, this finding might explain why the glutamine residues are inaccessible for mTG under nondenaturing conditions.

  3. Design optimization of dual-axis driving mechanism for satellite antenna with two planar revolute clearance joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zheng Feng; Zhao, Ji Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yang

    2018-03-01

    In the dynamic analysis of satellite antenna dual-axis driving mechanism, it is usually assumed that the joints are ideal or perfect without clearances. However, in reality, clearances in joints are unavoidable due to assemblage, manufacturing errors and wear. When clearance is introduced to the mechanism, it will lead to poor dynamic performances and undesirable vibrations due to impact forces in clearance joint. In this paper, a design optimization method is presented to reduce the undesirable vibrations of satellite antenna considering clearance joints in dual-axis driving mechanism. The contact force model in clearance joint is established using a nonlinear spring-damper model and the friction effect is considered using a modified Coulomb friction model. Firstly, the effects of clearances on dynamic responses of satellite antenna are investigated. Then the optimization method for dynamic design of the dual-axis driving mechanism with clearance is presented. The objective of the optimization is to minimize the maximum absolute vibration peak of antenna acceleration by reducing the impact forces in clearance joint. The main consideration here is to optimize the contact parameters of the joint elements. The contact stiffness coefficient, damping coefficient and the dynamic friction coefficient for clearance joint elements are taken as the optimization variables. A Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) algorithm is used to solve this highly nonlinear optimization problem for dual-axis driving mechanism with clearance joints. The results show that the acceleration peaks of satellite antenna and contact forces in clearance joints are reduced obviously after design optimization, which contributes to a better performance of the satellite antenna. Also, the application and limitation of the proposed optimization method are discussed.

  4. Crosslinking of surface antibodies and Fc sub. gamma. receptors: Theory and application

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wofsy, C.; Goldstein, B.

    1991-03-15

    In an immune response, the crosslinking of surface immunoglobulin (sIg) on B cells by multiply-bound ligand activates a range of cell responses, culminating in the production of antibody-secreting cells. However, when the crosslinking agent is itself an antibody, B cell activation is inhibited. Solution antibody (IgG) can bind simultaneously to sIg and to another cell surface receptor, Fc{sub {gamma}}R, co-crosslinking' the distinct receptors. Experiments point to co-crosslinking as the inhibitory signal. It is not clear how co-crosslinking inhibits B cell stimulation. The authors construct and analyze a mathematical model aimed at clarifying the nature and mechanisms of action of themore » separate cell signals controlling B cell responses to antibodies. Basophils and mast cells respond to the crosslinking of cell surface antibody by releasing histamine. Like B cells, basophils also express FC{sub {gamma}}R. They use their model to analyze new data on the effect of antibody-induced co-crosslinking of the two types of receptor on this family of cells. Predictions of the model indicate that an observed difference between the response patterns induced by antibodies and by antibody fragments that cannot bind to FC{sub {gamma}}R can be explained if co-crosslinking is neither inhibitory nor stimulatory in this system.« less

  5. The action of chemical and mechanical stresses on single and dual species biofilm removal of drinking water bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gomes, I B; Lemos, M; Mathieu, L; Simões, M; Simões, L C

    2018-08-01

    The presence of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) is a global public health concern as they can harbor pathogenic microorganisms. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used disinfectant for microbial growth control in DWDS. However, its effect on biofilm removal is still unclear. This work aims to evaluate the effects of the combination of chemical (NaOCl) and mechanical stresses on the removal of single and dual species biofilms of two bacteria isolated from DWDS and considered opportunistic, Acinectobacter calcoaceticus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. A rotating cylinder reactor was successfully used for the first time in drinking water biofilm studies with polyvinyl chloride as substratum. The single and dual species biofilms presented different characteristics in terms of metabolic activity, mass, density, thickness and content of proteins and polysaccharides. Their complete removal was not achieved even when a high NaOCl concentrations and an increasing series of shear stresses (from 2 to 23Pa) were applied. In general, NaOCl pre-treatment did not improve the impact of mechanical stress on biofilm removal. Dual species biofilms were colonized mostly by S. maltophilia and were more susceptible to chemical and mechanical stresses than these single species. The most efficient treatment (93% biofilm removal) was the combination of NaOCl at 175mg·l -1 with mechanical stress against dual species biofilms. Of concern was the high tolerance of S. maltophilia to chemical and mechanical stresses in both single and dual species biofilms. The overall results demonstrate the inefficacy of NaOCl on biofilm removal even when combined with high shear stresses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A dual closed-loop control system for mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Fleur; Rogers, Mark; Lo, Takkin; Malinowski, Thomas; Afuwape, Samuel; Lum, Michael; Grundl, Brett; Terry, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Closed-loop mechanical ventilation has the potential to provide more effective ventilatory support to patients with less complexity than conventional ventilation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automatic technique for mechanical ventilation. Two closed-loop control systems for mechanical ventilation are combined in this study. In one of the control systems several physiological data are used to automatically adjust the frequency and tidal volume of breaths of a patient. This method, which is patented under US Patent number 4986268, uses the criterion of minimal respiratory work rate to provide the patient with a natural pattern of breathing. The inputs to the system include data representing CO2 and O2 levels of the patient as well as respiratory compliance and airway resistance. The I:E ratio is adjusted on the basis of the respiratory time constant to allow for effective emptying of the lungs in expiration and to avoid intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). This system is combined with another closed-loop control system for automatic adjustment of the inspired fraction of oxygen of the patient. This controller uses the feedback of arterial oxygen saturation of the patient and combines a rapid stepwise control procedure with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm to automatically adjust the oxygen concentration in the patient's inspired gas. The dual closed-loop control system has been examined by using mechanical lung studies, computer simulations and animal experiments. In the mechanical lung studies, the ventilation controller adjusted the breathing frequency and tidal volume in a clinically appropriate manner in response to changes in respiratory mechanics. The results of computer simulations and animal studies under induced disturbances showed that blood gases were returned to the normal physiologic range in less than 25 s by the control system. In the animal experiments understeady

  7. Assembly kinetics determine the architecture of α-actinin crosslinked F-actin networks.

    PubMed

    Falzone, Tobias T; Lenz, Martin; Kovar, David R; Gardel, Margaret L

    2012-05-29

    The actin cytoskeleton is organized into diverse meshworks and bundles that support many aspects of cell physiology. Understanding the self-assembly of these actin-based structures is essential for developing predictive models of cytoskeletal organization. Here we show that the competing kinetics of bundle formation with the onset of dynamic arrest arising from filament entanglements and crosslinking determine the architecture of reconstituted actin networks formed with α-actinin crosslinks. Crosslink-mediated bundle formation only occurs in dilute solutions of highly mobile actin filaments. As actin polymerization proceeds, filament mobility and bundle formation are arrested concomitantly. By controlling the onset of dynamic arrest, perturbations to actin assembly kinetics dramatically alter the architecture of biochemically identical samples. Thus, the morphology of reconstituted F-actin networks is a kinetically determined structure similar to those formed by physical gels and glasses. These results establish mechanisms controlling the structure and mechanics in diverse semiflexible biopolymer networks.

  8. Recyclable cross-linked anion exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jianqiu; Liu, Yazhi; Ge, Qianqian; Yang, Zhengjin; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2018-01-01

    Cross-linking can effectively solve the conductivity-swelling dilemma in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) but will generate solid wastes. To address this, we developed an AEM cross-linked via disulfide bonds, bearing quaternary ammonium groups, which can be easily recycled. The membrane (RC-QPPO) with IEC of 1.78 mmol g-1, when cross-linked, showed enhanced mechanical properties and good hydroxide conductivity (24.6 mS cm-1 at 30 °C). Even at higher IEC value (2.13 mmol g-1), it still has low water uptake, low swelling ratio and delivers a peak power density of 150 mW cm-2 at 65 °C. Exploiting the formation of disulfide bonds from -SH groups, the membrane can be readily cross-linked in alkaline condition and recycled by reversibly breaking disulfide bonds with dithiothreitol (DTT). The recycled membrane solution can be directly utilized to cast a brand-new AEM. By washing away the residual DTT with water and exposure to air, it can be cross-linked again and this process is repeatable. During the recycling and cross-linking processes, the membrane showed a slight IEC decrease of 5% due to functional group degradation. The strategy presented here is promising in enhancing AEM properties and reducing the impact of artificial polymers on the environment.

  9. The double crush syndrome revisited--a Delphi study to reveal current expert views on mechanisms underlying dual nerve disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annina B; Coppieters, Michel W

    2011-12-01

    A high prevalence of dual nerve disorders is frequently reported. How a secondary nerve disorder may develop following a primary nerve disorder remains largely unknown. Although still frequently cited, most explanatory theories were formulated many years ago. Considering recent advances in neuroscience, it is uncertain whether these theories still reflect current expert opinion. A Delphi study was conducted to update views on potential mechanisms underlying dual nerve disorders. In three rounds, seventeen international experts in the field of peripheral nerve disorders were asked to list possible mechanisms and rate their plausibility. Mechanisms with a median plausibility rating of ≥7 out of 10 were considered highly plausible. The experts identified fourteen mechanisms associated with a first nerve disorder that may predispose to the development of another nerve disorder. Of these fourteen mechanisms, nine have not previously been linked to double crush. Four mechanisms were considered highly plausible (impaired axonal transport, ion channel up or downregulation, inflammation in the dorsal root ganglia and neuroma-in-continuity). Eight additional mechanisms were listed which are not triggered by a primary nerve disorder, but may render the nervous system more vulnerable to multiple nerve disorders, such as systemic diseases and neurotoxic medication. Even though many mechanisms were classified as plausible or highly plausible, overall plausibility ratings varied widely. Experts indicated that a wide range of mechanisms has to be considered to better understand dual nerve disorders. Previously listed theories cannot be discarded, but may be insufficient to explain the high prevalence of dual nerve disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Silk Hydrogels of Tunable Structure and Viscoelastic Properties Using Different Chronological Orders of Genipin and Physical Cross-Linking.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Winston H; Bonani, Walter; Maniglio, Devid; Motta, Antonella; Tan, Wei; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2015-06-10

    Catering the hydrogel manufacturing process toward defined viscoelastic properties for intended biomedical use is important to hydrogel scaffolding function and cell differentiation. Silk fibroin hydrogels may undergo "physical" cross-linking through β-sheet crystallization during high pressure carbon dioxide treatment, or covalent "chemical" cross-linking by genipin. We demonstrate here that time-dependent mechanical properties are tunable in silk fibroin hydrogels by altering the chronological order of genipin cross-linking with β-sheet formation. Genipin cross-linking before β-sheet formation affects gelation mechanics through increased molecular weight, affecting gel morphology, and decreasing stiffness response. Alternately, genipin cross-linking after gelation anchored amorphous regions of the protein chain, and increasing stiffness. These differences are highlighted and validated through large amplitude oscillatory strain near physiologic levels, after incorporation of material characterization at molecular and micron length scales.

  11. Microbes encapsulated within crosslinkable polymers

    DOEpatents

    Chidambaram, Devicharan; Liu, Ying; Rafailovich, Miriam H

    2013-02-05

    The invention relates to porous films comprising crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers. Viable microbes are encapsulated within the crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers. The crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers are water insoluble and permeable. The invention also relates to methods of making and using such porous films.

  12. Friedel-Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK) Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery.

    PubMed

    Merle, Géraldine; Ioana, Filipoi Carmen; Demco, Dan Eugen; Saakes, Michel; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan

    2013-12-30

    Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (cSPEEK) membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB) application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel-Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a) crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b) crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol) showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  13. The Effect of Crosslinking on the Microscale Stress Response and Molecular Deformations in Actin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurmessa, Bekele; Fitzpatrick, Robert; Valdivia, Jonathon; Anderson, Rae M. R.

    Actin, the most abundant protein in eukaryotic cells, is a semi-flexible biopolymer in the cytoskeleton that plays a crucial structural and mechanical role in cell stability, motion and replication, as well as muscle contraction. Most of these mechanically driven structural changes in cells stem from the complex viscoelastic nature of entangled actin networks and the presence of a myriad of proteins that cross-link actin filaments. Despite their importance, the mechanical response of actin networks is not yet well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here, we use optical trapping - coupled with fluorescence microscopy - to characterize the microscale stress response and induced filament deformations in entangled and cross-linked actin networks subject to localized mechanical perturbations. In particular, we actively drive a microsphere 10 microns through an entangled or cross- linked actin network at a constant speed and measure the resistive force that the deformed actin filaments exert on the bead during and following strain. We simultaneously visualize and track individual sparsely-labeled actin filaments to directly link force response to molecular deformations, and map the propagation of the initially localized perturbation field throughout the rest of the network (~100 um). By varying the concentration of actin and cross-linkers we directly determine the role of crosslinking and entanglements on the length and time scales of stress propagation, molecular deformation and relaxation mechanisms in actin networks.

  14. Swelling and tensile properties of starch glycerol system with various crosslinking agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mohd, N.; Nurazzi, N.; Siti Aisyah, M. I.; Fauzi, F. Mohd

    2017-07-01

    Brittle properties of starch had been overcome by the modification process. In this work, sago starch is being modified with variable amount of plasticiser, namely glycerol at 20 and 40% and crosslinking agent had been added to the system. The film of the modification and characterizations of the starch glycerol system with various crosslinking systems were produced by casting method. The film properties of the starch glycerol system were then characterized by tensile strength (mechanical properties) and swelling (physical properties). The modification of the starch glycerol had improved that system by increasing the tensile strength, modulus however lowering its elongation. The increasing in percentage of the water absorption and also swelling are due to the intrinsic hydroxyl groups presence from the starch and glycerol itself that can attract more water to the system. Upon crosslinking, films casted with chemicals namely, glyoxal, malonic acid, borax, PEG were characterised. It was found that, all the film of sago starch crosslinked and undergoing easy film formation. From this modification, borax and malonic acid crosslinking agent had been determined as the best crosslinking agent to the starch glycerol system.

  15. Anion exchange membranes based on terminally crosslinked methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sohyun; Rao, Anil H. N.; Kim, Tae-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Azide-assisted terminal crosslinking of methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone) block copolymers yields products (xMM-PESs) suitable for use as anion exchange membranes. By combining the advantages of bulky morpholinium conductors and our unique polymer network crosslinked only at the termini of the polymer chains, we can produce AEMs that after the crosslinking show minimal loss in conductivity, yet with dramatically reduced water uptake. Terminal crosslinking also significantly increases the thermal, mechanical and chemical stability levels of the membranes. A high ion conductivity of 73.4 mS cm-1 and low water uptake of 26.1% at 80 °C are obtained for the crosslinked membrane with higher amount of hydrophilic composition, denoted as xMM-PES-1.5-1. In addition, the conductivity of the crosslinked xMM-PES-1.5-1 membrane exceeds that of its non-crosslinked counterpart (denoted as MM-PES-1.5-1) above 60 °C at 95% relative humidity because of its enhanced water retention capacity caused by the terminally-crosslinked structure.

  16. Synthesis of fast response crosslinked PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels by very low radiation dose in dilute aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Marziyeh; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Akbar Entezami, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Nanohydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-N-isopropylacrylamide (PVA-g-NIPAAm) are synthesized by PVA and NIPAAm dilute aqueous solution using much less radiation dose of 1-20 Gy via intramolecular crosslinking at ambient temperature. The radiation synthesis of nanohydrogels is performed in the presence of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) due to its rapid oxygen scavenging abilities and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals. The effect of radiation dose, feed composition ratio of PVA and H2O2 is investigated on swelling properties such as temperature and pH dependence of equilibrium swelling ratio as well as deswelling kinetics. Experimental data exhibit high equilibrium swelling ratio and fast response time for the synthesized nanohydrogels. The average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc) and crosslinking density (ρx) of the obtained nanohydrogels are calculated from swelling data as a function of radiation dose, H2O2 and PVA amount. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis of nitrogen content and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to confirm the grafting reaction. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is measured around 33 °C by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data demonstrate that the increase of radiation dose leads to the decreasing in dimension of nanohydrogels. Also, rheological studies are confirmed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanohydrogels with increasing the radiation dose. A cytotoxicity study exhibits a good biocompatibility for the obtained nanohydrogels. The prepared nanohydrogels show fast swelling/deswelling behavior, high swelling ratio, dual sensitivity and good cytocompatibility, which may find potential applications as biomaterial.

  17. Vapor plume oscillation mechanisms in transient keyhole during tandem dual beam fiber laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xiaosi; Pang, Shengyong; Hu, Renzhi; Xiao, Jianzhong

    2018-01-01

    Vapor plume oscillations are common physical phenomena that have an important influence on the welding process in dual beam laser welding. However, until now, the oscillation mechanisms of vapor plumes remain unclear. This is primarily because mesoscale vapor plume dynamics inside a millimeter-scale, invisible, and time-dependent keyhole are difficult to quantitatively observe. In this paper, based on a developed three-dimensional (3D) comprehensive model, the vapor plume evolutions in a dynamical keyhole are directly simulated in tandem dual beam, short-wavelength laser welding. Combined with the vapor plume behaviors outside the keyhole observed by high-speed imaging, the vapor plume oscillations in dynamical keyholes at different inter-beam distances are the first, to our knowledge, to be quantitatively analyzed. It is found that vapor plume oscillations outside the keyhole mainly result from vapor plume instabilities inside the keyhole. The ejection velocity at the keyhole opening and dynamical behaviors outside the keyhole of a vapor plume both violently oscillate with the same order of magnitude of high frequency (several kHz). Furthermore, the ejection speed at the keyhole opening and ejection area outside the keyhole both decrease as the beam distance increases, while the degree of vapor plume instability first decreases and then increases with increasing beam distance from 0.6 to 1.0 mm. Moreover, the oscillation mechanisms of a vapor plume inside the dynamical keyhole irradiated by dual laser beams are investigated by thoroughly analyzing the vapor plume occurrence and flow process. The vapor plume oscillations in the dynamical keyhole are found to mainly result from violent local evaporations and severe keyhole geometry variations. In short, the quantitative method and these findings can serve as a reference for further understanding of the physical mechanisms in dual beam laser welding and of processing optimizations in industrial applications.

  18. Crosslinking of agarose bioplastic using citric acid.

    PubMed

    Awadhiya, Ankur; Kumar, David; Verma, Vivek

    2016-10-20

    We report chemical crosslinking of agarose bioplastic using citric acid. Crosslinking was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effects of crosslinking on the tensile strength, swelling, thermal stability, and degradability of the bioplastic were studied in detail. The tensile strength of the bioplastic films increased from 25.1MPa for control films up to a maximum of 52.7MPa for citric acid crosslinked films. At 37°C, the amount of water absorbed by crosslinked agarose bioplastic was only 11.5% of the amount absorbed by non-crosslinked controls. Thermogravimetric results showed that the crosslinked samples retain greater mass at high temperature (>450°C) than control samples. Moreover, while the crosslinked films were completely degradable, the rate of degradation was lower compared to non-crosslinked controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assembly Kinetics Determine the Architecture of α-actinin Crosslinked F-actin Networks

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Tobias T.; Lenz, Martin; Kovar, David R.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is organized into diverse meshworks and bundles that support many aspects of cell physiology. Understanding the self-assembly of these actin-based structures is essential for developing predictive models of cytoskeletal organization. Here we show that the competing kinetics of bundle formation with the onset of dynamic arrest arising from filament entanglements and cross-linking determine the architecture of reconstituted actin networks formed with α-actinin cross-links. Cross-link mediated bundle formation only occurs in dilute solutions of highly mobile actin filaments. As actin polymerization proceeds, filament mobility and bundle formation are arrested concomitantly. By controlling the onset of dynamic arrest, perturbations to actin assembly kinetics dramatically alter the architecture of biochemically identical samples. Thus, the morphology of reconstituted F-actin networks is a kinetically determined structure similar to those formed by physical gels and glasses. These results establish mechanisms controlling the structure and mechanics in diverse semi-flexible biopolymer networks. PMID:22643888

  20. Cross-linking staphylococcal enterotoxin A bound to major histocompatibility complex class I is required for TNF-alpha secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, A. D.; Chapes, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of how superantigens function to activate cells has been linked to their ability to bind and cross-link the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecule. Cells that lack the MHCII molecule also respond to superantigens, however, with much less efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to confirm that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) could bind the MHCI molecule and to test the hypothesis that cross-linking SEA bound to MHCII-deficient macrophages would induce a more robust cytokine response than without cross-linking. We used a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunprecipitation assay to directly demonstrate that MHCI molecules bind SEA. Directly cross-linking MHCI using monoclonal antibodies or cross-linking bound SEA with an anti-SEA antibody or biotinylated SEA with avidin increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by MHCII(-/-) macrophages. The induction of a vigorous macrophage cytokine response by SEA/anti-SEA cross-linking of MHCI offers a mechanism to explain how MHCI could play an important role in superantigen-mediated pathogenesis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Procyanidins-crosslinked aortic elastin scaffolds with distinctive anti-calcification and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoya; Zhai, Wanyin; Wu, Chengtie; Ma, Bing; Zhang, Jiamin; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhu, Ziyan; Chang, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Elastin, a main component of decellularized extracellular matrices and elastin-containing materials, has been used for tissue engineering applications due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, elastin is easily calcified, leading to the decrease of life span for elastin-based substitutes. How to inhibit the calcification of elastin-based scaffolds, but maintain their good biocompatibility, still remains significantly challenging. Procyanidins (PC) are a type of natural polyphenols with crosslinking ability. To investigate whether pure elastin could be crosslinked by PC with anti-calcification effect, PC was first used to crosslink aortic elastin. Results show that PC can crosslink elastin and effectively inhibit elastin-initiated calcification. Further experiments reveal the possible mechanisms for the anti-calcification of PC crosslinking including (1) inhibiting inflammation cell attachment, and secretion of inflammatory factors such as MMPs and TNF-α, (2) preventing elastin degradation by elastase, and (3) direct inhibition of mineral nucleation in elastin. Moreover, the PC-crosslinked aortic elastin maintains natural structure with high pore volume (1111 μL/g), large pore size (10-300 μm) and high porosity (75.1%) which facilitates recellularization of scaffolds in vivo, and displays excellent hemocompatibility, anti-thrombus and anti-inflammatory potential. The advantages of PC-crosslinked porous aortic elastin suggested that it can serve as a promising scaffold for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomechanical Comparison of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Gelatin Fibrinogen Electrospun Scaffolds to Porcine Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tamimi, E.; Ardila, D. C.; Haskett, D. G.; Doetschman, T.; Slepian, M. J.; Kellar, R. S.; Vande Geest, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Americans. As coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains a mainstay of therapy for CVD and native vein grafts are limited by issues of supply and lifespan, an effective readily available tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for use in CABG would provide drastic improvements in patient care. Biomechanical mismatch between vascular grafts and native vasculature has been shown to be the major cause of graft failure, and therefore, there is need for compliance-matched biocompatible TEVGs for clinical implantation. The current study investigates the biaxial mechanical characterization of acellular electrospun glutaraldehyde (GLUT) vapor-crosslinked gelatin/fibrinogen cylindrical constructs, using a custom-made microbiaxial optomechanical device (MOD). Constructs crosslinked for 2, 8, and 24 hrs are compared to mechanically characterized porcine left anterior descending coronary (LADC) artery. The mechanical response data were used for constitutive modeling using a modified Fung strain energy equation. The results showed that constructs crosslinked for 2 and 8 hrs exhibited circumferential and axial tangential moduli (ATM) similar to that of the LADC. Furthermore, the 8-hrs experimental group was the only one to compliance-match the LADC, with compliance values of 0.0006±0.00018 mm Hg−1 and 0.00071±0.00027 mm Hg−1, respectively. The results of this study show the feasibility of meeting mechanical specifications expected of native arteries through manipulating GLUT vapor crosslinking time. The comprehensive mechanical characterization of cylindrical biopolymer constructs in this study is an important first step to successfully develop a biopolymer compliance-matched TEVG. PMID:26501189

  3. An analytical study of the dual mass mechanical system stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Sinapov, Petko; Kralov, Ivan; Ignatov, Ignat

    2011-12-01

    In this paper an autonomous, nonlinear model of five ordinary differential equations modeling the motion of a dual mass mechanical system with universal joint is studied. The model is investigated qualitatively. On the base of the stability analysis performed, we obtain that the system is: i) in an equilibrium state, or ii) in a structurally unstable behavior when equilibrium states disappear. In case (i) the system is in a normal technical condition and in case (ii) hard break-downs take place.

  4. Relationships between human cortical bone toughness and collagen cross-links on paired anatomical locations.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Rémy; Follet, Hélène; Langer, Max; Gineyts, Evelyne; Rongiéras, Frédéric; Peyrin, Françoise; Mitton, David

    2018-07-01

    Human cortical bone fracture processes depend on the internal porosity network down to the lacunar length scale. Recent results show that at the collagen scale, the maturation of collagen cross-links may have a negative influence on bone mechanical behavior. While the effect of pentosidine on human cortical bone toughness has been studied, the influence of mature and immature enzymatic cross-links has only been studied in relation to strength and work of fracture. Moreover, these relationships have not been studied on different paired anatomical locations. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the relationships between both enzymatic and non-enzymatic collagen cross-links and human cortical bone toughness, on four human paired anatomical locations. Single Edge Notched Bending toughness tests were performed for two loading conditions: a quasi-static standard condition, and a condition representative of a fall. These tests were done with 32 paired femoral diaphyses, femoral necks and radial diaphyses (18 women, age 81 ± 12 y.o.; 14 men, age 79 ± 8 y.o.). Collagen enzymatic and non-enzymatic crosslinks were measured on the same bones. Maturation of collagen was defined as the ratio between immature and mature cross-links (CX). The results show that there was a significant correlation between collagen cross-link maturation and bone toughness when gathering femoral and radial diaphyses, but not when considering each anatomical location individually. These results show that the influence of collagen enzymatic and non-enzymatic cross-links is minor when considering human cortical bone crack propagation mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK) Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Géraldine; Ioana, Filipoi Carmen; Demco, Dan Eugen; Saakes, Michel; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (cSPEEK) membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB) application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a) crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b) crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol) showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion. PMID:24957118

  6. Bio-Based Artificial Nacre with Excellent Mechanical and Barrier Properties Realized by a Facile In Situ Reduction and Cross-Linking Reaction.

    PubMed

    Shahzadi, Kiran; Mohsin, Imran; Wu, Lin; Ge, Xuesong; Jiang, Yijun; Li, Hui; Mu, Xindong

    2017-01-24

    Demands for high strength integrated materials have substantially increased across various kinds of industries. Inspired by the relationship of excellent integration of mechanical properties and hierarchical nano/microscale structure of the natural nacre, a simple and facile method to fabricate high strength integrated artificial nacre based on sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and borate cross-linked graphene oxide (GO) sheets has been developed. The tensile strength and toughness of cellulose-based hybrid material reached 480.5 ± 13.1 MPa and 11.8 ± 0.4 MJm -3 by a facile in situ reduction and cross-linking reaction between CMC and GO (0.7%), which are 3.55 and 6.55 times that of natural nacre. This hybrid film exhibits better thermal stability and flame retardancy. More interestingly, the hybrid material showed good water stability compared to that in the original water-soluble CMC. This type of hybrid has great potential applications in aerospace, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering.

  7. Triple shape memory effects of cross-linked polyethylene/polypropylene blends with cocontinuous architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Chen, Min; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhenwen; Dang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Lan; Hu, Guo-Hua; Chen, Fenghua

    2013-06-26

    In this paper, the triple shape memory effects (SMEs) observed in chemically cross-linked polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) blends with cocontinuous architecture are systematically investigated. The cocontinuous window of typical immiscible PE/PP blends is the volume fraction of PE (v(PE)) of ca. 30-70 vol %. This architecture can be stabilized by chemical cross-linking. Different initiators, 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di(tert-butylperoxy)-hexane (DHBP), dicumylperoxide (DCP) coupled with divinylbenzene (DVB) (DCP-DVB), and their mixture (DHBP/DCP-DVB), are used for the cross-linking. According to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements and gel fraction calculations, DHBP produces the best cross-linking and DCP-DVB the worst, and the mixture, DHBP/DCP-DVB, is in between. The chemical cross-linking causes lower melting temperature (Tm) and smaller melting enthalpy (ΔHm). The prepared triple shape memory polymers (SMPs) by cocontinuous immiscible PE/PP blends with v(PE) of 50 vol % show pronounced triple SMEs in the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and visual observation. This new strategy of chemically cross-linked immiscible blends with cocontinuous architecture can be used to design and prepare new SMPs with triple SMEs.

  8. Applications of FT-IR spectroscopy to the studies of esterification and crosslinking of cellulose by polycarboxylic acids: Part II. The performance of the crosslinked cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Weishu; Yang, Charles Q.

    1998-06-01

    Durable press finishing processes are commonly used in the textile industry to produce wrinkle-free cotton fabrics and garments. A durable press finishing agent forms covalent bands with cellulosic hydroxyl groups, thus crosslinking the cellulose molecules. The crosslinking of cellulose increases wrinkle resistance of the treated cotton fabric and reduces fabric mechanical strength. Wrinkle recovery angle (WRA) and tensile strength are the two most important parameters used to evaluate the performance of the crosslinked cotton fabrics and garments. In this study, we investigated the correlation between WRA and tensile strength on one hand, and the amount of crosslinkages formed by the crosslinking agents including dimethyloldihydroxylethyleneurea (DMDHEU) and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) determined by FT-IR spectroscopy on the other hand. Linear regression curves between the carbonyl band absorbance, and WRA and tensile strength of the treated cotton fabric were developed. The data indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy is a reliable technique for predicting the performance of durable press finished cotton fabrics, therefore can be used as a convenient instrumental method for quality control in the textile and garment industry.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of hydrothermal cross-linked chitosan porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Shamekhi, Mohammad Amin; Rabiee, Ahmad; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Mahdavi, Hamid; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-11-01

    The use of various chemical cross-linking agents for the improvement of scaffolds physical and mechanical properties is a common practical method, which is limited by cytotoxicity effects. Due to exerting contract type forces, chondrocytes are known to implement shrinkage on the tissue engineered constructs, which can be avoided by the scaffold cross-linking. In the this research, chitosan scaffolds are cross-linked with hydrothermal treatment with autoclave sterilization time of 0, 10, 20 and 30min, to avoid the application of the traditional chemical toxic materials. The optimization studies with gel content and crosslink density measurements indicate that for 20min sterilization time, the gel content approaches to ~80%. The scaffolds are fully characterized by the conventional techniques such as SEM, porosity and permeability, XRD, compression, thermal analysis and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). FT-IR studies shows that autoclave inter-chain cross-linking reduces the amine group absorption at 1560cm -1 and increase the absorption of N-acetylated groups at 1629cm -1 . It is anticipated, that this observation evidenced by chitosan scaffold browning upon autoclave cross-linking is an indication of the familiar maillard reaction between amine moieties and carbonyl groups. The biodegradation rate analysis shows that chitosan scaffolds with lower concentrations, possess suitable degradation rate for cartilage tissue engineering applications. In addition, cytotoxicity analysis shows that fabricated scaffolds are biocompatible. The human articular chondrocytes seeding into 3D cross-linked scaffolds shows a higher viability and proliferation in comparison with the uncross-linked samples and 2D controls. Investigation of cell morphology on the scaffolds by SEM, shows a more spherical morphology of chondrocytes on the cross-linked scaffolds for 21days of in vitro culture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of precursor composition and mode of crosslinking on mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jinhyeong; Hong, Jisu; Cha, Chaenyung

    2017-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is increasingly investigated as a reinforcing nanofiller for various hydrogels for biomedical applications for its superior mechanical strength. However, the reinforcing mechanism of GO in different hydrogel conditions has not been extensively explored and elucidated to date. Herein, we systematically examine the effects of various types of precursor molecules (monomers vs. macromers) as well as mode of GO incorporation (physical vs. covalent) on the mechanical properties of resulting composite hydrogels. Two hydrogel types, (1) polyacrylamide hydrogels with varying concentrations of acrylamide monomers and (2) poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with varying molecular weights of PEG macromers, are used as model systems. In addition, incorporation of GO is also controlled by using either unmodified GO or methacrylic GO (MGO) which allows for covalent incorporation. The results in this study demonstrate that the interaction between GO and the surrounding network and its effect on the mechanical properties (i.e. rigidity and toughness) of composite hydrogels are highly dependent on both the type and concentration of precursors and the mode of crosslinking. We expect this study will provide an important guideline for future research efforts on controlling the mechanical properties of GO-based composite hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aging Mechanisms and Nondestructive Aging Indicator of Filled Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Exposed to Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Shuaishuai; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bowler, Nicola

    Aging mechanisms and a nondestructive aging indicator of filled cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation material used in nuclear power plants (NPPs) are studied. Using various material characterization techniques, likely candidates and functions for the main additives in a commercial filled-XLPE insulation material have been identified. These include decabromodiphenyl ether and Sb2O3 as flame retardants, ZnS as white pigment and polymerized 1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline as antioxidant. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, oxidation induction time and measurements of dielectric loss tangent are utilized to monitor property changes as a function of thermal and radiation exposure of the cable material. Small-molecular-weight hydrocarbons are evolvemore » with gamma radiation aging at 90 °C. The level of antioxidant decreases with aging by volatilization and chemical reaction with free radicals. Thermal aging at 90 °C for 25 days or less causes no observable change to the cross-linked polymer structure. Gamma radiation causes damage to crystalline polymer regions and introduces defects. Dielectric loss tangent is shown to be an effective and reliable nondestructive indicator of the aging severity of the filled-XLPE insulation material.« less

  12. Dual-Pitch Processing Mechanisms in Primate Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bendor, Daniel; Osmanski, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Pitch, our perception of how high or low a sound is on a musical scale, is a fundamental perceptual attribute of sounds and is important for both music and speech. After more than a century of research, the exact mechanisms used by the auditory system to extract pitch are still being debated. Theoretically, pitch can be computed using either spectral or temporal acoustic features of a sound. We have investigated how cues derived from the temporal envelope and spectrum of an acoustic signal are used for pitch extraction in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a vocal primate species, by measuring pitch discrimination behaviorally and examining pitch-selective neuronal responses in auditory cortex. We find that pitch is extracted by marmosets using temporal envelope cues for lower pitch sounds composed of higher-order harmonics, whereas spectral cues are used for higher pitch sounds with lower-order harmonics. Our data support dual-pitch processing mechanisms, originally proposed by psychophysicists based on human studies, whereby pitch is extracted using a combination of temporal envelope and spectral cues. PMID:23152599

  13. Cross-Linked Amylose Bio-Plastic: A Transgenic-Based Compostable Plastic Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Holse, Mette; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Bao, Jinsong; Stelte, Wolfgang; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Blennow, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Bio-plastics and bio-materials are composed of natural or biomass derived polymers, offering solutions to solve immediate environmental issues. Polysaccharide-based bio-plastics represent important alternatives to conventional plastic because of their intrinsic biodegradable nature. Amylose-only (AO), an engineered barley starch with 99% amylose, was tested to produce cross-linked all-natural bioplastic using normal barley starch as a control. Glycerol was used as plasticizer and citrate cross-linking was used to improve the mechanical properties of cross-linked AO starch extrudates. Extrusion converted the control starch from A-type to Vh- and B-type crystals, showing a complete melting of the starch crystals in the raw starch granules. The cross-linked AO and control starch specimens displayed an additional wide-angle diffraction reflection. Phospholipids complexed with Vh-type single helices constituted an integrated part of the AO starch specimens. Gas permeability tests of selected starch-based prototypes demonstrated properties comparable to that of commercial Mater-Bi© plastic. The cross-linked AO prototypes had composting characteristics not different from the control, indicating that the modified starch behaves the same as normal starch. The data shows the feasibility of producing all-natural bioplastic using designer starch as raw material. PMID:28973963

  14. Cross-Linked Amylose Bio-Plastic: A Transgenic-Based Compostable Plastic Alternative.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Hooshmand, Kourosh; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Giosafatto, Concetta Valeria L; Holse, Mette; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Bao, Jinsong; Stelte, Wolfgang; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Blennow, Andreas

    2017-09-30

    Bio-plastics and bio-materials are composed of natural or biomass derived polymers, offering solutions to solve immediate environmental issues. Polysaccharide-based bio-plastics represent important alternatives to conventional plastic because of their intrinsic biodegradable nature. Amylose-only (AO), an engineered barley starch with 99% amylose, was tested to produce cross-linked all-natural bioplastic using normal barley starch as a control. Glycerol was used as plasticizer and citrate cross-linking was used to improve the mechanical properties of cross-linked AO starch extrudates. Extrusion converted the control starch from A-type to Vh- and B-type crystals, showing a complete melting of the starch crystals in the raw starch granules. The cross-linked AO and control starch specimens displayed an additional wide-angle diffraction reflection. Phospholipids complexed with Vh-type single helices constituted an integrated part of the AO starch specimens. Gas permeability tests of selected starch-based prototypes demonstrated properties comparable to that of commercial Mater-Bi © plastic. The cross-linked AO prototypes had composting characteristics not different from the control, indicating that the modified starch behaves the same as normal starch. The data shows the feasibility of producing all-natural bioplastic using designer starch as raw material.

