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Sample records for dual purpose compton

  1. A magnetic shield/dual purpose mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Seth; Albertelli, Jamil; Copeland, R. Braden; Correll, Eric; Dales, Chris; Davis, Dana; Davis, Nechole; Duck, Rob; Feaster, Sandi; Grant, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to design, build, and fly a dual-purpose payload whose function is to produce a large volume, low intensity magnetic field and to test the concept of using such a magnetic field to protect manned spacecraft against particle radiation. An additional mission objective is to study the effect of this moving field on upper atmosphere plasmas. Both mission objectives appear to be capable of being tested using the same superconducting coil. The potential benefits of this magnetic shield concept apply directly to both earth-orbital and interplanetary missions. This payload would be a first step in assessing the true potential of large volume magnetic fields in the U.S. space program. Either converted launch systems or piggyback payload opportunities may be appropriate for this mission. The use of superconducting coils for magnetic shielding against solar flare radiation during manned interplanetary missions has long been contemplated and was considered in detail in the years preceding the Apollo mission. With the advent of new superconductors, it has now become realistic to reconsider this concept for a Mars mission. Even in near-earth orbits, large volume magnetic fields produced using conventional metallic superconductors allow novel plasma physics experiments to be contemplated. Both deployed field-coil and non-deployed field-coil shielding arrangements have been investigated, with the latter being most suitable for an initial test payload in a polar orbit.

  2. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  3. Optimisation of a dual head semiconductor Compton camera using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, L. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Cresswell, J. R.; Grint, A. N.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Scraggs, D. P.; Beveridge, T.; Gillam, J.; Lazarus, I.

    2009-06-01

    Conventional medical gamma-ray camera systems utilise mechanical collimation to provide information on the position of an incident gamma-ray photon. Systems that use electronic collimation utilising Compton image reconstruction techniques have the potential to offer huge improvements in sensitivity. Position sensitive high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems are being evaluated as part of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Compton camera system. Data have been acquired from the orthogonally segmented planar SmartPET detectors, operated in Compton camera mode. The minimum gamma-ray energy which can be imaged by the current system in Compton camera configuration is 244 keV due to the 20 mm thickness of the first scatter detector which causes large gamma-ray absorption. A simulation package for the optimisation of a new semiconductor Compton camera has been developed using the Geant4 toolkit. This paper will show results of preliminary analysis of the validated Geant4 simulation for gamma-ray energies of SPECT, 141 keV.

  4. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge. PMID:24323974

  5. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge.

  6. Dual purpose solar pond for evaporation and heat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Assaf, G.; Doron, B.

    1985-02-12

    A solar pond serving the dual purposes of concentrating an aqueous brine by evaporation and simultaneously producing power by storage of incident solar radiation is disclosed. The so-stored solar energy is used by a heat machine. The solar pond has a concentrated aqueous brine which serves as the heat storage layer, and a halocline overlying the heat storage layer. An evaporation layer, whose density does not exceed that of the upper stratum of the halocline, overlies the halocline. A heat exchanger forms a part of a heat machine, and includes an organic, water-immiscible operating fluid as heat carrier, means for withdrawing hot brine from the heat storage layer to the heat exchanger, means for returning brine from the heat exchanger to the heat storage layer, a condenser for the operating fluid adapted for the throughflow of an aqueous coolant as heat sink, and means for feeding a warmed coolant emerging from the condenser to the evaporation layer.

  7. Dual-Purpose Magnetic Micelles for MRI and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyan; Ravi, Sowndharya; Martinez, Gary.V.; Chinnasamy, Vignesh; Raulji, Payal; Howell, Mark; Davis, Yvonne; Seehra, Mohindar S.; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for treating disease, but the efficient delivery of genes to desired locations with minimal side effects remains a challenge. In addition to gene therapy, it is also highly desirable to provide sensitive imaging information in patients for disease diagnosis, screening and post-therapy monitoring. Here, we report on the development of dual-purpose chitosan and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic micelles (CP-mag-micelles) that can deliver nucleic acid-based therapeutic agents and also provide magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These ‘theranostic’ CP-mag-micelles are composed of monodisperse hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) loaded into the cores of micelles that are self-assembled from a block copolymer of poly (D, L-lactide) (PLA) and monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG). For efficient loading and protection of the nucleic acids the micelles were coated with cationic polymers, such as chitosan and PEI. The morphology and size distribution of the CP-mag-micelles were characterized and their potential for use as an MRI-probe was tested using an MRI scanner. The T2 relaxivity of micelles was similar to CP-mag-micelles confirming that coating with cationic polymers did not alter magnetism. Nanoparticles coated with chitosan:PEI at a weight ratio of 5:5 showed higher transfection efficiency in HEK293, 3T3 and PC3 cells than with weight ratios of 3:7 or 7:3. CP-mag-micelles are biocompatible, can be delivered to various organs and are safe. A single injection of CP-mag-micelles carrying reporter plasmids in vivo expressed genes for at least one week. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a structural reinforcement of SPIONs loaded in the core of an mPEG-PLA micelle coated with cationic polymers provides efficient DNA delivery and enhanced MRI potential, and affords a promising candidate for theranostics in the future. PMID:22561339

  8. System-Level Logistics for Dual Purpose Canister Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinina, Elena A.

    2014-06-03

    The analysis presented in this report investigated how the direct disposal of dual purpose canisters (DPCs) may be affected by the use of standard transportation aging and disposal canisters (STADs), early or late start of the repository, and the repository emplacement thermal power limits. The impacts were evaluated with regard to the availability of the DPCs for emplacement, achievable repository acceptance rates, additional storage required at an interim storage facility (ISF) and additional emplacement time compared to the corresponding repackaging scenarios, and fuel age at emplacement. The result of this analysis demonstrated that the biggest difference in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario is for a repository start date of 2036 with a 6 kW thermal power limit. The differences are also seen in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario for the alternative with a 6 kW thermal limit and a 2048 start date, and for the alternatives with a 10 kW thermal limit and 2036 and 2048 start dates. The alternatives with disposal of UNF in both DPCs and STADs did not require additional storage, regardless of the repository acceptance rate, as compared to the reference repackaging case. In comparison to the reference repackaging case, alternatives with the 18 kW emplacement thermal limit required little to no additional emplacement time, regardless of the repository start time, the fuel loading scenario, or the repository acceptance rate. Alternatives with the 10 kW emplacement thermal limit and the DPCs and STADs fuel loading scenario required some additional emplacement time. The most significant decrease in additional emplacement time occurred in the alternative with the 6 kW thermal limit and the 2036 repository starting date. The average fuel age at emplacement ranges from 46 to 88 years. The maximum fuel age at