  15. Mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of cross-linked cellulose acetate-reinforced polyester composites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-San

    2014-05-25

    Composites of treated (cross-linked) cellulose acetate (t-CA) and acrylic acid-grafted poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA-g-AA/t-CA) exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties compared with PHA/CA composites due to greater compatibility between the two components. The dispersion covering of t-CA in the PHA-g-AA matrix was highly homogeneous as a result of condensation reactions. Human lung fibroblasts (FBs) were seeded on these two series of composites to characterize the biocompatibility properties. In a time-dependent course, the FB proliferation results demonstrated higher performance from the PHA/CA series of composites than from the PHA-g-AA/t-CA composites. The water resistance of PHA-g-AA/t-CA was higher than that of PHA/CA, although the weight loss of both composites buried in Acetobacter pasteurianus (A. pasteurianus) indicated that they were both biodegradable, especially at higher levels of cellulose acetate substitution. The PHA/CA and PHA-g-AA/t-CA composites were more biodegradable than pure PHA, implying a strong connection between cellulose acetate content and biodegradability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Pyridinoline Trivalent Collagen Cross-Links by Raman Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Robins, Simon P; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Klaushofer, Klaus; Paschalis, Eleftherios P

    2017-06-01

    Intermolecular cross-linking of bone collagen is intimately related to the way collagen molecules are arranged in a fibril, imparts certain mechanical properties to the fibril, and may be involved in the initiation of mineralization. Raman microspectroscopy allows the analysis of minimally processed bone blocks and provides simultaneous information on both the mineral and organic matrix (mainly type I collagen) components, with a spatial resolution of ~1 μm. The aim of the present study was to validate Raman spectroscopic parameters describing one of the major mineralizing type I trivalent cross-links, namely pyridinoline (PYD). To achieve this, a series of collagen cross-linked peptides with known PYD content (as determined by HPLC analysis), human bone, porcine skin, predentin and dentin animal model tissues were analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy. The results of the present study confirm that it is feasible to monitor PYD trivalent collagen cross-links by Raman spectroscopic analysis in mineralized tissues, exclusively through a Raman band ~1660 wavenumbers. This allows determination of the relative PYD content in undecalcified bone tissues with a spatial resolution of ~1 μm, thus enabling correlations with histologic and histomorphometric parameters.

  17. Bifunctional alkylating agent-mediated MGMT-DNA cross-linking and its proteolytic cleavage in 16HBE cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cheng, Jin; Ye, Feng; Dan, Guorong

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a bifunctional alkylating agent (BAA), contains two alkyl arms and can act as a cross-linking bridge between DNA and protein to form a DNA-protein cross-link (DPC). O{sup 6}-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme for alkyl adducts removal, is found to enhance cell sensitivity to BAAs and to promote damage, possibly due to its stable covalent cross-linking with DNA mediated by BAAs. To investigate MGMT-DNA cross-link (mDPC) formation and its possible dual roles in NM exposure, human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE was subjected to different concentrations of HN2, a kind of NM, and we found mDPCmore » was induced by HN2 in a concentration-dependent manner, but the mRNA and total protein of MGMT were suppressed. As early as 1 h after HN2 treatment, high mDPC was achieved and the level maintained for up to 24 h. Quick total DPC (tDPC) and γ-H2AX accumulation were observed. To evaluate the effect of newly predicted protease DVC1 on DPC cleavage, we applied siRNA of MGMT and DVC1, MG132 (proteasome inhibitor), and NMS-873 (p97 inhibitor) and found that proteolysis plays a role. DVC1 was proven to be more important in the cleavage of mDPC than tDPC in a p97-dependent manner. HN2 exposure induced DVC1 upregulation, which was at least partially contributed to MGMT cleavage by proteolysis because HN2-induced mDPC level and DNA damage was closely related with DVC1 expression. Homologous recombination (HR) was also activated. Our findings demonstrated that MGMT might turn into a DNA damage promoter by forming DPC when exposed to HN2. Proteolysis, especially DVC1, plays a crucial role in mDPC repair. - Highlights: • Nitrogen mustard-induced MGMT-DNA cross-linking was detected in a living cell. • Concentration- and time-dependent manners of MGMT-DNA cross-linking were revealed. • Proteolysis played an important role in protein (MGMT)-DNA cross-linking repair. • DVC1 acts as a proteolytic enzyme in cross-linking

  18. Surface morphology control of cross-linked polymer particles via dispersion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Imhof, Arnout

    2015-05-14

    Cross-linked polymer colloids (poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene) with diverse shapes were prepared in polar solvents (ethanol, methanol and water) via dispersion polymerization, in which a linear addition of the cross-linker was used during reaction. Apart from spherical particles we found dented spheres or particles covered with nodules, or a combination of both. A comprehensive investigation was carried out, mainly concentrating on the effect of the experimental conditions (e.g., the addition start time and total addition time, cross-linker density and the solvency of the solvents) on particle morphologies. Consequently, we suggest a number of effective ways for the synthesis of regular (spherical) colloidal particles through maintaining a relatively low concentration of the cross-linker during the entire reaction, or forcing the co-polymerization (of monomer and cross-linker) locus to the continuous medium, or using a high quality or quantity of the stabilizer. Moreover, the size of the particles was also precisely manipulated by varying the polarity of the solvents, the concentration of the cross-linker, and the amount and average molecular weight of the stabilizer. In addition, the formation of the heavily dented particles with a very rough surface prepared under a pure or oxygen-'contaminated' nitrogen environment was monitored over time. The results accumulated in this article are of use for a better understanding of the mechanism of the polymerization and control over the structure and property of polymer particles.

  19. In vitro progesterone release from γ-irradiated cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashak, Arezou; Taghizadeh, S. Mojtaba

    2006-02-01

    Instead of conventional method such as thermal cross-linking method, γ-irradiation is used to improve the properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a matrix containing progesterone. The thermal cross-linking of PDMS monolithic systems containing drug is deleterious to the drug. Usually, all drugs are unstable both at high vulcanizing temperature and in the presence of peroxide catalysts. This novel method is found to be effective for the stability of the controlled drug delivery systems. The PDMS (three medical grades) matrices were exposed to γ-irradiation in ambient conditions with total doses of 50, 75 and 100 kGy. The mechanical properties confirmed that the samples are cross-linked. It is found that the progesterone release rate is affected by irradiation treatment. It is deduced, however that there is no significant difference in the release profile of progesterone by increasing the irradiation dose from 50 to 100 kGy.

  20. The influence of hyaluronic acid hydrogel crosslinking density and macromolecular diffusivity on human MSC chondrogenesis and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liming; Hou, Chieh; Tous, Elena; Rai, Reena; Mauck, Robert L; Burdick, Jason A

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels formed via photocrosslinking provide stable 3D hydrogel environments that support the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Crosslinking density has a significant impact on the physical properties of hydrogels, including their mechanical stiffness and macromolecular diffusivity. Variations in the HA hydrogel crosslinking density can be obtained by either changes in the HA macromer concentration (1, 3, or 5% w/v at 15 min exposure) or the extent of reaction through light exposure time (5% w/v at 5, 10, or 15 min). In this work, increased crosslinking by either method resulted in an overall decrease in cartilage matrix content and more restricted matrix distribution. Increased crosslinking also promoted hypertrophic differentiation of the chondrogenically induced MSCs, resulting in more matrix calcification in vitro. For example, type X collagen expression in the high crosslinking density 5% 15 min group was ~156 and 285% higher when compared to the low crosslinking density 1% 15 min and 5% 5 min groups on day 42, respectively. Supplementation with inhibitors of the small GTPase pathway involved in cytoskeletal tension or myosin II had no effect on hypertrophic differentiation and matrix calcification, indicating that the differential response is unlikely to be related to force-sensing mechanotransduction mechanisms. When implanted subcutaneously in nude mice, higher crosslinking density again resulted in reduced cartilage matrix content, restricted matrix distribution, and increased matrix calcification. This study demonstrates that hydrogel properties mediated through alterations in crosslinking density must be considered in the context of the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrogenically induced MSCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of a dual domain phosphoglycosyl transferase reveals a ping-pong mechanism with a covalent enzyme intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debasis; Kuzmic, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoglycosyl transferases (PGTs) are integral membrane proteins with diverse architectures that catalyze the formation of polyprenol diphosphate-linked glycans via phosphosugar transfer from a nucleotide diphosphate-sugar to a polyprenol phosphate. There are two PGT superfamilies that differ significantly in overall structure and topology. The polytopic PGT superfamily, represented by MraY and WecA, has been the subject of many studies because of its roles in peptidoglycan and O-antigen biosynthesis. In contrast, less is known about a second, extensive superfamily of PGTs that reveals a core structure with dual domain architecture featuring a C-terminal soluble globular domain and a predicted N-terminal membrane-associated domain. Representative members of this superfamily are the Campylobacter PglCs, which initiate N-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis and are implicated in virulence and pathogenicity. Despite the prevalence of dual domain PGTs, their mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we present the mechanistic analysis of PglC, a prototypic dual domain PGT from Campylobacter concisus. Using a luminescence-based assay, together with substrate labeling and kinetics-based approaches, complementary experiments were carried out that support a ping-pong mechanism involving a covalent phosphosugar intermediate for PglC. Significantly, mass spectrometry-based approaches identified Asp93, which is part of a highly conserved AspGlu dyad found in all dual domain PGTs, as the active-site nucleophile of the enzyme involved in the formation of the covalent adduct. The existence of a covalent phosphosugar intermediate provides strong support for a ping-pong mechanism of PglC, differing fundamentally from the ternary complex mechanisms of representative polytopic PGTs. PMID:28630348

  2. Cross-Link Guided Molecular Modeling with ROSETTA

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Alexander; Rosenberger, George; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cross-links identified by mass spectrometry generate distance restraints that reveal low-resolution structural information on proteins and protein complexes. The technology to reliably generate such data has become mature and robust enough to shift the focus to the question of how these distance restraints can be best integrated into molecular modeling calculations. Here, we introduce three workflows for incorporating distance restraints generated by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry into ROSETTA protocols for comparative and de novo modeling and protein-protein docking. We demonstrate that the cross-link validation and visualization software Xwalk facilitates successful cross-link data integration. Besides the protocols we introduce XLdb, a database of chemical cross-links from 14 different publications with 506 intra-protein and 62 inter-protein cross-links, where each cross-link can be mapped on an experimental structure from the Protein Data Bank. Finally, we demonstrate on a protein-protein docking reference data set the impact of virtual cross-links on protein docking calculations and show that an inter-protein cross-link can reduce on average the RMSD of a docking prediction by 5.0 Å. The methods and results presented here provide guidelines for the effective integration of chemical cross-link data in molecular modeling calculations and should advance the structural analysis of particularly large and transient protein complexes via hybrid structural biology methods. PMID:24069194

  3. Genome-wide Mapping of Cellular Protein–RNA Interactions Enabled by Chemical Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyu; Song, Jinghui; Yi, Chengqi

    2014-01-01

    RNA–protein interactions influence many biological processes. Identifying the binding sites of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) remains one of the most fundamental and important challenges to the studies of such interactions. Capturing RNA and RBPs via chemical crosslinking allows stringent purification procedures that significantly remove the non-specific RNA and protein interactions. Two major types of chemical crosslinking strategies have been developed to date, i.e., UV-enabled crosslinking and enzymatic mechanism-based covalent capture. In this review, we compare such strategies and their current applications, with an emphasis on the technologies themselves rather than the biology that has been revealed. We hope such methods could benefit broader audience and also urge for the development of new methods to study RNA−RBP interactions. PMID:24747191

  4. Porous hydrogels from shark skin collagen crosslinked under dense carbon dioxide atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Silva, Susana; Moreira-Silva, Joana; Silva, Tiago H; Perez-Martin, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G; Mano, João F; Duarte, Ana Rita C; Reis, Rui L

    2013-11-01

    The possibility to fabricate marine collagen porous structures crosslinked with genipin under high pressure carbon dioxide is investigated. Collagen from shark skin is used to prepare pre-scaffolds by freeze-drying. The poor stability of the structures and low mechanical properties require crosslinking of the structures. Under dense CO2 atmosphere, crosslinking of collagen pre-scaffolds is allowed for 16 h. Additionally, the hydrogels are foamed and the scaffolds obtained present a highly porous structure. In vitro cell culture tests performed with a chondrocyte-like cell line show good cell adherence and proliferation, which is a strong indication of the potential of these scaffolds to be used in tissue cartilage tissue engineering. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Crosslinked anion exchange membranes with primary diamine-based crosslinkers for vanadium redox flow battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Min Suc; Jeong, Hwan Yeop; Shin, Hee Young; Hong, Soo Hyun; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Seong-Geun; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik

    2017-09-01

    A series of polysulfone-based crosslinked anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with primary diamine-based crosslinkers has been prepared via simple a crosslinking process as low-cost and durable membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Chloromethylated polysulfone is used as a precursor polymer for crosslinked AEMs (CAPSU-x) with different degrees of crosslinking. Among the developed AEMs, CAPSU-2.5 shows outstanding dimensional stability and anion (Cl-, SO42-, and OH-) conductivity. Moreover, CAPSU-2.5 exhibits much lower vanadium ion permeability (2.72 × 10-8 cm2 min-1) than Nafion 115 (2.88 × 10-6 cm2 min-1), which results in an excellent coulombic efficiency of 100%. The chemical and operational stabilities of the membranes have been investigated via ex situ soaking tests in 0.1 M VO2+ solution and in situ operation tests for 100 cycles, respectively. The excellent chemical, physical, and electrochemical properties of the CAPSU-2.5 membrane make it suitable for use in VRFBs.

  6. Liquid-Crystalline Elastomers with Gold Nanoparticle Cross-Linkers.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Michał M; Wróbel, Jarosław; Jańczuk, Zuzanna Z; Mieczkowski, Józef; Górecka, Ewa; Choi, Joonmyung; Cho, Maenghyo; Pociecha, Damian

    2017-07-03

    Embedding nanoparticles in a responsive polymer matrix is a formidable way to fabricate hybrid materials with predesigned properties and prospective applications in actuators, mechanically tunable optical elements, and electroclinic films. However, achieving chemical compatibility between nanoparticles and organic matter is not trivial and often results in disordered structures. Herein, it is shown that using nanoparticles as exclusive cross-linkers in the preparation of liquid-crystalline polymers can yield long-range-ordered liquid-crystalline elastomers with high loadings of well-dispersed nanoparticles, as confirmed by small-angle XRD measurements. Moreover, the strategy of incorporating NPs as cross-linking units does not result in disruption of mechanical properties of the polymer, and this phenomenon was explained by the means of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Such materials can exhibit switchable behavior under thermal stimulus with stability spanning over multiple heating/cooling cycles. The presented strategy has proven to be a promising approach for the preparation of new types of hybrid liquid-crystalline elastomers that can be of value for future photonic applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Indirect rapid prototyping of sol-gel hybrid glass scaffolds for bone regeneration - Effects of organic crosslinker valence, content and molecular weight on mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Stephan; Kascholke, Christian; Flath, Tobias; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2016-04-15

    We present a series of organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel derived glasses, made from a tetraethoxysilane-derived silica sol (100% SiO2) and oligovalent organic crosslinkers functionalized with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane. The material was susceptible to heat sterilization. The hybrids were processed into pore-interconnected scaffolds by an indirect rapid prototyping method, described here for the first time for sol-gel glass materials. A large panel of polyethylene oxide-derived 2- to 4-armed crosslinkers of molecular weights ranging between 170 and 8000Da were incorporated and their effect on scaffold mechanical properties was investigated. By multiple linear regression, 'organic content' and the 'content of ethylene oxide units in the hybrid' were identified as the main factors that determined compressive strength and modulus, respectively. In general, 3- and 4-armed crosslinkers performed better than linear molecules. Compression tests and cell culture experiments with osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells showed that macroporous scaffolds can be produced with compressive strengths of up to 33±2MPa and with a pore structure that allows cells to grow deep into the scaffolds and form mineral deposits. Compressive moduli between 27±7MPa and 568±98MPa were obtained depending on the hybrid composition and problems associated with the inherent brittleness of sol-gel glass materials could be overcome. SaOS-2 cells showed cytocompatibility on hybrid glass scaffolds and mineral accumulation started as early as day 7. On day 14, we also found mineral accumulation on control hybrid glass scaffolds without cells, indicating a positive effect of the hybrid glass on mineral accumulation. We produced a hybrid sol-gel glass material with significantly improved mechanical properties towards an application in bone regeneration and processed the material into macroporous scaffolds of controlled architecture by indirect rapid prototyping. We were able to produce macroporous materials

  8. The counterbend dynamics of cross-linked filament bundles and flagella

    PubMed Central

    Coy, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Cross-linked filament bundles, such as in cilia and flagella, are ubiquitous in biology. They are considered in textbooks as simple filaments with larger stiffness. Recent observations of flagellar counterbend, however, show that induction of curvature in one section of a passive flagellum instigates a compensatory counter-curvature elsewhere, exposing the intricate role of the diminutive cross-linking proteins at large scales. We show that this effect, a material property of the cross-linking mechanics, modifies the bundle dynamics and induces a bimodal L2 − L3 length-dependent material response that departs from the Euler–Bernoulli theory. Hence, the use of simpler theories to analyse experiments can result in paradoxical interpretations. Remarkably, the counterbend dynamics instigates counter-waves in opposition to driven oscillations in distant parts of the bundle, with potential impact on the regulation of flagellar bending waves. These results have a range of physical and biological applications, including the empirical disentanglement of material quantities via counterbend dynamics. PMID:28566516

  9. Effects of Chemical Cross-linkers on Caries-affected Dentin Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, G.V.; Yamauchi, M.; Bedran-Russo, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The achievement of a strong and stable bond between composite resin and dentin remains a challenge in restorative dentistry. Over the past two decades, dental materials have been substantially improved, with better handling and bonding characteristics. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of collagen structure/stability to bond strength. We hypothesized that the induction of cross-linking in dentin collagen improves dentin collagen stability and bond strength. This study investigated the effects of glutaraldehyde- and grape seed extract-induced cross-linking on the dentin bond strengths of sound and caries-affected dentin, and on the stability of dentin collagen. Our results demonstrated that the application of chemical cross-linking agents to etched dentin prior to bonding procedures significantly enhanced the dentin bond strengths of caries-affected and sound dentin. Glutaraldehyde and grape seed extract significantly increased dentin collagen stability in sound and caries-affected dentin, likely via distinct mechanisms. PMID:19892915

  10. A photochemical crosslinking technology for tissue engineering: enhancement of the physico-chemical properties of collagen-based scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Barbara P.

    2005-04-01

    Collagen gel is a natural biomaterial commonly used in tissue engineering because of its close resemblance to nature, negligible immunogenecity and excellent biocompatibility. However, unprocessed collagen gel is mechanically weak, highly water binding and vulnerable to chemical and enzymatic attacks that limits its use in tissue engineering in particular tissues for weight-bearing purposes. The current project aimed to strengthen and stabilize collagen scaffolds using a photochemical crosslinking technique. Photochemical crosslinking is rapid, efficient, non-thermal and does not involve toxic chemicals, comparing with other crosslinking methods such as glutaraldehyde and gamma irradiation. Collagen scaffolds were fabricated using rat-tail tendon collagen. An argon laser was used to process the collagen gel after equilibrating with a photosensitizing reagent. Scanning electronic microscope was used to characterize the surface and cross-sectional morphology of the membranes. Physico-chemical properties of the collagen scaffolds such as water-binding capacity, mechanical properties and thermostability were studied. Photochemical crosslinking significantly reduced the water-binding capacity, a parameter inversely proportional to the extent of crosslinking, of collagen scaffolds. Photochemical crosslinking also significantly increased the ultimate stress and tangent modulus at 90% of the rupture strain of the collagen scaffolds. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed a significantly higher shrinkage temperature and absence of the denaturation peak during the thermoscan comparing with the controls. This means greater thermostability in the photochemically crosslinked collagen scaffolds. This study demonstrates that the photochemical crosslinking technology is able to enhance the physicochemical propterties of collagen scaffolds by strengthening, stabilizing and controlling the swelling ratio of the collagen scaffolds so as to enable their use for tissue

  11. Cross-linking connectivity in bone collagen fibrils: the COOH-terminal locus of free aldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otsubo, K.; Katz, E. P.; Mechanic, G. L.; Yamauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of the chemical state of the 16c residue of the alpha 1 chain of bone collagen were performed on samples from fetal (4-6-month embryo) and mature (2-3 year old) bovine animals. All of this residue could be accounted for in terms of three chemical states, in relative amounts which depended upon the age of the animal. Most of the residue was incorporated into either bifunctional or trifunctional cross-links. Some of it, however, was present as free aldehyde, and the content increased with maturation. This was established by isolating and characterizing the aldehyde-containing peptides generated by tryptic digestion of NaB3H4-reduced mature bone collagen. We have concluded that the connectivity of COOH-terminal cross-linking in bone collagen fibrils changes with maturation in the following way: at first, each 16c residue in each of the two alpha 1 chains of the collagen molecule is incorporated into a sheet-like pattern of intermolecular iminium cross-links, which stabilizes the young, nonmineralized fibril as a whole. In time, some of these labile cross-links maturate into pyridinoline while others dissociate back to their precursor form. The latter is likely due to changes in the molecular packing brought about by the mineralization of the collagen fibrils. The resultant reduction in cross-linking connectivity may provide a mechanism for enhancing certain mechanical characteristics of the skeleton of a mature animal.

  12. Mechanically Strong Lightweight Materials for Aerospace Applications (x-aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The X-Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material made by reacting the mesoporous surfaces of 3-D networks of inorganic nanoparticles with polymeric crosslinkers. Since the relative amount of the crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X-Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by templated casting of polymeric precursors on a nanostructured framework. The most striking feature of X-Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density (still a ultralightweight material), the mechanical strength can be up to 300 times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X-Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. XAerogels have been demonstrated with several polymers such as polyurethanes/polyureas, epoxies and polyolefins, while crosslinking of approximately 35 different oxide aerogels yields a wide variety of dimensionally stable, porous lightweight materials with interesting structural, magnetic and optical properties. X-Aerogels are evaluated for cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks and for Advanced EVA suits, where they will play the dual role of the thermal insulator/structural material. Along the same lines, major impact is also expected by the use of X-Aerogels in structural components/thermal protection for small satellites, spacecrafts, planetary vehicles and habitats.

  13. Design and evaluation of an oral multiparticulate system for dual delivery of amoxicillin and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Govender, Mershen; Choonara, Yahya E; van Vuuren, Sandy; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-09-01

    A delayed-release dual delivery system for amoxicillin and the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was developed and evaluated. Statistical optimization of a cross-linked denatured ovalbumin protective matrix was first synthesized using a Box-Behnken experimental design prior to encapsulation with glyceryl monostereate. The encapsulated ovalbumin matrix was thereafter incorporated with amoxicillin in a gastro-resistant capsule. In vitro characterization and stability analysis of the ovalbumin and encapsulated components were also performed Results: Protection of L. acidophilus probiotic against the bactericidal effects of amoxicillin within the dual formulation was determined. The dual formulation in this study proved effective and provides insight into current microbiome research to identify, classify and use functional healthy bacteria to develop novel probiotic delivery technologies.

  14. Enzymatic cross-linking of human recombinant elastin (HELP) as biomimetic approach in vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Giuliano, Liliana; Altomare, Lina; Petrini, Paola; Bandiera, Antonella; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Farè, Silvia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The use of polymers naturally occurring in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine. If compared to natural ECM proteins, proteins obtained by recombinant DNA technology have intrinsic advantages including reproducible macromolecular composition, sequence and molecular mass, and overcoming the potential pathogens transmission related to polymers of animal origin. Among ECM-mimicking materials, the family of recombinant elastin-like polymers is proposed for drug delivery applications and for the repair of damaged elastic tissues. This work aims to evaluate the potentiality of a recombinant human elastin-like polypeptide (HELP) as a base material of cross-linked matrices for regenerative medicine. The cross-linking of HELP was accomplished by the insertion of cross-linking sites, glutamine and lysine, in the recombinant polymer and generating ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine links through the enzyme transglutaminase. The cross-linking efficacy was estimated by infrared spectroscopy. Freeze-dried cross-linked matrices showed swelling ratios in deionized water (≈2500%) with good structural stability up to 24 h. Mechanical compression tests, performed at 37°C in wet conditions, in a frequency sweep mode, indicated a storage modulus of 2/3 kPa, with no significant changes when increasing number of cycles or frequency. These results demonstrate the possibility to obtain mechanically resistant hydrogels via enzymatic crosslinking of HELP. Cytotoxicity tests of cross-linked HELP were performed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, by use of transwell filter chambers for 1-7 days, or with its extracts in the opportune culture medium for 24 h. In both cases no cytotoxic effects were observed in comparison with the control cultures. On the whole, the results suggest the potentiality of this genetically engineered HELP for regenerative medicine applications, particularly for vascular tissue regeneration.

  15. Dependence of nanomechanical modification of polymers on plasma-induced cross-linking

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tajima, S.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2007-01-01

    The nanomechanical properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) modified by inductively coupled, radio-frequency Ar plasma were investigated by surface force microscopy. The polymer surface was modified under plasma conditions of different ion energy fluences and radiation intensities obtained by varying the sample distance from the plasma power source. Nanoindentation results of the surface stiffness versus maximum penetration depth did not reveal discernible differences between untreated and plasma-treated LDPE, presumably due to the small thickness of the modified surface layer that resulted in a substrate effect. On the contrary, nanoscratching experiments demonstrated a significant increase in the surface shear resistance of plasma-modifiedmore » LDPE due to chain cross-linking. These experiments revealed an enhancement of cross-linking with increasing ion energy fluence and radiation intensity, and a tip size effect on the friction force and dominant friction mechanisms (adhesion, plowing, and microcutting). In addition, LDPE samples with a LiF crystal shield were exposed to identical plasma conditions to determine the role of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the cross-linking process. The cross-linked layer of plasma-treated LDPE exhibited much higher shear strength than that of VUV/UV-treated LDPE. Plasma-induced surface modification of the nanomechanical properties of LDPE is interpreted in the context of molecular models of the untreated and cross-linked polymer surfaces derived from experimental findings.« less

  16. Dual-Functional Hydrazide-Reactive and Anhydride-Containing Oligomeric Hydrogel Building Blocks.

    PubMed

    Kascholke, Christian; Loth, Tina; Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Möller, Stephanie; Bellstedt, Peter; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-03-13

    Biomimetic hydrogels are advanced biomaterials that have been developed following different synthetic routes. Covalent postfabrication functionalization is a promising strategy to achieve efficient matrix modification decoupled of general material properties. To this end, dual-functional macromers were synthesized by free radical polymerization of maleic anhydride with diacetone acrylamide (N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)acrylamide) and pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate. Amphiphilic oligomers (M n < 7.5 kDa) with anhydride contents of 7-20% offered cross-linking reactivity to yield rigid hydrogels with gelatinous peptides (E = 4-13 kPa) and good cell adhesion properties. Mildly reactive methyl ketones as second functionality remained intact during hydrogel formation and potential of covalent matrix modification was shown using hydrazide and hydrazine model compounds. Successful secondary dihydrazide cross-linking was demonstrated by an increase of hydrogel stiffness (>40%). Efficient hydrazide/hydrazine immobilization depending on solution pH, hydrogel ketone content as well as ligand concentration for bioconjugation was shown and reversibility of hydrazone formation was indicated by physiologically relevant hydrazide release over 7 days. Proof-of-concept experiments with hydrazido-functionalized hyaluronan demonstrated potential for covalent aECM immobilization. The presented dual-functional macromers have perspective as reactive hydrogel building blocks for various biomedical applications.

  17. Antimicrobial cerium ion-chitosan crosslinked alginate biopolymer films: A novel and potential wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Kaygusuz, Hakan; Torlak, Emrah; Akın-Evingür, Gülşen; Özen, İlhan; von Klitzing, Regine; Erim, F Bedia

    2017-12-01

    Wound dressings require good antiseptic properties, mechanical strength and, more trustably, natural material ingredients. Antimicrobial properties of cerium ions and chitosan are known and alginate based wound dressings are commercially available. In this study, the advantages of these materials were combined and alginate films were crosslinked with cerium(III) solution and chitosan added cerium(III) solution. Films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), light transmittance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling experiments, water vapor transmittance tests, and mechanical stretching tests. The antibacterial and physical properties of the films were compared with those of conventional calcium alginate films. Both cerium ion crosslinked and cerium ion-chitosan crosslinked alginate films gained antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Cerium alginate-chitosan films showed high resistance to being deformed elastically. Results show that cerium alginate-chitosan films can be flexible, ultraviolet-protecting, and antibacterial wound dressings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation-mediated cellular traction directs stem cell fate in covalently crosslinked three-dimensional hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetan, Sudhir; Guvendiren, Murat; Legant, Wesley R.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Chen, Christopher S.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2013-05-01

    Although cell-matrix adhesive interactions are known to regulate stem cell differentiation, the underlying mechanisms, in particular for direct three-dimensional encapsulation within hydrogels, are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that in covalently crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels, the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is directed by the generation of degradation-mediated cellular traction, independently of cell morphology or matrix mechanics. hMSCs within HA hydrogels of equivalent elastic moduli that permit (restrict) cell-mediated degradation exhibited high (low) degrees of cell spreading and high (low) tractions, and favoured osteogenesis (adipogenesis). Moreover, switching the permissive hydrogel to a restrictive state through delayed secondary crosslinking reduced further hydrogel degradation, suppressed traction, and caused a switch from osteogenesis to adipogenesis in the absence of changes to the extended cellular morphology. Furthermore, inhibiting tension-mediated signalling in the permissive environment mirrored the effects of delayed secondary crosslinking, whereas upregulating tension induced osteogenesis even in the restrictive environment.

  19. Tailoring chain length and cross-link density in dielectric elastomer toward enhanced actuation strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quan-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hua; Liu, Hai-Dong; Jia, Fei; Zhou, Yuan-Lin; Zheng, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Adding ceramic or conductive fillers into polymers for increasing permittivity is a direct and effective approach to enhance the actuation strain of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs). Unfortunately, the major dielectric loss caused by weak interfaces potentially harms the electro-mechanical stability and lifetime of DEAs. Here, we construct a desired macromolecular network with a long chain length and low cross-link density to reduce the elastic modulus of silicone elastomers. Selecting a high molecular weight of polymethylvinylsiloxane and a low dose of the cross-linker leads the soft but tough networks with rich entanglements, poor cross-links, and a low amount of defects. Then, a ductile material with low elastic modulus but high elongation at break is obtained. It accounts for much more excellent actuation strain of Hl in comparison to that of the other silicone elastomers. Importantly, without other fillers, the ultralow dielectric loss, conductivity, and firm networks possibly promote the electro-mechanical stability and lifetime for the DEA application.

  20. Molecular and macro-scale analysis of enzyme-crosslinked silk hydrogels for rational biomaterial design.

    PubMed

    McGill, Meghan; Coburn, Jeannine M; Partlow, Benjamin P; Mu, Xuan; Kaplan, David L

    2017-11-01

    Silk fibroin-based hydrogels have exciting applications in tissue engineering and therapeutic molecule delivery; however, their utility is dependent on their diffusive properties. The present study describes a molecular and macro-scale investigation of enzymatically-crosslinked silk fibroin hydrogels, and demonstrates that these systems have tunable crosslink density and diffusivity. We developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method to assess the quantity and order of covalent tyrosine crosslinks in the hydrogels. This analysis revealed between 28 and 56% conversion of tyrosine to dityrosine, which was dependent on the silk concentration and reactant concentration. The crosslink density was then correlated with storage modulus, revealing that both crosslinking and protein concentration influenced the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The diffusive properties of the bulk material were studied by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which revealed a non-linear relationship between silk concentration and diffusivity. As a result of this work, a model for synthesizing hydrogels with known crosslink densities and diffusive properties has been established, enabling the rational design of silk hydrogels for biomedical applications. Hydrogels from naturally-derived silk polymers offer versitile opportunities in the biomedical field, however, their design has largely been an empirical process. We present a fundamental study of the crosslink density, storage modulus, and diffusion behavior of enzymatically-crosslinked silk hydrogels to better inform scaffold design. These studies revealed unexpected non-linear trends in the crosslink density and diffusivity of silk hydrogels with respect to protein concentration and crosslink reagent concentration. This work demonstrates the tunable diffusivity and crosslinking in silk fibroin hydrogels, and enables the rational design of biomaterials. Further, the characterization methods

  1. Dual mechanism of integrin αIIbβ3 closure in procoagulant platelets.

    PubMed

    Mattheij, Nadine J A; Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Jobe, Shawn M; Wieschhaus, Adam J; Chishti, Athar H; Collins, Peter; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Cosemans, Judith M E M

    2013-05-10

    Inactivation of integrin αIIbβ3 reverses platelet aggregate formation upon coagulation. Platelets from patient (Scott) and mouse (Capn1(-/-) and Ppif(-/-)) blood reveal a dual mechanism of αIIbβ3 inactivation: by calpain-2 cleavage of integrin-associated proteins and by cyclophilin D/TMEM16F-dependent phospholipid scrambling. These data provide novel insight into the switch mechanisms from aggregating to procoagulant platelets. Aggregation of platelets via activated integrin αIIbβ3 is a prerequisite for thrombus formation. Phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets with a key role in the coagulation process disconnect from a thrombus by integrin inactivation via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that αIIbβ3 inactivation in procoagulant platelets relies on a sustained high intracellular Ca(2+), stimulating intracellular cleavage of the β3 chain, talin, and Src kinase. Inhibition of calpain activity abolished protein cleavage, but only partly suppressed αIIbβ3 inactivation. Integrin αIIbβ3 inactivation was unchanged in platelets from Capn1(-/-) mice, suggesting a role of the calpain-2 isoform. Scott syndrome platelets, lacking the transmembrane protein TMEM16F and having low phosphatidylserine exposure, displayed reduced αIIbβ3 inactivation with the remaining activity fully dependent on calpain. In platelets from Ppif(-/-) mice, lacking mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) formation, agonist-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and αIIbβ3 inactivation were reduced. Treatment of human platelets with cyclosporin A gave a similar phenotype. Together, these data point to a dual mechanism of αIIbβ3 inactivation via calpain(-2) cleavage of integrin-associated proteins and via TMEM16F-dependent phospholipid scrambling with an assistant role of mPTP formation.

  2. Mechanical unloading reduces microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 expression to inhibit β-catenin signaling and osteoblast proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chong; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Lifang; Tian, Ye; Chen, Zhihao; Li, Dijie; Zhao, Fan; Su, Peihong; Ma, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ge; Miao, Zhiping; Wang, Liping; Qian, Airong; Xian, Cory J

    2018-07-01

    Mechanical unloading was considered a major threat to bone homeostasis, and has been shown to decrease osteoblast proliferation although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) is a cytoskeletal protein that regulates cellular processes and Wnt/β-catenin pathway, an essential signaling pathway for osteoblasts. However, the relationship between MACF1 expression and mechanical unloading, and the function and the associated mechanisms of MACF1 in regulating osteoblast proliferation are unclear. This study investigated effects of mechanical unloading on MACF1 expression levels in cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and in femurs of mice with hind limb unloading; and it also examined the role and potential action mechanisms of MACF1 in osteoblast proliferation in MACF1-knockdown, overexpressed or control MC3T3-E1 cells treated with or without the mechanical unloading condition. Results showed that the mechanical unloading condition inhibited osteoblast proliferation and MACF1 expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and mouse femurs. MACF1 knockdown decreased osteoblast proliferation, while MACF1 overexpression increased it. The inhibitory effect of mechanical unloading on osteoblast proliferation also changed with MACF1 expression levels. Furthermore, MACF1 was found to enhance β-catenin expression and activity, and mechanical unloading decreased β-catenin expression through MACF1. Moreover, β-catenin was found an important regulator of osteoblast proliferation, as its preservation by treatment with its agonist lithium attenuated the inhibitory effects of MACF1-knockdown or mechanical unloading on osteoblast proliferation. Taken together, mechanical unloading decreases MACF1 expression, and MACF1 up-regulates osteoblast proliferation through enhancing β-catenin signaling. This study has thus provided a mechanism for mechanical unloading-induced inhibited osteoblast proliferation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dual Thermosensitive Hydrogels Assembled from the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Dragline Silk.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Song, Wen-Wen; Xia, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-09

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have great potentials in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Due to the advantages of precise control over molecular weight and being biodegradable, protein-based hydrogels and their applications have been extensively studied. However, protein hydrogels with dual thermosensitive properties are rarely reported. Here we present the first report of dual thermosensitive hydrogels assembled from the conserved C-terminal domain of spider dragline silk. First, we found that recombinant C-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) of the spider Nephila clavipes formed hydrogels when cooled to approximately 2 °C or heated to 65 °C. The conformational changes and self-assembly of the recombinant protein were studied to understand the mechanism of the gelation processes using multiple methods. It was proposed that the gelation in the low-temperature regime was dominated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between folded protein molecules, whereas the gelation in the high-temperature regime was due to cross-linking of the exposed hydrophobic patches resulting from partial unfolding of the protein upon heating. More interestingly, genetic fusion of the C-terminal domain to a short repetitive region of N. clavipes MaSp1 resulted in a chimeric protein that formed a hydrogel with significantly improved mechanical properties at low temperatures between 2 and 10 °C. Furthermore, the formation of similar hydrogels was observed for the recombinant C-terminal domains of dragline silk of different spider species, thus demonstrating the conserved ability to form dual thermosensitive hydrogels. These findings may be useful in the design and construction of novel protein hydrogels with tunable multiple thermosensitivity for applications in the future.

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Non-Equilibrium Plasma as a Green Tool to Crosslink Gelatin Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Anna; Bigi, Adriana; Colombo, Vittorio; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Gherardi, Matteo; Gualandi, Chiara; Oleari, Maria Chiara; Panzavolta, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Electrospun gelatin nanofibers attract great interest as a natural biomaterial for cartilage and tendon repair despite their high solubility in aqueous solution, which makes them also difficult to crosslink by means of chemical agents. In this work, we explore the efficiency of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma in stabilizing gelatin nanofibers. We demonstrate that plasma represents an innovative, easy and environmentally friendly approach to successfully crosslink gelatin electrospun mats directly in the solid state. Plasma treated gelatin mats display increased structural stability and excellent retention of fibrous morphology after immersion in aqueous solution. This method can be successfully applied to induce crosslinking both in pure gelatin and genipin-containing gelatin electrospun nanofibers, the latter requiring an even shorter plasma exposure time. A complete characterization of the crosslinked nanofibres, including mechanical properties, morphological observations, stability in physiological solution and structural modifications, has been carried out in order to get insights on the occurring reactions triggered by plasma.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of DTBP-crosslinked chitosan scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adekogbe, Iyabo; Ghanem, Amyl

    2005-12-01

    Chitosan, the deacetylated derivative of chitin, is a promising scaffold material for skin tissue engineering applications. It is biocompatible and biodegradable, and the degradation products are resorbable. However, the rapid degradation of chitosan and its low mechanical strength are concerns that may limit its use. In this study, chitosan with 80%, 90% and 100% degree of deacetylation (DDA) was crosslinked with dimethyl 3-3, dithio bis' propionimidate (DTBP) and compared to uncrosslinked scaffolds. The scaffolds were characterized with respect to important tissue engineering properties. The tensile strength of scaffolds made from 100% DDA chitosan was significantly higher than for scaffolds made from 80% and 90% DDA chitosan. Crosslinking of scaffolds with DTBP increased the tensile strength. Crosslinking with DTBP had no significant effect on water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) or water absorption but had significant effect on the pore size and porosity of the samples. All samples showed a WVTR and pore size distribution suitable for skin tissue engineering; however, the water absorption and porosity were lower than the optimal values for skin tissue engineering. The biodegradation rate of scaffolds crosslinked with DTBP and glutaraldehyde (GTA) were reduced while no significant effect was observed in biodegradation of the samples made from 100% DDA chitosan whether crosslinked or uncrosslinked after 24 days of degradation.

  6. Selective two-photon collagen crosslinking in situ measured by Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Myunghwan; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Two-photon polymerization and crosslinking are commonly used methods for microfabrication of three-dimensional structures with applications spanning from photonic microdevices, drug delivery systems, to cellular scaffolds. However, the use of two-photon processes for precise, internal modification of biological tissues has not yet been reported. One of the major challenges has been a lack of appropriate tools to monitor and characterize crosslinked regions nondestructively. Here, we demonstrate spatially selective two-photon collagen crosslinking (2P-CXL) in intact tissue for the first time. Using riboflavin photosensitizer and femtosecond laser irradiation, we crosslinked a small volume of tissue within animal corneas. Collagen fiber orientations and photobleaching were characterized by second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence imaging, respectively. Using confocal Brillouin microscopy, we measured local changes in longitudinal mechanical moduli and visualized the cross-linked pattern without perturbing surrounding non-irradiated regions. 2P-CXL-induced tissue stiffening was comparable to that achieved with conventional one-photon CXL. Our results demonstrate the ability to selectively stiffen biological tissue in situ at high spatial resolution, with broad implications in ophthalmology, laser surgery, and tissue engineering.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of photo-crosslinkable 4-styryl-pyridine modified alginate.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Nadia H; Monier, M; Alatawi, Raedah A S

    2016-07-10

    In this article photo-crosslinkablestyryl-pyridine modified alginate (ASP-Alg) was prepared and entirely investigated utilizing different instrumental techniques such as Elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR),(13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Upon irradiation in the UV region, the casted ASP-Alg membranes were cross-linked through the [2π+2π] cycloaddition reaction of the inserted photo-active styryl pyridine moieties. Both cross-linking density and kinetics were monitored by examining the UV-vis light spectra of the irradiated membrane at predetermined time intervals and the obtained results were found to fit with the second order mathematical kinetic model, revealing the performance of the cross-linking via bimolecular [2π+2π] cycloaddition reaction. Also, the swelling behaviors along with biodegradability were also studied, and the results indicated the decrease of the swelling ratio and degradation rate by increasing the cross-linking density. Moreover, the mechanical properties were also examined under both wet and dry conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ICC-CLASS: isotopically-coded cleavable crosslinking analysis software suite

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Successful application of crosslinking combined with mass spectrometry for studying proteins and protein complexes requires specifically-designed crosslinking reagents, experimental techniques, and data analysis software. Using isotopically-coded ("heavy and light") versions of the crosslinker and cleavable crosslinking reagents is analytically advantageous for mass spectrometric applications and provides a "handle" that can be used to distinguish crosslinked peptides of different types, and to increase the confidence of the identification of the crosslinks. Results Here, we describe a program suite designed for the analysis of mass spectrometric data obtained with isotopically-coded cleavable crosslinkers. The suite contains three programs called: DX, DXDX, and DXMSMS. DX searches the mass spectra for the presence of ion signal doublets resulting from the light and heavy isotopic forms of the isotopically-coded crosslinking reagent used. DXDX searches for possible mass matches between cleaved and uncleaved isotopically-coded crosslinks based on the established chemistry of the cleavage reaction for a given crosslinking reagent. DXMSMS assigns the crosslinks to the known protein sequences, based on the isotopically-coded and un-coded MS/MS fragmentation data of uncleaved and cleaved peptide crosslinks. Conclusion The combination of these three programs, which are tailored to the analytical features of the specific isotopically-coded cleavable crosslinking reagents used, represents a powerful software tool for automated high-accuracy peptide crosslink identification. See: http://www.creativemolecules.com/CM_Software.htm PMID:20109223

  9. Arp2/3 Complex from Acanthamoeba Binds Profilin and Cross-links Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, R. Dyche; Kelleher, Joseph F.; Xu, James; Pollard, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    The Arp2/3 complex was first purified from Acanthamoeba castellanii by profilin affinity chromatography. The mechanism of interaction with profilin was unknown but was hypothesized to be mediated by either Arp2 or Arp3. Here we show that the Arp2 subunit of the complex can be chemically cross-linked to the actin-binding site of profilin. By analytical ultracentrifugation, rhodamine-labeled profilin binds Arp2/3 complex with a Kd of 7 μM, an affinity intermediate between the low affinity of profilin for barbed ends of actin filaments and its high affinity for actin monomers. These data suggest the barbed end of Arp2 is exposed, but Arp2 and Arp3 are not packed together in the complex exactly like two actin monomers in a filament. Arp2/3 complex also cross-links actin filaments into small bundles and isotropic networks, which are mechanically stiffer than solutions of actin filaments alone. Arp2/3 complex is concentrated at the leading edge of motile Acanthamoeba, and its localization is distinct from that of α-actinin, another filament cross-linking protein. Based on localization and actin filament nucleation and cross-linking activities, we propose a role for Arp2/3 in determining the structure of the actin filament network at the leading edge of motile cells. PMID:9529382

  10. [Complications and postoperative therapeutic strategies in cross-linking].

    PubMed

    Kohlhaas, M

    2017-08-01

    The reduced corneal mechanical stability in keratoconus and similar collagen diseases can lead to a progressive and irregular corneal shape and decrease of visual acuity. A progression of keratectatic diseases can be shown with corneal topography. Keratoconus can be treated by photo-oxidative cross-linking of the corneal collagen. In order to achieve a high absorption of irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin at a concentration of 0.1% and UVA light at a wavelength of 370 nm corresponding to the relative maximum absorption of riboflavin (vitamin B2) are used. Evidence for corneal cross-linking are the increase of biomechanical stiffness, the increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, a higher shrinkage temperature, a lower swelling rate and an increased diameter of collagen fibers. The currently available data demonstrate that the therapeutic cross-linking procedure is safe when respecting the important theoretical and clinical parameters and that a progression of the keratoconus can be avoided. In 80% of cases an average levelling of the curvature of approximately 2 dpt can be achieved, which leads not only to stabilization but also to an increase in visual acuity of approximately 1.2 lines. In a Cochrane review from 2015 publications about complications and results were reviewed. Complication rates ranged from 1-10% depending on the initial situation, comorbidities and stage of the keratoconus. The most important complications are early epithelial wound healing problems as well as extremely rare perforations. Corneal cross-linking is a well-established and safe procedure but is not free of complications.

  11. Novel active stabilization technology in highly crosslinked UHMWPEs for superior stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Ebru; Neils, Andrew L.; Wannomae, Keith K.; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2014-12-01

    Radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the bearing of choice in joint arthroplasty. The demands on the longevity of this polymer are likely to increase with the recently advancing deterioration of the performance of alternative metal-on-metal implants. Vitamin E-stabilized, cross-linked UHMWPEs are considered the next generation of improved UHMWPE bearing surfaces for improving the oxidation resistance of the polymer. It was recently discovered that in the absence of radiation-induced free radicals, lipids absorbed into UHMWPE from the synovial fluid can initiate oxidation and result in new free radical-mediated oxidation mechanisms. In the presence of radiation-induced free radicals, it is possible for the polymer to oxidize through both existing free radicals at the time of implantation and through newly formed free radicals in vivo. Thus, we showed that reducing the radiation-induced free radicals in vitamin E-stabilized UHMWPE would increase its oxidative stability and presumably lead to improved longevity. We describe mechanical annealing and warm irradiation of irradiated vitamin E blends as novel methods to eliminate 99% of radiation-induced free radicals without sacrificing crystallinity. These are significant improvements in the processing of highly cross-linked UHMWPE for joint implants with improved longevity.

  12. Crosslinkable coatings from phosphorylcholine-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A L; Cumming, Z L; Goreish, H H; Kirkwood, L C; Tolhurst, L A; Stratford, P W

    2001-01-01

    2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was synthesised and then used in the preparation of crosslinked polymer membranes with lauryl methacrylate, hydroxypropyl methacrylate and trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (crosslinker) comonomers. Some physical aspects of the membrane properties were evaluated in order to establish the basis for the synthesis of a series of post-crosslinkable polymers. These materials were made by copolymerisation of the constituent monomers via a free radical method, and characterised using NMR, FT-IR, viscometry and elemental analysis. The optimum crosslink density and conditions required for curing coatings of these polymers were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and showed the inclusion of 5 mol% silyl crosslinking agent to be ideal. A nanoindentation technique was employed to determine if the coating developed elasticity upon crosslinking. The biological properties of the coatings were evaluated using a variety of protein adsorption assays and blood contacting experiments, and an enzyme immunoassay was developed to detect E. coli in order to assess the level of bacterial adhesion to these biomaterials. Polymers of this type were shown to be very useful as coating materials for improving the biocompatibility of, or reducing the levels of adherent bacteria to medical devices.

  13. Natural polyphenols enhance stability of crosslinked UHMWPE for joint implants.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Gao, Guorong; Liu, Xincai; Fu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Radiation-crosslinked UHMWPE has been used for joint implants since the 1990s. Postirradiation remelting enhances oxidative stability, but with some loss in strength and toughness. Vitamin E-stabilized crosslinked UHMWPE has shown improved strength and stability as compared with irradiated and remelted UHMWPE. With more active phenolic hydroxyl groups, natural polyphenols are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as potent stabilizers and could be useful for oxidative stability in crosslinked UHMWPE. We asked whether UHMWPE blended with polyphenols would (1) show higher oxidation resistance after radiation crosslinking; (2) preserve the mechanical properties of UHMWPE after accelerated aging; and (3) alter the wear resistance of radiation-crosslinked UHMWPE. The polyphenols, gallic acid and dodecyl gallate, were blended with medical-grade UHMWPE followed by consolidation and electron beam irradiation at 100 kGy. Radiation-crosslinked virgin and vitamin E-blended UHMWPEs were used as reference materials. The UHMWPEs were aged at 120 °C in air with oxidation levels analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Tensile (n = 5 per group) and impact (n = 3 per group) properties before and after aging as per ASTM F2003 were evaluated. The wear rates were examined by pin-on-disc testing (n = 3 per group). The data were reported as mean ± SDs. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student's t-test for a two-tailed distribution with unequal variance for tensile and impact data obtained with n ≥ 3. A significant difference is defined with p < 0.05. The oxidation induction time of 100 kGy UHMWPE was prolonged to 144 hours with 0.05 wt% dodecyl gallate and 192 hours with 0.05 wt% gallic acid compared with 48 hours for 0.05 wt% vitamin E-blended UHMWPE. Accelerated aging of these polyphenol-blended UHMWPEs resulted in ultimate tensile strength of 50.4 ± 1.4 MPa and impact strength of 53 ± 5 kJ/m(2) for 100 kGy-irradiated UHMWPE with 0.05 wt% dodecyl gallate

  14. Biologically active and biomimetic dual gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, P; Pedraz, J L; Orive, G

    2017-05-01

    We have designed, developed and optimized Genipin cross-linked 3D gelatin scaffolds that were biologically active and biomimetic, show a dual activity both for growth factor and cell delivery. Type B gelatin powder was dissolved in DI water. 100mg of genipin was dissolved in 10ml of DI water. Three genipin concentrations were prepared: 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% (w/v). Solutions were mixed at 40°C and under stirring and then left crosslinking for 72h. Scaffolds were obtained by punching 8 mm-cylinders into ethanol 70% solution for 10min and then freeze-drying. Scaffolds were biologically, biomechanically and morphologically evaluated. Cell adhesion and morphology of D1-Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and L-929 fibroblast was studied. Vascular endothelial grwoth factor (VEGF) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) were used as model proteins. Swelling ratio increased and younǵs module decreased along with the concentration of genipin. All scaffolds were biocompatible according to the toxicity test. MSC and L-929 cell adhesion improved in 0.2% of genipin, obtaining better results with MSCs. VEGF and SHH were released from the gels. This preliminary study suggest that the biologically active and dual gelatin scaffolds may be used for tissue engineering approaches like bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gellan gum microspheres crosslinked with trivalent ion: effect of polymer and crosslinker concentrations on drug release and mucoadhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Boni, Fernanda Isadora; Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    Gellan gum microspheres were obtained by ionotropic gelation technique, using the trivalent ion Al(3+). The percentage of entrapment efficiency ranged from 48.76 to 87.52% and 2(2) randomized full factorial design demonstrated that both the increase of polymer concentration and the decrease of crosslinker concentration presented a positive effect in the amount of encapsulated drug. Microspheres size and circularity ranged from 700.17 to 938.32 μm and from 0.641 to 0.796 μm, respectively. The increase of polymer concentration (1-2%) and crosslinker concentration (3-5%) led to the enlargement of particle size and circularity. However, the association of increased crosslinker concentration and reduced polymer content made the particles more irregular. In vitro and ex vivo tests evidenced the high mucoadhesiveness of microspheres. The high liquid uptake ability of the microspheres was demonstrated and the pH variation did not affect this parameter. Drug release was pH dependent, with low release rates in acid pH (42.40% and 44.93%) and a burst effect in phosphate buffer pH (7.4). The Weibull model had the best correlation with the drug release data, demonstrating that the release process was driven by a complex mechanism involving the erosion and swelling of the matrix or by non-Fickian diffusion.

  16. Photo-crosslinked alginate hydrogels support enhanced matrix accumulation by nucleus pulposus cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chou, A I; Akintoye, S O; Nicoll, S B

    2009-10-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a major health concern in the United States. Replacement of the nucleus pulposus (NP) with injectable biomaterials represents a potential treatment strategy for IVD degeneration. The objective of this study was to characterize the extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly and functional properties of NP cell-encapsulated, photo-crosslinked alginate hydrogels in comparison to ionically crosslinked alginate constructs. Methacrylated alginate was synthesized by esterification of hydroxyl groups with methacrylic anhydride. Bovine NP cells were encapsulated in alginate hydrogels by ionic crosslinking using CaCl(2) or through photo-crosslinking upon exposure to long-wave UV light in the presence of a photoinitiator. The hydrogels were evaluated in vitro by gross and histological analysis and in vivo using a murine subcutaneous pouch model. In vivo samples were analyzed for gene expression, ECM localization and accumulation, and equilibrium mechanical properties. Ionically crosslinked hydrogels exhibited inferior proteoglycan accumulation in vitro and were unable to maintain structural integrity in vivo. In further studies, photo-crosslinked alginate hydrogels were implanted for up to 8 weeks to examine NP tissue formation. Photo-crosslinked hydrogels displayed temporal increases in gene expression and assembly of type II collagen and proteoglycans. Additionally, hydrogels remained intact over the duration of the study and the equilibrium Young's modulus increased from 1.24+/-0.09 kPa to 4.31+/-1.39 kPa, indicating the formation of functional matrix with properties comparable to those of the native NP. These findings support the use of photo-crosslinked alginate hydrogels as biomaterial scaffolds for NP replacement.

  17. DNA-crosslinker cisplatin eradicates bacterial persister cells.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nityananda; Wood, Thammajun L; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Wood, Thomas K

    2016-09-01

    For all bacteria, nearly every antimicrobial fails since a subpopulation of the bacteria enter a dormant state known as persistence, in which the antimicrobials are rendered ineffective due to the lack of metabolism. This tolerance to antibiotics makes microbial infections the leading cause of death worldwide and makes treating chronic infections, including those of wounds problematic. Here, we show that the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug cisplatin [cis-diamminodichloroplatinum(II)], which mainly forms intra-strand DNA crosslinks, eradicates Escherichia coli K-12 persister cells through a growth-independent mechanism. Additionally, cisplatin is more effective at killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa persister cells than mitomycin C, which forms inter-strand DNA crosslinks, and cisplatin eradicates the persister cells of several pathogens including enterohemorrhagic E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and P. aeruginosa. Cisplatin was also highly effective against clinical isolates of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Therefore, cisplatin has broad spectrum activity against persister cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1984-1992. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Crosslinking of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides to modulate the expected half-life.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, L; Madaghiele, M; Parisi, C; Gatti, F; Sannino, A

    2014-12-01

    The microstructural, mechanical, compositional, and degradative properties of a nerve conduit are known to strongly affect the regenerative process of the injured peripheral nerve. Starting from the fabrication of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides, according to a spin-casting process reported in the literature, this study further investigates the possibility to modulate the degradation rate of the scaffolds over a wide time frame, in an attempt to match different rates of nerve regeneration that might be encountered in vivo. To this aim, three different crosslinking methods, that is, dehydrothermal (DHT), carbodiimide-based (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde-based (GTA) crosslinking, were selected. The elastically effective degree of crosslinking, attained by each method and evaluated according to the classical rubber elasticity theory, was found to significantly tune the in vitro half-life (t1/2 ) of the matrices, with an exponential dependence of the latter on the crosslink density. The high crosslinking efficacy of EDAC and GTA treatments, respectively threefold and fourfold when compared to the one attained by DHT, led to a sharp increase of the corresponding in vitro half-lives (ca., 10, 172, and 690 h, for DHT, EDAC, and GTA treated matrices, respectively). As shown by cell viability assays, the cytocompatibility of both DHT and EDAC treatments, as opposed to the toxicity of GTA, suggests that such methods are suitable to crosslink collagen-based scaffolds conceived for clinical use. In particular, nerve guides with expected high residence times in vivo might be produced by finely controlling the biocompatible reaction(s) adopted for crosslinking. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. DNA Photolithography with Cinnamate Crosslinkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Lang (Inventor); Chaikin, Paul Michael (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to cinnamate crosslinkers. Specifically, the present invention relates to gels, biochips, and functionalized surfaces useful as probes, in assays, in gels, and for drug delivery, and methods of making the same using a newly-discovered crosslinking configuration.

  20. Synthesis and characterisation of cross-linked chitosan composites functionalised with silver and gold nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Catherine; Alcock, Emma; Buttimer, Finbarr; Schmidt, Michael; Clarke, David; Pemble, Martyn; Bardosova, Maria

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of a range of cross-linked chitosan composites with potential antimicrobial applications. They were formed by cross-linking chitosan and siloxane networks and by introducing silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs). The aim was to investigate whether adding the metal NPs to the chitosan-siloxane composite would lead to a material with enhanced antimicrobial ability as compared to chitosan itself. The composites were synthesised in hydrogel form with the metal NPs embedded in the cross-linked chitosan network. Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were employed to investigate the structural properties of the composite and the tensile strength of the structures was measured. It was found that the addition of metal NPs did not influence the mechanical strength of the composite. A crystal violet attachment assay results displayed a significant reduction in the attachment of E. coli to the cross-linked chitosan surfaces. Release profile tests suggest that the metal NPs do not contribute to the overall antimicrobial activity under neutral conditions. The contribution to the mechanical and antimicrobial properties from cross-linking with siloxane is significant, giving rise to a versatile, durable, antimicrobial material suitable for thin film formation, wound dressings or the coating of various surfaces where robustness and antimicrobial control are required.

  1. Synthesis and characterisation of cross-linked chitosan composites functionalised with silver and gold nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Catherine; Alcock, Emma; Buttimer, Finbarr; Schmidt, Michael; Clarke, David; Pemble, Martyn; Bardosova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present a study of a range of cross-linked chitosan composites with potential antimicrobial applications. They were formed by cross-linking chitosan and siloxane networks and by introducing silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs). The aim was to investigate whether adding the metal NPs to the chitosan-siloxane composite would lead to a material with enhanced antimicrobial ability as compared to chitosan itself. The composites were synthesised in hydrogel form with the metal NPs embedded in the cross-linked chitosan network. Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were employed to investigate the structural properties of the composite and the tensile strength of the structures was measured. It was found that the addition of metal NPs did not influence the mechanical strength of the composite. A crystal violet attachment assay results displayed a significant reduction in the attachment of E. coli to the cross-linked chitosan surfaces. Release profile tests suggest that the metal NPs do not contribute to the overall antimicrobial activity under neutral conditions. The contribution to the mechanical and antimicrobial properties from cross-linking with siloxane is significant, giving rise to a versatile, durable, antimicrobial material suitable for thin film formation, wound dressings or the coating of various surfaces where robustness and antimicrobial control are required. PMID:28804527

  2. Synthesis and characterisation of cross-linked chitosan composites functionalised with silver and gold nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Catherine; Alcock, Emma; Buttimer, Finbarr; Schmidt, Michael; Clarke, David; Pemble, Martyn; Bardosova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of a range of cross-linked chitosan composites with potential antimicrobial applications. They were formed by cross-linking chitosan and siloxane networks and by introducing silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs). The aim was to investigate whether adding the metal NPs to the chitosan-siloxane composite would lead to a material with enhanced antimicrobial ability as compared to chitosan itself. The composites were synthesised in hydrogel form with the metal NPs embedded in the cross-linked chitosan network. Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were employed to investigate the structural properties of the composite and the tensile strength of the structures was measured. It was found that the addition of metal NPs did not influence the mechanical strength of the composite. A crystal violet attachment assay results displayed a significant reduction in the attachment of E. coli to the cross-linked chitosan surfaces. Release profile tests suggest that the metal NPs do not contribute to the overall antimicrobial activity under neutral conditions. The contribution to the mechanical and antimicrobial properties from cross-linking with siloxane is significant, giving rise to a versatile, durable, antimicrobial material suitable for thin film formation, wound dressings or the coating of various surfaces where robustness and antimicrobial control are required.

  3. The effect of riboflavin/UVA cross-linking on anti-degeneration and promoting angiogenic capability of decellularized liver matrix.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Junxi; Liu, Peng; Zheng, Xinglong; Dong, Dinghui; Fan, Shujuan; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Xuemin; Wang, Bo; Lv, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Weak mechanical property and unstable degradation rate limited the application of decellularized liver matrix in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to explore a new method for improving the mechanical properties, anti-degeneration and angiogenic capability of decellularized liver matrix. This was achieved by a novel approach using riboflavin/ultraviolet A treatment to induce collagen cross-linking of decellularized matrix. Histological staining and scanning electron microscope showed that the diameter of cross-linked fibers significantly increased compared with the control group. The average peak load and Young's modulus of decellularized matrix were obviously improved after cross-linking. Then we implanted the modified matrix into the rat hepatic injury model to test the anti-degeneration and angiogenic capability of riboflavin/UVA cross-linked decellularized liver scaffolds in vivo. The results indicated that cross-linked scaffolds degrade more slowly than those in the control group. In the experiment group, average microvessel density in the implanted matrix was higher than that in the control group since the first week after implantation. In conclusion, we initiated the method to improve the biomechanical properties of decellularized liver scaffolds by riboflavin/UVA cross-linking, and more importantly, its improvement on anti-degeneration and angiogenesis was identified. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2662-2669, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  5. Modeling molecular mechanisms in the axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooij, R.; Miller, K. E.; Kuhl, E.

    2017-03-01

    Axons are living systems that display highly dynamic changes in stiffness, viscosity, and internal stress. However, the mechanistic origin of these phenomenological properties remains elusive. Here we establish a computational mechanics model that interprets cellular-level characteristics as emergent properties from molecular-level events. We create an axon model of discrete microtubules, which are connected to neighboring microtubules via discrete crosslinking mechanisms that obey a set of simple rules. We explore two types of mechanisms: passive and active crosslinking. Our passive and active simulations suggest that the stiffness and viscosity of the axon increase linearly with the crosslink density, and that both are highly sensitive to the crosslink detachment and reattachment times. Our model explains how active crosslinking with dynein motors generates internal stresses and actively drives axon elongation. We anticipate that our model will allow us to probe a wide variety of molecular phenomena—both in isolation and in interaction—to explore emergent cellular-level features under physiological and pathological conditions.

  6. Mucus clearance from the pulmonary system by mechanical means: a dual-excitation approach.

    PubMed

    Ignagni, Mario; O'Dea, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A dual-excitation approach to mechanical clearance of mucus from the pulmonary system is described. The approach employs independently controlled vibratory and constrictive pressure stimulations to the thorax. Patient cooperative efforts are integrated into the therapy regimen as a means of enhancing the efficacy of the treatment. An engineering model that demonstrates the capability to generate vibratory and constrictive pressure variations at specified levels is described.

  7. Effect of inclination and anteversion angles on kinematics and contact mechanics of dual mobility hip implants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongchang; Chen, Zhenxian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Shibin; Jin, Zhongmin

    2018-06-12

    Steep inclination and excessive anteversion angles of acetabular cups could result in adverse edge-loading. This, in turn, increases contact pressure and impingement risk for traditional artificial hip joints. However, the influence of high inclination and anteversion angles on both the kinematics and contact mechanics of dual mobility hip implants has rarely been examined. This study focuses on investigating both the kinematics and contact mechanics of a dual mobility hip implant under different inclination and anteversion angles using a dynamic explicit finite element method developed in a previous study. The results showed that an inclination angle of both the back shell and liner ranging from 30° to 70° had little influence on the maximum contact pressure and the accumulated sliding distance of inner and outer surfaces of the liner under normal walking gait. The same results were obtained for an anteversion angle of the liner varying between -20° and +20°. However, when the anteversion angle of the liner was beyond this range, the contact between the femoral neck and the inner rim of the liner occurred. Consequently, this caused a relative rotation at the outer articulation. This suggests that both inclination and modest anteversion angles have little influence on the kinematics and contact mechanics of dual mobility hip implants. However, too excessive anteversion angle could result in a rotation for this kind of hip implant at both articulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factor XIIIa-dependent retention of red blood cells in clots is mediated by fibrin α-chain crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, James R; Duval, Cédric; Wang, Yiming; Hansen, Caroline E; Ahn, Byungwook; Mooberry, Micah J; Clark, Martha A; Johnsen, Jill M; Lord, Susan T; Lam, Wilbur A; Meijers, Joost C M; Ni, Heyu; Ariëns, Robert A S; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2015-10-15

    Factor XIII(a) [FXIII(a)] stabilizes clots and increases resistance to fibrinolysis and mechanical disruption. FXIIIa also mediates red blood cell (RBC) retention in contracting clots and determines venous thrombus size, suggesting FXIII(a) is a potential target for reducing thrombosis. However, the mechanism by which FXIIIa retains RBCs in clots is unknown. We determined the effect of FXIII(a) on human and murine clot weight and composition. Real-time microscopy revealed extensive RBC loss from clots formed in the absence of FXIIIa activity, and RBCs exhibited transient deformation as they exited the clots. Fibrin band-shift assays and flow cytometry did not reveal crosslinking of fibrin or FXIIIa substrates to RBCs, suggesting FXIIIa does not crosslink RBCs directly to the clot. RBCs were retained in clots from mice deficient in α2-antiplasmin, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, or fibronectin, indicating RBC retention does not depend on these FXIIIa substrates. RBC retention in clots was positively correlated with fibrin network density; however, FXIIIa inhibition reduced RBC retention at all network densities. FXIIIa inhibition reduced RBC retention in clots formed with fibrinogen that lacks γ-chain crosslinking sites, but not in clots that lack α-chain crosslinking sites. Moreover, FXIIIa inhibitor concentrations that primarily block α-, but not γ-, chain crosslinking decreased RBC retention in clots. These data indicate FXIIIa-dependent retention of RBCs in clots is mediated by fibrin α-chain crosslinking. These findings expose a newly recognized, essential role for fibrin crosslinking during whole blood clot formation and consolidation and establish FXIIIa activity as a key determinant of thrombus composition and size. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Factor XIIIa-dependent retention of red blood cells in clots is mediated by fibrin α-chain crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, James R.; Duval, Cédric; Wang, Yiming; Hansen, Caroline E.; Ahn, Byungwook; Mooberry, Micah J.; Clark, Martha A.; Johnsen, Jill M.; Lord, Susan T.; Lam, Wilbur A.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Ni, Heyu; Ariëns, Robert A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIII(a) [FXIII(a)] stabilizes clots and increases resistance to fibrinolysis and mechanical disruption. FXIIIa also mediates red blood cell (RBC) retention in contracting clots and determines venous thrombus size, suggesting FXIII(a) is a potential target for reducing thrombosis. However, the mechanism by which FXIIIa retains RBCs in clots is unknown. We determined the effect of FXIII(a) on human and murine clot weight and composition. Real-time microscopy revealed extensive RBC loss from clots formed in the absence of FXIIIa activity, and RBCs exhibited transient deformation as they exited the clots. Fibrin band-shift assays and flow cytometry did not reveal crosslinking of fibrin or FXIIIa substrates to RBCs, suggesting FXIIIa does not crosslink RBCs directly to the clot. RBCs were retained in clots from mice deficient in α2-antiplasmin, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, or fibronectin, indicating RBC retention does not depend on these FXIIIa substrates. RBC retention in clots was positively correlated with fibrin network density; however, FXIIIa inhibition reduced RBC retention at all network densities. FXIIIa inhibition reduced RBC retention in clots formed with fibrinogen that lacks γ-chain crosslinking sites, but not in clots that lack α-chain crosslinking sites. Moreover, FXIIIa inhibitor concentrations that primarily block α-, but not γ-, chain crosslinking decreased RBC retention in clots. These data indicate FXIIIa-dependent retention of RBCs in clots is mediated by fibrin α-chain crosslinking. These findings expose a newly recognized, essential role for fibrin crosslinking during whole blood clot formation and consolidation and establish FXIIIa activity as a key determinant of thrombus composition and size. PMID:26324704

  10. Collagen cross-linking: insights on the evolution of metazoan extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Pascual, Fernando; Slatter, David Anthony

    2016-11-23

    Collagens constitute a large family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that play a fundamental role in supporting the structure of various tissues in multicellular animals. The mechanical strength of fibrillar collagens is highly dependent on the formation of covalent cross-links between individual fibrils, a process initiated by the enzymatic action of members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family. Fibrillar collagens are present in a wide variety of animals, therefore often being associated with metazoan evolution, where the emergence of an ancestral collagen chain has been proposed to lead to the formation of different clades. While LOX-generated collagen cross-linking metabolites have been detected in different metazoan families, there is limited information about when and how collagen acquired this particular modification. By analyzing telopeptide and helical sequences, we identified highly conserved, potential cross-linking sites throughout the metazoan tree of life. Based on this analysis, we propose that they have importantly contributed to the formation and further expansion of fibrillar collagens.

  11. Potassium-Based Dual Ion Battery with Dual-Graphite Electrode.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Liu, Qian; Chen, Suhua; Lin, Kairui; Xu, Zhi; Lu, Bingan

    2017-08-01

    A potassium ion battery has potential applications for large scale electric energy storage systems due to the abundance and low cost of potassium resources. Dual graphite batteries, with graphite as both anode and cathode, eliminate the use of transition metal compounds and greatly lower the overall cost. Herein, combining the merits of the potassium ion battery and dual graphite battery, a potassium-based dual ion battery with dual-graphite electrode is developed. It delivers a reversible capacity of 62 mA h g -1 and medium discharge voltage of ≈3.96 V. The intercalation/deintercalation mechanism of K + and PF 6 - into/from graphite is proposed and discussed in detail, with various characterizations to support. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The actin-microtubule cross-linking activity of Drosophila Short stop is regulated by intramolecular inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Applewhite, Derek A.; Grode, Kyle D.; Duncan, Mara C.; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Actin and microtubule dynamics must be precisely coordinated during cell migration, mitosis, and morphogenesis—much of this coordination is mediated by proteins that physically bridge the two cytoskeletal networks. We have investigated the regulation of the Drosophila actin-microtubule cross-linker Short stop (Shot), a member of the spectraplakin family. Our data suggest that Shot's cytoskeletal cross-linking activity is regulated by an intramolecular inhibitory mechanism. In its inactive conformation, Shot adopts a “closed” conformation through interactions between its NH2-terminal actin-binding domain and COOH-terminal EF-hand-GAS2 domain. This inactive conformation is targeted to the growing microtubule plus end by EB1. On activation, Shot binds along the microtubule through its COOH-terminal GAS2 domain and binds to actin with its NH2-terminal tandem CH domains. We propose that this mechanism allows Shot to rapidly cross-link dynamic microtubules in response to localized activating signals at the cell cortex. PMID:23885120

  13. Mechanisms of plastic deformation in highly cross-linked UHMWPE for total hip components--the molecular physics viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasuhito; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo; Masaoka, Toshinori; Kubo, Kosuke; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Plastic deformation is an unavoidable event in biomedical polymeric implants for load-bearing application during long-term in-vivo service life, which involves a mass transfer process, irreversible chain motion, and molecular reorganization. Deformation-induced microstructural alterations greatly affect mechanical properties and durability of implant devices. The present research focused on evaluating, from a molecular physics viewpoint, the impact of externally applied strain (or stress) in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) prostheses, subjected to radiation cross-linking and subsequent remelting for application in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Two different types of commercial acetabular liners, which belong to the first-generation highly cross-linked UHMWPE (HXLPE), were investigated by means of confocal/polarized Raman microprobe spectroscopy. The amount of crystalline region and the spatial distribution of molecular chain orientation were quantitatively analyzed according to a combined theory including Raman selection rules for the polyethylene orthorhombic structure and the orientation distribution function (ODF) statistical approach. The structurally important finding was that pronounced recrystallization and molecular reorientation increasingly appeared in the near-surface regions of HXLPE liners with increasing the amount of plastic (compressive) deformation stored in the microstructure. Such molecular rearrangements, occurred in response to external strains, locally increase surface cross-shear (CS) stresses, which in turn trigger microscopic wear processes in HXLPE acetabular liners. Thus, on the basis of the results obtained at the molecular scale, we emphasize here the importance of minimizing the development of irrecoverable deformation strain in order to retain the pristine and intrinsically high wear performance of HXLPE components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Synergy of Double Cross-linking Agents on the Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber Foams

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Liang; Ji, Zhan-You; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Xue, Chao-Hua; Ma, Zhong-Lei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur (S) cross-linking styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) foams show high shrinkage due to the cure reversion, leading to reduced yield and increased processing cost. In this paper, double cross-linking system by S and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was used to decrease the shrinkage of SBR foams. Most importantly, the synergy of double cross-linking agents was reported for the first time to our knowledge. The cell size and its distribution of SBR foams were investigated by FESEM images, which show the effect of DCP content on the cell structure of the SBR foams. The relationships between shrinkage and crystalline of SBR foams were analyzed by the synergy of double cross-linking agents, which were demonstrated by FTIR, Raman spectra, XRD, DSC and TGA. When the DCP content was 0.6 phr, the SBR foams exhibit excellent physical and mechanical properties such as low density (0.223 g/cm3), reduced shrinkage (2.25%) and compression set (10.96%), as well as elevated elongation at break (1.78 × 103%) and tear strength (54.63 N/mm). The results show that these properties are related to the double cross-linking system of SBR foams. Moreover, the double cross-linking SBR foams present high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties compared with the S cross-linking SBR foams. PMID:27841307

  15. The Synergy of Double Cross-linking Agents on the Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Liang; Ji, Zhan-You; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Xue, Chao-Hua; Ma, Zhong-Lei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Sulfur (S) cross-linking styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) foams show high shrinkage due to the cure reversion, leading to reduced yield and increased processing cost. In this paper, double cross-linking system by S and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was used to decrease the shrinkage of SBR foams. Most importantly, the synergy of double cross-linking agents was reported for the first time to our knowledge. The cell size and its distribution of SBR foams were investigated by FESEM images, which show the effect of DCP content on the cell structure of the SBR foams. The relationships between shrinkage and crystalline of SBR foams were analyzed by the synergy of double cross-linking agents, which were demonstrated by FTIR, Raman spectra, XRD, DSC and TGA. When the DCP content was 0.6 phr, the SBR foams exhibit excellent physical and mechanical properties such as low density (0.223 g/cm3), reduced shrinkage (2.25%) and compression set (10.96%), as well as elevated elongation at break (1.78 × 103%) and tear strength (54.63 N/mm). The results show that these properties are related to the double cross-linking system of SBR foams. Moreover, the double cross-linking SBR foams present high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties compared with the S cross-linking SBR foams.