  9. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  10. Spectra of clinical CT scanners using a portable Compton spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Duisterwinkel, H. A.; Abbema, J. K. van; Kawachimaru, R.; Paganini, L.; Graaf, E. R. van der; Brandenburg, S.; Goethem, M. J. van

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Spectral information of the output of x-ray tubes in (dual source) computer tomography (CT) scanners can be used to improve the conversion of CT numbers to proton stopping power and can be used to advantage in CT scanner quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to design, validate, and apply a compact portable Compton spectrometer that was constructed to accurately measure x-ray spectra of CT scanners. Methods: In the design of the Compton spectrometer, the shielding materials were carefully chosen and positioned to reduce background by x-ray fluorescence from the materials used. The spectrum of Compton scattered x-rays alters from the original source spectrum due to various physical processes. Reconstruction of the original x-ray spectrum from the Compton scattered spectrum is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the processes involved. This reconstruction is validated by comparing directly and indirectly measured spectra of a mobile x-ray tube. The Compton spectrometer is assessed in a clinical setting by measuring x-ray spectra at various tube voltages of three different medical CT scanner x-ray tubes. Results: The directly and indirectly measured spectra are in good agreement (their ratio being 0.99) thereby validating the reconstruction method. The measured spectra of the medical CT scanners are consistent with theoretical spectra and spectra obtained from the x-ray tube manufacturer. Conclusions: A Compton spectrometer has been successfully designed, constructed, validated, and applied in the measurement of x-ray spectra of CT scanners. These measurements show that our compact Compton spectrometer can be rapidly set-up using the alignment lasers of the CT scanner, thereby enabling its use in commissioning, troubleshooting, and, e.g., annual performance check-ups of CT scanners.

  11. A Community Facilities Center with Fallout Shelter as Dual Purpose Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A presentation is made of five award-winning designs for a fireproof community recreation facility, on a selected site in New York City, incorporating a fallout shelter as a dual-purpose space. Graphic illustrations are given of the award winning designs, each of which used one of the following solutions--(1) the fallout structure above grade with…

  12. Nano-casted Metal Oxide Aerogels as Dual Purpose Structural Components for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilaras, Plousia E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA missions and space exploration rely on strong, ultra lightweight materials. Such materials are needed for building up past and present space vehicles such as the Sojourner Rover (1997) or the two MERs (2003), but also for a number of components and/or systems including thermal insulators, Solar Sails, Rigid Aeroshells, and Ballutes. The purpose of my internship here at Glenn Research Center is to make dual purpose materials; materials that in addition to being lightweight have electronic, photophysical and magnetic properties and, therefore, act as electronic components and sensors as well as structural components. One type of ultra lightweight material of great interest is aerogels, which have densities ranging from 0.003 g/cc to 0.8 g/cc . However, aerogels are extremely fragile and, as a result, have limited practical applications. Recently, Glenn Research Center has developed a process of nano-casting polymers onto the inorganic network of silica-based aerogels increasing the strength 300 fold while only increasing the density 3 fold. By combining the process of nano-casting polymers with inorganic oxide networks other than silica, we are actively pursuing lightweight dual purpose materials. To date, thirty different inorganic oxide aerogels have been prepared using either standard sol-gel chemistry or a non-alkoxide method involving metal chloride precursors and an epoxide; epichlorohydrin, propylene oxide or trimethylene oxide, as proton scavengers. More importantly, preliminary investigations show that the residual surface hydroxyl groups on each of these inorganic oxide aerogels can be successfully crosslinked with urethane. In addition to characterizing physical and mechanical properties such as density, strength and flexibility, each of these metal oxide aerogels are being characterized for thermal and electronic conductivity and magnetic and optical properties.

  13. Factor analysis for genetic evaluation of linear type traits in dual-purpose autochthonous breeds.

    PubMed

    Mazza, S; Guzzo, N; Sartori, C; Mantovani, R

    2016-03-01

    Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits (TT) scored in primiparous cows belonging to two dual purpose Italian breeds, Rendena (REN; 20 individual type traits evaluated on 11 399 first parity cows), and Aosta Red Pied (ARP; 22 individual type traits evaluated on 36 168 primiparous cows). Six common latent factors (F1 to F6; eigenvalues ⩾1) which explained 63% (REN) and 58% (ARP) of the total variance were obtained. F1 included TT mainly related to muscularity, and F2 to body size. The F3 and F4 accounted for udder size and conformation, respectively. F5 included rear legs and feet. Biological significance for F6 was not readily obtained. Moderate to low heritability were estimated through REML single-trait analysis from factor scores (from 0.22 to 0.52 in REN, and from 0.08 to 0.37 in ARP). The greatest heritability values were estimated for body size and muscularity (0.52 and 0.37 for body size; and 0.40 and 0.32 for muscularity in REN and ARP, respectively). As expected, rank correlations, obtained considering estimated breeding values derived from best linear unbiased prediction analysis on the individual TT and factor score, showed similar coefficients to those observed in the factor analysis following loading of TT within each latent factor. These results suggest the possibility to implement the factor analysis in the morphological evaluation, simplifying the information given by the type traits into new variables useful for the genetic improvement of dual purpose cattle.

  14. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits.

  15. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits. PMID:26230093

  16. Energetic efficiency of milk synthesis in dual-purpose cows grazing tropical pastures.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pérez, Carlos Fernando; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the energetic efficiency of milk synthesis by grazing dual-purpose cows with or without a starch-based supplement in tropical South Mexico. Forty-six Holstein × Zebu cows were used in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Factors analysed were diet (supplemented, unsupplemented), age (young: 1-2 calvings, mature: >3 calvings) and day of lactation (21 and 84 days post-calving). The supplement represented about 30% of estimated dry matter (DM) intake. Grass intake was measured using the n-alkane technique at 21 and 84 days post-calving when calculations of efficiency were performed. Efficiency for milk synthesis was reported as feed conversion efficiency (FCE, kilograms of milk per kilogram of DM intake), gross energetic efficiency (GEE, milk energy output/metabolisable energy (ME) intake) and efficiency of ME use for lactation (k(l), adjusted to zero energy balance). There were no interactions between factors. FCE and GEE were not different between diets, but supplemented cows had a lower (p < 0.01) k(l) value (0.62) than unsupplemented cows (0.67), suggesting a diverted partition of nutrients towards body tissue. Mature cows were more efficient (p < 0.001) than young cows in terms of FCE (1.13 vs 0.87) and GEE (0.34 vs 0.26), but equal in terms of k(l) (0.65). FCE (1.10 vs 0.90) and GEE (0.34 vs 0.27) were both higher on day 21 compared with day 84 post-calving, with a trend for a higher k(l) in early lactation. Dual-purpose cows used tropical grasses efficiently for milk synthesis, and higher milk yield observed in supplemented cows was due to a higher intake of nutrients rather than a higher energetic efficiency.