  16. Radiation cross-linked collagen/dextran dermal scaffolds: effects of dextran on cross-linking and degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation effectively cross-links collagen into network with enhanced anti-degradability and biocompatibility, while radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold lacks flexibility, satisfactory surface appearance, and performs poor in cell penetration and ingrowth. To make the radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold to serve as an ideal artificial dermis, dextran was incorporated into collagen. Scaffolds with the collagen/dextran (Col/Dex) ratios of 10/0, 7/3, and 5/5 were fabricated via (60)Co γ-irradiation cross-linking, followed by lyophilization. The morphology, microstructure, physicochemical, and biological properties were investigated. Compared with pure collagen, scaffolds with dextran demonstrated more porous appearance, enhanced hydrophilicity while the cross-linking density was lower with the consequence of larger pore size, higher water uptake, as well as reduced stiffness. Accelerated degradation was observed when dextran was incorporated in both the in vitro and in vivo assays, which led to earlier integration with cell and host tissue. The effect of dextran on degradation was ascribed to the decreased cross-linking density, looser microstructure, more porous and hydrophilic surface. Considering the better appearance, softness, moderate degradation rate due to controllable cross-linking degree and good biocompatibility as well, radiation-cross-linked collagen/dextran scaffolds are expected to serve as promising artificial dermal substitutes.

  17. 3D cell entrapment in crosslinked thiolated gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yao; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey; Mix, Adam W.; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2012-01-01

    The combined use of natural ECM components and synthetic materials offers an attractive alternative to fabricate hydrogel-based tissue engineering scaffolds to study cell-matrix interactions in three-dimensions (3D). A facile method was developed to modify gelatin with cysteine via a bifunctional PEG linker, thus introducing free thiol groups to gelatin chains. A covalently crosslinked gelatin hydrogel was fabricated using thiolated gelatin and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGdA) via thiol-ene reaction. Unmodified gelatin was physically incorporated in a PEGdA-only matrix for comparison. We sought to understand the effect of crosslinking modality on hydrogel physicochemical properties and the impact on 3D cell entrapment. Compared to physically incorporated gelatin hydrogels, covalently crosslinked gelatin hydrogels displayed higher maximum weight swelling ratio (Qmax), higher water content, significantly lower cumulative gelatin dissolution up to 7 days, and lower gel stiffness. Furthermore, fibroblasts encapsulated within covalently crosslinked gelatin hydrogels showed extensive cytoplasmic spreading and the formation of cellular networks over 28 days. In contrast, fibroblasts encapsulated in the physically incorporated gelatin hydrogels remained spheroidal. Hence, crosslinking ECM protein with synthetic matrix creates a stable scaffold with tunable mechanical properties and with long-term cell anchorage points, thus supporting cell attachment and growth in the 3D environment. PMID:21955690

  18. Dual path mechanism in the thermal reduction of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Larciprete, Rosanna; Fabris, Stefano; Sun, Tao; Lacovig, Paolo; Baraldi, Alessandro; Lizzit, Silvano

    2011-11-02

    Graphene is easily produced by thermally reducing graphene oxide. However, defect formation in the C network during deoxygenation compromises the charge carrier mobility in the reduced material. Understanding the mechanisms of the thermal reactions is essential for defining alternative routes able to limit the density of defects generated by carbon evolution. Here, we identify a dual path mechanism in the thermal reduction of graphene oxide driven by the oxygen coverage: at low surface density, the O atoms adsorbed as epoxy groups evolve as O(2) leaving the C network unmodified. At higher coverage, the formation of other O-containing species opens competing reaction channels, which consume the C backbone. We combined spectroscopic tools and ab initio calculations to probe the species residing on the surface and those released in the gas phase during heating and to identify reaction pathways and rate-limiting steps. Our results illuminate the current puzzling scenario of the low temperature gasification of graphene oxide.

  19. Developing functional musculoskeletal tissues through hypoxia and lysyl oxidase-induced collagen cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Eleftherios A.; Responte, Donald J.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2014-01-01

    The inability to recapitulate native tissue biomechanics, especially tensile properties, hinders progress in regenerative medicine. To address this problem, strategies have focused on enhancing collagen production. However, manipulating collagen cross-links, ubiquitous throughout all tissues and conferring mechanical integrity, has been underinvestigated. A series of studies examined the effects of lysyl oxidase (LOX), the enzyme responsible for the formation of collagen cross-links. Hypoxia-induced endogenous LOX was applied in multiple musculoskeletal tissues (i.e., cartilage, meniscus, tendons, ligaments). Results of these studies showed that both native and engineered tissues are enhanced by invoking a mechanism of hypoxia-induced pyridinoline (PYR) cross-links via intermediaries like LOX. Hypoxia was shown to enhance PYR cross-linking 1.4- to 6.4-fold and, concomitantly, to increase the tensile properties of collagen-rich tissues 1.3- to 2.2-fold. Direct administration of exogenous LOX was applied in native cartilage and neocartilage generated using a scaffold-free, self-assembling process of primary chondrocytes. Exogenous LOX was found to enhance native tissue tensile properties 1.9-fold. LOX concentration- and time-dependent increases in PYR content (∼16-fold compared with controls) and tensile properties (approximately fivefold compared with controls) of neocartilage were also detected, resulting in properties on par with native tissue. Finally, in vivo subcutaneous implantation of LOX-treated neocartilage in nude mice promoted further maturation of the neotissue, enhancing tensile and PYR content approximately threefold and 14-fold, respectively, compared with in vitro controls. Collectively, these results provide the first report, to our knowledge, of endogenous (hypoxia-induced) and exogenous LOX applications for promoting collagen cross-linking and improving the tensile properties of a spectrum of native and engineered tissues both in vitro and in

  20. Radiation crosslinking of highly plasticized PVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendizabal, E.; Cruz, L.; Jasso, C. F.; Burillo, G.; Dakin, V. I.

    1996-02-01

    To improve the physical properties of highly plasticized PVC, the polymer was crosslinked by gamma irradiation using a dose rate of 91 kGy/h. The effect of plasticizer type was studied by using three different plasticizers, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DOP), and di(2-ethylhexyl terephthalate) (DOTP), and varying irradiation doses. Gel content was determined by soxhlet extraction, tensile measurements were made on a universal testing machine and the mechano-dynamic measurements were made in a dynamic rheometer. It was found that a considerable bonding of plasticizer molecules to macromolelcules takes place along with crosslinking, so that the use of the solvent extraction method for measuring the degree of crosslinking can give erroneous information. Radiation-chemical crosslinking yield ( Gc) and molecular weight of interjunctions chains ( Mc), were calculated for different systems studied. Addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) as a crosslinking coagent and dioctyl tin oxide (DOTO) as a stabilizer was also studied. Plasticizers extraction resistance was increased by irradiation treatment.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(maleic Anhydride)s Cross-linked Polyimide Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2015-01-01

    With the development of technology for aerospace applications, new thermal insulation materials are required to be flexible and capable of surviving high heat flux. For instance, flexible insulation is needed for inflatable aerodynamic decelerators which are used to slow spacecraft for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations. Polyimide aerogels have low density, high porosity, high surface area, and better mechanical properties than silica aerogels and can be made into flexible thin films, thus they are potential candidates for aerospace needs. The previously reported cross-linkers such as octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) and 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene (TAB) are either expensive or not commercially available. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of polyimide aerogels cross-linked using various commercially available poly(maleic anhydride)s, as seen in Figure 1. The amine end capped polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and diamine combinations of dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) and 4, 4-oxydianiline (ODA). The resulting aerogels have low density (0.12 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3), high porosity (90) and high surface area (380-554 m2g). The effect of the different poly(maleic anhydride) cross-linkers and polyimide backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed.

  2. Microglial Fc Receptors Mediate Physiological Changes Resulting From Antibody Cross-Linking of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Marta, Cecilia B.; Bansal, Rashmi; Pfeiffer, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis demyelination through activation of complement and/or macrophage-effector processes. We presented a novel mechanism, whereby MOG on oligodendrocytes, when cross-linked with anti-MOG and secondary antibody resulted in its repartitioning into lipid rafts, and changes in protein phosphorylation and morphology. Here, we show that similar events occur when anti-MOG is cross-linked with Fc receptors (FcRs) present on microglia but not with complement. These results indicate that FcRs are endogenous antigen/antibody cross-linkers in vitro, suggesting that FcRs could be physiologically relevant in vivo and possible targets for therapy in Multiple Sclerosis. PMID:18406472

  3. The Importance of Non-accessible Crosslinks and Solvent Accessible Surface Distance in Modeling Proteins with Restraints From Crosslinking Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Joshua Matthew Allen; Schwab, Jannik; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Crosslinking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) is becoming an increasingly popular technique for modeling protein monomers and complexes. The distance restraints garnered from these experiments can be used alone or as part of an integrative modeling approach, incorporating data from many sources. However, modeling practices are varied and the difference in their usefulness is not clear. Here, we develop a new scoring procedure for models based on crosslink data—Matched and Nonaccessible Crosslink score (MNXL). We compare its performance with that of other commonly-used scoring functions (Number of Violations and Sum of Violation Distances) on a benchmark of 14 protein domains, each with 300 corresponding models (at various levels of quality) and associated, previously published, experimental crosslinks (XLdb). The distances between crosslinked lysines are calculated either as Euclidean distances or Solvent Accessible Surface Distances (SASD) using a newly-developed method (Jwalk). MNXL takes into account whether a crosslink is nonaccessible, i.e. an experimentally observed crosslink has no corresponding SASD in a model due to buried lysines. This metric alone is shown to have a significant impact on modeling performance and is a concept that is not considered at present if only Euclidean distances are used. Additionally, a comparison between modeling with SASD or Euclidean distance shows that SASD is superior, even when factoring out the effect of the nonaccessible crosslinks. Our benchmarking also shows that MNXL outperforms the other tested scoring functions in terms of precision and correlation to Cα-RMSD from the crystal structure. We finally test the MNXL at different levels of crosslink recovery (i.e. the percentage of crosslinks experimentally observed out of all theoretical ones) and set a target recovery of ∼20% after which the performance plateaus. PMID:27150526

  4. Polyimide Aerogels with Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels with three-dimensional cross-linked structure are made using linear oligomeric segments of polyimide, and linked with one of the following into a 3D structure: trifunctional aliphatic or aromatic amines, latent reactive end caps such as nadic anhydride or phenylethynylphenyl amine, and silica or silsesquioxane cage structures decorated with amine. Drying the gels supercritically maintains the solid structure of the gel, creating a polyimide aerogel with improved mechanical properties over linear polyimide aerogels. Lightweight, low-density structures are desired for acoustic and thermal insulation for aerospace structures, habitats, astronaut equipment, and aeronautic applications. Aerogels are a unique material for providing such properties because of their extremely low density and small pore sizes. However, plain silica aerogels are brittle. Reinforcing the aerogel structure with a polymer (X-Aerogel) provides vast improvements in strength while maintaining low density and pore structure. However, degradation of polymers used in cross-linking tends to limit use temperatures to below 150 C. Organic aerogels made from linear polyimide have been demonstrated, but gels shrink substantially during supercritical fluid extraction and may have lower use temperature due to lower glass transition temperatures. The purpose of this innovation is to raise the glass transition temperature of all organic polyimide aerogel by use of tri-, tetra-, or poly-functional units in the structure to create a 3D covalently bonded network. Such cross-linked polyimides typically have higher glass transition temperatures in excess of 300 400 C. In addition, the reinforcement provided by a 3D network should improve mechanical stability, and prevent shrinkage on supercritical fluid extraction. The use of tri-functional aromatic or aliphatic amine groups in the polyimide backbone will provide such a 3D structure.

  5. Preparation and characterization of free films of high amylose/pectin mixtures cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Meneguin, Andréia Bagliotti; Evangelista, Raul Cesar; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira

    2012-11-01

    High amylose and pectin were mixed at 1:1 mass ratio and cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) in alkaline medium. Films were prepared from aqueous dispersions of these cross-linked polymer blend at three different concentrations (3, 4 and 5%), by solvent casting method. Characterization of the films included thickness, surface morphology, water uptake, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength measurements and enzymatic digestion. The cross-linking allowed to obtain films with improved mechanical properties and reduced WVP. The high resistance to enzymatic digestion exhibited by these films represents a promising approach to their application in the development of colon drug delivery systems.

  6. Induction of Covalently Crosslinked p62 Oligomers with Reduced Binding to Polyubiquitinated Proteins by the Autophagy Inhibitor Verteporfin

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Elizabeth; Balgi, Aruna D.; Komatsu, Masaaki; Roberge, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, including organelles and long-lived proteins, that helps maintain cellular homeostasis and protect against various cellular stresses. Verteporfin is a benzoporphyrin derivative used clinically in photodynamic therapy to treat macular degeneration. Verteporfin was recently found to inhibit autophagosome formation by an unknown mechanism that does not require exposure to light. We report that verteporfin directly targets and modifies p62, a scaffold and adaptor protein that binds both polyubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation and LC3 on autophagosomal membranes. Western blotting experiments revealed that exposure of cells or purified p62 to verteporfin causes the formation of covalently crosslinked p62 oligomers by a mechanism involving low-level singlet oxygen production. Rose bengal, a singlet oxygen producer structurally unrelated to verteporfin, also produced crosslinked p62 oligomers and inhibited autophagosome formation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that crosslinked p62 oligomers retain their ability to bind to LC3 but show defective binding to polyubiquitinated proteins. Mutations in the p62 PB1 domain that abolish self-oligomerization also abolished crosslinked oligomer formation. Interestingly, small amounts of crosslinked p62 oligomers were detected in untreated cells, and other groups noted the accumulation of p62 forms with reduced SDS-PAGE mobility in cellular and animal models of oxidative stress and aging. These data indicate that p62 is particularly susceptible to oxidative crosslinking and lead us to propose a model whereby oxidized crosslinked p62 oligomers generated rapidly by drugs like verteporfin or over time during the aging process interfere with autophagy. PMID:25494214

  7. Induction of Covalently Crosslinked p62 Oligomers with Reduced Binding to Polyubiquitinated Proteins by the Autophagy Inhibitor Verteporfin.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Elizabeth; Balgi, Aruna D; Komatsu, Masaaki; Roberge, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, including organelles and long-lived proteins, that helps maintain cellular homeostasis and protect against various cellular stresses. Verteporfin is a benzoporphyrin derivative used clinically in photodynamic therapy to treat macular degeneration. Verteporfin was recently found to inhibit autophagosome formation by an unknown mechanism that does not require exposure to light. We report that verteporfin directly targets and modifies p62, a scaffold and adaptor protein that binds both polyubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation and LC3 on autophagosomal membranes. Western blotting experiments revealed that exposure of cells or purified p62 to verteporfin causes the formation of covalently crosslinked p62 oligomers by a mechanism involving low-level singlet oxygen production. Rose bengal, a singlet oxygen producer structurally unrelated to verteporfin, also produced crosslinked p62 oligomers and inhibited autophagosome formation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that crosslinked p62 oligomers retain their ability to bind to LC3 but show defective binding to polyubiquitinated proteins. Mutations in the p62 PB1 domain that abolish self-oligomerization also abolished crosslinked oligomer formation. Interestingly, small amounts of crosslinked p62 oligomers were detected in untreated cells, and other groups noted the accumulation of p62 forms with reduced SDS-PAGE mobility in cellular and animal models of oxidative stress and aging. These data indicate that p62 is particularly susceptible to oxidative crosslinking and lead us to propose a model whereby oxidized crosslinked p62 oligomers generated rapidly by drugs like verteporfin or over time during the aging process interfere with autophagy.

  8. Design and Functional Validation of a Mechanism for Dual-Spinning CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Eric; Dave, Pratik; Kingsbury, Ryan; Marinan, Anne; Wise, Evan; Pong, Chris; Prinkey, Meghan; Cahoy, Kerri; Miller, David W.; Sklair, Devon

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is to collect useful atmospheric images using a miniature passive microwave radiometer payload hosted on a low-cost CubeSat platform. In order to collect this data, the microwave radiometer payload must rotate to scan the ground-track perpendicular to the satellite's direction of travel. A custom motor assembly was developed to facilitate the rotation of the payload while allowing the spacecraft bus to remained fixed in the local-vertical, local-horizontal (LVLH) frame for increased pointing accuracy. This paper describes the mechanism used to enable this dual-spinning operation for CubeSats, and the lessons learned during the design, fabrication, integration, and testing phases of the mechanism's development lifecycle.

  9. Thermally Conductive-Silicone Composites with Thermally Reversible Cross-links.

    PubMed

    Wertz, J T; Kuczynski, J P; Boday, D J

    2016-06-08

    Thermally conductive-silicone composites that contain thermally reversible cross-links were prepared by blending diene- and dienophile-functionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with an aluminum oxide conductive filler. This class of thermally conductive-silicones are useful as thermal interface materials (TIMs) within Information Technology (IT) hardware applications to allow rework of valuable components. The composites were rendered reworkable via retro Diels-Alder cross-links when temperatures were elevated above 130 °C and required little mechanical force to remove, making them advantageous over other TIM materials. Results show high thermal conductivity (0.4 W/m·K) at low filler loadings (45 wt %) compared to other TIM solutions (>45 wt %). Additionally, the adhesion of the material was found to be ∼7 times greater at lower temperatures (25 °C) and ∼2 times greater at higher temperatures (120 °C) than commercially available TIMs.

  10. In situ crosslinking of surface-initiated ring opening metathesis polymerization of polynorbornene for improved stability.

    PubMed

    Fursule, Ishan A; Abtahi, Ashkan; Watkins, Charles B; Graham, Kenneth R; Berron, Brad J

    2018-01-15

    In situ crosslinking is expected to increase the solvent stability of coatings formed by surface-initiated ring opening metathesis polymerization (SI ROMP). Solvent-associated degradation limits the utility of SI ROMP coatings. SI ROMP coatings have a unique capacity for post-functionalization through reaction of the unsaturated site on the polymer backbone. Any post-reaction scheme which requires a liquid solvent has the potential to degrade the coating and lower the thickness of the resulting film. We designed a macromolecular crosslinking group based on PEG dinorbornene. The PEG length is tailored to the expected mean chain to chain distance during surface-initiated polymerization. This crosslinking macromer is randomly copolymerized with norbornene through SI ROMP on a gold coated substrate. The solvent stability of polynorbornene coatings with and without PEG dinorbornene is quantitatively determined, and the mechanism of degradation is further supported through XPS and AFM analyses. The addition of the 0.25mol% PEG dinorbornene significantly increases the solvent stability of the SI ROMP coatings. The crosslinker presence in the more stable films is supported with observable PEG absorbances by FTIR and an increase in contact angle hysteresis when compared to non-crosslinked coatings. The oxidation of the SI ROMP coatings is supported by the observation of carbonyl oxygen in the polynorbornene coatings. The rapid loss of the non-crosslinked SI ROMP coating corresponds to nanoscale pitting across the surface and micron-scale regions of widespread film loss. The crosslinked coatings have uniform nanoscale pitting, but the crosslinked films show no evidence of micron-scale film damage. In all, the incorporation of minimal crosslinking content is a simple strategy for improving the solvent stability of SI ROMP coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanomechanics of layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte complexes: a manifestation of ionic cross-links and fixed charges.

    PubMed

    Han, Biao; Chery, Daphney R; Yin, Jie; Lu, X Lucas; Lee, Daeyeon; Han, Lin

    2016-01-28

    This study investigates the roles of two distinct features of ionically cross-linked polyelectrolyte networks - ionic cross-links and fixed charges - in determining their nanomechanical properties. The layer-by-layer assembled poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA) network is used as the model material. The densities of ionic cross-links and fixed charges are modulated through solution pH and ionic strength (IS), and the swelling ratio, elastic and viscoelastic properties are quantified via an array of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomechanical tools. The roles of ionic cross-links are underscored by the distinctive elastic and viscoelastic nanomechanical characters observed here. First, as ionic cross-links are highly sensitive to solution conditions, the instantaneous modulus, E0, exhibits orders-of-magnitude changes upon pH- and IS-governed swelling, distinctive from the rubber elasticity prediction based on permanent covalent cross-links. Second, ionic cross-links can break and self-re-form, and this mechanism dominates force relaxation of PAH/PAA under a constant indentation depth. In most states, the degree of relaxation is >90%, independent of ionic cross-link density. The importance of fixed charges is highlighted by the unexpectedly more elastic nature of the network despite low ionic cross-link density at pH 2.0, IS 0.01 M. Here, the complex is a net charged, loosely cross-linked, where the degree of relaxation is attenuated to ≈50% due to increased elastic contribution arising from fixed charge-induced Donnan osmotic pressure. In addition, this study develops a new method for quantifying the thickness of highly swollen polymer hydrogel films. It also underscores important technical considerations when performing nanomechanical tests on highly rate-dependent polymer hydrogel networks. These results provide new insights into the nanomechanical characters of ionic polyelectrolyte complexes, and lay the ground for further

  12. Recent advances in corneal collagen cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Gitansha Shreyas; Sachdev, Mahipal

    2017-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking has become the preferred modality of treatment for corneal ectasia since its inception in late 1990s. Numerous studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the conventional protocol. Our understanding of the cross-linking process is ever evolving, with its wide implications in the form of accelerated and pulsed protocols. Newer advancements in technology include various riboflavin formulations and the ability to deliver higher fluence protocols with customised irradiation patterns. A greater degree of customisation is likely the path forward, which will aim at achieving refractive improvements along with disease stability. The use of cross-linking for myopic correction is another avenue under exploration. Combination of half fluence cross-linking with refractive correction for high errors to prevent post LASIK regression is gaining interest. This review aims to highlight the various advancements in the cross-linking technology and its clinical applications. PMID:28905820

  13. Covalently Cross-linked Elastomers with Self-Healing and Malleable Abilities Enabled by Boronic Ester Bonds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Tang, Zhenghai; Zhang, Xuhui; Liu, Yingjun; Wu, Siwu; Guo, Baochun

    2018-06-26

    Covalently cross-linked rubbers are renowned for their high elasticity that play an indispensable role in various applications including tires, seals, medical implants. Development of self-healing and malleable rubbers is highly desirable as it allows for damage repair and reprocessibility to extend the lifetime and alleviate environmental pollution. Herein, we propose a facile approach to prepare permanently cross-linked yet self-healing and recyclable diene-rubber by programming dynamic boronic ester linkages into the network. The network is synthesized through one-pot thermally initiated thiol-ene "click" reaction between a novel dithiol-containing boronic ester cross-linker and commonly used styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) without modifying the macromolecular structure. The resulted samples are covalently cross-linked and possess relatively high mechanical strength which can be readily tailored by varying boronic ester content. Owning to the transesterification of boronic ester bonds, the samples can alter network topologies, endowing the materials with self-healing ability and malleability.

  14. On-Demand Dissolution of Chemically Cross-Linked Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Konieczynska, Marlena D; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2017-02-21

    The formation and subsequent on-demand dissolution of chemically cross-linked hydrogels is of keen interest to chemists, engineers, and clinicians. In this Account, we summarize our recent advances in the area of dissolvable chemically cross-linked hydrogels and provide a comparative discussion of other recent hydrogel systems. Using biocompatible macromonomers, we developed a library of cross-linked dendritic hydrogels that possess favorable properties, including biocompatibility, tissue adhesion, and swelling. Additionally, these hydrogels possess the unique ability to dissolve on-demand via application of a biocompatible aqueous solution. Each of the three hydrogel systems described employs a thiol-thioester exchange reaction as the mechanism of dissolution. These new materials successfully decrease bleeding in in vivo models of hepatic and aortic hemorrhage and dissolve on-demand, providing easy removal. In addition, we evaluated these hydrogels as dressings for second-degree burn wounds and performed proof-of-concept in vivo studies. These hydrogel wound dressings provide a means of repeatedly changing the dressing in a minimally invasive and atraumatic manner while also serving as a protective barrier against bacterial infection. Finally, we highlight the seminal work of other researchers in the field of dissolvable chemically cross-linked hydrogels using thiol-disulfide exchange, retro-Michael-type, and retro-Diels-Alder reactions. These chemistries provide a versatile synthetic toolbox to dissolve hydrogels in a controlled manner on time scales from minutes to weeks. Continued investigation of these dissolution approaches as well as the development of new chemical reactions will open doors to other avenues of on-demand dissolution and expand the application space for these materials. In summary, the management and closure of wounds after traumatic injury or surgical intervention are of significant clinical importance. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels that

  15. Nitric oxide-induced interstrand cross-links in DNA.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Jennifer L; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2003-05-01

    The DNA damaging effects of nitrous acid have been extensively studied, and the formation of interstrand cross-links have been observed. The potential for this cross-linking to occur through a common nitrosating intermediate derived from nitric oxide is investigated here. Using a HPLC laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system, the amount of interstrand cross-link formed on nitric oxide treatment of the 5'-fluorescein-labeled oligomer ATATCGATCGATAT was determined. This self-complimentary sequence contains two 5'-CG sequences, which is the preferred site for nitrous acid-induced cross-linking. Nitric oxide was delivered to an 0.5 mM oligomer solution at 15 nmol/mL/min to give a final nitrite concentration of 652 microM. The resulting concentration of the deamination product, xanthine, in this sample was found to be 211 +/- 39 nM, using GC/MS, and the amount of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 13 +/- 2.5 nM. Therefore, upon nitric oxide treatment, the cross-link is found at approximately 6% of the amount of the deamination product. Using this system, detection of the cross-link is also possible for significantly lower doses of nitric oxide, as demonstrated by treatment of the same oligomer with NO at a rate of 18 nmol/mL/min resulting in a final nitrite concentration of 126 microM. The concentration of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 3.6 +/- 0.1 nM in this sample. Therefore, using the same dose rate, when the total nitric oxide concentration delivered drops by a factor of approximately 5, the concentration of cross-link drops by a factor of about 4-indicating a qausi-linear response. It may now be possible to predict the number of cross-links in a small genome based on the number of CpG sequences and the yield of xanthine derived from nitrosative deamination.

  16. A novel combined polyphenol-aldehyde crosslinking of collagen film-Applications in biomedical materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Shi, Lu; Gu, Zhipeng; Dan, Weihua; Dan, Nianhua

    2017-08-01

    Despite its crucial role in directing cell fate in healthy and diseased tissues, improvements in physical-chemical properties and biocompatibility of type-I collagen are still needed. In this report, we described combined and facile method to modify collagen. The collagen film was first modified by procyanidins solution, in which, then subjected to further crosslinked by dialdehyde alginate, resulting in collagen-procyanidins-dialdehyde alginate film. The properties of the crosslinked collagen films were investigated and the results were discussed. Results from differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis suggested that the thermal stabilities of the collagen-procyanidins-dialdehyde alginate film were significantly improved. The mechanical properties of collagen-procyanidins-dialdehyde alginate film in terms of elongation at break and tensile strength increased approximately 2-fold and 3-fold, respectively compare to pure collagen film. In addition, the resistance to collagenase degradation of collagen-procyanidins-dialdehyde alginate film was remarkably promoted. The results from methyltetrazolium assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that no cytotoxicity of collagen film was introduced by the combined crosslinking method. Thus, the novel combined by procyanidins-dialdehyde alginate crosslinking method shown in this study provided a non-toxic and efficient crosslinking method that improved various properties of collagen film, which has great potential applications in biomedical materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Newly identified interfibrillar collagen crosslinking suppresses cell proliferation and remodelling.

    PubMed

    Marelli, Benedetto; Le Nihouannen, Damien; Hacking, S Adam; Tran, Simon; Li, Jingjing; Murshed, Monzur; Doillon, Charles J; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Zhang, Yu Ling; Nazhat, Showan N; Barralet, Jake E

    2015-06-01

    Copper is becoming recognised as a key cation in a variety of biological processes. Copper chelation has been studied as a potential anti-angiogenic strategy for arresting tumour growth. Conversely the delivery of copper ions and complexes in vivo can elicit a pro-angiogenic effect. Previously we unexpectedly found that copper-stimulated intraperitoneal angiogenesis was accompanied by collagen deposition. Here, in hard tissue, not only was healing accelerated by copper, but again enhanced deposition of collagen was detected at 2 weeks. Experiments with reconstituted collagen showed that addition of copper ions post-fibrillogenesis rendered plastically-compressed gels resistant to collagenases, enhanced their mechanical properties and increased the denaturation temperature of the protein. Unexpectedly, this apparently interfibrillar crosslinking was not affected by addition of glucose or ascorbic acid, which are required for crosslinking by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Fibroblasts cultured on copper-crosslinked gels did not proliferate, whereas those cultured with an equivalent quantity of copper on either tissue culture plastic or collagen showed no effect compared with controls. Although non-proliferative, fibroblasts grown on copper-cross-linked collagen could migrate, remained metabolically active for at least 14 days and displayed a 6-fold increase in Mmps 1 and 3 mRNA expression compared with copper-free controls. The ability of copper ions to crosslink collagen fibrils during densification and independently of AGEs or Fenton type reactions is previously unreported. The effect on MMP susceptibility of collagen and the dramatic change in cell behaviour on this crosslinked ECM may contribute to shedding some light on unexplained phenomena as the apparent benefit of copper complexation in fibrotic disorders or the enhanced collagen deposition in response to localised copper delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polymer Crosslinked 3-D Assemblies of Nanoparticles: Mechanically Strong Lightweight Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    In analogy to supramolecular assemblies, which are pursued because of properties above and beyond those of the individual molecules, self-standing monolithic three-dimensional assemblies of nanoparticles also have unique properties attributed to their structure. For example, ultra low-density 3-D assemblies of silica nanoparticles, known as silica aerogels, are characterized by large internal void space, high surface area and very low thermal conductivity. Aerogels, however, are also extremely fragile materials, limiting their application to a few specialized environments, e.g., in nuclear reactors as Cerenkov radiation detectors, in space (refer to NASA's Stardust Program) and aboard certain planetary vehicles (thermal insulators on Mars Rovers in 1997 and 2004). The fragility problem is traced to well-defined weak points in the aerogel skeletal framework, the interparticle necks. Using the surface functionality of the nanoparticle building blocks as a focal point, we have directed attachment of a conformal polymer coating over the entire framework, rendering all necks wider. Thus, although the bulk density may increase only by 3x, the mesoporosity (pores in the range 2-50 nm) remains unchanged, while the strength of the material increases by up to 300... Having addressed the fragility problem, aerogels are now robust materials, and a variety of applications, ranging from thermal/acoustic insulators to catalyst supports, to platform for sensors, and dielectrics are all within reach. Our approach employs molecular science to manipulate nanoscopic matter for achieving useful macroscopic properties, and in our view it resides at the core of what defines nanotechnology. In that spirit, this technology is expandable in three directions. Thus, we have already crosslinked successfully amine-modified silica, and we anticipate that more rich chemistry will be realized by been creative with the nanoparticle surface modifiers. On the other hand, although we do not expect

  19. An atomistic model for cross-linked HNBR elastomers used in seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Nicola; Sutton, Adrian; Stevens, John; Mostofi, Arash

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) is one of the most common elastomeric materials used for seals in the oil and gas industry. These seals sometimes suffer ``explosive decompression,'' a costly problem in which gases permeate a seal at the elevated temperatures and pressures pertaining in oil and gas wells, leading to rupture when the seal is brought back to the surface. The experimental evidence that HNBR and its unsaturated parent NBR have markedly different swelling properties suggests that cross-linking may occur during hydrogenation of NBR to produce HNBR. We have developed a code compatible with the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package to generate fully atomistic HNBR configurations by hydrogenating initial NBR structures. This can be done with any desired degree of cross-linking. The code uses a model of atomic interactions based on the OPLS-AA force-field. We present calculations of the dependence of a number of bulk properties on the degree of cross-linking. Using our atomistic representations of HNBR and NBR, we hope to develop a better molecular understanding of the mechanisms that result in explosive decompression.

  20. Enrichment of dynamic chromosomal crosslinks drive phase separation of the nucleolus

    PubMed Central

    Hult, Caitlin; Adalsteinsson, David; Vasquez, Paula A.; Lawrimore, Josh; Bennett, Maggie; York, Alyssa; Cook, Diana; Yeh, Elaine; Forest, Mark Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Regions of highly repetitive DNA, such as those found in the nucleolus, show a self-organization that is marked by spatial segregation and frequent self-interaction. The mechanisms that underlie the sequestration of these sub-domains are largely unknown. Using a stochastic, bead-spring representation of chromatin in budding yeast, we find enrichment of protein-mediated, dynamic chromosomal cross-links recapitulates the segregation, morphology and self-interaction of the nucleolus. Rates and enrichment of dynamic crosslinking have profound consequences on domain morphology. Our model demonstrates the nucleolus is phase separated from other chromatin in the nucleus and predicts that multiple rDNA loci will form a single nucleolus independent of their location within the genome. Fluorescent labeling of budding yeast nucleoli with CDC14-GFP revealed that a split rDNA locus indeed forms a single nucleolus. We propose that nuclear sub-domains, such as the nucleolus, result from phase separations within the nucleus, which are driven by the enrichment of protein-mediated, dynamic chromosomal crosslinks. PMID:28977453

  1. Enrichment of dynamic chromosomal crosslinks drive phase separation of the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Hult, Caitlin; Adalsteinsson, David; Vasquez, Paula A; Lawrimore, Josh; Bennett, Maggie; York, Alyssa; Cook, Diana; Yeh, Elaine; Forest, Mark Gregory; Bloom, Kerry

    2017-11-02

    Regions of highly repetitive DNA, such as those found in the nucleolus, show a self-organization that is marked by spatial segregation and frequent self-interaction. The mechanisms that underlie the sequestration of these sub-domains are largely unknown. Using a stochastic, bead-spring representation of chromatin in budding yeast, we find enrichment of protein-mediated, dynamic chromosomal cross-links recapitulates the segregation, morphology and self-interaction of the nucleolus. Rates and enrichment of dynamic crosslinking have profound consequences on domain morphology. Our model demonstrates the nucleolus is phase separated from other chromatin in the nucleus and predicts that multiple rDNA loci will form a single nucleolus independent of their location within the genome. Fluorescent labeling of budding yeast nucleoli with CDC14-GFP revealed that a split rDNA locus indeed forms a single nucleolus. We propose that nuclear sub-domains, such as the nucleolus, result from phase separations within the nucleus, which are driven by the enrichment of protein-mediated, dynamic chromosomal crosslinks. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. An ultraviolet crosslink in the hammerhead ribozyme dependent on 2-thiocytidine or 4-thiouridine substitution.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Ruffner, D E

    1997-01-01

    The hammerhead domain is one of the smallest known ribozymes. Like other ribozymes it catalyzes site-specific cleavage of a phosphodiester bond. The hammerhead ribozyme has been the subject of a vast number of biochemical and structural studies aimed at determining the structure and mechanism of cleavage. Recently crystallographic analysis has produced a structure for the hammerhead. As the hammerhead is capable of undergoing cleavage within the crystal, it would appear that the crystal structure is representative of the catalytically active solution structure. However, the crystal structure conflicts with much of the biochemical data and reveals a catalytic metal ion binding site expected to be of very low affinity. Clearly, additional studies are needed to reconcile the discrepancies and provide a clear understanding of the structure and mechanism of the hammerhead ribozyme. Here we demonstrate that a unique crosslink can be induced in the hammerhead with 2-thiocytidine or 4-thiouridine substitution at different locations within the conserved core. Generation of the same crosslink with different modifications at different positions suggests that the structure trapped by the crosslink may be relevant to the catalytically active solution structure of the hammerhead ribozyme. As this crosslink appears to be incompatible with the crystal structure, this provides yet another indication that the active solution and crystal structures may differ significantly. PMID:9336468

  3. Two-photon induced collagen cross-linking in bioartificial cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuetemeyer, Kai; Kensah, George; Heidrich, Marko; Meyer, Heiko; Martin, Ulrich; Gruh, Ina; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising strategy for regenerative therapies to overcome the shortage of donor organs for transplantation. Besides contractile function, the stiffness of tissue engineered constructs is crucial to generate transplantable tissue surrogates with sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the high pressure present in the heart. Although several collagen cross-linking techniques have proven to be efficient in stabilizing biomaterials, they cannot be applied to cardiac tissue engineering, as cell death occurs in the treated area. Here, we present a novel method using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to increase the stiffness of collagen-based tissue constructs without impairing cell viability. Raster scanning of the fs laser beam over riboflavin-treated tissue induced collagen cross-linking by two-photon photosensitized singlet oxygen production. One day post-irradiation, stress-strain measurements revealed increased tissue stiffness by around 40% being dependent on the fibroblast content in the tissue. At the same time, cells remained viable and fully functional as demonstrated by fluorescence imaging of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial activity and preservation of active contraction force. Our results indicate that two-photon induced collagen cross-linking has great potential for studying and improving artificially engineered tissue for regenerative therapies.