  17. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits. PMID:26230093

  18. The Compton Observatory Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R. (Editor); Gehrels, Neil (Editor); Dennis, Brian (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Compton Observatory Science Workshop was held in Annapolis, Maryland on September 23-25, 1991. The primary purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among scientists with interests in various areas of high energy astrophysics, with emphasis on the scientific capabilities of the Compton Observatory. Early scientific results, as well as reports on in-flight instrument performance and calibrations are presented. Guest investigator data products, analysis techniques, and associated software were discussed. Scientific topics covered included active galaxies, cosmic gamma ray bursts, solar physics, pulsars, novae, supernovae, galactic binary sources, and diffuse galactic and extragalactic emission.

  19. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  20. Dual Purpose Landscaping Tools: Small Extra Dimensions in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    We propose a class of AdS/CFT dual pairs which have small internal dimensions on the gravity side. Starting from known Freund-Rubin AdS/CFT dual pairs, we use 7-branes to nearly cancel the curvature energy of the internal dimensions while maintaining their stabilization. This leads to a new corner of the landscape - a class of AdS solutions with a hierarchically large AdS radius - with a dual field theory given (implicitly) by the infrared limit of a concrete brane construction involving D3-branes, 7-branes, and curvature. We first construct a class of hierarchical AdS5/CFT4 dual pairs with a simple formula for the number of degrees of freedom which we interpret in the dual QFT. We then generalize these to AdS4/CFT3 duals, and suggest extensions of the method to obtain de Sitter solutions.

  1. Crossbreeding dual-purpose cattle for beef production in tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Voigt, A; Noguera, E; Rodriguez, H L; Huerta-Leidenz, N O; Morón-Fuenmayor, O; Rincón-Urdaneta, E

    1997-11-01

    Six breed types groups of six steer calves each were used to observe differences in growth and carcass traits: F1 Brown Swiss (F1BS), F1 Holstein (F1HO), F2 Brahman (F2BR), F2 Criollo Rio Limon (F2CRL), purebred Criollo Rio Limon (CRL), and Perija Mosaic (PMO). After 404 days of grazing, the heaviest F1BS and F2BR steers were different from F1HO and CRL counterparts (p < 0.05) in slaughter weight. F2BR dressed higher and had better muscle conformation scores than F1BS, F1HO, F2CRL and CRL (p < 0.05). F1BS had the thickest backfat (0.5 cm) but only differed (p < 0.05) from F1HO (0.3 cm). Rib eye area, marbling score, carcass maturity, quality or yield grade, boneless cut percentages, bone percentage or percent trimmable fat did not vary among breed types. All steers were within the A maturity level and graded Standard. Results indicate the importance of feeding dual-purpose steers to heavier weights to please industry preferences. PMID:22062732

  2. A microfluidic, dual-purpose sensor for in vitro detection of Enterobacteriaceae and biotinylated antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kokkinis, G; Plochberger, B; Cardoso, S; Keplinger, F; Giouroudi, I

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a versatile, dual-purpose sensor for in vitro detection of Enterobacteriaceae (e.g. Escherichia coli) and biotinylated antibodies (e.g. IgG rabbit polyclonal antibodies), based on different detection principles for each bioanalyte. These bioanalytes are tagged individually with functionalized magnetic microparticles, suspended into a static fluid and injected into a microfluidic channel. Without the need for bulk or complicated pumping systems, the functionalized microparticles are set in motion by a magnetic force exerted on them by integrated microconductors. The fundamental detection principle is the decrease in the velocity of the microparticles that are loaded with the respective bioanalyte, due to factors inhibiting their motion. The velocity of the unloaded, bare microparticles is used as a reference. We discovered a novel mechanism on which the constrained particle motion is based; in the case of E. coli, the inhibiting factor is the enhanced Stokes' drag force due to the greater volume and altered hydrodynamic shape, whereas in the case of biotinylated antibodies, it is the increased friction force at the interface between the modified microparticle and the biosensor's surface. Friction force is for the first time employed in a scheme for resolving biomolecules. Integrated magnetic microsensors are used for the velocity measurements by detecting the microparticles' stray field. Moreover, we developed a biocompatible, easy to implement and reliable surface modification that practically diminishes the problem of bioadhesion on the sensor's surface. PMID:26939996

  3. Crossbreeding dual-purpose cattle for beef production in tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Voigt, A; Noguera, E; Rodriguez, H L; Huerta-Leidenz, N O; Morón-Fuenmayor, O; Rincón-Urdaneta, E

    1997-11-01

    Six breed types groups of six steer calves each were used to observe differences in growth and carcass traits: F1 Brown Swiss (F1BS), F1 Holstein (F1HO), F2 Brahman (F2BR), F2 Criollo Rio Limon (F2CRL), purebred Criollo Rio Limon (CRL), and Perija Mosaic (PMO). After 404 days of grazing, the heaviest F1BS and F2BR steers were different from F1HO and CRL counterparts (p < 0.05) in slaughter weight. F2BR dressed higher and had better muscle conformation scores than F1BS, F1HO, F2CRL and CRL (p < 0.05). F1BS had the thickest backfat (0.5 cm) but only differed (p < 0.05) from F1HO (0.3 cm). Rib eye area, marbling score, carcass maturity, quality or yield grade, boneless cut percentages, bone percentage or percent trimmable fat did not vary among breed types. All steers were within the A maturity level and graded Standard. Results indicate the importance of feeding dual-purpose steers to heavier weights to please industry preferences.

  4. Molasses supplementation for dual-purpose cows during the dry season in subtropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Loreto, Isela; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Vicente-Mainar, Fernando; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2016-03-01

    The effect of including 9 % of molasses in supplements offered to dual purpose cows, during dry season in subtropical Mexico was determined. Forage availability in pastures during the dry season is reduced and of low quality. Molasses is a readily available source of energy that may improve forage utilization and could have a positive effect on cow's milk production and calves daily weight gain (CDWG). Twelve multiparous Brown Swiss cows (409 ± 33 kg of body weight and 136 ± 73 days in milk), and their calves were randomly assigned to two supplements (six cows per treatment). Control supplement (COS) consisted of cracked maize ears (CME), soybean meal and urea (14 % CP), and experimental supplement in which 9 % of CME was replaced by molasses (MOS). Cows received 4.5 kg/cow/day dry matter (DM) of supplement. Experiment lasted 10 weeks divided in five experimental periods (EP). Animal responses (milk yield, milk composition, body weight, body condition score and CDWG) were recorded at the end of every EP. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the data as a complete random design. Net profits from milk and beef due to supplements were estimated using partial budget approach. Average milk yield was 7 (kg/cow/day) with 30.6, 30.4 and 42.5 (g/kg milk) of fat, protein and lactose, respectively. Average cow weight was 422 kg and CDWG was 0.8 kg/day. No significant responses on animal production variables were found when 9 % of MOS was included in the supplement; however, total net income increased on 4 %, due to higher CDWG.

  5. Molasses supplementation for dual-purpose cows during the dry season in subtropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Loreto, Isela; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Vicente-Mainar, Fernando; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2016-03-01

    The effect of including 9 % of molasses in supplements offered to dual purpose cows, during dry season in subtropical Mexico was determined. Forage availability in pastures during the dry season is reduced and of low quality. Molasses is a readily available source of energy that may improve forage utilization and could have a positive effect on cow's milk production and calves daily weight gain (CDWG). Twelve multiparous Brown Swiss cows (409 ± 33 kg of body weight and 136 ± 73 days in milk), and their calves were randomly assigned to two supplements (six cows per treatment). Control supplement (COS) consisted of cracked maize ears (CME), soybean meal and urea (14 % CP), and experimental supplement in which 9 % of CME was replaced by molasses (MOS). Cows received 4.5 kg/cow/day dry matter (DM) of supplement. Experiment lasted 10 weeks divided in five experimental periods (EP). Animal responses (milk yield, milk composition, body weight, body condition score and CDWG) were recorded at the end of every EP. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the data as a complete random design. Net profits from milk and beef due to supplements were estimated using partial budget approach. Average milk yield was 7 (kg/cow/day) with 30.6, 30.4 and 42.5 (g/kg milk) of fat, protein and lactose, respectively. Average cow weight was 422 kg and CDWG was 0.8 kg/day. No significant responses on animal production variables were found when 9 % of MOS was included in the supplement; however, total net income increased on 4 %, due to higher CDWG. PMID:26885986

  6. Evaluation of tropical grasses for milk production by dual-purpose cows in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Juarez Lagunes, F I; Fox, D G; Blake, R W; Pell, A N

    1999-10-01

    Two experiments using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System were conducted to characterize the carbohydrate and protein fractions and corresponding rates of digestion of 15 tropical pasture grasses and to evaluate their ability to support milk production by dual-purpose cows. In the first experiment, ranges in carbohydrate and protein fractions of 15 grasses at 35 to 42 d of regrowth were: neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 63.5 to 74.9% of DM; permanganate lignin 4.7 to 7.8% of NDF; CP 5.5 to 11.9% of DM; and soluble protein 15.1 to 44.1% of crude protein (CP). The ranges of rates of digestion expressed as percent per hour were neutral detergent solubles (7.5 to 27.4); NDF (3.8 to 8.4); and neutral detergent insoluble protein (2.9 to 9.5). Predictions of the amount of milk that could be produced based on the amount of metabolizable energy supplied by the diet decreased 35% when NDF increased from 60 to 80%, and increased 88% when the rate of digestion of NDF increased from 3 to 6%/h. The milk production that could be sustained based on metabolizable protein in the diet doubled as CP increased from 4 to 12%. In the second experiment, nitrogen fertilization reduced NDF 7.3% and increased CP 84% without changing protein solubility, resulting in increased rumen nitrogen and metabolizable protein balances. With all forages, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System predicted that availability of metabolizable protein would limit milk production. Predicted microbial growth was limited by ruminally available protein rather than by available carbohydrate.

  7. Compton tomography system

    DOEpatents

    Grubsky, Victor; Romanoov, Volodymyr; Shoemaker, Keith; Patton, Edward Matthew; Jannson, Tomasz

    2016-02-02

    A Compton tomography system comprises an x-ray source configured to produce a planar x-ray beam. The beam irradiates a slice of an object to be imaged, producing Compton-scattered x-rays. The Compton-scattered x-rays are imaged by an x-ray camera. Translation of the object with respect to the source and camera or vice versa allows three-dimensional object imaging.

  8. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    PubMed

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  9. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  10. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    PubMed

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  11. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  12. Genetic principal components for reproductive and productive traits in dual-purpose buffaloes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Gómez, D A; Pelicioni Savegnago, R; Buzanskas, M E; Ferraudo, A S; Prado Munari, D; Cerón-Muñoz, M F

    2015-08-01

    A multitrait model (MC) and 5 reduced-rank models with principal component structure (components PC, PC, PC, PC, and PC) were compared. The objectives were to determine the most appropriate model for estimating genetic parameters and to evaluate the genetic progress of dual-purpose buffaloes in Colombia using that model. The traits evaluated were weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (W12), weight at 18 mo of age (W18), weight at 2 yr of age (W24), age at first calving (AFC), and milk yield at 270 d of first lactation (MY270). Genealogy and productive information from 34,326 buffaloes born in Colombia between 1997 and 2014 were used. Colombian Association of Buffalo Breeders (ACB) provided the data. Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included for all the traits. In addition, the maternal additive genetic effect and permanent environmental random effect were included for WW, while a maternal additive genetic effect was included for W12. The fixed effects were contemporary group (farm, year, and calving season: January to April, May to August, or September to December; for all traits) and sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24). Additionally, parity was included as a fixed effect for WW and W12. Age at weighing was used as a covariate for WW, W12, W18, and W24. Genetic progress of all traits was analyzed using a generalized smooth model (GAM). According to the Akaike information criteria (AIC), the best model was the one with reduced rank and first 3 principal components (PC). This model maintained 100% of the original variance. Genetic parameters estimated with this model were similar to those estimated by MC, but with smaller standard errors. Heritability for weight-related traits ranged between 0.23 and 0.44. Heritabilities for AFC and MY270 were 0.14 and 0.24, respectively. The genetic correlations obtained between all weights (WW, W12, W18, and W24) were positive and high. Correlations between all weights with AFC were negative and moderate

  13. Dual parametrization of the proton generalized parton distribution functions H and E, and description of the deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections and asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Guzey, V.; Teckentrup, T.