  4. A Structural Approach to Establishing a Platform Chemistry for the Tunable, Bulk Electron Beam Cross-Linking of Shape Memory Polymer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, Keith; Besset, Celine J.; Lonnecker, Alexander T.; Ware, Taylor; Voit, Walter E.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Wooley, Karen L.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic design and thermomechanical characterization of shape memory polymers (SMPs) built from a new polyurethane chemistry that enables facile, bulk and tunable cross-linking of low-molecular weight thermoplastics by electron beam irradiation is reported in this study. SMPs exhibit stimuli-induced geometry changes and are being proposed for applications in numerous fields. We have previously reported a polyurethane SMP system that exhibits the complex processing capabilities of thermoplastic polymers and the mechanical robustness and tunability of thermomechanical properties that are often characteristic of thermoset materials. These previously reported polyurethanes suffer practically because the thermoplastic molecular weights needed to achieve target cross-link densities severely limit high-throughput thermoplastic processing and because thermally unstable radiation-sensitizing additives must be used to achieve high enough cross-link densities to enable desired tunable shape memory behavior. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate cross-link density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs (Mw as low as ~1.5 kDa) without radiation-sensitizing additives by incorporating specific structural motifs into the thermoplastic polymer side chains that we hypothesized would significantly enhance susceptibility to e-beam cross-linking. A custom diol monomer was first synthesized and then implemented in the synthesis of neat thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs that were irradiated at doses ranging from 1 to 500 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated rubbery moduli to be tailorable between 0.1 and 55 MPa, and both DMA and sol/gel analysis results provided fundamental insight into our hypothesized mechanism of electron beam cross-linking, which enables controllable bulk cross-linking to be achieved in highly processable, low-molecular weight thermoplastic shape memory polymers without sensitizing additives. PMID

  5. Probabilistic cross-link analysis and experiment planning for high-throughput elucidation of protein structure.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoduan; O'Neil, Patrick K; Foster, Adrienne N; Gajda, Michal J; Kosinski, Jan; Kurowski, Michal A; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Friedman, Alan M; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2004-12-01

    Emerging high-throughput techniques for the characterization of protein and protein-complex structures yield noisy data with sparse information content, placing a significant burden on computation to properly interpret the experimental data. One such technique uses cross-linking (chemical or by cysteine oxidation) to confirm or select among proposed structural models (e.g., from fold recognition, ab initio prediction, or docking) by testing the consistency between cross-linking data and model geometry. This paper develops a probabilistic framework for analyzing the information content in cross-linking experiments, accounting for anticipated experimental error. This framework supports a mechanism for planning experiments to optimize the information gained. We evaluate potential experiment plans using explicit trade-offs among key properties of practical importance: discriminability, coverage, balance, ambiguity, and cost. We devise a greedy algorithm that considers those properties and, from a large number of combinatorial possibilities, rapidly selects sets of experiments expected to discriminate pairs of models efficiently. In an application to residue-specific chemical cross-linking, we demonstrate the ability of our approach to plan experiments effectively involving combinations of cross-linkers and introduced mutations. We also describe an experiment plan for the bacteriophage lambda Tfa chaperone protein in which we plan dicysteine mutants for discriminating threading models by disulfide formation. Preliminary results from a subset of the planned experiments are consistent and demonstrate the practicality of planning. Our methods provide the experimenter with a valuable tool (available from the authors) for understanding and optimizing cross-linking experiments.

  6. Interstrand disulfide crosslinking of DNA bases supports a double nucleotide unpairing mechanism for flap endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Beddows, Amanda; Patel, Nikesh; Finger, L David; Atack, John M; Williams, David M; Grasby, Jane A

    2012-09-14

    Flap endonucleases (FENs) are proposed to select their target phosphate diester by unpairing the two terminal nucleotides of duplex. Interstrand disulfide crosslinks, introduced by oxidation of thiouracil and thioguanine bases, abolished the specificity of human FEN1 for hydrolysis one nucleotide into the 5'-duplex.

  7. Borate cross-linked graphene oxide-chitosan as robust and high gas barrier films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ning; Capezzuto, Filomena; Lavorgna, Marino; Buonocore, Giovanna G.; Tescione, Fabiana; Xia, Hesheng; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Chitosan (CS) is one of the most promising polymers due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and natural abundance. However, its poor mechanical and barrier properties make it difficult to satisfy a wide range of applications. Herein, borate ions, originating from the hydrolysis of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), have been used to crosslink chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. Chitosan films consisting of 1.0 wt% boron and 1.0 wt% GO exhibit a significant improvement in both the toughness and oxygen barrier properties compared to pristine chitosan. In particular the tensile strength of the samples after thermal treatment increases by ~160% compared to pristine chitosan, whereas their oxygen permeability reduces by ~90%. This is ascribed to the chemical crosslinking between chitosan and GO nanoplatelets through borate ions, as well as the formation of a layered morphology with graphene nanoplatelets oriented parallel to the sample surface. The exceptional robust and high gas barrier film has promising application in the packaging industry. The borate-crosslinking chemistry represents the potential strategy for improving properties of other polymer nanocomposites.Chitosan (CS) is one of the most promising polymers due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and natural abundance. However, its poor mechanical and barrier properties make it difficult to satisfy a wide range of applications. Herein, borate ions, originating from the hydrolysis of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), have been used to crosslink chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. Chitosan films consisting of 1.0 wt% boron and 1.0 wt% GO exhibit a significant improvement in both the toughness and oxygen barrier properties compared to pristine chitosan. In particular the tensile strength of the samples after thermal treatment increases by ~160% compared to pristine chitosan, whereas their oxygen permeability reduces by ~90%. This is ascribed to the chemical

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles using Ex-Situ Co-Precipitation Method and Tripolyphosphate/Sulphate as Dual Crosslinkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulandari, Ika O.; Mardila, Vita T.; Santjojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterial provide great opportunities to develop in several fields. Several types of nanoparticles have been proven beneficial for biomedical and therapeutic agent development. Particularly for clinical use, nanoparticles must be biocompatible and non-toxic. Iron oxide nanoparticles consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) was eligible to use for in vivo application including targeting drug delivery. Due to their distinct properties, these nanoparticles could be directed to the specific target under external magnetic field. However, nanoparticles have a tendency to form agglomeration. Therefore, surface modification was required to reduce the agglomeration. In this study, nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were produced and coated by biomaterial (chitosan) using ex-situ co-precipitation method. Nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized by adding ammonia water into iron ferric and ferrous solution. Synthesis process of Fe3O4 was conducted prior to adding chitosan. Chitosan was then cross-linked by a combination of tripolyphosphate/sulphate. The different composition ratio and crosslinking time provide the different physical and magnetic characteristics of nanoparticles. Particle and crystallite size was determined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) respectively, whereas magnetic characteristic was determined by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). The results showed that the ratio enhancement between chitosan: Fe3O4 increase the particle size, while decreased the crystallite size. Morphology and particle size were influenced by the ratio of crosslinkers. It was found that the higher tripolyphosphate content was contributed to the small size and more spherical morphology. In addition, the influence of crosslinking time toward crystallite size was determined by altering stirring time. The longer duration of crosslinking time, provide the larger crystallite size of chitosan-Fe3O4. There was an interesting

  9. Comparison of the properties of collagen-chitosan scaffolds after γ-ray irradiation and carbodiimide cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zihao; Du, Tianming; Tang, Xiangyu; Liu, Changjun; Li, Ruixin; Xu, Cheng; Tian, Feng; Du, Zhenjie; Wu, Jimin

    2016-07-01

    The property of collagen-chitosan porous scaffold varies according to cross-linking density and scaffold composition. This study was designed to compare the properties of collagen-chitosan porous scaffolds cross-linked with γ-irradiation and carbodiimide (CAR) for the first time. Eleven sets of collagen-chitosan scaffolds containing different concentrations of chitosan at a 5% increasing gradient were fabricated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to confirm the success of cross-linking in the scaffolds. The scaffold morphology was evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM revealed that chitosan was an indispensable material for the fabrication of γ-ray irradiation scaffold. The microstructure of γ-ray irradiation scaffold was less stable than those of alternative scaffolds. Based upon swelling ratio, porosity factor, and collagenase degradation, γ-ray irradiation scaffold was less stable than CAR and 25% proportion of chitosan scaffolds. Mechanical property determines the orientation in γ-irradiation and CAR scaffold. In vitro degradation test indicated that γ-irradiation and CAR cross-linking can elevate the scaffold biocompatibility. Compared with γ-ray irradiation, CAR cross-linked scaffold containing 25% chitosan can more significantly enhance the bio-stability and biocompatibility of collagen-chitosan scaffolds. CAR cross-linked scaffold may be the best choice for future tissue engineering.

  10. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polyacrylate copolymers consist of: (1) The grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers. 177.1211... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1211 Cross-linked polyacrylate...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyacrylate copolymers consist of: (1) The grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers. 177.1211... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1211 Cross-linked polyacrylate...

  12. Qualification of a High Accuracy Dual-Axis Antenna Deployment and Trimming Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossant, Alain; Morichon, Francois

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Deployment and Trimming Mechanism Mark 2 (ADTM Mk2) has been developed to answer today's need for a generic antenna deployment and high accuracy pointing mechanism, allowing RF sensing applications and easier dual deployments configurations. This paper presents the design and evolution from its predecessor, the experience of the design team from kick off to qualification and batch manufacture, as well as some lessons learned from ramping up "mass-production" capabilities while implementing customer driven changes. Astrium has manufactured and flown ADTM units for the past 20 years, from an initial deployment-only mechanism developed for the Orion program to today's Eurostar E3000 ADTM family. The Antenna ADTM Mk2 is an evolution of the original ADTM Mk1. Although it uses Mk1 building blocks to minimize risks associated with the development of a new product, it incorporates major evolutions and is the new baseline for Astrium latest generation of Eurostar E3000 telecom satellites.

  13. Extremely stretchable thermosensitive hydrogels by introducing slide-ring polyrotaxane cross-linkers and ionic groups into the polymer network.

    PubMed

    Bin Imran, Abu; Esaki, Kenta; Gotoh, Hiroaki; Seki, Takahiro; Ito, Kohzo; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Takeoka, Yukikazu

    2014-10-08

    Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels changing their volumes and shapes in response to various stimulations have potential applications in multiple fields. However, these hydrogels have not yet been commercialized due to some problems that need to be overcome. One of the most significant problems is that conventional stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are usually brittle. Here we prepare extremely stretchable thermosensitive hydrogels with good toughness by using polyrotaxane derivatives composed of α-cyclodextrin and polyethylene glycol as cross-linkers and introducing ionic groups into the polymer network. The ionic groups help the polyrotaxane cross-linkers to become well extended in the polymer network. The resulting hydrogels are surprisingly stretchable and tough because the cross-linked α-cyclodextrin molecules can move along the polyethylene glycol chains. In addition, the polyrotaxane cross-linkers can be used with a variety of vinyl monomers; the mechanical properties of the wide variety of polymer gels can be improved by using these cross-linkers.

  14. Extremely stretchable thermosensitive hydrogels by introducing slide-ring polyrotaxane cross-linkers and ionic groups into the polymer network

    PubMed Central

    Bin Imran, Abu; Esaki, Kenta; Gotoh, Hiroaki; Seki, Takahiro; Ito, Kohzo; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Takeoka, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels changing their volumes and shapes in response to various stimulations have potential applications in multiple fields. However, these hydrogels have not yet been commercialized due to some problems that need to be overcome. One of the most significant problems is that conventional stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are usually brittle. Here we prepare extremely stretchable thermosensitive hydrogels with good toughness by using polyrotaxane derivatives composed of α-cyclodextrin and polyethylene glycol as cross-linkers and introducing ionic groups into the polymer network. The ionic groups help the polyrotaxane cross-linkers to become well extended in the polymer network. The resulting hydrogels are surprisingly stretchable and tough because the cross-linked α-cyclodextrin molecules can move along the polyethylene glycol chains. In addition, the polyrotaxane cross-linkers can be used with a variety of vinyl monomers; the mechanical properties of the wide variety of polymer gels can be improved by using these cross-linkers. PMID:25296246

  15. Biomimetic coating of cross-linked gelatin to improve mechanical and biological properties of electrospun PET: A promising approach for small caliber vascular graft applications.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, Daniele; Cauli, Elisa; Chevallier, Pascale; Farè, Silvia; Mantovani, Diego

    2017-09-01

    Electrospun PET (ePET) is a promising material for small caliber vascular graft applications owing to its tunable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and nanofibrous structure that mimic the morphology of natural extracellular matrix. However, the inherent inertness of PET impairs the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells on the inner surface of ePET tubular grafts, hindering the formation of a functional endothelium. Gelatin coatings, owing to their ability to promote endothelialization, are a valuable approach to overcome the limitations of ePET. Herein, a novel process for the deposition of stable biomimetic coatings of gelatin on ePET tubular grafts is proposed. Electrospun PET was first aminated by plasma treatment and then coated with a gelatin hydrogel cross-linked in situ by a Michael-type addition reaction. Amination provided a superhydrophilic behavior to the ePET surface, allowing easy gelatin interpenetration along the wall thickness of the tubular structure, and the obtainment of thin coatings that maintained the morphology of ePET fibers. Gelatin coating was stable at long term in a physiological-like environment, noncytotoxic and promoted in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation. Noteworthy, the mechanical properties of gelatin-coated ePET tubular grafts were improved in terms of elastic modulus, compliance, and elastic recoil, finally better matching the characteristics of native blood vessels. Altogether, the proposed coating technique successfully combines the advantages of ePET nanofibrous structure with cross-linked gelatin biological cues and mechanical reinforcement, and emerges as a promising strategy for the development of biocompatible small caliber vascular grafts with superior biomimetic and mechanical properties. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2405-2415, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Properties and characteristics of dual-modified rice starch based biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Woggum, Thewika; Sirivongpaisal, Piyarat; Wittaya, Thawien

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the dual-modified rice starch was hydroxypropylated with 6-12% of propylene oxide followed by crosslinking with 2% sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). Increasing the propylene oxide concentrations in the DMRS yielded an increase in the molar substitution (MS) and degree of substitution (DS). However, the gelatinization parameters, paste properties, gel strength and paste clarity showed an inverse trend. The biodegradable films from the DMRS showed an increase the tensile strength, elongation at break and film solubility, while the transparency value decreased when the concentration of propylene oxide increased. However the water vapor permeability of the films did not significantly change with an increase in the concentration of propylene oxide. In addition, it was found that DMRS films crosslinked with 2% STMP demonstrated higher tensile strength, transparency value and lower water vapor permeability than the DMRS films crosslinked with a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% STPP. The XRD analysis of the DMRS films showed a decrease in crystallinity when the propylene oxide concentrations increased and the crystallinity of DMRS films with 2% STMP were higher than the DMRS films with a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% STPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The changes in crosslink contents in tissues after formalin fixation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masashi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Kentaro; Nagano, Akira

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to detect crosslinks of collagen and elastin in formalin-fixed tissue, to perform quantification of these crosslinks, and to investigate the effects of formalin fixation on crosslink contents in human yellow ligament and cartilage. Pyridinoline (Pyr) is a stable and nonreducible crosslink of collagen. Pentosidine (Pen) is a senescent crosslink formed between arginine and lysine in matrix proteins, including collagen. Desmosine (Des) and its isomer isodesmosine (Isodes) are crosslinks specifically found in elastin. It is useful to measure crosslink contents of collagen and elastin as a way of investigating the properties of various tissues or their pathological changes. If it is possible to evaluate crosslinks of collagen and elastin in formalin-fixed tissues, we can investigate crosslinks in a wide variety of tissues. We used HPLC to compare the concentrations of Pyr, Pen, Des, and Isodes in the formalin-fixed tissues with their concentrations in the frozen tissues. Pyr and Pen were detected in both the formalin-fixed yellow ligament and the cartilage, and their concentrations were not significantly affected by or related to the duration of formalin fixation. Des and Isodes were detected in the formalin-fixed yellow ligament but in significantly lower amounts compared to the frozen samples. We concluded that crosslinks of collagen were preserved in formalin, but crosslinks of elastin were not preserved in it. The reason for this might be that formalin did not fix elastin tissues sufficiently or it destroyed, masked, or altered elastin crosslinks.

  18. The Formation Mechanism of Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liyan; Yuan, Shiliang; Wang, Jing; Shen, Yun; Deng, Shuwen; Xie, Luyang; Yang, Qixiang

    2017-06-12

    Hydrogels are degradable polymeric networks, in which cross-links play a vital role in structure formation and degradation. Cross-linking is a stabilization process in polymer chemistry that leads to the multi-dimensional extension of polymeric chains, resulting in network structures. By cross-linking, hydrogels are formed into stable structures that differ from their raw materials. Generally, hydrogels can be prepared from either synthetic or natural polymers. Based on the types of cross-link junctions, hydrogels can be categorized into two groups: the chemically cross-linked and the physically cross-linked. Chemically cross-linked gels have permanent junctions, in which covalent bonds are present between different polymer chains, thus leading to excellent mechanical strength. Although chemical cross-linking is a highly resourceful method for the formation of hydrogels, the cross-linkers used in hydrogel preparation should be extracted from the hydrogels before use, due to their reported toxicity, while, in physically cross-linked gels, dissolution is prevented by physical interactions, such as ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic interactions. Physically cross-linked methods for the preparation of hydrogels are the alternate solution for cross-linker toxicity. Both methods will be discussed in this essay. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Crosslinking of aromatic polyamides via pendant propargyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.; Barrick, J. D.; Campbell, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for crosslinking N-methyl substituted aromatic polyamides were investigated in an effort to improve the applicability of these polymers as matrix resins for Kavlar trademark fiber composites. High molecular weight polymers were prepared from isophthaloyl dichloride and 4,4'- bis(methylamino)diphenylmethane with varying proportions of the N,N'bispropargyl diamine incorporated as a crosslinking agent. The propargylcontaining diamines were crosslinked thermally and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Attempts were also made to crosslink polyamide films by exposure to ultraviolet light, electron beam, and gamma radiation.

  20. Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

  1. Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree. C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

  2. Cross-Linker Unbinding and Self-Similarity in Bundled Cytoskeletal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieleg, O.; Bausch, A. R.

    2007-10-01

    The macromechanical properties of purely bundled in vitro actin networks are not only determined by the micromechanical properties of individual bundles but also by molecular unbinding events of the actin-binding protein (ABP) fascin. Under high mechanical load the network elasticity depends on the forced unbinding of individual ABPs in a rate dependent manner. Cross-linker unbinding in combination with the structural self-similarity of the network enables the introduction of a concentration-time superposition principle—broadening the mechanically accessible frequency range over 8 orders of magnitude.

  3. The effect of free radical inhibitor on the sensitized radiation crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of polyurethane shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearon, Keith; Smith, Sarah E.; Maher, Cameron A.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2013-02-01

    The effects of free radical inhibitor on the electron beam crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of novel radiation crosslinkable polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) blended with acrylic radiation sensitizers have been determined. The SMPs in this study possess novel processing capabilities—that is, the ability to be melt processed into complex geometries as thermoplastics and crosslinked in a secondary step using electron beam irradiation. To increase susceptibility to radiation crosslinking, the radiation sensitizer pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) was solution blended with thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs made from 2-butene-1,4-diol and trimethylhexamethylene diisocyanate (TMHDI). Because the thermoplastic melt processing methods such as injection molding are often carried out at elevated temperatures, sensitizer thermal instability is a major processing concern. Free radical inhibitor can be added to provide thermal stabilization; however, inhibitor can also undesirably inhibit radiation crosslinking. In this study, we quantified both the thermal stabilization and radiation crosslinking inhibition effects of the inhibitor 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) on polyurethane SMPs blended with PETA. Sol/gel analysis of irradiated samples showed that the inhibitor had little to no inverse effects on gel fraction at concentrations of 0-10,000 ppm, and dynamic mechanical analysis showed only a slight negative correlation between BQ composition and rubbery modulus. The 1,4-benzoquinone was also highly effective in thermally stabilizing the acrylic sensitizers. The polymer blends could be heated to 150 °C for up to 5 h or to 125 °C for up to 24 h if stabilized with 10,000 ppm BQ and could also be heated to 125 °C for up to 5 h if stabilized with 1000 ppm BQ without sensitizer reaction occurring. We believe this study provides significant insight into methods for manipulation of the competing mechanisms of radiation crosslinking and thermal stabilization of

  4. The effect of free radical inhibitor on the sensitized radiation crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of polyurethane shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Keith; Smith, Sarah E; Maher, Cameron A; Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J

    2013-02-01

    The effects of free radical inhibitor on the electron beam crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of novel radiation crosslinkable polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) blended with acrylic radiation sensitizers have been determined. The SMPs in this study possess novel processing capabilities-that is, the ability to be melt processed into complex geometries as thermoplastics and crosslinked in a secondary step using electron beam irradiation. To increase susceptibility to radiation crosslinking, the radiation sensitizer pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) was solution blended with thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs made from 2-butene-1,4-diol and trimethylhexamethylene diisocyanate (TMHDI). Because thermoplastic melt processing methods such as injection molding are often carried out at elevated temperatures, sensitizer thermal instability is a major processing concern. Free radical inhibitor can be added to provide thermal stabilization; however, inhibitor can also undesirably inhibit radiation crosslinking. In this study, we quantified both the thermal stabilization and radiation crosslinking inhibition effects of the inhibitor 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) on polyurethane SMPs blended with PETA. Sol/gel analysis of irradiated samples showed that the inhibitor had little to no inverse effects on gel fraction at concentrations of 0-10,000 ppm, and dynamic mechanical analysis showed only a slight negative correlation between BQ composition and rubbery modulus. The 1,4-benzoquinone was also highly effective in thermally stabilizing the acrylic sensitizers. The polymer blends could be heated to 150°C for up to five hours or to 125°C for up to 24 hours if stabilized with 10,000 ppm BQ and could also be heated to 125°C for up to 5 hours if stabilized with 1000 ppm BQ without sensitizer reaction occurring. We believe this study provides significant insight into methods for manipulation of the competing mechanisms of radiation crosslinking and thermal stabilization

  5. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide-Urea Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide-urea networks are provided. The networks comprise a subunit comprising two anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomers in direct connection via a urea linkage. The oligomers (a) each comprise a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and a terminal anhydride group and (b) are formulated with 2 to 15 of the repeating units. The subunit was formed by reaction of the diamine and a diisocyanate to form a diamine-urea linkage-diamine group, followed by reaction of the diamine-urea linkage-diamine group with the dianhydride and the diamine to form the subunit. The subunit has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups. The subunit has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide-urea network. Also provided are wet gels, aerogels, and thin films comprising the networks, and methods of making the networks.

  6. Photo-inducible Crosslinked Nanoassemblies for pH-Controlled Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Matthew; Winquist, Nickolas; Bae, Younsoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To control drug release from block copolymer nanoassemblies by variation in the degree of photo-crosslinking and inclusion of acid sensitive linkers. Methods Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate-hydrazide-cinnamate) (PEG-CNM) block copolymers were prepared and conjugated with a model drug, doxorubicin (DOX), through acid sensitive hydrazone linkers. The block copolymers formed photo-inducible, self-assembled nanoassemblies (piSNAs), which were used to produce photo-inducible crosslinked nanoassemblies (piCNAs) through UV crosslinking. The nanoassemblies were characterized to determine particle size, surface charge, pH- and crosslinking-dependent DOX release, in vitro cytotoxicity, and intracellular uptake as a function of photo-crosslinking degree. Results Nanoassemblies with varying photo-crosslinking degrees were successfully prepared while retaining particle size and surface charge. Photo-crosslinking caused no noticeable change in DOX release from the nanoassemblies at pH 7.4, but the DOX-loaded nanoassemblies modulated drug release as a function of crosslinking at pH 6.0. The nanoassemblies showed similar cytotoxicity regardless of crosslinking degrees, presumably due to the low cellular uptake and cell nucleus drug accumulation. Conclusion Photo-crosslinking is useful to control drug release from pH-sensitive block copolymer nanoassemblies as a function of crosslinking without altering the particle properties, and thus providing unique tools to investigate the pharmaceutical effects of drug release on cellular response. PMID:24254196

  7. Rheological Properties of Cross-Linked Hyaluronan–Gelatin Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhooft, Janssen L.; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Magda, Jules J.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels that mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) are used in three-dimensional cell culture, cell therapy, and tissue engineering. A semi-synthetic ECM based on cross-linked hyaluronana offers experimental control of both composition and gel stiffness. The mechanical properties of the ECM in part determine the ultimate cell phenotype. We now describe a rheological study of synthetic ECM hydrogels with storage shear moduli that span three orders of magnitude, from 11 to 3 500 Pa, a range important for engineering of soft tissues. The concentration of the chemically modified HA and the cross-linking density were the main determinants of gel stiffness. Increase in the ratio of thiol-modified gelatin reduced gel stiffness by diluting the effective concentration of the HA component. PMID:18839402

  8. In vitro characterization of a collagen scaffold enzymatically cross-linked with a tailored elastin-like polymer.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Yolanda; Hemantkumar, Naik; Collighan, Russell; Griffin, Martin; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Pandit, Abhay

    2009-04-01

    Collagen, the main structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), provides tensile stiffness to different structures and organs against rupture. However, collagen tissue-engineered implants are hereto still lacking in mechanical strength. Attempts to create stiffer scaffolds have resulted in increased brittleness of the material, reducing the versatility of the original component. The hypothesis behind this research is that the introduction of an elastic element in the scaffold will enhance the mechanical properties of the collagen-based scaffolds, as elastin does in the ECM to prevent irreversible deformation. In this study, an elastin-like polymer (ELP) designed and synthesized using recombinant DNA methodology is used with the view to providing increased proteolytic resistance and increased functionality to the scaffolds by carrying specific sequences for microbial transglutaminase cross-linking, endothelial cell adhesion, and drug delivery. Evaluation of the effects that cross-linking ELP-collagen has on the physicochemical properties of the scaffold such as porosity, presence of cross-linking, thermal behavior, and mechanical strength demonstrated that the introduction of enzymatically resistant covalent bonds between collagen and ELP increases the mechanical strength of the scaffolds in a dose-dependent manner without significantly affecting the porosity or thermal properties of the original scaffold. Importantly, the scaffolds also showed selective behavior, in a dose (ELP)-dependent manner toward human umbilical vein endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells when compared to fibroblasts.

  9. Biodegradable Photo-Crosslinked Thin Polymer Networks Based on Vegetable Oil Hydroxyfatty Acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel crosslinked thin polymer networks based on vegetable oil hydroxyfatty acids (HFAs) were prepared by UV photopolymerization and their mechanical properties were evaluated. Two raw materials, castor oil and 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) were used as sources of mono- and di-HFAs, r...

  10. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of crosslinked rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Indranil; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2000-05-01

    Influence of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of crosslinked fluorocarbon (FKM) rubber, natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber and nitrile rubber (NBR) has been investigated. The modulus, gel fraction, glass transition temperature ( Tg) and storage modulus increased, while the elongation at the break and the loss tangent (tan δ) Tg decreased. FKM and NBR vulcanizates have been shown to have EB radiation resistance up to 1500 kGy.

  11. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilic and amphiphilic crosslinked systems that influence biological responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiasi, Angel

    The effect of physical, chemical, and biological cues on the behavior of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and attachment of marine organisms was investigated. Both hydrophilic and amphiphilic crosslinked polymer networks with varying chemical and mechanical properties were used to direct biological responses. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels were fabricated with tunable mechanical properties by varying the di-functional monomer concentration in the feed composition. Amphiphilic hydrogels composed of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)tetrakis(trimethylsiloxy)disiloxane (MPTSDS), and tris(trimethylsiloxy)-3-methacryloxypropylsilane (TRIS) were copolymerized using ultraviolet (UV) light and a photo-initiator. Hydrogels prepared with varying concentration of di-functional monomer, MPTSDS, exhibited an order of magnitude difference in elastic moduli. Not only were the bulk material properties influenced by the crosslinking agent concentration in the feed composition, but the surface properties (i.e., contact angle and hysteresis) were influenced as well. Modulus (E) has been reported to be positively correlated with the settlement of marine organisms. However, this was not the case for the amphiphilic gels tested against biomolecules and marine organisms. Stiffer gels inhibited fouling of proteins and marine organism, Ulva linza, to a greater extent than the softer gels. Furthermore, the network structure, in regards to the molecular weight between crosslinks Mc, was found to have a greater influence on fouling. A strong correlation was observed between protein adsorption and Mc of the amphiphilic crosslinked networks compared to just the modulus and surface energy (Upsilon) alone. A higher correlation was also obtained between Mc and Ulva sporeling biomass than between sporeling biomass and elastic modulus E, exhibiting R² value of 0.98 and 0.38, respectively. The percent removal of sporeling biomass growth was shown to be

  12. Preparation and biocompatibility of crosslinked poly(3-hydroxyundecenoate).

    PubMed

    Chung, Chungwook; Chung, Kyudon; Kim, Do Young; Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Jong-Sik; Rhee, Young Ha

    2018-02-01

    A sticky polymer, poly(3-hydroxyundecenoate) (PHU), was produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans when nonanoate and undecenoate were used as carbon sources. Crosslinked PHU (CL-PHU) was prepared by heating using benzoyl peroxide as a crosslinker. According to the degree of crosslinking in the polymer, three types of CL-PHU were prepared: CL-PHU50, CL-PHU60 and CL-PHU70. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry results suggested that crosslinking of PHU was successfully achieved by heat, which increased the crosslinking density and decreased stiffness and flexibility of the polymer. Water contact angle measurements revealed no differences of hydrophilicity as the crosslinking density. Slight morphological changes of CL-PHU film surfaces were observed by atomic force microscopy. Chinese hamster ovary cells were used to investigate the biocompatibility of CL-PHU films using poly(l-lactide) surfaces as control. Surface properties of the film, such as roughness and adhesive force, enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of cells on the films. CL-PHU might be useful for cell compatible biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a Crosslink Channel Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Chris; Smith, Carl; Burns, Rich

    2004-01-01

    Distributed Spacecraft missions are an integral part of current and future plans for NASA and other space agencies. Many of these multi-vehicle missions involve utilizing the array of spacecraft as a single, instrument requiring communication via crosslinks to achieve mission goals. NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing the Formation Flying Test Bed (FFTB) to provide a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment to support mission concept development and system trades with a primary focus on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) challenges associated with spacecraft flying. The goal of the FFTB is to reduce mission risk by assisting in mission planning and analysis, provide a technology development platform that allows algorithms to be developed for mission functions such as precision formation navigation and control and time synchronization. The FFTB will provide a medium in which the various crosslink transponders being used in multi-vehicle missions can be integrated for development and test; an integral part of the FFTB is the Crosslink Channel Simulator (CCS). The CCS is placed into the communications channel between the crosslinks under test, and is used to simulate on-mission effects to the communications channel such as vehicle maneuvers, relative vehicle motion, or antenna misalignment. The CCS is based on the Starlight software programmable platform developed at General Dynamics Decision Systems and provides the CCS with the ability to be modified on the fly to adapt to new crosslink formats or mission parameters. This paper briefly describes the Formation Flying Test Bed and its potential uses. It then provides details on the current and future development of the Crosslink Channel Simulator and its capabilities.

  14. Thermodynamic and mechanical properties of epoxy resin DGEBF crosslinked with DETDA by molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jeremy L; Ford, David M

    2008-06-01

    Fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to predict the properties of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) crosslinked with curing agent diethyltoluenediamine (DETDA). This polymer is a commercially important epoxy resin and a candidate for applications in nanocomposites. The calculated properties were density and bulk modulus (at near-ambient pressure and temperature) and glass transition temperature (at near-ambient pressure). The molecular topology, degree of curing, and MD force-field were investigated as variables. The models were created by densely packing pre-constructed oligomers of different composition and connectivity into a periodic simulation box. For high degrees of curing (greater than 90%), the density was found to be insensitive to the molecular topology and precise value of degree of curing. Of the two force-fields that were investigated, cff91 and COMPASS, the latter clearly gave more accurate values for the density as compared to experiment. In fact, the density predicted by COMPASS was within 6% of reported experimental values for the highly crosslinked polymer. The predictions of both force-fields for glass transition temperature were within the range of reported experimental values, with the predictions of cff91 being more consistent with a highly cured resin.

  15. The formation mechanism of binary semiconductor nanomaterials: shared by single-source and dual-source precursor approaches.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kui; Liu, Xiangyang; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Mingli; Ouyang, Jianying; Wang, Xinqin; Tao, Ye

    2013-10-11

    One thing in common: The formation of binary colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals from single- (M(EEPPh2 )n ) and dual-source precursors (metal carboxylates M(OOCR)n and phosphine chalcogenides such as E=PHPh2 ) is found to proceed through a common mechanism. For CdSe as a model system (31) P NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations support a reaction mechanism which includes numerous metathesis equilibriums and Se exchange reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dual-Mechanism and Multimotion Soft Actuators Based on Commercial Plastic Film.

    PubMed

    Li, Linpeng; Meng, Junxing; Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Yu, Hao; Wang, Hongzhi

    2018-05-02

    Soft actuators have attracted a lot of attention owing to their biomimetic performance. However, the development of soft actuators that are easily prepared from readily available raw materials, conveniently utilized, and cost-efficient is still a challenge. Here, we present a simple method to fabricate a polyethylene-based soft actuator. It has controllable anisotropic structure and can realize multiple motions, including bidirectional bending and twisting based on dual mechanisms, which is a rare phenomenon. Especially, the soft actuators can response at a very small temperature difference (Δ T ≥ 2.3 °C); therefore, even skin touch can quickly drive the actuator, which greatly broadens its applications in daily life. The soft actuator could demonstrate a curvature up to 7.8 cm -1 accompanied by powerful actuation. We have shown that it can lift an object 27 times its own weight. We also demonstrate the application of this actuator as intelligent mechanical devices.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of thermo-rheological behaviour and ionotropic crosslinking of new gellan gum-alkyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Agnello, Stefano; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Fiorica, Calogero; Giammona, Gaetano

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical characterization of two series of gellan gum (GG) derivatives functionalized with alkyl chains with different number of carbon, from 8 to 18. In particular, low molecular weight gellan gum samples with 52.6 or 96.7 kDa, respectively, were functionalized with octylamine (C 8 ), dodecylamine (C 12 ) and octadecylamine (C 18 ) by using bis(4-nitrophenyl) carbonate (4-NPBC) as a coupling agent. Thermo-rheological and ionotropic crosslinking properties of these gellan gum-alkyl derivatives were evaluated and related to the degree of derivatization in alkyl chains. Results suggested as length and degree of derivatization differently influenced coil-to-helix gelation mechanism of GG derivatives, ionotropic crosslinking, and strength of crosslinked hydrogels obtained in CaCl 2 0.102 M and NaCl 0.15 M. Statement of hypothesis: The insertion of alkyl chains on the gellan gum backbone interferes with coil-to-helix transition mechanism and allows the production of hydrophobically assembled hydrogels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-linked collagen sponges loaded with plant polyphenols with inhibitory activity towards chronic wound enzymes.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Francesko; Guillem, Rocasalbas; Sonia, Touriño; Clara, Mattu; Piergiorgio, Gentile; Valeria, Chiono; Gianluca, Ciardelli; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2011-10-01

    Collagen sponges loaded with polyphenols from Hamamelis virginiana were investigated as active materials for chronic wound dressings, evaluating in vitro the inhibition of two major enzymes that impair the wound healing process - myeloperoxidase (MPO) and collagenase. Prior to polyphenols loading, collagen was cross-linked with genipin to improve its biostability. The effect of genipin cross-linking and polyphenol concentration in the development of mechanically and enzymatically stable sponges was studied. The tensile strength of the cross-linked collagen increased with the increase of the cross-linking degree, coupled to decrease in the elongation and the swelling capacity of the sponges. The stability of the sponges to collagenase digestion reached maximum when 1 mM genipin was used. However, the biostability decreased more than 10-fold after loading the sponges with polyphenols (0.5 mg/mL), nevertheless, this effect was partially overcome using higher concentration of polyphenols (1 and 2 mg/mL) to inhibit collagenase. Moreover, the polyphenols released from the sponges were sufficient for complete inhibition of MPO activity. No considerable cytotoxicity of the genipin cross-linked collagen loaded with polyphenols was observed evaluating the NIH 3T3 fibroblasts viability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Industrial dual arm robot manipulator for precise assembly of mechanical parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chanhun; Kim, Doohyung; Park, Kyoungtaik; Choi, Youngjin

    2007-12-01

    A new structure of dual arm robot manipulator which consists of two industrial 6-DOF arms and one 2-DOF Torso is introduced. Each industrial 6-DOF arm is able to be used as a stand-alone industrial 6-DOF robot manipulator and as a part of dual arm manipulator at the same time. These structures help the robot maker which is willing to succeed in the emerging dual arm robot market in order to have high competition for the current industrial robot market at same time. Self-collision detection algorithm for multi-arm robot and kinematics algorithms for the developed dual arm robot manipulator which are implemented in our controller are introduced.

  20. γ-H2AX formation in response to interstrand crosslinks requires XPF in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Mogi, Seiki; Oh, Dennis H.

    2009-01-01

    To further define the molecular mechanisms involved in processing interstrand crosslinks, we monitored the formation of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), which is generated in chromatin near double strand break sites, following DNA damage in normal and repair-deficient human cells. Following treatment with a psoralen derivative and ultraviolet A radiation doses that produce significant numbers of crosslinks, γ-H2AX levels in nucleotide excision repair-deficient XP-A fibroblasts (XP12RO-SV) increased to levels that were twice those observed in normal control GM637 fibroblasts. A partial XPA revertant cell line (XP129) that is proficient in crosslink removal, exhibited reduced γ-H2AX levels that were intermediate between those of GM637 and XP-A cells. XP-F fibroblasts (XP2YO-SV and XP3YO) that are also repair-deficient exhibited γ-H2AX levels below even control fibroblasts following treatment with psoralen and ultraviolet A radiation. Similarly, another crosslinking agent, mitomycin C, did not induce γ-H2AX in XP-F cells, although it did induce equivalent levels of γ-H2AX in XPA and control GM637 cells. Ectopic expression of XPF in XP-F fibroblasts restored γ-H2AX induction following treatment with crosslinking agents. Angelicin, a furocoumarin which forms only monoadducts and not crosslinks following ultraviolet A radiation, as well as ultraviolet C radiation, resulted only in weak induction of γ-H2AX in all cells, suggesting that the double strand breaks observed with psoralen and ultraviolet A treatment result preferentially following crosslink formation. These results indicate that XPF is required to form γ-H2AX and likely double strand breaks in response to interstrand crosslinks in human cells. Furthermore, XPA may be important to allow psoralen interstrand crosslinks to be processed without forming a double strand break intermediate. PMID:16678501

  1. Ribose mediated crosslinking of collagen-hydroxyapatite hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration using biomimetic strategies.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Gopal Shankar; Gostynska, Natalia; Campodoni, Elisabetta; Dapporto, Massimiliano; Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Tampieri, Anna; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Sprio, Simone; Sandri, Monica

    2017-08-01

    This study explores for the first time the application of ribose as a highly biocompatible agent for the crosslinking of hybrid mineralized constructs, obtained by bio-inspired mineralization of self-assembling Type I collagen matrix with magnesium-doped-hydroxyapatite nanophase, towards a biomimetic mineralized 3D scaffolds (MgHA/Coll) with excellent compositional and structural mimicry of bone tissue. To this aim, two different crosslinking mechanisms in terms of pre-ribose glycation (before freeze drying) and post-ribose glycation (after freeze drying) were investigated. The obtained results explicate that with controlled freeze-drying, highly anisotropic porous structures with opportune macro-micro porosity are obtained. The physical-chemical features of the scaffolds characterized by XRD, FTIR, ICP and TGA demonstrated structural mimicry analogous to the native bone. The influence of ribose greatly assisted in decreasing solubility and increased enzymatic resistivity of the scaffolds. In addition, enhanced mechanical behaviour in response to compressive forces was achieved. Preliminary cell culture experiments reported good cytocompatibility with extensive cell adhesion, proliferation and colonization. Overall, scaffolds developed by pre-ribose glycation process are preferred, as the related crosslinking technique is more facile and robust to obtain functional scaffolds. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated that ribose crosslinking is cost-effective, safe and functionally effective. This study also offers new insights and opportunities in developing promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing solution-processable air-stable liquid crystalline crosslinkable semiconductors.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Iain; Bailey, Clare; Genevicius, Kristijonas; Heeney, Martin; Shkunov, Maxim; Sparrowe, David; Tierney, Steven; Zhang, Weimin; Baldwin, Rodney; Kreouzis, Theo; Andreasen, Jens W; Breiby, Dag W; Nielsen, Martin M

    2006-10-15

    Organic electronics technology, in which at least the semiconducting component of the integrated circuit is an organic material, offers the potential for fabrication of electronic products by low-cost printing technologies, such as ink jet, gravure offset lithography and flexography. The products will typically be of lower performance than those using the present state of the art single crystal or polysilicon transistors, but comparable to amorphous silicon. A range of prototypes are under development, including rollable electrophoretic displays, active matrix liquid crystal (LC) displays, flexible organic light emitting diode displays, low frequency radio frequency identification tag and other low performance electronics. Organic semiconductors that offer both electrical performance and stability with respect to storage and operation under ambient conditions are required. This work describes the development of reactive mesogen semiconductors, which form large crosslinked LC domains on polymerization within mesophases. These crosslinked domains offer mechanical stability and are inert to solvent exposure in further processing steps. Reactive mesogens containing conjugated aromatic cores, designed to facilitate charge transport and provide good oxidative stability, were prepared and their liquid crystalline properties evaluated. The organization and alignment of the mesogens, both before and after crosslinking, were probed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering of thin films. Both time-of-flight and field effect transistor devices were prepared and their electrical characterization reported.

  3. Experimental scleral cross-linking increases glaucoma damage in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Elizabeth C.; Nguyen, Cathy; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Pease, Mary E.; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Oveson, Brian C.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a scleral cross-linking agent on susceptibility to glaucoma damage in a mouse model. CD1 mice underwent 3 subconjunctival injections of 0.5 M glyceraldehyde (GA) in 1 week, then had elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) induced by bead injection. Degree of cross-linking was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), scleral permeability was measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and the mechanical effects of GA exposure were measured by inflation testing. Control mice had buffer injection or no injection in 2 separate glaucoma experiments. IOP was monitored by Tonolab and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss was measured by histological axon counting. To rule out undesirable effects of GA, we performed electroretinography and detailed histology of the retina. GA exposure had no detectable effects on RGC number, retinal structure or function either histologically or electrophysiologically. GA increased cross-linking of sclera by 37% in an ELISA assay, decreased scleral permeability (FRAP, p = 0.001), and produced a steeper pressure—strain behavior by in vitro inflation testing. In two experimental glaucoma experiments, GA-treated eyes had greater RGC axon loss from elevated IOP than either buffer-injected or control eyes, controlling for level of IOP exposure over time (p = 0.01, and 0.049, multivariable regression analyses). This is the first report that experimental alteration of the sclera, by cross-linking, increases susceptibility to RGC damage in mice. PMID:25285424

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder and head injury as a dual diagnosis: "islands" of memory as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    King, N S

    1997-01-01

    This case study describes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and head injury after a road traffic accident involving a pedestrian. Previous studies have proposed two mechanisms by which this dual diagnosis may occur: (1) when post-traumatic amnesia and retrograde amnesia are small or non-existent and (2) when non-declarative memory systems for the traumatic event are in operation. This case study demonstrates a third mechanism--"islands" of memory within post-traumatic amnesia.

  5. Improvement on Physical Properties of Pullulan Films by Novel Cross-Linking Strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh-Ting; Chen, Kuan-I; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Pullulan based films possess several advantages, including high transparency, low toxicity, good biodegradability, good mechanical properties, and low oxygen permeability, are preferable for food packaging. The application of pullulan films on food packaging, however, has inherent disadvantage of high water solubility. In this study, glutaraldehyde and glycerol were used as the cross-linking reagent and the plasticizer respectively to improve water resistance and physical properties of the pullulan films. Effects of cross-linking degree on physical properties, including water absorptions, swelling behaviors, water vapor permeability and tensile strengths of films were evaluated. FTIR results demonstrated that the pullulan films were successfully cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. The tensile strength of pullulan films could be enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) when glutaraldehyde was between 1% and 5% (w/w); nevertheless, the amount of glutaraldehyde above 20% (w/w) led to films brittleness. With the addition of glycerol as a plasticizer enhanced the extensibility of films as well as the hydrophilicity, resulting in higher water vapor permeability. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Charge transport model in nanodielectric composites based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Guochang; Chen, George, E-mail: gc@ecs.soton.ac.uk, E-mail: sli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; School of Electronic and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ

    Charge transport properties in nanodielectrics present different tendencies for different loading concentrations. The exact mechanisms that are responsible for charge transport in nanodielectrics are not detailed, especially for high loading concentration. A charge transport model in nanodielectrics has been proposed based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps. In the model, the thermally assisted hopping (TAH) process for the shallow traps and the tunnelling process for the deep traps are considered. For different loading concentrations, the dominant charge transport mechanisms are different. The quantum tunneling mechanism plays a major role in determining the charge conduction in nanodielectrics with high loadingmore » concentrations. While for low loading concentrations, the thermal hopping mechanism will dominate the charge conduction process. The model can explain the observed conductivity property in nanodielectrics with different loading concentrations.« less

  7. Eliminating glutaraldehyde from crosslinked collagen films using supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Casali, Dominic M; Yost, Michael J; Matthews, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Collagen has received considerable attention as a biomaterial for tissue engineering because of its low immunogenicity, controllable biodegradation, and ability to influence cell growth and proliferation. Frequently, collagen scaffolds require crosslinking to improve mechanical strength, requiring agents like glutaraldehyde that have high residual cytotoxicity. A novel method for extracting residual glutaraldehyde from crosslinked collagen films with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is presented. CO 2 is a nontoxic, nonflammable substance that is relatively inert and can be used to process biomaterials at mild pressures and physiologic temperatures. In this work, it was first determined that type I collagen is chemically compatible with both liquid and supercritical CO 2 . Treated collagen showed minimal changes in physicochemical properties as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, gel electrophoresis, and circular dichroism. CO 2 was subsequently used to extract residual glutaraldehyde from crosslinked collagen films. Glutaraldehyde concentration was reduced by over 95%, from over 20 ppm before treatment to about 1 ppm, in only 1 h. CO 2 treatment caused negligible alteration of thermal stability but did significantly increase film stiffness and tensile strength. However, these changes were minor compared to heat-based removal of glutaraldehyde. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 86-94, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. LOX-mediated collagen crosslinking is responsible for fibrosis-enhanced metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Thomas R.; Bird, Demelza; Baker, Ann-Marie; Barker, Holly E.; Ho, Melisa W-Y.; Lang, Georgina; Erler, Janine T.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a highly complex, dynamic and inefficient process involving multiple steps, yet accounts for over 90% of cancer patient deaths. Although it has long been known that fibrotic signals enhance tumor progression and metastasis, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Identifying events involved in creating environments that promote metastatic colonization and growth is critical for the development of effective cancer therapies. Here, we demonstrate a critical role for lysyl oxidase (LOX) in establishing a milieu within fibrosing tissues that is favorable to growth of metastastic tumor cells. We show that LOX-dependent collagen crosslinking is involved in creating a growth-permissive fibrotic microenvironment capable of supporting metastatic growth by enhancing tumor cell persistence and survival. We show that therapeutic targeting of LOX abrogates not only the extent to which fibrosis manifests, but also prevents fibrosis-enhanced metastatic colonization. Finally, we show that the LOX-mediated collagen cross-linking directly increases tumor cell proliferation, enhancing metastatic colonization and growth manifesting in vivo as increased metastasis. This is the first time that crosslinking of collagen I has been shown to enhance metastatic growth. These findings provide an important link between extracellular matrix homeostasis, fibrosis and cancer with important clinical implications for both the treatment of fibrotic disease and cancer. PMID:23345161

  9. Ultralow stress, thermally stable cross-linked polymer films of polydivinylbenzene (PDVB)

    DOE PAGES

    Lepro, Xavier; Ehrmann, Paul; Menapace, Joseph; ...

    2017-05-10

    Although closely related to polystyrene, poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) has found limited utility due to the difficulties associated with its synthesis. As a highly cross-linked polymer, PDVB is infusible and insoluble and thus nearly impossible to shape into films by either melt or solvent-based processes. Here, we report the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of nearly stress-free, highly transparent, free-standing films of PDVB up to 25 μm thick. Films initially grow under tensile intrinsic stress but become more compressive with thickness and eventually converge to zero-stress values once they reach ≥10 μm in thickness. Upon initial heating, the evaporative loss of unreactedmore » monomer left in the polymer matrix induces between 35 and 45 MPa of tensile stress in the films. Afterward, subsequent heating cycles induce reversible stress and film expansion behaviors. We estimate the degree of cross-linking to be 44%, resulting in high thermal stability (up to 300 °C) and mechanical stiffness (Young’s modulus of 5.2 GPa). As a result, the low stress combined with high cross-linking makes iCVD PDVB an excellent candidate for protective coatings in harsh environments.« less

  10. Ultralow stress, thermally stable cross-linked polymer films of polydivinylbenzene (PDVB)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lepro, Xavier; Ehrmann, Paul; Menapace, Joseph

    Although closely related to polystyrene, poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) has found limited utility due to the difficulties associated with its synthesis. As a highly cross-linked polymer, PDVB is infusible and insoluble and thus nearly impossible to shape into films by either melt or solvent-based processes. Here, we report the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of nearly stress-free, highly transparent, free-standing films of PDVB up to 25 μm thick. Films initially grow under tensile intrinsic stress but become more compressive with thickness and eventually converge to zero-stress values once they reach ≥10 μm in thickness. Upon initial heating, the evaporative loss of unreactedmore » monomer left in the polymer matrix induces between 35 and 45 MPa of tensile stress in the films. Afterward, subsequent heating cycles induce reversible stress and film expansion behaviors. We estimate the degree of cross-linking to be 44%, resulting in high thermal stability (up to 300 °C) and mechanical stiffness (Young’s modulus of 5.2 GPa). As a result, the low stress combined with high cross-linking makes iCVD PDVB an excellent candidate for protective coatings in harsh environments.« less

  11. Donor cross-linking for keratoplasty: a laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Achyut; Hayes, Sally; Aslanides, Ioannis; Lanchares, Elena; Meek, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    This laboratory-based investigation compares the topographic outcomes of conventional penetrating keratoplasty with that of a novel procedure in which donor corneas are cross-linked prior to keratoplasty. Penetrating keratoplasty procedures with continuous running sutures were carried out in a porcine whole globe model. Sixty eyes were randomly paired as 'donor' and 'host' tissue before being assigned to one of two groups. In the cross-linked group, donor corneas underwent riboflavin/UVA cross-linking prior to being trephined and sutured to untreated hosts. In the conventional keratoplasty group, both host and donor corneas remained untreated prior to keratoplasty. Topographic and corneal wavefront measurements were performed following surgery, and technical aspects of the procedure evaluated. Mean keratometric astigmatism was significantly lower in the cross-linked donor group at 3.67D (SD 1.8 D), vs. 8.43 D (SD 2.4 D) in the conventional keratoplasty group (p < 0.005). Mean wavefront astigmatism was also significantly reduced in the cross-linked donor group 4.71 D (SD 2.1) vs. 8.29D (SD 3.6) in the conventional keratoplasty group (p < 0.005). Mean RMS higher order aberration was significantly lower in the cross-linked donor group at 1.79 um (SD 0.98), vs. 3.05 um (SD 1.9) in the conventional keratoplasty group (P = 0.02). Qualitative analysis revealed less tissue distortion at the graft-host junction in the cross-linked group. Cross-linking of donor corneas prior to keratoplasty reduces intraoperative induced astigmatism and aberrations in an animal model. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the implications of this potential modification of keratoplasty surgery.

  12. Modeling Protein Excited-state Structures from "Over-length" Chemical Cross-links.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yue-He; Gong, Zhou; Dong, Xu; Liu, Kan; Liu, Zhu; Liu, Chao; He, Si-Min; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Tang, Chun

    2017-01-27

    Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectroscopy (CXMS) provides proximity information for the cross-linked residues and is used increasingly for modeling protein structures. However, experimentally identified cross-links are sometimes incompatible with the known structure of a protein, as the distance calculated between the cross-linked residues far exceeds the maximum length of the cross-linker. The discrepancies may persist even after eliminating potentially false cross-links and excluding intermolecular ones. Thus the "over-length" cross-links may arise from alternative excited-state conformation of the protein. Here we present a method and associated software DynaXL for visualizing the ensemble structures of multidomain proteins based on intramolecular cross-links identified by mass spectrometry with high confidence. Representing the cross-linkers and cross-linking reactions explicitly, we show that the protein excited-state structure can be modeled with as few as two over-length cross-links. We demonstrate the generality of our method with three systems: calmodulin, enzyme I, and glutamine-binding protein, and we show that these proteins alternate between different conformations for interacting with other proteins and ligands. Taken together, the over-length chemical cross-links contain valuable information about protein dynamics, and our findings here illustrate the relationship between dynamic domain movement and protein function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) cross-linked natural polymer-based hybrid gel beads: Controlled nano anti-TB drug delivery application.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, Mookkandi Palsamy; Ayyanaar, Srinivasan; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Dhaveethu Raja, Jeyaraj; Annaraj, Jamespandi; Sakthipandi, Kathiresan; Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban

    2018-04-01

    The nanosized rifampicin (RIF) has been prepared to increase the solubility in aqueous solution, which leads to remarkable enhancement of its bioavailability and their convenient delivery system studied by newly produced nontoxic, biodegradable magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) cross-linked polyethylene glycol hybrid chitosan (mCS-PEG) gel beads. The functionalization of both nano RIF and mCS-PEG gel beads were studied using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The size of prepared nano RIF was found to be 70.20 ± 3.50 nm. The mechanical stability and swelling ratio of the magnetic gel beads increased by the addition of PEG with a maximum swelling ratio of 38.67 ± 0.29 g/g. Interestingly, this magnetic gel bead has dual responsive assets in the nano drug delivery application (pH and the magnetic field). As we expected, magnetic gel beads show higher nano drug releasing efficacy at acidic medium (pH = 5.0) with maximum efficiency of 71.00 ± 0.87%. This efficacy may also be tuned by altering the external magnetic field and the weight percentage (wt%) of PEG. These results suggest that such a dual responsive magnetic gel beads can be used as a potential system in the nano drug delivery applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1039-1050, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W.; Philipp, W. H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A film-forming polyvinyl alcohol polymer is mixed with a polyaldehyde-polysaccharide cross-linking agent having at least two monosaccharide units and a plurality of aldehyde groups per molecule, perferably an average of at least one aldehyde group per monosaccharide units. The cross-linking agent, such as a polydialdehyde starch, is used in an amount of about 2.5 to 20% of the theoretical amount required to cross-link all of the available hydroxyl groups of the polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Reaction between the polymer and cross-linking agent is effected in aqueous acidic solution to produce the cross-linked polymer. The polymer product has low electrical resistivity and other properties rendering it suitable for making separators for alkaline batteries.

  15. Collagen telopeptides (cross-linking sites) play a role in collagen gel lattice contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodley, D. T.; Yamauchi, M.; Wynn, K. C.; Mechanic, G.; Briggaman, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Solubilized interstitial collagens will form a fibrillar, gel-like lattice when brought to physiologic conditions. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts the collagen lattice will contract. The rate of contraction can be determined by computer-assisted planemetry. The mechanisms involved in contraction are as yet unknown. Using this system it was found that the rate of contraction was markedly decreased when collagen lacking telopeptides was substituted for native collagen. Histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) is a major stable trifunctional collagen cross-link in mature skin that involves a carboxyl terminal, telopeptide site 16c, the sixteenth amino acid residue from the carboxy terminal of the telopeptide region of alpha 1 (I) in type I collagen. Little, if any, HHL was present in native, purified, reconstituted, soluble collagen fibrils from 1% acetic acid-extracted 2-year-old bovine skin. In contrast, HHL cross-links were present (0.22 moles of cross-link per mole of collagen) in lattices of the same collagen contracted by fibroblasts. However, rat tail tendon does not contain HHL cross-links, and collagen lattices made of rat tail tendon collagen are capable of contraction. This suggests that telopeptide sites, and not mature HHL cross-links per se, are essential for fibroblasts to contract collagen lattices. Beta-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN), a potent lathyrogen that perturbs collagen cross-linking by inhibition of lysyl oxidase, also inhibited the rate of lattice cell contraction in lattices composed of native collagen. However, the concentrations of BAPN that were necessary to inhibit the contraction of collagen lattices also inhibited fibroblast growth suggestive of cellular toxicity. In accordance with other studies, we found no inhibition of the rate of lattice contraction when fibronectin-depleted serum was used. Electron microscopy of contracted gels revealed typical collagen fibers with a characteristic axial periodicity. The data

  16. Stereocomplexation of low molecular weight poly(L-lactic acid) and high molecular weight poly(D-lactic acid), radiation crosslinking PLLA/PDLA stereocomplexes and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quynh, Tran Minh; Mai, Hoang Hoa; Lan, Pham Ngoc

    2013-02-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid)s (PLLAx) were synthesized from L-lactic acid by polycondensation. Different stereocomplexes were also obtained with equimolar mixtures of synthesized PLLAx and a commercial PDLA. The stereocomplexes were crosslinked with triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) by gamma irradiation. Crosslinking density increased with radiation doses, the heavier the crosslinking network, the lower its swelling degree. The crosslinking structures were introduced in the stereocomplexes inhibiting the mobility for crystallization of PLLA molecules. Thermal and mechanical properties of PLA stereocomplexes were remarkably enhanced by radiation induced crosslinking. PLA stereocomplex does not seem to be degraded by PLLA degrading microorganisms existing in compost at room temperature, but the synthesized PLLA was significantly degraded.

  17. DNA cross-linking by dehydromonocrotaline lacks apparent base sequence preference.

    PubMed

    Rieben, W Kurt; Coulombe, Roger A

    2004-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are ubiquitous plant toxins, many of which, upon oxidation by hepatic mixed-function oxidases, become reactive bifunctional pyrrolic electrophiles that form DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links. The anti-mitotic, toxic, and carcinogenic action of PAs is thought to be caused, at least in part, by these cross-links. We wished to determine whether the activated PA pyrrole dehydromonocrotaline (DHMO) exhibits base sequence preferences when cross-linked to a set of model duplex poly A-T 14-mer oligonucleotides with varying internal and/or end 5'-d(CG), 5'-d(GC), 5'-d(TA), 5'-d(CGCG), or 5'-d(GCGC) sequences. DHMO-DNA cross-links were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) of 32P endlabeled oligonucleotides and by HPLC analysis of cross-linked DNAs enzymatically digested to their constituent deoxynucleosides. The degree of DNA cross-links depended upon the concentration of the pyrrole, but not on the base sequence of the oligonucleotide target. Likewise, HPLC chromatograms of cross-linked and digested DNAs showed no discernible sequence preference for any nucleotide. Added glutathione, tyrosine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, but not phenylalanine, threonine, serine, lysine, or methionine competed with DNA as alternate nucleophiles for cross-linking by DHMO. From these data it appears that DHMO exhibits no strong base preference when forming cross-links with DNA, and that some cellular nucleophiles can inhibit DNA cross-link formation.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder and head injury as a dual diagnosis: "islands" of memory as a mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    King, N S

    1997-01-01

    This case study describes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and head injury after a road traffic accident involving a pedestrian. Previous studies have proposed two mechanisms by which this dual diagnosis may occur: (1) when post-traumatic amnesia and retrograde amnesia are small or non-existent and (2) when non-declarative memory systems for the traumatic event are in operation. This case study demonstrates a third mechanism--"islands" of memory within post-traumatic amnesia. PMID:9010405

  19. Effect of curing mode on the micro-mechanical properties of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Nicoleta; Simon, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Light supplying to luting resin cements is impeded in several clinical situations, causing us to question whether materials can properly be cured to achieve adequately (or adequate) mechanical properties. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the effect of light on the micro-mechanical properties of eight popular dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements by comparing them with two conventional, also dual-cured, resin cements. Four different curing procedures were applied: auto-polymerisation (dark curing) and light curing (LED unit, Freelight 2, 20 s) by applying the unit directly on the samples' surface, at a distance of 5 and 10 mm. Twenty minutes after curing, the samples were stored for 1 week at 37°C in a water-saturated atmosphere. The micro-mechanical properties-Vickers hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep and elastic/plastic deformation-were measured. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and partial eta-squared statistics (p < 0.05). A very strong influence of the material as well as filler volume and weight on the micro-mechanical properties was measured, whereas the influence of the curing procedure and type of cement-conventional or self-adhesive-was generally low. The influence of light on the polymerisation process was material dependent, with four different behaviour patterns to be distinguished. As a material category, significantly higher micro-mechanical properties were measured for the conventional compared to the self-adhesive resin cements, although this difference was low. Within the self-adhesive resin cements group, the variation in micro-mechanical properties was high. The selection of suitable resin cements should be done by considering, besides its adhesive properties, its micro-mechanical properties and curing behaviour also.

  20. Cross-linking and the molecular packing of corneal collagen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Chandler, G. S.; Tanzawa, H.; Katz, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    We have quantitatively characterized, for the first time, the cross-linking in bovine cornea collagen as a function of age. The major iminium reducible cross-links were dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine (deH-HLNL) and dehydro-histidinohydroxymerodesmosine (deH-HHMD). The former rapidly diminished after birth; however, the latter persisted in mature animals at a level of 0.3 - 0.4 moles/mole of collagen. A nonreducible cross-link, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL), previously found only in skin, was also found to be a major mature cross-link in cornea. The presence of HHL indicates that cornea fibrils have a molecular packing similar to skin collagen. However, like deH-HHMD, the HHL content in corneal fibrils only reaches a maximum value with time about half that of skin. These data suggest that the corneal fibrils are comprised of discrete filaments that are internally stabilized by HHL and deH-HHMD cross-links. This pattern of intermolecular cross-linking would facilitate the special collagen swelling property required for corneal transparency.

  1. Cross-Linking Studies of Lysozyme Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Tetragonal chicken egg white crystals consist of 4(sub 3) helices running in alternating directions, the helix rows having a two fold symmetry with each other. The unit cell consists of one complete tetrameric turn from each of two adjacent helices (an octamer). PBC analysis indicates that the helix intermolecular bonds are the strongest in the crystal, therefore likely formed first. AFM analysis of the (110) surface shows only complete helices, no half steps or bisected helices being found, while AFM line scans to measure the growth step increments show that they are multiples of the 4(sub 3) helix tetramer dimensions. This supports our thesis that the growth units are in fact multiples of the four molecule 4(sub 3) helix unit, the "average" growth unit size for the (110) face being an octamer (two turns about the helix) and the (101) growth unit averaging about the size of a hexamer. In an effort to better understand the species involved in the crystal nucleation and growth process, we have initiated an experimental program to study the species formed in solution compared to what is found in the crystal through covalent cross-linking studies. These experiments use the heterobifunctional cross-linking agent aminoethyl-4-azidonitroanaline (AEANA). An aliphatic amine at one end is covalently attached to the protein by a carbodiimide-mediated reaction, and a photo reactive group at the other can be used to initiate crosslinking. Modifications to the parent structure can be used to alter the distance between the two reactive groups and thus the cross-linking agents "reach". In practice, the cross-linking agent is first coupled to the asp101 side chain through the amine group. Asp101 lies within the active site cleft, and previous work with fluorescent probes had shown that derivatives at this site still crystallize in the tetragonal space group. This was also found to be the case with the AEANA derivative, which gave red tetragonal crystals. The protein now has a

  2. Effect of "bridge" on the performance of organic-inorganic crosslinked hybrid proton exchange membranes via KH550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hailan; Li, Hai Qiang; Liu, Meiyu; Xu, Lishuang; Xu, Jingmei; Wang, Shuang; Ni, Hongzhe; Wang, Zhe

    2017-02-01

    A series of novel organic-inorganic crosslinked hybrid proton exchange membranes were prepared using sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) polymers containing carboxyl groups (C-SPAEKS), (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (KH550), and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). KH550 acted as a "bridge" after reacting with carboxyl and sulfonic groups of C-SPAEKS to form covalent and ionic crosslinked structure between the C-SPAEKS and SiO2 phase. The crosslinked hybrid membranes (C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2) were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, and electrochemistry, etc. The thermal stability, mechanical properties and proton conductivity of the crosslinked hybrid membranes were improved by the presence of both crosslinked structure and inorganic phase. The proton conductivity of C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2-8 was recorded as 0.110 S cm-1, higher than that of Nafion® (0.028 S cm-1) at 120 °C. Moreover, the methanol permeability of the C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2-8 was measured as 3.86 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, much lower than that of Nafion® 117 membranes (29.4 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) at 25 °C.

  3. Fabrication of nonwoven fabrics consisting of gelatin nanofibers cross-linked by glutaraldehyde or N-acetyl-d-glucosamine by aqueous method.

    PubMed

    Furuike, Tetsuya; Chaochai, Thitirat; Okubo, Tsubasa; Mori, Takahiro; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Since gelatin (Gel) undergoes a sol-gel transition, a novel dry-spinning procedure for Gel was used. Here, nonwoven fabrics of Gel were electrospun by applying the principles of dry spinning. The diameter of the fibers and the viscosity and flow rate of the solution were directly dependent on the concentration of Gel. Nonwoven fabrics spun with a 25% (w/w) Gel concentration only exhibited a nanoscale fiber diameter. In order to improve the properties of the nonwoven fabrics, they were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GTA) vapor after spinning or by the addition of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) to the Gel solution prior to spinning followed by heating these fibers. The developed nonwoven fibers were characterized using SEM, rheometry, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical tensile testing. The nonwoven fabrics cross-linked by the GTA vapor exhibited improved mechanical properties compared to those without cross-linking or with GlcNAc cross-linking. The swelling and water uptake ability resulted in no morphological changes in the fibers with GTA cross-linking. The TGA thermogram confirmed no phase change in the composite structure. Further, in vitro cytocompatibility studies using human mesenchymal stem cells showed the compatible nature of the developed nonwoven fibers. Our studies showed that these nonwoven fibers could be useful in medical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Controlling Hydrogel Mechanics via Bio-Inspired Polymer-Nanoparticle Bond Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaochu; Barrett, Devin G; Messersmith, Phillip B; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2016-01-26

    Interactions between polymer molecules and inorganic nanoparticles can play a dominant role in nanocomposite material mechanics, yet control of such interfacial interaction dynamics remains a significant challenge particularly in water. This study presents insights on how to engineer hydrogel material mechanics via nanoparticle interface-controlled cross-link dynamics. Inspired by the adhesive chemistry in mussel threads, we have incorporated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) into a catechol-modified polymer network to obtain hydrogels cross-linked via reversible metal-coordination bonds at Fe3O4 NP surfaces. Unique material mechanics result from the supra-molecular cross-link structure dynamics in the gels; in contrast to the previously reported fluid-like dynamics of transient catechol-Fe(3+) cross-links, the catechol-Fe3O4 NP structures provide solid-like yet reversible hydrogel mechanics. The structurally controlled hierarchical mechanics presented here suggest how to develop hydrogels with remote-controlled self-healing dynamics.

  5. Explaining reaction mechanisms using the dual descriptor: a complementary tool to the molecular electrostatic potential.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge Ignacio

    2013-07-01

    The intrinsic reactivity of cyanide when interacting with a silver cation was rationalized using the dual descriptor (DD) as a complement to the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) in order to predict interactions at the local level. It was found that DD accurately explains covalent interactions that cannot be explained by MEP, which focuses on essentially ionic interactions. This allowed the rationalization of the reaction mechanism that yields silver cyanide in the gas phase. Other similar reaction mechanisms involving a silver cation interacting with water, ammonia, and thiosulfate were also explained by the combination of MEP and DD. This analysis provides another example of the usefulness of DD as a tool for gaining a deeper understanding of any reaction mechanism that is mainly governed by covalent interactions.

  6. Intra-molecular cross-linking of acidic residues for protein structure studies.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kruppa, Gary Hermann; Young, Malin M.; Novak, Petr

    2005-03-01

    Intra-molecular cross-linking has been suggested as a method of obtaining distance constraints that would be useful in developing structural models of proteins. Recent work published on intra-molecular cross-linking for protein structural studies has employed commercially available primary amine selective reagents that can cross-link lysine residues to other lysine residues or the amino terminus. Previous work using these cross-linkers has shown that for several proteins of known structure, the number of cross-links that can be obtained experimentally may be small compared to what would be expected from the known structure, due to the relative reactivity, distribution, and solvent accessibility of themore » lysines in the protein sequence. To overcome these limitations we have investigated the use of cross-linking reagents that can react with other reactive sidechains in proteins. We used 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) to activate the carboxylic acid containing residues, aspartic acid (D), glutamic acid (E), and the carboxy terminus (O), for cross-linking reactions. Once activated, the DEO sidechains can react to form 'zero-length' cross-links with nearby primary amine containing resides, lysines (K) and the amino terminus (X), via the formation of a new amide bond. We also show that the EDC-activated DEO sidechains can be cross-linked to each other using dihydrazides, two hydrazide moieties connected by an alkyl cross-linker ann of variable length. Using these reagents, we have found three new 'zero-length' cross-links in ubiquitin consistent with its known structure (M1-E16, M1-E18, and K63-E64). Using the dihydrazide cross-linkers, we have identified 2 new cross-links (D21-D32 and E24-D32) unambiguously. Using a library of dihydrazide cross-linkers with varying arm length, we have shown that there is a minimum arm length required for the DEO-DEO cross-links of 5.8 angstroms. These results show that additional structural

  7. Controlled drug release properties of ionically cross-linked chitosan beads: the influence of anion structure.

    PubMed

    Shu, X Z; Zhu, K J

    2002-02-21

    By adopting a novel chitosan cross-linked method, i.e. chitosan/gelatin droplet coagulated at low temperature and then cross-linked by anions (sulfate, citrate and tripolyphosphate (TPP)), the chitosan beads were prepared. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that sulfate/chitosan and citrate/chitosan beads usually had a spherical shape, smooth surface morphology and integral inside structure. Cross-sectional analysis indicated that the cross-linking process of sulfate and citrate to chitosan was much faster than that of TPP due to their smaller molecular size. But, once completely cross-linked, TPP/chitosan beads possessed much better mechanical strength and the force to break the beads was approximately ten times higher than that of sulfate/chitosan or citrate/chitosan beads. Release media pH and ionic strength seriously influenced the controlled drug release properties of the beads, which related to the strength of electrostatic interaction between anions and chitosan. Sulfate and citrate cross-linked chitosan beads swelled and even dissociated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and hence, model drug (riboflavin) released completely in 5 h; while in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), beads remained in a shrinkage state and drug released slowly (release % usually <70% in 24 h). However, swelling and drug release of TPP/chitosan bead was usually insensitive to media pH. Chitosan beads, cross-linked by a combination of TPP and citrate (or sulfate) together, not only had a good shape, but also improved pH-responsive drug release properties. Salt weakened the interaction of citrate, especially sulfate with chitosan and accelerated beads swelling and hence drug release rate, but it was insensitive to that of TPP/chitosan. These results indicate that ionically cross-linked chitosan beads may be useful in stomach specific drug delivery.

  8. A peroxidase/dual oxidase system modulates midgut epithelial immunity in Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Gupta, Lalita; Rodrigues, Janneth; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2010-03-26

    Extracellular matrices in diverse biological systems are cross-linked by dityrosine covalent bonds catalyzed by the peroxidase/oxidase system. We show that a peroxidase, secreted by the Anopheles gambiae midgut, and dual oxidase form a dityrosine network that decreases gut permeability to immune elicitors. This network protects the microbiota by preventing activation of epithelial immunity. It also provides a suitable environment for malaria parasites to develop within the midgut lumen without inducing nitric oxide synthase expression. Disruption of this barrier results in strong and effective pathogen-specific immune responses.