    2006-09-01

    We develop the minimal model of a new leading order parametrization of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) introduced by Polyakov and Shuvaev. The model for GPDs H and E is formulated in terms of the forward quark distributions, the Gegenbauer moments of the D-term, and the forward limit of the GPD E. The model is designed primarily for small and medium-size values of x{sub B}, x{sub B}{<=}0.2. We examine two different models of the t dependence of the GPDs: the factorized exponential model and the nonfactorized Regge-motivated model. Using our model, we successfully described the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) cross section measured by H1 and ZEUS, the moments of the beam-spin A{sub LU}{sup sin{phi}}, the beam-charge A{sub C}{sup cos{phi}}, and the transversely polarized target A{sub UT}{sup sin{phi}}{sup cos{phi}} DVCS asymmetries measured by HERMES and A{sub LU}{sup sin{phi}} measured by CLAS. The data on A{sub C}{sup cos{phi}} prefer the Regge-motivated model of the t dependence of the GPDs. The data on A{sub UT}{sup sin{phi}}{sup cos{phi}} indicate that the u and d quarks carry only a small fraction of the proton total angular momentum.

  14. Conducting a Statewide Dual-Purpose Program for Pesticide Applicators and County Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Liu, Guodong David

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida Cooperative Extension conducted a statewide program with a dual role during 2013 and 2014 to enhance efficiency. The program provided in-service training to county Extension agents and provided continuing education to meet requirements needed by licensed pesticide applicators. Using Polycom distance technology, the event…

  15. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds.

    PubMed

    Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M H T; Bovenhuis, H; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and HF. First, the reliability of genomic breeding values of the native Dutch dual-purpose cattle breeds MRY, DF, and GWH was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects estimated in HF, including all SNP or subsets with stronger associations in HF. Second, the genomic variation of the regions associated with FA composition in HF (regions on Bos taurus autosome 5, 14, and 26), were studied in the different breeds. Finally, similarities in genotype and allele frequencies between MRY, DF, GWH, and HF breeds were assessed for specific regions associated with FA composition. On average across the traits, the highest reliabilities of genomic prediction were estimated for GWH (0.158) and DF (0.116) when the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were included. With the same set of SNP, GEBV for MRY were the least reliable (0.022). This indicates that on average only 2 (MRY) to 16% (GWH) of the genomic variation in HF is shared with the native Dutch dual-purpose breeds. The comparison of predicted variances of different regions associated with milk and milk fat composition showed that breeds clearly differed in genomic variation within these regions. Finally, the correlations of allele frequencies between breeds across the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were around 0.8 between the Dutch native dual-purpose breeds, whereas the correlations between the native breeds and HF were clearly lower and around 0.5. There was no consistent relationship between the reliabilities of genomic prediction for a specific breed and the correlation between the allele frequencies of this breed

  16. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  17. Dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. Both the method and its limitations are related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the X-ray attenuation coefficients of materials.

  18. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  19. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  20. Dual purpose system that treats anaerobic effluents from pig waste and produce Neochloris oleoabundans as lipid rich biomass.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Castillo, Omar S; Mendoza, Anilú; Tapia, Karla; González-Portela, Ricardo E; Hernández-Landa, Víctor J

    2015-05-25

    Dual purpose systems that treat wastewater and produce lipid rich microalgae biomass have been indicated as an option with great potential for production of biodiesel at a competitive cost. The aim of the present work was to develop a dual purpose system for the treatment of the anaerobic effluents from pig waste utilizing Neochloris oleoabundans and to evaluate its growth, lipid content and lipid profile of the harvested biomass and the removal of nutrients from the media. Cultures of N. oleoabundans were established in 4 L flat plate photobioreactors using diluted effluents from two different types of anaerobic filters, one packed with ceramic material (D1) and another one packed with volcanic gravel (D2). Maximum biomass concentration in D1 was 0.63 g L(-1) which was significantly higher than the one found in D2 (0.55 g L(-1)). Cultures were very efficient at nutrient removal: 98% for NNH4(+) and 98% for PO4(3-). Regarding total lipid content, diluted eflluents from D2 promoted a biomass containing 27.4% (dry weight) and D1 a biomass containing 22.4% (dry weight). Maximum lipid productivity was also higher in D2 compared to D1 (6.27±0.62 mg L(-1) d(-1) vs. 5.12±0.12 mg L(-1) d(-1)). Concerning the FAMEs profile in diluted effluents, the most abundant one was C18:1, followed by C18:2 and C16:0. The profile in D2 contained less C18:3 (linolenic acid) than the one in D1 (4.37% vs. 5.55%). In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating that cultures of N. oleoabundans treating anaerobic effluents from pig waste are very efficient at nutrient removal and a biomass rich in lipids can be recovered. The maximum total lipid content and the most convenient FAMEs profile were obtained using effluents from a digester packed with volcanic gravel.

  1. Economic analysis of alternative nutritional management of dual-purpose cow herds in central coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Nicholson, Charles F; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Market information was combined with predicted input-output relationships in an economic analysis of alternative nutritional management for dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Cow productivity outcomes for typical management and alternative feeding scenarios were obtained from structured sets of simulations in a companion study of productivity limitations and potentials using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0). Partial budgeting methods and sensitivity analysis were used to identify economically viable alternatives based on expected change in milk income over feed cost (change in revenues from milk sales less change in feed costs). Herd owners in coastal Veracruz have large economic incentives, from $584 to $1,131 in predicted net margin, to increase milk sales by up to 74% across a three-lactation cow lifetime by improving diets based on good quality grass and legume forages. This increment is equal to, or exceeds, in value the total yield from at least one additional lactation per cow lifetime. Furthermore, marginal rates of return (change in milk income over feed costs divided by change in variable costs when alternative practices are used) of 3.3 ± 0.8 indicate clear economic incentives to remove fundamental productivity vulnerabilities due to chronic energy deficits and impeded growth of immature cows under typical management. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the economic outcomes are robust for a variety of market conditions. PMID:22193940

  2. Socioeconomic and productive characterization of dual-purpose farms oriented to milk production in a subtropical region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Avilés-Nova, Francisca; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic, production characteristics and milk production cost of dual-purpose farms (DPF) oriented to milk production in a subtropical region of Central Mexico. The study focused on ten DPF that produce milk all year round, to gather socioeconomic characteristics of farmers (age, family structure, education level), farm resources (land holding, herd structure, infrastructure, management) and economic information during the year 2008. Family labour (FL) covers 66% of labour needs. The average milk production cost was US$0.21, fluctuating from US$0.19 to US$0.31 during the rainy and dry season, respectively. Supplements and hired labour (HL) accounted for 48 and 35% of milk production cost, respectively. Milk production generated daily incomes that covered daily operation costs of farms, as well as the economic needs of the farming family. Calves represented important incomes that ranged between 30 and 50% of total annual farm incomes, cashed in once or twice a year. Milk production provides economic stability to DPF, whereas FL and low input use are key elements that allow low costs in the production of milk and calves in DPF in Central Mexico.

  3. Multi-Purpose Low Voltage Dual Output DC-DC Converter For 100V Power Bus Telecom Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiana, D.; Mollard, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    The decreasing supply voltages of digital electronic and high speed ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) require flexible and high current secondary power distribution system. In the frame of the Inmarsat I-XL program, a 12 kW geomobile SatCom satellite, with 100 V regulated power bus, a multi purpose dual output converter was developed for the payload processor as a building block. After a short introduction on the main performance requirements, the baseline architecture is presented. The main drivers of the architecture are reliability, adjustability, radiation tolerant and single event free, volume and mass. The combination of all these constraints highlights the need of significant breakthrough in various domains. Many research results related to packaging and power electronic topics are brought up. These results directly drive the adopted solution presented in the next step followed by a description of the integration of the defined building block in the Inmarsat I-XL payload IP (Integrated Processor). Finally, the main electrical performances such as output ripple and spikes, load step transient and stability are summarized.

  4. Breeding goals for the Kenya dual purpose goat. I. Model development and application to smallholder production systems.

    PubMed

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2007-10-01

    A deterministic model was developed and applied to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterize smallholder production systems utilizing the Kenya Dual Purpose goat (KDPG) in Kenya. The systems were defined as: smallholder low-potential (SLP), smallholder medium-potential (SMP) and smallholder high-potential (SHP). The model was able to predict revenues and costs to the system. Revenues were from sale of milk, surplus yearlings and cull-forage animals, while costs included those incurred for feeds, husbandry, marketing and fixed asset (fixed costs). Of the total outputs, revenue from meat and milk accounted for about 55% and 45%, respectively, in SMP and 39% and 61% in SHP. Total costs comprised mainly variable costs (98%), with husbandry costs being the highest in both SMP and SLP. The total profit per doe per year was KSh 315.48 in SMP, KSh -1352.75 in SLP and KSh -80.22 in SHP. Results suggest that the utilization of the KDPG goat in Kenya is more profitable in the smallholder medium-potential production system. The implication for the application of the model to smallholder production systems in Kenya is discussed. PMID:17969711

  5. Breeding goals for the Kenya dual purpose goat. I. Model development and application to smallholder production systems.

    PubMed

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2007-10-01

    A deterministic model was developed and applied to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterize smallholder production systems utilizing the Kenya Dual Purpose goat (KDPG) in Kenya. The systems were defined as: smallholder low-potential (SLP), smallholder medium-potential (SMP) and smallholder high-potential (SHP). The model was able to predict revenues and costs to the system. Revenues were from sale of milk, surplus yearlings and cull-forage animals, while costs included those incurred for feeds, husbandry, marketing and fixed asset (fixed costs). Of the total outputs, revenue from meat and milk accounted for about 55% and 45%, respectively, in SMP and 39% and 61% in SHP. Total costs comprised mainly variable costs (98%), with husbandry costs being the highest in both SMP and SLP. The total profit per doe per year was KSh 315.48 in SMP, KSh -1352.75 in SLP and KSh -80.22 in SHP. Results suggest that the utilization of the KDPG goat in Kenya is more profitable in the smallholder medium-potential production system. The implication for the application of the model to smallholder production systems in Kenya is discussed.

  6. A fuzzy-logic based dual-purpose adaptive circuit for vibration control and energy harvesting using piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe Peng; Li, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Due to their two-way electromechanical coupling effect, piezoelectric transducers can be used to synthesize passive vibration control schemes, e.g., RLC circuit with the integration of inductance and resistance elements that is conceptually similar to damped vibration absorber. Meanwhile, the wide usage of wireless sensors has led to the recent enthusiasm of developing piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices that can convert ambient vibratory energy into useful electrical energy. It can be shown that the integration of circuitry elements such as resistance and inductance can benefit the energy harvesting capability. Here we explore a dual-purpose circuit that can facilitate simultaneous vibration suppression and energy harvesting. It is worth noting that the goal of vibration suppression and the goal of energy harvesting may not always complement each other. That is, the maximization of vibration suppression doesn't necessarily lead to the maximization of energy harvesting, and vice versa. In this research, we develop a fuzzy-logic based algorithm to decide the proper selection of circuitry elements to balance between the two goals. As the circuitry elements can be online tuned, this research yields an adaptive circuitry concept for the effective manipulation of system energy and vibration suppression. Comprehensive analyses are carried out to demonstrate the concept and operation.

  7. The Role of Student Outcomes in Dual Purpose Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Model for Meeting Top Down and Bottom Up Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Doris L.; And Others

    A model is presented for including student outcome measures on teacher evaluation systems when there are needs for both formative and summative evaluation data. The experiences of Kentucky and Georgia provided bases for the development of the dual purpose assessment model. Pilot tests in Kentucky and Georgia were specific to the top-down…

  8. 30 CFR 1206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 1206.181 Section 1206.181 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.181...

  9. Timelike Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Horn, Tanja; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel

    2015-04-01

    Deeply Virtual Comtpon Scattering (DVCS) is deemed the simplest and cleanest way to access the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. The DVCS process interferes with the Bethe-Heitler process allowing one to access the DVCS amplitudes. The imaginary part of the Compton amplitude is now relatively well understood, primarily through measurements of DVCS. However, much less is known about the real part of the amplitude. Time-like Compton Scattering (TCS) is the inverse process of DVCS and provides a new and promising way for probing the real part of the amplitude, and so constraining GPDs. Comparing data from Time-like Compton Scattering and the space-like DVCS process will also allow for testing the universality of GPDs. First studies of TCS using real tagged and quasi-real untagged photons were carried out at Jefferson Lab 6 GeV. In this talk, preliminary results on asymmetries and extraction of the real part of the CFF using photoproduction data and a comparison to electroproduction data will be presented. We will also discuss future plans for dilepton production at Jefferson Lab 12 GeV. Supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1306227.