  9. Self-Healing Gelatin Hydrogels Cross-Linked by Combining Multiple Hydrogen Bonding and Ionic Coordination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangzhao; Lv, Lei; Deng, Yonghong; Wang, Chaoyang

    2017-06-01

    Self-healing hydrogels have been studied by many researchers via multiple cross-linking approaches including physical and chemical interactions. It is an interesting project in multifunctional hydrogel exploration that a water soluble polymer matrix is cross-linked by combining the ionic coordination and the multiple hydrogen bonds to fabricate self-healing hydrogels with injectable property. This study introduces a general procedure of preparing the hydrogels (termed gelatin-UPy-Fe) cross-linked by both ionic coordination of Fe 3+ and carboxyl group from the gelatin and the quadruple hydrogen bonding interaction from the ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) dimers. The gelatin-UPy-Fe hydrogels possess an excellent self-healing property. The effects of the ionic coordination of Fe 3+ and quadruple hydrogen bonding of UPy on the formation and mechanical behavior of the prepared hydrogels are investigated. In vitro drug release of the gelatin-UPy-Fe hydrogels is also observed, giving an intriguing glimpse into possible biological applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. An investigation of the curing process for moisture-crosslinkable polyethylene used in cable coating extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, Kirk Martin

    1998-12-01

    Moisture-crosslinkable polyethylene used in the extrusion coating of electrical cable has many advantages over other polymer systems used for crosslinked cable coating. However, one of its major drawbacks is the long cure times required. The purpose of this study was to describe how curing takes place in cable systems using moisture-crosslinkable polyethylene, with an ultimate goal of gaining insight into how cure times might be reduced. Crosslinking was investigated with an emphasis on how the curing reaction proceeds through the coating, using analyses to characterize processing conditions and resulting mechanical and structural properties. In the design of the study, material compounds were varied as were curing conditions. Cable coatings were sectioned by position through the coating thickness and characterized using several techniques. Mechanical, thermal, and structural properties of the polymer coating were measured. A significant finding from the study was that the degree of cure was highest at positions in the coating closest to the conductor. Because this was opposite to what was expected, an investigation into the cause of this finding was pursued. It was found that during cure at elevated temperature, the inside surface of the coating remains at a generally higher temperature than the outside surface. This provides a more favorable cure condition for positions in the coating closest to the conductor. Based on the results of this study, a list of suggested follow-up studies is provided at the end of the dissertation. One proposal for investigating reduced cure times involves providing heat to the interior of the cable during cure.

  11. A new class of dual responsive self-healable hydrogels based on a core crosslinked ionic block copolymer micelle prepared via RAFT polymerization and Diels-Alder "click" chemistry.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sovan Lal; Singha, Nikhil K

    2017-12-06

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(furfuryl methacrylate) (PFMA) with cationic poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) (PFMA-b-PMTAC) and anionic poly(sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate) (PFMA-b-PSS) were prepared via reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization by using PFMA as a macro-RAFT agent. The formation of the block copolymer was confirmed by FTIR and 1 H NMR analyses. In water, the amphiphilic diblock copolymers, (PFMA-b-PMTAC) and (PFMA-b-PSS), formed micelles with PFMA in the core and the rest of the hydrophilic polymers like PMTAC and PSS in the corona. The PFMA core was crosslinked by using Diels-Alder (DA) "Click" chemistry in water at 60 °C where bismaleimide acted as a crosslinker. Afterwards, both the core crosslinked micelles were mixed at an almost equal charge ratio which was determined by zeta potential analysis to prepare the self-assembled hydrogel. The de-crosslinking of the hydrophobic PFMA core in the self-assembled hydrogel via rDA reaction took place at 165 °C as determined from DSC analysis. This hydrogel showed self-healing behavior using ionic interaction (in the presence of water) and DA chemistry (in the presence of heat).

  12. Robust cross-links in molluscan adhesive gels: Testing for contributions from hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A.M.; Robinson, T. M.; Salt, M. D.; Hamilton, K. S.; Silvia, B. E.; Blasiak, R.

    2009-01-01

    The cross-linking interactions that provide cohesive strength to molluscan adhesive gels were investigated. Metal-based interactions have been shown to play an important role in the glue of the slug Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud), but other types of interactions may also contribute to the glue's strength and their role has not been investigated. This study shows that treatments that normally disrupt hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions have little to no effect on the slug glue. High salt concentrations and non-ionic detergent do not affect the solubility of the proteins in the glue or the ability of the glue proteins to stiffen gels. In contrast, metal chelation markedly disrupts the gel. Experiments with gel filtration chromatography identify a 40 kDa protein that is a central component of the cross-links in the glue. This 40 kDa protein forms robust macromolecular aggregations that are stable even in the presence of high concentrations of salt, non-ionic detergent, urea or metal chelators. Metal chelation during glue secretion, however, may block some of these cross-links. Such robust, non-specific interactions in an aqueous environment are highly unusual for hydrogels and reflect an intriguing cross-linking mechanism. PMID:18952190

  13. Robust cross-links in molluscan adhesive gels: testing for contributions from hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Robinson, T M; Salt, M D; Hamilton, K S; Silvia, B E; Blasiak, R

    2009-02-01

    The cross-linking interactions that provide cohesive strength to molluscan adhesive gels were investigated. Metal-based interactions have been shown to play an important role in the glue of the slug Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud), but other types of interactions may also contribute to the glue's strength and their role has not been investigated. This study shows that treatments that normally disrupt hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions have little to no effect on the slug glue. High salt concentrations and non-ionic detergent do not affect the solubility of the proteins in the glue or the ability of the glue proteins to stiffen gels. In contrast, metal chelation markedly disrupts the gel. Experiments with gel filtration chromatography identify a 40 kDa protein that is a central component of the cross-links in the glue. This 40 kDa protein forms robust macromolecular aggregations that are stable even in the presence of high concentrations of salt, non-ionic detergent, urea or metal chelators. Metal chelation during glue secretion, however, may block some of these cross-links. Such robust, non-specific interactions in an aqueous environment are highly unusual for hydrogels and reflect an intriguing cross-linking mechanism.

  14. Crosslinked Polybenzimidazole Membrane For Gas Separation

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Young, Jennifer S.; Espinoza, Brent F.

    2005-09-20

    A cross-linked, supported polybenzimidazole membrane for gas separation is prepared by layering a solution of polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a,a'dibromo-p-xylene onto a porous support and evaporating solvent. A supported membrane of cross-linked poly-2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole unexpectedly exhibits an enhanced gas permeability compared to the non-cross linked analog at temperatures over 265° C.

  15. Molecular-dynamics simulations of crosslinking and confinement effects on structure, segmental mobility and mechanics of filled elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davris, Theodoros; Lyulin, Alexey V.

    2016-05-01

    The significant drop of the storage modulus under uniaxial deformation (Payne effect) restrains the performance of the elastomer-based composites and the development of possible new applications. In this paper molecular-dynamics (MD) computer simulations using LAMMPS MD package have been performed to study the mechanical properties of a coarse-grained model of this family of nanocomposite materials. Our goal is to provide simulational insights into the viscoelastic properties of filled elastomers, and try to connect the macroscopic mechanics with composite microstructure, the strength of the polymer-filler interactions and the polymer mobility at different scales. To this end we simulate random copolymer films capped between two infinite solid (filler aggregate) walls. We systematically vary the strength of the polymer-substrate adhesion interactions, degree of polymer confinement (film thickness), polymer crosslinking density, and study their influence on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium structure, segmental dynamics, and the mechanical properties of the simulated systems. The glass-transition temperature increases once the mesh size became smaller than the chain radius of gyration; otherwise it remained invariant to mesh-size variations. This increase in the glass-transition temperature was accompanied by a monotonic slowing-down of segmental dynamics on all studied length scales. This observation is attributed to the correspondingly decreased width of the bulk density layer that was obtained in films whose thickness was larger than the end-to-end distance of the bulk polymer chains. To test this hypothesis additional simulations were performed in which the crystalline walls were replaced with amorphous or rough walls.

  16. Infrared microspectroscopic determination of collagen cross-links in articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieppo, Lassi; Kokkonen, Harri T.; Kulmala, Katariina A. M.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Lammi, Mikko J.; Töyräs, Juha; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-03-01

    Collagen forms an organized network in articular cartilage to give tensile stiffness to the tissue. Due to its long half-life, collagen is susceptible to cross-links caused by advanced glycation end-products. The current standard method for determination of cross-link concentrations in tissues is the destructive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The aim of this study was to analyze the cross-link concentrations nondestructively from standard unstained histological articular cartilage sections by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. Half of the bovine articular cartilage samples (n=27) were treated with threose to increase the collagen cross-linking while the other half (n=27) served as a control group. Partial least squares (PLS) regression with variable selection algorithms was used to predict the cross-link concentrations from the measured average FTIR spectra of the samples, and HPLC was used as the reference method for cross-link concentrations. The correlation coefficients between the PLS regression models and the biochemical reference values were r=0.84 (p<0.001), r=0.87 (p<0.001) and r=0.92 (p<0.001) for hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP), lysyl pyridinoline (LP), and pentosidine (Pent) cross-links, respectively. The study demonstrated that FTIR microspectroscopy is a feasible method for investigating cross-link concentrations in articular cartilage.

  17. Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Khabaz, Fardin, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Ketan S., E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu

    2014-05-15

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Young’s modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring themore » resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations.« less

  18. Xilmass: A New Approach toward the Identification of Cross-Linked Peptides.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Şule; Drepper, Friedel; Hulstaert, Niels; Černič, Maša; Gevaert, Kris; Economou, Anastassios; Warscheid, Bettina; Martens, Lennart; Vandermarliere, Elien

    2016-10-18

    Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry plays an important role in unravelling protein interactions, especially weak and transient ones. Moreover, cross-linking complements several structural determination approaches such as cryo-EM. Although several computational approaches are available for the annotation of spectra obtained from cross-linked peptides, there remains room for improvement. Here, we present Xilmass, a novel algorithm to identify cross-linked peptides that introduces two new concepts: (i) the cross-linked peptides are represented in the search database such that the cross-linking sites are explicitly encoded, and (ii) the scoring function derived from the Andromeda algorithm was adapted to score against a theoretical tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectrum that contains the peaks from all possible fragment ions of a cross-linked peptide pair. The performance of Xilmass was evaluated against the recently published Kojak and the popular pLink algorithms on a calmodulin-plectin complex data set, as well as three additional, published data sets. The results show that Xilmass typically had the highest number of identified distinct cross-linked sites and also the highest number of predicted cross-linked sites.

  19. Macromolecular cross-linked enzyme aggregates (M-CLEAs) of α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Muley, Abhijeet B; Ladole, Mayur R; Joshi, Pranoti U

    2016-03-01

    Macromolecular cross-linked enzyme aggregates (M-CLEAs) of α-amylase were prepared by precipitation and subsequent cross-linking. The non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible, renewable polysaccharide based macromolecular cross-linkers viz. agar, chitosan, dextran, and gum arabic were used as a substitute for traditional glutaraldehyde to augment activity recovery toward macromolecular substrate. Macromolecular cross-linkers were prepared by periodate mediated controlled oxidation of polysaccharides. The effects of precipitating agent, concentration and different cross-linkers on activity recovery of α-amylase CLEAs were investigated. α-Amylase aggregated with ammonium sulphate and cross-linked by dextran showed 91% activity recovery, whereas glutaraldehyde CLEAs (G-CLEAs) exhibited 42% activity recovery. M-CLEAs exhibited higher thermal stability in correlation with α-amylase and G-CLEAs. Moreover, dextran and chitosan M-CLEAs showed same affinity for starch hydrolysis as of free α-amylase. The changes in secondary structures revealed the enhancements in structural and conformational rigidity attributed by cross-linkers. Finally, after five consecutive cycles dextran M-CLEAs retained 1.25 times higher initial activity than G-CLEAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cells using cross-linked chitosan-graphene oxide mixed-matrix membranes.

    PubMed

    Holder, Shima L; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Popuri, Srinivasa R

    2017-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are emerging technology for wastewater treatment by chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and simultaneous bioelectricity production. Fabrication of an effective proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a vital component for MFC performance. In this work, green chitosan-based (CS) PEMs were fabricated with graphene oxide (GO) as filler material (CS-GO) and cross-linked with phosphoric acid (CS-GO-P(24)) or sulfuric acid (CS-GO-S(24)) to determine their effect on PEM properties. Interrogation of the physicochemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the cross-linked CS-GO PEMs demonstrated that ionic cross-linking based on the incorporation of PO 4 3- groups in the CS-GO mixed-matrix composites, when compared with sulfuric acid cross-linking commonly used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) studies, generated additional density of ionic cluster domains, rendered enhanced sorption properties, and augmented the thermal and mechanical stability of the composite structure. Consequently, bioelectricity performance analysis in MFC application showed that CS-GO-P(24) membrane produced 135% higher power density than the CS-GO-S(24) MFC system. Simultaneously, 89.52% COD removal of primary clarifier municipal wastewater was achieved in the MFC operated with the CS-GO-P(24) membrane.

  1. Transparent, Superflexible Doubly Cross-Linked Polyvinylpolymethylsiloxane Aerogel Superinsulators via Ambient Pressure Drying.

    PubMed

    Zu, Guoqing; Shimizu, Taiyo; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Zhu, Yang; Maeno, Ayaka; Kaji, Hironori; Shen, Jun; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2018-01-23

    Aerogels have many attractive properties but are usually costly and mechanically brittle, which always limit their practical applications. While many efforts have been made to reinforce the aerogels, most of the reinforcement efforts sacrifice the transparency or superinsulating properties. Here we report superflexible polyvinylpolymethylsiloxane, (CH 2 CH(Si(CH 3 )O 2/2 )) n , aerogels that are facilely prepared from a single precursor vinylmethyldimethoxysilane or vinylmethyldiethoxysilane without organic cross-linkers. The method is based on consecutive processes involving radical polymerization and hydrolytic polycondensation, followed by ultralow-cost, highly scalable, ambient-pressure drying directly from alcohol as a drying medium without any modification or additional solvent exchange. The resulting aerogels and xerogels show a homogeneous, tunable, highly porous, doubly cross-linked nanostructure with the elastic polymethylsiloxane network cross-linked with flexible hydrocarbon chains. An outstanding combination of ultralow cost, high scalability, uniform pore size, high surface area, high transparency, high hydrophobicity, excellent machinability, superflexibility in compression, superflexibility in bending, and superinsulating properties has been achieved in a single aerogel or xerogel. This study represents a significant progress of porous materials and makes the practical applications of transparent flexible aerogel-based superinsulators realistic.

  2. Wood Sawdust/Natural Rubber Ecocomposites Cross-Linked by Electron Beam Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Manaila, Elena; Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Craciun, Gabriela; Ighigeanu, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The obtaining and characterization of some polymeric eco-composites based on wood sawdust and natural rubber is presented. The natural rubber was cross-linked using the electron beam irradiation. The irradiation doses were of 75, 150, 300 and 600 kGy and the concentrations of wood sawdust were of 10 and 20 phr, respectively. As a result of wood sawdust adding, the physical and mechanical properties such as hardness, modulus at 100% elongation and tensile strength, showed significant improvements. The presence of wood sawdust fibers has a reinforcing effect on natural rubber, similar or better than of mineral fillers. An increase in the irradiation dose leads to the increasing of cross-link density, which is reflected in the improvement of hardness, modulus at 100% elongation and tensile strength of blends. The cross-linking rates, appreciated using the Flory-Rehner equation, have increased with the amount of wood sawdust in blends and with the irradiation dose. Even if the gel fraction values have varied irregularly with the amount of wood sawdust and irradiation dose it was over 90% for all blends, except for the samples without wood sawdust irradiated with 75 kGy. The water uptake increased with increasing of fiber content and decreased with the irradiation dose. PMID:28773626

  3. Isozyme-specific comprehensive characterization of transglutaminase-crosslinked substrates in kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Hideki; Otsu, Risa; Tani, Yuji; Wakita, Ryosuke; Hitomi, Kiyotaka

    2018-05-09

    Chronic kidney disease is characterized by prolonged decline in renal function, excessive accumulation of ECM, and progressive tissue fibrosis. Transglutaminase (TG) is a crosslinking enzyme that catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds between glutamine and lysine residues, and is involved in the induction of renal fibrosis via the stabilization of ECM and the activation of TGF-β1. Despite the accumulating evidences indicating that TG2 is a key enzyme in fibrosis, genetic knockout of TG2 reduced by only 50% the elevated protein crosslinking and fibrous protein in renal fibrosis model, whereas treatment with TG inhibitor almost completely reduced these levels. Here, we also clarified the distributions of TG isozymes and their in situ activities and identified the isozyme-specific crosslinked substrates for both TG1 and TG2 in fibrotic kidney. We found that TG1 activity was markedly enhanced in renal tubular epithelium and interstitial areas, whereas TG2 activity increased only in the extracellular space. In total, 47 and 67 possible candidates were identified as TG1 and TG2 substrates, respectively, only in fibrotic kidney. Among them, several possible substrates related to renal disease and fibrosis were identified. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of renal fibrosis through the targeting of isozyme-specific TG substrates.

  4. Wood Sawdust/Natural Rubber Ecocomposites Cross-Linked by Electron Beam Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Manaila, Elena; Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Craciun, Gabriela; Ighigeanu, Daniel

    2016-06-23

    The obtaining and characterization of some polymeric eco-composites based on wood sawdust and natural rubber is presented. The natural rubber was cross-linked using the electron beam irradiation. The irradiation doses were of 75, 150, 300 and 600 kGy and the concentrations of wood sawdust were of 10 and 20 phr, respectively. As a result of wood sawdust adding, the physical and mechanical properties such as hardness, modulus at 100% elongation and tensile strength, showed significant improvements. The presence of wood sawdust fibers has a reinforcing effect on natural rubber, similar or better than of mineral fillers. An increase in the irradiation dose leads to the increasing of cross-link density, which is reflected in the improvement of hardness, modulus at 100% elongation and tensile strength of blends. The cross-linking rates, appreciated using the Flory-Rehner equation, have increased with the amount of wood sawdust in blends and with the irradiation dose. Even if the gel fraction values have varied irregularly with the amount of wood sawdust and irradiation dose it was over 90% for all blends, except for the samples without wood sawdust irradiated with 75 kGy. The water uptake increased with increasing of fiber content and decreased with the irradiation dose.

  5. Charge trapping and current-conduction mechanisms of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with La xTa y dual-doped HfON dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chin-Lung; Horng, Jeng-Haur; Chang-Liao, Kuei-Shu; Jeng, Jin-Tsong; Tsai, Hung-Yang

    2010-10-01

    Charge trapping and related current-conduction mechanisms in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with La xTa y dual-doped HfON dielectrics have been investigated under various post-deposition annealing (PDA). The results indicate that by La xTa y incorporation into HfON dielectric enhances electrical and reliability characteristics, including equivalent-oxide-thickness (EOT), stress-induced leakage current (SILC), and trap energy level. The mechanisms related to larger positive charge generation in the gate dielectric bulk can be attributed to La xTa y dual-doped HfON dielectric. The results of C- V measurement indicate that more negative charges are induced with increasing PDA temperature for the La xTa y dual-doped HfON dielectric. The charge current transport mechanisms through various dielectrics have been analyzed with current-voltage ( I- V) measurements under various temperatures. The current-conduction mechanisms of HfLaTaON dielectric at the low-, medium-, and high-electrical fields were dominated by Schottky emission (SE), Frenkel-Poole emission (F-P), and Fowler-Nordheim (F-N), respectively. A low trap energy level ( Φ trap) involved in Frenkel-Pool conduction in an HfLaTaON dielectric was estimated to be around 0.142 eV. Although a larger amount of positive charges generated in the HfLaTaON dielectric was obtained, the Φ trap of these positive charges in the HfLaTaON dielectric are shallow compared with HfON dielectric.

  6. The radiation crosslinking process and new products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Keiji

    In 1988 there were over 90 EB accelerators for industrial use in Japan. The number one industrial application was Wire and Cable, the 2nd was PE foam and Curing, and the 3rd was Precure of tyre. R & D has a very high ration of EB accelerator use. Low energy industrial applications were coated steel (white board), plaster slab, coated paper, magnetic tape and floppy disks. As a new application of the radiation crosslinking process, we have studied radiation crosslinking of engineering plastics and succeeded in improving the hea tresistivity without using glass fibers. Many kinds of polyfunctional monomers used as crosslinking reagents of irradiated Nylon and PBT were studied.

  7. Covalent Crosslinking of Carbon Nanotube Materials for Improved Tensile Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, James S.; Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany A.; Meador, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted much interest in recent years due to their exceptional mechanical properties. Currently, the tensile properties of bulk carbon nanotube-based materials (yarns, sheets, etc.) fall far short of those of the individual nanotube elements. The premature failure in these materials under tensile load has been attributed to inter-tube sliding, which requires far less force than that needed to fracture individual nanotubes.1,2 In order for nanotube materials to achieve their full potential, methods are needed to restrict this tube-tube shear and increase inter-tube forces.Our group is examining covalent crosslinking between the nanotubes as a means to increase the tensile properties of carbon nanotube materials. We are working with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheet and yarn materials obtained from commercial sources. Several routes to functionalize the nanotubes have been examined including nitrene, aryl diazonium, and epoxide chemistries. The functional nanotubes were crosslinked through small molecule or polymeric bridges. Additionally, electron beam irradiation induced crosslinking of the non-functional and functional nanotube materials was conducted. For example, a nanotube sheet material containing approximately 3.5 mol amine functional groups exhibited a tensile strength of 75 MPa and a tensile modulus of 1.16 GPa, compared to 49 MPa and 0.57 GPa, respectively, for the as-received material. Electron beam irradiation (2.2x 1017 ecm2) of the same amine-functional sheet material further increased the tensile strength to 120 MPa and the modulus to 2.61 GPa. This represents approximately a 150 increase in tensile strength and a 360 increase in tensile modulus over the as-received material with only a 25 increase in material mass. Once we have optimized the nanotube crosslinking methods, the performance of these materials in polymer matrix composites will be evaluated.

  8. Improving Properties of Arrowroot Starch (Maranta arundinacea)/PVA Blend Films by Using Citric Acid as Cross-linking Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholichah, Enny; Purwono, Bambang; Nugroho, Pramono

    2017-12-01

    This research studied the effect of PVA as organic polymer and citric acid as crosslinker agent in the arrowroot starch/PVA blend films. The properties of films were investigated by water uptake, water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, thermal stability, spectra of FTIR and XRD patterns. PVA used in this research influenced the film properties at the highest concentration. The cross-linkingsinter or intra molecules of arrowroot and PVA were developed as ester bonds which are formed from the reaction of hydroxyl groups consisting of starch and PVA with citric acid. The ester bond was confirmed by FTIR spectra. The increase of the amount of citric acid affected significantly on physical, chemical and mechanical properties, water uptake, WVP and crystallinity. Water barrier level was reduced by decreasing of water uptake and WVP succeeded significantly with increased crosslinking. Cross-linking impact the thermal stability of the films. The elasticity of the films also increases the production of citric acid as a plasticizer in the making of the films as a food packaging material.

  9. Thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions and methods of making the same

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koros, William John; Kratochvil, Adam Michal

    2014-03-04

    The various embodiments of the present disclosure relate generally to thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions and methods of making thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a composition comprising: a first polymer comprising a first repeat unit, the first repeat unit comprising a carboxyl group, wherein the first polymer crosslinks to a second polymer formed from a second repeat unit, and wherein the first polymer crosslinks to the second polymer without formation of an ester group.

  10. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (<2.0 mg/mL) fractions from the ELD-treated groups than in the corresponding fractions in the OVX-vehicle control groups. On the other hand, non-enzymatic crosslinks were lower in both the high- and low-density fractions. These observations indicated that ELD treatment stimulated the enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and bone mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage

  11. Studies of lipid vesicle mechanics using an optical fiber dual-beam trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinon, Tessa M.; Hirst, Linda S.; Sharping, Jay E.

    2011-03-01

    Fiber-based optical traps can be used for manipulating micron-sized dielectric particles such as microspheres and biological cells. Here we study the mechanics of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) which are held and stretched by light forces in a fiber-based dual-beam optical trap. Our GUVs are suspended in a buffer solution and encapsulate various concentrations and molecular weights of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymer yielding a range of refractive index contrasts and trapping conditions. We find that we can trap GUVs in solution with index contrasts of less than 0.01. We explore the mechanical response of the GUV membrane to a range of forces which are proportional to laser power and refractive index contrast. Our trapping system is a compact and inexpensive platform and trapping is viewed in real time under a microscope. We hypothesize that forces within the high-tension regime will induce a linear response in vesicle surface area. This project sets the stage for membrane mechanics and lipid phase change studies. Grant: NSF award #DMR 0852791, ``CAREER: Self-Assembly of Polyunsaturated Lipids and Cholesterol in the Cell Membrane.''

  12. A photo-cleavable biotin affinity tag for the facile release of a photo-crosslinked carbohydrate-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Che; Adak, Avijit K; Lin, Ting-Wei; Li, Pei-Jhen; Chen, Yi-Ju; Lai, Chain-Hui; Liang, Chien-Fu; Chen, Yu-Ju; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2016-03-15

    The use of photo-crosslinking glycoprobes represents a powerful strategy for the covalent capture of labile protein complexes and allows detailed characterization of carbohydrate-mediated interactions. The selective release of target proteins from solid support is a key step in functional proteomics. We envisaged that light activation can be exploited for releasing labeled protein in a dual photo-affinity probe-based strategy. To investigate this possibility, we designed a trifunctional, galactose-based, multivalent glycoprobe for affinity labeling of carbohydrate-binding proteins. The resulting covalent protein-probe adduct is attached to a photo-cleavable biotin affinity tag; the biotin moiety enables specific presentation of the conjugate on streptavidin-coated beads, and the photolabile linker allows the release of the labeled proteins. This dual probe promotes both the labeling and the facile cleavage of the target protein complexes from the solid surfaces and the remainder of the cell lysate in a completely unaltered form, thus eliminating many of the common pitfalls associated with traditional affinity-based purification methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly flexible cross-linked cellulose nanofibril sponge-like aerogels with improved mechanical property and enhanced flame retardancy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limin; Chen, Zhilin; Lyu, Shaoyi; Fu, Feng; Wang, Siqun

    2018-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogel is highly flammable and its mechanical strength is very soft, which is unfavourable due to safety concerns and impractical when used as the thermal insulation material. In this work, we used N-methylol dimethylphosphonopropionamide (MDPA) and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as co-additives and then prepared lightweight flame resistant CNF sponge-like aerogels via an eco-friendly freeze-drying and post cross-linking method. The CNF/BTCA/MDPA aerogel exhibited a better flame retardant performance, outstanding self-extinguishing behaviour and significantly increased char residue (by as much as 268%) compared with the neat CNF aerogel. Meanwhile, the resilience of the aerogel samples improved significantly as the flexibility decreased slightly. Furthermore, the aerogel samples still exhibited excellent thermal insulating properties with thermal conductivity as low as 0.03258W/(m k). The combination of these characteristics makes the CNF-based aerogel a promising insulation candidate for thermal protective equipment (e.g., fire-protection clothing or advanced spacesuit elements) in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on biodegradable and crosslinkable poly(castor oil fumarate)/poly(propylene fumarate) composite adhesive as a potential injectable biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Mitha, M K; Jayabalan, M

    2009-12-01

    Biodegradable hydroxyl terminated-poly(castor oil fumarate) (HT-PCF) and poly(propylene fumarate) (HT-PPF) resins were synthesized as an injectable and in situ-cross linkable polyester resins for orthopedic applications. An injectable adhesive formulation containing this resin blend, N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), hydroxy apatite, free radical initiator and accelerator was developed. The Composite adhesives containing the ratio of resin blend and NVP, 2.1:1.5, 2.1:1.2 and 2.1:1.0 set fast with tolerable exothermic temperature as a three dimensionally cross linked toughened material. Crosslink density and mechanical properties of the crosslinked composite increase with increase of NVP. The present crosslinked composite has hydrophilic character and cytocompatibility with L929 fibroblast cells.

  15. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Cross-linking methods have been investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. Then pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide-zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  16. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cross-linking methods were investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. The pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide - zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  17. Investigation of different cross-linking approaches on 3D gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering application: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Shankar, K Gopal; Gostynska, Natalia; Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Sprio, Simone; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Tampieri, Anna; Sandri, Monica

    2017-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the physical-chemical and biological features exhibited by porous scaffolds for regeneration of cartilaginous tissues obtained through stabilization of 3D gelatin hydrogels by physical (DHT), chemical (BDDGE) and natural (Genipin) cross-linking approaches. The study aimed at comparatively assessing the porous microstructure and the long-term resistance of the scaffolds upon degradation in wet physiological conditions (37°C, pH=7.4). The degree of cross-linking increases as function of incorporation of cross-linkers which was maximum up to 73% for BDDGE. The infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirmed the gelatin structure was preserved during the cross-linking treatments. Mechanical properties of the scaffolds were analysed by static and dynamic compression test, which showed different viscoelastic behaviour upon various cross-linking strategies. The biological performance of the scaffolds investigated using human chondrocytes showed good cell adhesion, viability and proliferation, as well as extensive 3D scaffold colonization. Besides, the analysis of gene expression related to the formation of new chondral tissue reported increasing ability with time in the formation of new extra-cellular matrix. In conclusion, out of three different cross-linking methods, the gelatin scaffolds subjected to dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) represented to be the most favourable 3D scaffold for cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-Linked Nanotube Materials with Variable Stiffness Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Herzog, Matthew N.; Gates, Thomas S.; Fay, Catherine C.

    2004-01-01

    The constitutive properties of a cross-linked single-walled carbon nanotube material are predicted with a multi-scale model. The material is modeled as a transversely isotropic solid using concepts from equivalent-continuum modeling. The elastic constants are determined using molecular dynamics simulation. Some parameters of the molecular force field are determined specifically for the cross-linker from ab initio calculations. A demonstration of how the cross-linked nanotubes may affect the properties of a nanotube/polyimide composite is included using a micromechanical analysis.

  19. Highly stable ionic-covalent cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Linfeng; Zhu, Xingye; Xu, Jianfeng; Qian, Huidong; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    A novel ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing equal content of sulfonic acid and pendant tertiary amine groups (TA-SPEEK) has been initially synthesized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). By adjusting the ratio of p-xylene dibromide to tertiary amine groups of TA-SPEEK, a series of ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes (C-SPEEK-x) with tunable degree of cross-linking are prepared. Compared with the pristine membrane, the ionic and ionic-covalent cross-linked proton exchange membranes (PEMs) exhibit reduced methanol permeability and improved mechanical properties, dimensional and oxidative stability. The proton conductivity and methanol selectivity of protonated TA-SPEEK and C-SPEEK-x at 25 °C is up to 0.109 S cm-1 and 3.88 × 105 S s cm-3, respectively, which are higher than that of Nafion 115. The DMFC incorporating C-SPEEK-25 exhibits a maximum power density as high as 35.3 mW cm-2 with 4 M MeOH at 25 °C (31.8 mW cm-2 for Nafion 115). Due to the highly oxidative stability of the membrane, no obvious performance degradation of the DMFC is observed after more than 400 h operation, indicating such cost-effective ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes have substantial potential as alternative PEMs for DMFC applications.

  20. High correlation between pentosidine protein crosslinks and pigmentation implicates ascorbate oxidation in human lens senescence and cataractogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, R H; Sell, D R; Prabhakaram, M; Ortwerth, B J; Monnier, V M

    1991-01-01

    Pentosidine is a recently discovered protein crosslink, involving lysine and arginine residues linked together in an imidazo [4,5,6] pyridinium ring formed by a 5-carbon sugar during nonenzymatic browning (Maillard reaction). The presence of high ascorbate levels in the human lens and its ability to undergo nonenzymatic browning led us to investigate pentosidine formation in the aging human lens. Incubation of lens crystallins with ascorbate and its oxidation products dehydroascorbate and 2,3-diketogulonate leads progressively to the formation of pentosidine crosslinks in the presence of oxygen. Under nitrogen, however, pentosidine forms only from 2,3-diketogulonate or xylosone, a degradation product of 2,3-diketogulonate. A high correlation between pentosidine crosslinks and the degree of lens pigmentation is noted in cataractous lenses. Pentosidine is found to be primarily associated with alpha-crystallin fractions of 300-5000 kDa. These results suggest that redox imbalance in cellular senescent systems such as the ocular lens may lead to irreversible ascorbate oxidation and protein crosslinking by xylosone. This mechanism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of "brunescent" cataracts. Images PMID:1946446

  1. High correlation between pentosidine protein crosslinks and pigmentation implicates ascorbate oxidation in human lens senescence and cataractogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, R H; Sell, D R; Prabhakaram, M; Ortwerth, B J; Monnier, V M

    1991-11-15

    Pentosidine is a recently discovered protein crosslink, involving lysine and arginine residues linked together in an imidazo [4,5,6] pyridinium ring formed by a 5-carbon sugar during nonenzymatic browning (Maillard reaction). The presence of high ascorbate levels in the human lens and its ability to undergo nonenzymatic browning led us to investigate pentosidine formation in the aging human lens. Incubation of lens crystallins with ascorbate and its oxidation products dehydroascorbate and 2,3-diketogulonate leads progressively to the formation of pentosidine crosslinks in the presence of oxygen. Under nitrogen, however, pentosidine forms only from 2,3-diketogulonate or xylosone, a degradation product of 2,3-diketogulonate. A high correlation between pentosidine crosslinks and the degree of lens pigmentation is noted in cataractous lenses. Pentosidine is found to be primarily associated with alpha-crystallin fractions of 300-5000 kDa. These results suggest that redox imbalance in cellular senescent systems such as the ocular lens may lead to irreversible ascorbate oxidation and protein crosslinking by xylosone. This mechanism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of "brunescent" cataracts.

  2. Reprocessing and Recycling of Highly Cross-Linked Ion-Conducting Networks through Transalkylation Exchanges of C-N Bonds.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Mona M; Mudraboyina, Bhanu P; Serghei, Anatoli; Montarnal, Damien; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2015-05-13

    Exploiting exchangeable covalent bonds as dynamic cross-links recently afforded a new class of polymer materials coined as vitrimers. These permanent networks are insoluble and infusible, but the network topology can be reshuffled at high temperatures, thus enabling glasslike plastic deformation and reprocessing without depolymerization. We disclose herein the development of functional and high-value ion-conducting vitrimers that take inspiration from poly(ionic liquid)s. Tunable networks with high ionic content are obtained by the solvent- and catalyst-free polyaddition of an α-azide-ω-alkyne monomer and simultaneous alkylation of the resulting poly(1,2,3-triazole)s with a series of difunctional cross-linking agents. Temperature-induced transalkylation exchanges of C-N bonds between 1,2,3-triazolium cross-links and halide-functionalized dangling chains enable recycling and reprocessing of these highly cross-linked permanent networks. They can also be recycled by depolymerization with specific solvents able to displace the transalkylation equilibrium, and they display a great potential for applications that require solid electrolytes with excellent mechanical performances and facile processing such as supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, and separation membranes.

  3. Organization of photosystem I polypeptides examined by chemical cross-linking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armbrust, T. S.; Chitnis, P. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Photosystem I from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was examined using the chemical cross-linkers glutaraldehyde and N-ethyl-1-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide to investigate the organization of the polypeptide subunits. Thylakoid membranes and photosystem I, which was isolated by Triton X-100 fractionation, were treated with cross-linking reagents and were resolved using a Tricine/urea low-molecular-weight resolution gel system. Subunit-specific antibodies and western blotting analysis were used to identify the components of cross-linked species. These analyses identified glutaraldehyde-dependent cross-linking products composed of small amounts of PsaD and PsaC, PsaC and PsaE, and PsaE and PsaF. The novel cross-link between PsaE and PsaF was also observed following treatment with N-ethyl-1-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. These cross-linking results suggest a structural interaction between PsaE and PsaF and predict a transmembrane topology for PsaF.