  10. Crystal Compton Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Braverman, Joshua B.; Harrison, Mark J.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Fabris, Lorenzo; Newby, Jason

    2013-09-26

    Stand-off detection is one of the most important radiation detection capabilities for arms control and the control of illicit nuclear materials. For long range passive detection one requires a large detector and a means of “seeing through” the naturally occurring and varying background radiation, i.e. imaging. Arguably, Compton imaging is the best approach over much of the emission band suitable for long range detection. It provides not only imaging, but more information about the direction of incidence of each detected gamma-ray than the alternate approach of coded-aperture imaging. The directional information allows one to reduce the background and hence improve the sensitivity of a measurement. However, to make an efficient Compton imager requires localizing and measuring the simultaneous energy depositions when gamma-rays Compton scatter and are subsequently captured within a single, large detector volume. This concept has been demonstrated in semi-conductor detectors (HPGe, CZT, Si) but at ~ $1k/cm3 these materials are too expensive to build the large systems needed for standoff detection. Scintillator detectors, such as NaI(Tl), are two orders of magnitude less expensive and possess the energy resolution required to make such an imager. However, they do not currently have the ability to localize closely spaced, simultaneous energy depositions in a single large crystal. In this project we are applying a new technique that should, for the first time ever, allow cubic-millimeter event localization in a bulk scintillator crystal.

  11. Effects of energy supplementation on productivity of dual-purpose cows grazing in a silvopastoral system in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Magaña, Juan Carlos; Aguilar-Pérez, Carlos Fernando; Delgado-León, Roger; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos; Herrera-Camacho, Jose

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate milk yield, postpartum (pp) ovarian activity and pregnancy rate in dual-purpose cows grazing Cynodon nlemfuensis and browsing L. leucocephala, with or without energy supplementation. Twenty-four Bos taurus × B. indicus cows were divided in two groups from calving to 70 days post-calving: supplemented group (SG) with ground sorghum grain offered at 0.4% of live weight at calving and control group (CG) without supplement. There was a trend for milk yield (kg day(-1)) to be greater (p = 0.08) for SG (10.55 ± 0.51) compared to CG (9.53 ± 0.61), although without differences in fat (0.42 ± 0.02 vs. 0.38 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)), protein (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 kg day(-1)) or lactose (0.49 ± 0.02 vs. 0.49 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)) concentration. Populations of large, medium and small follicles were similar between treatments. Percentage of cows which showed corpus luteum tended to be greater in SG (50%), compared to CG (33%). Supplemented cows tended to have a shorter calving-first corpus luteum interval (40 ± 10 vs. 51 ± 10 days) and had a significantly higher (χ (2) = 0.03) pregnancy rate (42% vs. 0%). It is concluded that energy supplementation helped to improve ovarian activity and pregnancy rate. Since supplementation did not avoid loss of body condition, the higher pregnancy rate in SG suggests beneficial effects of supplementation probably mediated by metabolic hormones.

  12. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  13. Compton scattering tomography in soil compaction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, F. A.; Cruvinel, P. E.

    2003-06-01

    Compton scattering imaging technique is investigated as a possible tool in soil density distribution mapping for agricultural purposes. In Compton scattering tomography, the number of photons that had been inelastically scattered from a well-defined volume of a sample is employed as a non-destructive technique to display soil density distribution. Images are also shown, of soil samples, at two closely related densities. Good contrast is recorded between the various inserts and their host matrix. Line scans through the images showed good contrast resolution, shape and edge definition. Spatial resolution could be enhanced by the use of a focussing collimator on the detector. This will also serve to increase the solid angle subtended at the detector by the scattering volume, with a possible reduction in counting time at the same precision level.

  14. Compton Polarization with Nustar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta

    In this study we assess the NuSTAR capabilities to detect polarized signals in the Compton regime, through the use of Monte Carlo simulations and comparison with observational data. Both NuSTAR focal plane detectors are equipped with high resolution pixilated CZT arrays, sensitive in the energy range 2.5-80 keV. These units have intrinsic polarization capabilities due to their high quality factor, very low background and scattering angles of ~90°, which is ideal for incident photon energies below 100 keV. However the sensitivity is limited by the very low efficiency of the CZT for Compton interactions and by intrinsic readout systematics, such as charge sharing between pixels. An additional source of degradation is the incompleteness of double events information in the science telemetry. We estimated the Minimum Detectable Polarization of cosmic sources as a function of intensity, and the results obtained were validated through the comparison with the first actual data from the Crab Nebula and Cygnus X-1. We also evaluated the count rate and the background expected for polarization measurements, comparing our estimates with the data measured in flight. Our simulations reproduce well the actual NuSTAR data, showing that the focal plane detectors should be able to detect polarization from highly polarized sources like the Crab and other potential bright sources, dominated by synchrotron and/or SSC emission. The background for polarization measurements was found to be negligible.

  15. Dual-Purpose Bioreactors to Monitor Noninvasive Physical and Biochemical Markers of Kidney and Liver Scaffold Recellularization

    PubMed Central

    Uzarski, Joseph S.; Bijonowski, Brent M.; Wang, Bo; Ward, Heather H.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of perfusion-based bioreactors for organ engineering and a detailed evaluation of physical and biochemical parameters that measure dynamic changes within maturing cell-laden scaffolds are critical components of ex vivo tissue development that remain understudied topics in the tissue and organ engineering literature. Intricately designed bioreactors that house developing tissue are critical to properly recapitulate the in vivo environment, deliver nutrients within perfused media, and monitor physiological parameters of tissue development. Herein, we provide an in-depth description and analysis of two dual-purpose perfusion bioreactors that improve upon current bioreactor designs and enable comparative analyses of ex vivo scaffold recellularization strategies and cell growth performance during long-term maintenance culture of engineered kidney or liver tissues. Both bioreactors are effective at maximizing cell seeding of small-animal organ scaffolds and maintaining cell survival in extended culture. We further demonstrate noninvasive monitoring capabilities for tracking dynamic changes within scaffolds as the native cellular component is removed during decellularization and model human cells are introduced into the scaffold during recellularization and proliferate in maintenance culture. We found that hydrodynamic pressure drop (ΔP) across the retained scaffold vasculature is a noninvasive measurement of scaffold integrity. We further show that ΔP, and thus resistance to fluid flow through the scaffold, decreases with cell loss during decellularization and correspondingly increases to near normal values for whole organs following recellularization of the kidney or liver scaffolds. Perfused media may be further sampled in real time to measure soluble biomarkers (e.g., resazurin, albumin, or kidney injury molecule-1) that indicate degree of cellular metabolic activity, synthetic function, or engraftment into the scaffold. Cell growth within bioreactors is

  16. Breeding goals for the Kenya dual purpose goat. II. Estimation of economic values for production and functional traits.

    PubMed

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K

    2007-10-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, kg; 12-month sale weight, LW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CMP) and functional traits (doe live weight, DoWT, kg; number of kids weaned, NKW; kidding frequency, KF; kidding rate, KR, %; doe weaning rate, DoWR, %; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR, %; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, % and; residual feed intake of yearlings, RFIgamma, kg and does RFId, kg) were estimated for the Kenya Dual Purpose goat (KDPG) for systems under two bases of evaluation. The production systems included smallholder low-potential (SLP), smallholder medium-potential (SMP) and smallholder high-potential (SHP), while the bases of evaluation considered were fixed flock-size and fixed feed resource. Under both bases of evaluation, economic values were highest in SMP apart from the economic values for feed intake-related traits (RFIy and RFId). In SMP, the economic values under fixed flock-size scenario were KSh 71.61 (LW), 20.90 (MY), 45.20 (CMP), 13.68 (NKW), 3.61 (KF), 6.52 (KR), 12.39 (DoWR), 22.96 (DoSR), 22.87 (PoSR), 13.18 (PrSR), -2.76 (RFIy) and -3.00 (RFId). The corresponding economic values under fixed feed resources scenario were KSh 73.28, 29.39, 45.20, 16.91, 4.76, 9.45, 13.84, 25.67, 25.15, 16.19, -2.76 and -3.00. Generally in all production systems, economic values for most traits were higher under fixed feed resource than under fixed flock-size scenario. In all systems, the economic values for most of the traits were sensitive to changes in prices of feed, milk and meat. The positive economic values for most traits under fixed flock-size scenario and fixed feed resource indicates that a unit increase in genetic merit for the traits would have a positive effect on the profitability of the systems.

  17. Dual-Purpose Bioreactors to Monitor Noninvasive Physical and Biochemical Markers of Kidney and Liver Scaffold Recellularization.

    PubMed

    Uzarski, Joseph S; Bijonowski, Brent M; Wang, Bo; Ward, Heather H; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Miller, William M; Wertheim, Jason A

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of perfusion-based bioreactors for organ engineering and a detailed evaluation of physical and biochemical parameters that measure dynamic changes within maturing cell-laden scaffolds are critical components of ex vivo tissue development that remain understudied topics in the tissue and organ engineering literature. Intricately designed bioreactors that house developing tissue are critical to properly recapitulate the in vivo environment, deliver nutrients within perfused media, and monitor physiological parameters of tissue development. Herein, we provide an in-depth description and analysis of two dual-purpose perfusion bioreactors that improve upon current bioreactor designs and enable comparative analyses of ex vivo scaffold recellularization strategies and cell growth performance during long-term maintenance culture of engineered kidney or liver tissues. Both bioreactors are effective at maximizing cell seeding of small-animal organ scaffolds and maintaining cell survival in extended culture. We further demonstrate noninvasive monitoring capabilities for tracking dynamic changes within scaffolds as the native cellular component is removed during decellularization and model human cells are introduced into the scaffold during recellularization and proliferate in maintenance culture. We found that hydrodynamic pressure drop (ΔP) across the retained scaffold vasculature is a noninvasive measurement of scaffold integrity. We further show that ΔP, and thus resistance to fluid flow through the scaffold, decreases with cell loss during decellularization and correspondingly increases to near normal values for whole organs following recellularization of the kidney or liver scaffolds. Perfused media may be further sampled in real time to measure soluble biomarkers (e.g., resazurin, albumin, or kidney injury molecule-1) that indicate degree of cellular metabolic activity, synthetic function, or engraftment into the scaffold. Cell growth within bioreactors is

  18. Compton polarimetry revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, D.

    2015-11-01

    We compute the average polarisation asymmetry from the Klein-Nishina differential cross-section on free electrons at rest. As expected from the expression for the asymmetry, the average asymmetry is found to decrease like the inverse of the incident photon energy asymptotically at high energy. We then compute a simple estimator of the polarisation fraction that makes optimal use of all the kinematic information present in an event final state, by the use of "moments" method, and we compare its statistical power to that of a simple fit of the azimuthal distribution. In contrast to polarimetry with pair creation, for which we obtained an improvement by a factor of larger than two in a previous work, here for Compton scattering the improvement is only of 10-20%.

  19. Bull exposure and an increased within-day milking to suckling interval reduced postpartum anoestrus in dual purpose cows.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, P; García-Winder, M; Gallegos-Sánchez, J

    2002-12-16

    It is hypothesized that the combined effects of suckling and milking in the dual purpose cows is one of the main suppressors of reproductive efficiency in this production system. The experiment described here examined whether managing the interval between milking and suckling could reduce the postpartum anoestrous period and whether the presence of a teaser bull could enhance the effects of these managements. The experiment involved 39 Bos taurus x Bos indicus cows which had an average weight of 523.0 +/- 12.8 kg (mean +/- S.E.M.) and body condition score of 5-7 (scale 1-9) at calving. The cows and calves grazed separate pastures and the cows were supplemented with 2 kg 17% CP concentrates and 1 kg molasses per cow per day. The experiment was conducted over the first 100 days postpartum. Cows were hand-milked once per day in the presence of the calf to stimulate milk release. The factors in the 2 x 2 design were the milking to suckling interval (0 h, control suckling; CS versus 8 h prolonged-delay suckling; PDS) and no exposure versus exposure to a teaser bull (B). Cows were assigned at random within calving date to the four treatments: CS (n = 10), PDS (n = 10), CS-B (n = 9) and PDS-B (n = 10). Cows on treatments CS and CS-B had three-quarters of the udder milked and one-quarter was not milked. The entire udder was milked on those treatments where there was an interval between milking and suckling. The bull was introduced 7 days after calving in treatments where the cows were exposed to a teaser bull. Body weights of cows and calves and cow milk yield were recorded. Weekly blood samples were collected for plasma progesterone assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in a 2 x 2 factorial design and by chi(2)-test. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in cow body weight at calving and at 100 days postpartum, nor in milk yield (overall mean 6.0 +/- 1.1 kg per day). Calf daily gain was 598 +/- 25 g for treatments CS and CS-B in which

  20. Compton scattering by a pion and off-shell effects

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.; Fearing, H.W. )

    1995-01-01

    We consider Compton scattering by a pion in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. We investigate off-shell effects in the [ital s]- and [ital u]-channel pole diagrams. For that purpose we perform a field transformation which, in comparison with the standard Gasser and Leutwyler Lagrangian, generates additional terms at order [ital p][sup 4] proportional to the lowest-order equation of motion. As a result of the equivalence theorem the two Lagrangians predict the same Compton scattering [ital S]-matrix even though