  4. Chemically crosslinked protein dimers: stability and denaturation effects.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, M. P.; Stites, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Nine single substitution cysteine mutants of staphylococcal nuclease (nuclease) were preferentially crosslinked at the introduced cysteine residues using three different bifunctional crosslinking reagents; 1,6-bismaleimidohexane (BMH), 1,3-dibromo-2-propanol (DBP), and the chemical warfare agent, mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide; mustard). BMH and mustard gas are highly specific reagents for cysteine residues, whereas DBP is not as specific. Guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) denaturations of the resulting dimeric proteins exhibited biphasic unfolding behavior that did not fit the two-state model of unfolding. The monofunctional reagent, epsilon-maleimidocaproic acid (MCA), was used as a control for the effects of alkylation. Proteins modified with MCA unfolded normally, showing that this unusual unfolding behavior is due to crosslinking. The data obtained from these crosslinked dimers was fitted to a three-state thermodynamic model of two successive transitions in which the individual subunits cooperatively unfold. These two unfolding transitions were very different from the unfolding of the monomeric protein. These differences in unfolding behavior can be attributed in large part to changes in the denatured state. In addition to GuHCl titrations, the crosslinked dimers were also thermally unfolded. In contrast to the GuHCl denaturations, analysis of this data fit a two-state model well, but with greatly elevated van't Hoff enthalpies in many cases. However, clear correlations between the thermal and GuHCl denaturations exist, and the differences in thermal unfolding can be rationalized by postulating interactions of the denatured crosslinked proteins. PMID:8580845

  5. Inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cell with cross-linked hole-blocking layer

    PubMed Central

    Udum, Yasemin; Denk, Patrick; Adam, Getachew; Apaydin, Dogukan H.; Nevosad, Andreas; Teichert, Christian; S. White, Matthew.; S. Sariciftci, Niyazi.; Scharber, Markus C.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a hole-blocking layer for bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on cross-linked polyethylenimine (PEI). We tested five different ether-based cross-linkers and found that all of them give comparable solar cell efficiencies. The initial idea that a cross-linked layer is more solvent resistant compared to a pristine PEI layer could not be confirmed. With and without cross-linking, the PEI layer sticks very well to the surface of the indium–tin–oxide electrode and cannot be removed by solvents used to process PEI or common organic semiconductors. The cross-linked PEI hole-blocking layer functions for multiple donor–acceptor blends. We found that using cross-linkers improves the reproducibility of the device fabrication process. PMID:24817837

  6. Polyimide Aerogels Using Triisocyanate as Cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Baochau N; Meador, Mary Ann B; Scheiman, Daniel; McCorkle, Linda

    2017-08-16

    A family of polyimide (PI)-based aerogels is produced using Desmodur N3300A, an inexpensive triisocyanate, as the cross-linker. The aerogels are prepared by cross-linking amine end-capped polyimide oligomers with the triisocyanate. The polyimide oligomers are formulated using 2,2'-dimethylbenzidine, 4,4'-oxydianiline, or mixtures of both diamines, combined with 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, and are chemically imidized at room temperature. Depending on the backbone chemistry, chain length, and polymer concentration, density of the aerogels ranged from 0.06 to 0.14 g/cm 3 and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas ranged from 350 to 600 m 2 /g. Compressive moduli of these aerogels were as high as 225 MPa, which are comparable to, or higher than, those previously reported prepared with similar backbone structures but with other cross-linkers. Because of their lower cost and commercial availability as cross-linker, the aerogels may have further potential as insulation for building and construction, clothing, sporting goods, and automotive applications, although lower-temperature stability may limit their use in some aerospace applications.

  7. Novel biobased photo-crosslinked polymer networks prepared from vegetable oil and 2,5-furan diacrylate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel biobased crosslinked polymer networks were prepared from vegetable oil with 2,5-furan diacrylate as a difunctional stiffener through UV photopolymerization, and the mechanical properties of the resulting films were evaluated. The vegetable oil raw materials used were acrylated epoxidized soybe...

  8. Oligo(ethylene glycol)-sidechain microgels prepared in absence of cross-linking agent: Polymerization, characterization and variation of particle deformability.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Nicole; Lyon, L Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of self-cross-linked microgels formed by precipitation polymerization of oligo ethylene glycol methacrylates. The cross-linking density of these microgels and, thus, the network flexibility can be easily tuned through the modulation of the reaction temperature during polymerization. Microgels prepared in absence of any difunctional monomer, i.e. cross-linker, show enhanced deformability and particle spreading on solid surfaces as compared to microgels cross-linked with varying amounts of poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) (PEG-DA) in addition to self-crosslinking. Particles prepared at low reaction temperatures exhibit the highest degree of spreading due to the lightly cross-linked and flexible polymer network. Moreover, AFM force spectroscopy studies suggest that cross-linker-free microgels constitute of a more homogeneous polymer network than PEG-DA cross-linked particles and have elastic moduli at the particle apex that are ~5 times smaller than the moduli of 5 mol-% PEG-DA cross-linked microgels. Resistive pulse sensing experiments demonstrate that microgels prepared at 75 and 80°C without PEG-DA are able to deform significantly to pass through nanopores that are smaller than the microgel size. Additionally, we found that polymer network flexibility of microgels is a useful tool to control the formation of particle dewetting patterns. This offers a promising new avenue for build-up of 2D self-assembled particle structures with patterned chemical and mechanical properties.

  9. Oligo(ethylene glycol)-sidechain microgels prepared in absence of cross-linking agent: Polymerization, characterization and variation of particle deformability

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, L. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of self-cross-linked microgels formed by precipitation polymerization of oligo ethylene glycol methacrylates. The cross-linking density of these microgels and, thus, the network flexibility can be easily tuned through the modulation of the reaction temperature during polymerization. Microgels prepared in absence of any difunctional monomer, i.e. cross-linker, show enhanced deformability and particle spreading on solid surfaces as compared to microgels cross-linked with varying amounts of poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) (PEG-DA) in addition to self-crosslinking. Particles prepared at low reaction temperatures exhibit the highest degree of spreading due to the lightly cross-linked and flexible polymer network. Moreover, AFM force spectroscopy studies suggest that cross-linker-free microgels constitute of a more homogeneous polymer network than PEG-DA cross-linked particles and have elastic moduli at the particle apex that are ~5 times smaller than the moduli of 5 mol-% PEG-DA cross-linked microgels. Resistive pulse sensing experiments demonstrate that microgels prepared at 75 and 80°C without PEG-DA are able to deform significantly to pass through nanopores that are smaller than the microgel size. Additionally, we found that polymer network flexibility of microgels is a useful tool to control the formation of particle dewetting patterns. This offers a promising new avenue for build-up of 2D self-assembled particle structures with patterned chemical and mechanical properties. PMID:28719648

  10. Enrichment of Cross-Linked Peptides Using Charge-Based Fractional Diagonal Chromatography (ChaFRADIC).

    PubMed

    Tinnefeld, Verena; Venne, A Saskia; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René P

    2017-02-03

    Chemical cross-linking of proteins is an emerging field with huge potential for the structural investigation of proteins and protein complexes. Owing to the often relatively low yield of cross-linking products, their identification in complex samples benefits from enrichment procedures prior to mass spectrometry analysis. So far, this is mainly accomplished by using biotin moieties in specific cross-linkers or by applying strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX) for a relatively crude enrichment. We present a novel workflow to enrich cross-linked peptides by utilizing charge-based fractional diagonal chromatography (ChaFRADIC). On the basis of two-dimensional diagonal SCX separation, we could increase the number of identified cross-linked peptides for samples of different complexity: pure cross-linked BSA, cross-linked BSA spiked into a simple protein mixture, and cross-linked BSA spiked into a HeLa lysate. We also compared XL-ChaFRADIC with size exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of cross-linked peptides. The XL-ChaFRADIC approach is straightforward, reproducible, and independent of the cross-linking chemistry and cross-linker properties.

  11. Vision Restoration with a Collagen Crosslinked Boston Keratoprosthesis Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0044 TITLE: Vision Restoration with a Collagen Crosslinked Boston Keratoprosthesis Unit PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joseph B...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Vision Restoration with a Collagen Cross-linked Boston Keratoprosthesis Unit 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0044...the incidence or potentially eliminate corneal melts by strengthening the keratoprosthesis carrier tissue by collagen -crosslinking the cornea graft

  12. A Study into the Collision-induced Dissociation (CID) Behavior of Cross-Linked Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Sven H.; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Cross-linking/mass spectrometry resolves protein–protein interactions or protein folds by help of distance constraints. Cross-linkers with specific properties such as isotope-labeled or collision-induced dissociation (CID)-cleavable cross-linkers are in frequent use to simplify the identification of cross-linked peptides. Here, we analyzed the mass spectrometric behavior of 910 unique cross-linked peptides in high-resolution MS1 and MS2 from published data and validate the observation by a ninefold larger set from currently unpublished data to explore if detailed understanding of their fragmentation behavior would allow computational delivery of information that otherwise would be obtained via isotope labels or CID cleavage of cross-linkers. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers reveal cross-linked and linear fragments in fragmentation spectra. We show that fragment mass and charge alone provide this information, alleviating the need for isotope-labeling for this purpose. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers also indicate cross-linker-containing, albeit not specifically cross-linked, peptides in MS1. We observed that acquisition can be guided to better than twofold enrich cross-linked peptides with minimal losses based on peptide mass and charge alone. By help of CID-cleavable cross-linkers, individual spectra with only linear fragments can be recorded for each peptide in a cross-link. We show that cross-linked fragments of ordinary cross-linked peptides can be linearized computationally and that a simplified subspectrum can be extracted that is enriched in information on one of the two linked peptides. This allows identifying candidates for this peptide in a simplified database search as we propose in a search strategy here. We conclude that the specific behavior of cross-linked peptides in mass spectrometers can be exploited to relax the requirements on cross-linkers. PMID:26719564

  13. Formaldehyde cross-linking and structural proteomics: Bridging the gap.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Savita; Ding, Xuan; Kast, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities constantly moving and altering their structures based on their functions and interactions inside and outside the cell. Formaldehyde cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry can accurately capture interactions of these rapidly changing biomolecules while maintaining their physiological surroundings. Even with its numerous established uses in biology and compatibility with mass spectrometry, formaldehyde has not yet been applied in structural proteomics. However, formaldehyde cross-linking is moving toward analyzing tertiary structure, which conventional cross-linkers have already accomplished. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential of formaldehyde cross-linking in structural proteomics by highlighting its applications, characteristics and current status in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidation resistant peroxide cross-linked UHMWPE produced by blending and surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Rizwan M.; Oral, Ebru; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been widely used as acetabular cup in total hip replacement (THR) and tibial component in total knee replacement (TKR). Crosslinking of UHMWPE has been successful used to improve its wear performance leading to longer life of orthopedic implants. Crosslinking can be performed by radiation or organic peroxides. Peroxide crosslinking is a convenient process as it does not require specialized equipment and the level of crosslinking can be manipulated by changing the amount of peroxide added. However, there is concern about the long-term stability of these materials due to possible presence of by-products. Vitamin E has been successfully used to promote long-term oxidative stability of UHMWPE. In this study, UHMWPE has been crosslinked using organic peroxide in the presence of Vitamin E to produce an oxidation resistant peroxide crosslinked material. Crosslinking was performed both in bulk by mixing peroxide and resin, and only on the surface using diffusion of peroxides.The results show that UHMWPE can be crosslinked using organic peroxides in the presence of vitamin E by both methods. However, the level of crosslinking decreases with the increase in vitamin E content. The wear resistance increases with the increase in crosslink density, and oxidation resistance significantly increases due to the presence of vitamin E.

  15. Alkali-catalyzed low temperature wet crosslinking of plant proteins using carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Li, Ying; Yang, Yiqi

    2009-01-01

    We report the development of a new method of alkali-catalyzed low temperature wet crosslinking of plant proteins to improve their breaking tenacity without using high temperatures or phosphorus-containing catalysts used in conventional poly(carboxylic acid) crosslinking of cellulose and proteins. Carboxylic acids are preferred over aldehyde-containing crosslinkers for crosslinking proteins and cellulose because of their low toxicity and cost and ability to improve the desired properties of the materials. However, current knowledge in carboxylic acid crosslinking of proteins and cellulose requires the use of carboxylic acids with at least three carboxylic groups, toxic phosphorous-containing catalysts and curing at high temperatures (150-185 degrees C). The use of high temperatures and low pH in conventional carboxylic acid crosslinking has been reported to cause substantial strength loss and/or undesired changes in the properties of the crosslinked materials. In this research, gliadin, soy protein, and zein fibers have been crosslinked with malic acid, citric acid, and butanetetracarboxylic acid to improve the tenacity of the fibers without using high temperatures and phosphorus-containing catalysts. The new method of wet crosslinking using carboxylic acids containing two or more carboxylic groups will be useful to crosslink proteins for various industrial applications.

  16. Stimuli sensitive super-macroporous cryogels based on photo-crosslinked 2-hydroxyethylcellulose and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Stoyneva, Veselina; Momekova, Denitsa; Kostova, Bistra; Petrov, Petar

    2014-01-01

    Original pH sensitive cryogels, based on two biodegradable natural polymers chitosan (CS) and 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), were obtained via cryogenic treatment of semi-dilute aqueous solutions and UV induced crosslinking in frozen state. H₂O₂ and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BisAAm) were used as photoinitiator and crosslinking agent, respectively. BisAAm facilitated the formation of polymer co-network and increased both the gel fraction yield and mechanical strength of cryogels. The influence of chitosan content on the physico-mechanical properties of HEC-CS cryogels was investigated. In general, the increase of CS fraction in the polymer co-network increased the degree of swelling and enhanced significantly the storage modulus of materials. All HEC-CS cryogels obtained were opalescent sponge-like materials, which quickly release/uptake water due to their open porous structure. The incorporation of CS provided pH dependent swelling and good bioadhesive properties of cryogels. HEC-CS cryogels were further exploited as drug delivery systems of the highly water soluble drug metronidazole belonging to BCS Class l. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biodegradable chitosan nanogels crosslinked with genipin.

    PubMed

    Arteche Pujana, Maite; Pérez-Álvarez, Leyre; Cesteros Iturbe, Luis Carlos; Katime, Issa

    2013-05-15

    Chitosan nanoparticles crosslinked with genipin were prepared by reverse microemulsion that allowed to obtain highly monodisperse (3-20 nm by TEM) nanogels. The incorporation of genipin into chitosan was confirmed and quantitatively evaluated by UV-vis and (1)H NMR. Loosely crosslinked chitosan networks showed higher water solubility at neutral pHs than pure chitosan. The hydrodynamic diameter of the genipin-chitosan nanogels ranged from 270 to 390 nm and no remarkable differences were found when the crosslinking degree was varied. The hydrodynamic diameters of the nanoparticles increased slightly at acidic pH and the protonation of ionizable amino groups with the pH was confirmed by the zeta potential measurements. The biocompatible and biodegradable nature, as well as the colloidal and monodisperse particle size of the prepared nanogels, make them attractive candidates for a large variety of biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A competing, dual mechanism for catalytic direct benzene hydroxylation from combined experimental-DFT studies.

    PubMed

    Vilella, Laia; Conde, Ana; Balcells, David; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Lledós, Agustí; Pérez, Pedro J

    2017-12-01

    A dual mechanism for direct benzene catalytic hydroxylation is described. Experimental studies and DFT calculations have provided a mechanistic explanation for the acid-free, Tp x Cu-catalyzed hydroxylation of benzene with hydrogen peroxide (Tp x = hydrotrispyrazolylborate ligand). In contrast with other catalytic systems that promote this transformation through Fenton-like pathways, this system operates through a copper-oxyl intermediate that may interact with the arene ring following two different, competitive routes: (a) electrophilic aromatic substitution, with the copper-oxyl species acting as the formal electrophile, and (b) the so-called rebound mechanism, in which the hydrogen is abstracted by the Cu-O moiety prior to the C-O bond formation. Both pathways contribute to the global transformation albeit to different extents, the electrophilic substitution route seeming to be largely favoured.

  19. Structural analysis of photosystem I polypeptides using chemical crosslinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armbrust, T. S.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes, obtained from leaves of 14 d soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Williams) plants, were treated with the chemical crosslinkers glutaraldehyde or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to investigate the structural organization of photosystem I. Polypeptides were resolved using lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and were identified by western blot analysis using a library of polyclonal antibodies specific for photosystem I subunits. An electrophoretic examination of crosslinked thylakoids revealed numerous crosslinked products, using either glutaraldehyde or EDC. However, only a few of these could be identified by western blot analysis using subunit-specific polyclonal antibodies. Several glutaraldehyde dependent crosslinked species were identified. A single band was identified minimally composed of PsaC and PsaD, documenting the close interaction between these two subunits. The most interesting aspect of these studies was a crosslinked species composed of the PsaB subunit observed following EDC treatment of thylakoids. This is either an internally crosslinked species, which will provide structural information concerning the topology of the complex PsaB protein, a linkage with a polypeptide for which we do not yet have an immunological probe, or a masking of epitopes by the EDC linkage at critical locations in the peptide which is linked to PsaB.

  20. Long-Term Biostability of Self-Assembling Protein Polymers in the Absence of Covalent Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Sallach, Rory E.; Cui, Wanxing; Balderrama, Fanor; Martinez, Adam W.; Wen, Jing; Haller, Carolyn A.; Taylor, Jeannette V.; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Long, Robert C.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2009-01-01

    Unless chemically crosslinked, matrix proteins, such as collagen or silk, display a limited lifetime in vivo with significant degradation observed over a period of weeks. Likewise, amphiphilic peptides, lipopeptides, or glycolipids that self-assemble through hydrophobic interactions to form thin films, fiber networks, or vesicles do not demonstrate in vivo biostability beyond a few days. We report herein that a self-assembling, recombinant elastin-mimetic triblock copolymer elicited minimal inflammatory response and displayed robust in vivo stability for periods exceeding 1 year, in the absence of either chemical or ionic crosslinking. Specifically, neither a significant inflammatory response nor calcification was observed upon implantation of test materials into the peritoneal cavity or subcutaneous space of a mouse model. Moreover, serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, evaluation of pre- and post-explant ultrastructure by cryo-high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and an examination of implant mechanical responses revealed substantial preservation of form, material architecture, and biomechanical properties, providing convincing evidence of a non-chemically or ionically crosslinked protein polymer system that exhibits long-term stability in vivo. PMID:19854505

  1. Chemical crosslinking of the subunits of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Debyser, Z.; De Clercq, E.

    1996-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase (RT) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is composed of two subunits of 66 and 51 kDa in a 1 to 1 ratio. Because dimerization is a prerequisite for enzymatic activity, interference with the dimerization process could constitute an alternative antiviral strategy for RT inhibition. Here we describe an in vitro assay for the study of the dimerization state of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase based on chemical crosslinking of the subunits with dimethylsuberimidate. Crosslinking results in the formation of covalent bonds between the subunits, so that the crosslinked species can be resolved by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Crosslinked RT species with molecular weight greater than that of the dimeric form accumulate during a 1-15-min time course. Initial evidence suggests that those high molecular weight species represent trimers and tetramers and may be the result of intramolecular crosslinking of the subunits of a higher-order RT oligomer. A peptide that corresponds to part of the tryptophan repeat motif in the connection domain of HIV-1 RT inhibits crosslink formation as well as enzymatic activity. The crosslinking assay thus allows the investigation of the effect of inhibitors on the dimerization of HIV-1 RT. PMID:8745406

  2. High Sensitivity Crosslink Detection Coupled With Integrative Structure Modeling in the Mass Spec Studio *

    PubMed Central

    Sarpe, Vladimir; Rafiei, Atefeh; Hepburn, Morgan; Ostan, Nicholas; Schryvers, Anthony B.; Schriemer, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The Mass Spec Studio package was designed to support the extraction of hydrogen-deuterium exchange and covalent labeling data for a range of mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflows, to integrate with restraint-driven protein modeling activities. In this report, we present an extension of the underlying Studio framework and provide a plug-in for crosslink (XL) detection. To accommodate flexibility in XL methods and applications, while maintaining efficient data processing, the plug-in employs a peptide library reduction strategy via a presearch of the tandem-MS data. We demonstrate that prescoring linear unmodified peptide tags using a probabilistic approach substantially reduces search space by requiring both crosslinked peptides to generate sparse data attributable to their linear forms. The method demonstrates highly sensitive crosslink peptide identification with a low false positive rate. Integration with a Haddock plug-in provides a resource that can combine multiple sources of data for protein modeling activities. We generated a structural model of porcine transferrin bound to TbpB, a membrane-bound receptor essential for iron acquisition in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Using mutational data and crosslinking restraints, we confirm the mechanism by which TbpB recognizes the iron-loaded form of transferrin, and note the requirement for disparate sources of restraint data for accurate model construction. The software plugin is freely available at www.msstudio.ca. PMID:27412762

  3. High Sensitivity Crosslink Detection Coupled With Integrative Structure Modeling in the Mass Spec Studio.

    PubMed

    Sarpe, Vladimir; Rafiei, Atefeh; Hepburn, Morgan; Ostan, Nicholas; Schryvers, Anthony B; Schriemer, David C

    2016-09-01

    The Mass Spec Studio package was designed to support the extraction of hydrogen-deuterium exchange and covalent labeling data for a range of mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflows, to integrate with restraint-driven protein modeling activities. In this report, we present an extension of the underlying Studio framework and provide a plug-in for crosslink (XL) detection. To accommodate flexibility in XL methods and applications, while maintaining efficient data processing, the plug-in employs a peptide library reduction strategy via a presearch of the tandem-MS data. We demonstrate that prescoring linear unmodified peptide tags using a probabilistic approach substantially reduces search space by requiring both crosslinked peptides to generate sparse data attributable to their linear forms. The method demonstrates highly sensitive crosslink peptide identification with a low false positive rate. Integration with a Haddock plug-in provides a resource that can combine multiple sources of data for protein modeling activities. We generated a structural model of porcine transferrin bound to TbpB, a membrane-bound receptor essential for iron acquisition in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Using mutational data and crosslinking restraints, we confirm the mechanism by which TbpB recognizes the iron-loaded form of transferrin, and note the requirement for disparate sources of restraint data for accurate model construction. The software plugin is freely available at www.msstudio.ca. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. F-actin cross-linking enhances the stability of force generation in disordered actomyosin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonyeong; Murrell, Michael P.; Kim, Taeyoon

    2015-12-01

    Myosin molecular motors and actin cross-linking proteins (ACPs) are known to mediate the generation and transmission of mechanical forces within the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton that drive major cellular processes such as cell division and migration. However, how motors and ACPs interact collectively over diverse timescales to modulate the time-dependent mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton remains unclear. In this study, we present a three-dimensional agent-based computational model of the cortical actomyosin network to quantitatively determine the effects of motor activity and the density and kinetics of ACPs on the accumulation and maintenance of mechanical tension within a disordered actomyosin network. We found that motors accumulate large stress quickly by behaving as temporary cross-linkers although this stress is relaxed over time unless there are sufficient passive ACPs to stabilize the network. Stabilization by ACPs helps motors to generate forces up to their maximum potential, leading to significant enhancement of the efficiency and stability of stress generation. Thus, we demonstrated that the force-dependent kinetics of ACP dissociation plays a critical role for the accumulation and sustainment of stress and the structural remodeling of networks.

  5. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-tribenzaldehyde derivative as a new crosslinking agent for synthesis of pH-thermo dual responsive chitosan hydrogels and their nanocomposites: Swelling properties and drug release behavior.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ali Reza; Tarighatjoo, Mahsa; Nikravesh, Golara

    2017-12-01

    In this work, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-tribenzaldehyde was synthesized and chosen as the cross-linking agent for preparation of novel thermo- and pH-responsive hydrogels based on chitosan. The cross-linking proceeds through formation of imine bond by reaction of amino groups of chitosan with aldehyde groups of the cross-linker. The various amounts (6, 10, 14% w/w) of the cross-linker were used with respect to chitosan to produce three 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-tribenzaldehyde cross-linked chitosans. Then, their hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared by crosslinking of chitosan with 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-tribenzaldehyde in the presence of 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The structure and properties of the hydrogels and their nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, 1 H NMR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling behavior of prepared hydrogels and their nanocomposites at different pHs and temperatures was investigated. The results showed that they exhibit a pH and temperature-responsive swelling ratio. The swelling behavior of the prepared chitosan hydrogels was strongly dependent on the amounts of cross-linker and MWCNTs. In vitro controlled release behavior of metronidazole model drug was studied with prepared hydrogels and nanocomposite hydrogels. The pH, temperature and wt% of MWCNTs were found to strongly influence the drug release behavior of the hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of scalable tissue engineering scaffolds with dual-pore microarchitecture by combining 3D printing and particle leaching.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Sanger, Kuldeep; Heiskanen, Arto; Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter; Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Limitations in controlling scaffold architecture using traditional fabrication techniques are a problem when constructing engineered tissues/organs. Recently, integration of two pore architectures to generate dual-pore scaffolds with tailored physical properties has attracted wide attention in tissue engineering community. Such scaffolds features primary structured pores which can efficiently enhance nutrient/oxygen supply to the surrounding, in combination with secondary random pores, which give high surface area for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we present a new technique to fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random pore regions of the scaffold. After crosslinking the casted polymer the combined PVA-salt mould was dissolved in water. The technique has advantages over previously reported ones, such as automated assembly of the sacrificial mould, and precise control over pore architecture/dimensions by 3D printing parameters. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane and biodegradable poly(ϵ-caprolactone) were used for fabrication. However, we show that this technique is also suitable for other biocompatible/biodegradable polymers. Various physical and mechanical properties of the dual-pore scaffolds were compared with control scaffolds with either only structured or only random pores, fabricated using previously reported methods. The fabricated dual-pore scaffolds supported high cell density, due to the random pores, in combination with uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold, and higher cell proliferation and viability due to efficient nutrient/oxygen transport through the structured pores. In conclusion, the described fabrication technique is rapid, inexpensive, scalable, and compatible

  7. In vivo ultrasonic detection of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Firouzeh; Sebelik, Merry E; Meacham, Ryan; Boughter, John D; Challis, Mitchell J; Leventis, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels are highly porous, lightweight, and mechanically strong materials with great potential for in vivo applications. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the biocompatibility of this type of aerogel. The highly porous nature of aerogels allows for exceptional thermal, electric, and acoustic insulating capabilities that can be taken advantage of for non-invasive external imaging techniques. Sound-based detection of implants is a low cost, non-invasive, portable, and rapid technique that is routinely used and readily available in major clinics and hospitals. In this study the first in vivo ultrasound response of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants was investigated by means of a GE Medical Systems LogiQe diagnostic ultrasound machine with a linear array probe. Aerogel samples were inserted subcutaneously and sub-muscularly in a) fresh animal model and b) cadaveric human model for analysis. For comparison, samples of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were also imaged under similar conditions as the aerogel samples. Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (X-Si aerogel) implants were easily identified when inserted in either of the regions in both fresh animal model and cadaveric model. The implant dimensions inferred from the images matched the actual size of the implants and no apparent damage was sustained by the X-Si aerogel implants as a result of the ultrasonic imaging process. The aerogel implants demonstrated hyperechoic behavior and significant posterior shadowing. Results obtained were compared with images acquired from the PDMS implants inserted at the same location.

  8. Intermolecular ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes containing diazafluorene for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Gong, Chenliang; Qi, Zhigang; Li, Hui; Wu, Zhongying; Zhang, Yakui; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Yanfeng

    2015-06-01

    A series of novel ionic cross-linking sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes containing the diazafluorene functional group are synthesized to reduce the swelling ratio and methanol permeability for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. The ionic cross-linking is realized by the interaction between sulfonic acid groups and pyridyl in diazafluorene. The prepared membranes exhibit good mechanical properties, adequate thermal stability, good oxidative stability, appropriate water uptake and low swelling ratio. Moreover, the ionic cross-linked membranes exhibit lower methanol permeability in the range between 0.56 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 and 1.8 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, which is lower than Nafion 117, and they exhibit higher selectivity than Nafion 117 at 30 °C on the basis of applicable proton conductivity.

  9. Nondestructive assessment of collagen hydrogel cross-linking using time-resolved autofluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherlock, Benjamin E.; Harvestine, Jenna N.; Mitra, Debika; Haudenschild, Anne; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Leach, J. Kent; Marcu, Laura

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the use of a fiber-based, multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) system to nondestructively monitor changes in mechanical properties of collagen hydrogels caused by controlled application of widely used cross-linking agents, glutaraldehyde (GTA) and ribose. Postcross-linking, fluorescence lifetime images are acquired prior to the hydrogels being processed by rheological or tensile testing to directly probe gel mechanical properties. To preserve the sterility of the ribose-treated gels, FLIm is performed inside a biosafety cabinet (BSC). A pairwise correlation analysis is used to quantify the relationship between mean hydrogel fluorescence lifetimes and the storage or Young's moduli of the gels. In the GTA study, we observe strong and specific correlations between fluorescence lifetime and the storage and Young's moduli. Similar correlations are not observed in the ribose study and we postulate a reason for this. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of FLIm to longitudinally monitor dynamic cross-link formation. The strength of the GTA correlations and deployment of our fiber-based FLIm system inside the aseptic environment of a BSC suggests that this technique may be a valuable tool for the tissue engineering community where longitudinal assessment of tissue construct maturation in vitro is highly desirable.

  10. An Injectable Enzymatically Crosslinked Carboxymethylated Pullulan/Chondroitin Sulfate Hydrogel for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Songrui; Liu, Bing; Ni, Yunzhou; Yu, Chunyang; Su, Yue; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yu, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatically cross-linked injectable and biodegradable hydrogel system comprising carboxymethyl pullulan-tyramine (CMP-TA) and chondroitin sulfate-tyramine (CS-TA) conjugates was successfully developed under physiological conditions in the presence of both horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for cartilage tissue engineering (CTTE). The HRP crosslinking method makes this injectable system feasible, minimally invasive and easily translatable for regenerative medicine applications. The physicochemical properties of the mechanically stable hydrogel system can be modulated by varying the weight ratio and concentration of polymer as well as the concentrations of crosslinking reagents. Additionally, the cellular behaviour of porcine auricular chondrocytes encapsulated into CMP-TA/CS-TA hydrogels demonstrates that the hydrogel system has a good cyto-compatibility. Specifically, compared to the CMP-TA hydrogel, these CMP-TA/CS-TA composite hydrogels have enhanced cell proliferation and increased cartilaginous ECM deposition, which significantly facilitate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, histological analysis indicates that the hydrogel system exhibits acceptable tissue compatibility by using a mouse subcutaneous implantation model. Overall, the novel injectable pullulan/chondroitin sulfate composite hydrogels presented here are expected to be useful biomaterial scaffold for regenerating cartilage tissue. PMID:26817622

  11. An Injectable Enzymatically Crosslinked Carboxymethylated Pullulan/Chondroitin Sulfate Hydrogel for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Songrui; Liu, Bing; Ni, Yunzhou; Yu, Chunyang; Su, Yue; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yu, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatically cross-linked injectable and biodegradable hydrogel system comprising carboxymethyl pullulan-tyramine (CMP-TA) and chondroitin sulfate-tyramine (CS-TA) conjugates was successfully developed under physiological conditions in the presence of both horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for cartilage tissue engineering (CTTE). The HRP crosslinking method makes this injectable system feasible, minimally invasive and easily translatable for regenerative medicine applications. The physicochemical properties of the mechanically stable hydrogel system can be modulated by varying the weight ratio and concentration of polymer as well as the concentrations of crosslinking reagents. Additionally, the cellular behaviour of porcine auricular chondrocytes encapsulated into CMP-TA/CS-TA hydrogels demonstrates that the hydrogel system has a good cyto-compatibility. Specifically, compared to the CMP-TA hydrogel, these CMP-TA/CS-TA composite hydrogels have enhanced cell proliferation and increased cartilaginous ECM deposition, which significantly facilitate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, histological analysis indicates that the hydrogel system exhibits acceptable tissue compatibility by using a mouse subcutaneous implantation model. Overall, the novel injectable pullulan/chondroitin sulfate composite hydrogels presented here are expected to be useful biomaterial scaffold for regenerating cartilage tissue.

  12. Enhanced Stress Relaxation and Reduced Cure Stress in Thermosets with Ferrocene-Based Crosslinkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brad; Wheeler, David; Stavig, Mark; Black, Hayden; Sawyer, Patricia; Giron, Nicholas; Celina, Mathias; Alam, Todd

    Organometallic sandwich compounds are characterized by facile isomerization among a variety of unique states. For example, ferrocene exhibits an extraordinarily low barrier to rotation of its cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ligands about the metal-Cp axis. We propose that this phenomenon can be exploited to enhance stress relaxation of polymers containing organometallic sandwich backbone moieties. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of several thermosets that employ ferrocene derivatives as crosslinkers. In particular, we compare a ferrocene diamine to several conventional diamines in the crosslinking of epoxy resin. Stress relaxation and dynamic mechanical analyses reveal that the ferrocene-based thermosets are distinguished from conventional thermosets by their capacity for physical relaxation. More importantly, these materials exhibit markedly different residual stress evolution during cure. For example, the cure stress in ferrocene-based thermosets drops precipitously with decreasing crosslink density. Our results highlight the unique role organometallic chemistry can play for stress management of thermosets and, more broadly, in manipulating their structure-property relationships. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Via fill properties of organic BARCs in dual-damascene application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Runhui

    2004-05-01

    With the introduction of copper as the interconnect metal, the Dual Damascene (DD) process has been integrated into integrated circuit (IC) device fabrication. The DD process utilizes organic bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs) not only to eliminate the thin film interference effects but also to act as via fill materials. However, three serious processing problems are encountered with organic BARCs. One is the formation of voids, which are trapped gas bubbles (evaporating solvent, byproduct of the curing reaction and air) inside the vias. Another problem is non-uniform BARC layer thickness in different via pitch areas. The third problem is the formation of fences during plasma etch. Fences are formed from materials that are removed by plasma and subsequently deposited on the sidewall surrounding the via openings during the etching process. Voids can cause variations in BARC top thickness, optical properties, via fill percentage, and plasma etch rate. This study focuses on the factors that influence the formation of voids and addresses the ways to eliminate them by optimizing the compositions of formulations and the processing conditions. Effects of molecular weight of the polymer, nature of the crosslinker, additives, and bake temperature were examined. The molecular weight of the polymer is one of the important factors that needs to be controlled carefully. Polymers with high molecular weights tend to trap voids inside the vias. Low molecular weight polymers have low Tg and low viscosity, which enables good thermal flow so that the BARC can fill vias easily without voids. Several kinds of crosslinkers were investigated in this study. When used with the same polymer system, formulations with different crosslinkers show varying results that affect planar fill, sidewall coverage, and, in some cases, voids. Additives also can change via fill behavior dramatically, and choosing the right additive will improve the via fill property. Processing conditions such as

  14. Probing structures of large protein complexes using zero-length cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Santiago, Roland F; Sriswasdi, Sira; Harper, Sandra L; Speicher, David W

    2015-11-01

    Structural mass spectrometry (MS) is a field with growing applicability for addressing complex biophysical questions regarding proteins and protein complexes. One of the major structural MS approaches involves the use of chemical cross-linking coupled with MS analysis (CX-MS) to identify proximal sites within macromolecules. Identified cross-linked sites can be used to probe novel protein-protein interactions or the derived distance constraints can be used to verify and refine molecular models. This review focuses on recent advances of "zero-length" cross-linking. Zero-length cross-linking reagents do not add any atoms to the cross-linked species due to the lack of a spacer arm. This provides a major advantage in the form of providing more precise distance constraints as the cross-linkable groups must be within salt bridge distances in order to react. However, identification of cross-linked peptides using these reagents presents unique challenges. We discuss recent efforts by our group to minimize these challenges by using multiple cycles of LC-MS/MS analysis and software specifically developed and optimized for identification of zero-length cross-linked peptides. Representative data utilizing our current protocol are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of crosslinking UHMWPE on its tensile and compressive creep performance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G; Carroll, M

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro quasi-static tensile and compressive creep properties of three sets of GUR 1050 ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) specimens were obtained. These sets were: control (as-received stock); "low-gamma" (specimens were crosslinked using gamma radiation, with a minimum dose of 5 Mrad); and "high-gamma" (specimens were crosslinked using gamma radiation, with a minimum dose of 15 Mrad). The % crystallinity (%C) and crosslink density (rho(x)) of the specimens in the three sets were also obtained. It was found that, in both tension and compression, crosslinking resulted in a significant depreciation in the creep properties, relative to control. The trend in the creep results is explained in terms of the impact of crosslinking on the polymer's %C and rho(x). The present results are in contrast to literature reports that show that crosslinking enhances the wear resistance of the polymer. The implications of the present results, taken together with the aforementioned literature results, are fully discussed vis-a-vis the use of crosslinked UHMWPE for fabricating articular components for arthroplasties.

  16. Evaluation of nanohydroxyapaptite (nano-HA) coated epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Man, Yi; Qu, Yili

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM) with desirable biological activities and low antigenicity. Collagen materials have been widely utilized in guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery due to its abilities to maintain space for hard tissue growth. However, pure collagen lacks optimal mechanical properties. In our previous study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, with better biological activities and enhanced mechanical properties, may promote osteoblast proliferation, but their effect on osteoblast differentiation is not very significant. Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) is the main component of mineral bone, which possesses exceptional bioactivity properties including good biocompatibility, high osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, non-immunogenicity and non-inflammatory behavior. Herein, by analyzing the physical and chemical properties as well as the effects on promoting bone regeneration, we have attempted to present a novel EGCG-modified collagen membrane with nano-HA coating, and have found evidence that the novel collagen membrane may promote bone regeneration with a better surface morphology, without destroying collagen backbone. To evaluate the surface morphologies, chemical and mechanical properties of pure collagen membranes, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, nano-HA coated collagen membranes, nano-HA coated EGCG-collagen membranes, (ii) to evaluate the bone regeneration promoted by theses membranes. In the present study, collagen membranes were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated collagen membranes (2) EGCG cross-linked collagen membranes (3) nano-HA modified collagen membranes (4) nano-HA modified EGCG-collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate surface morphologies and chemical properties, respectively. Mechanical properties were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC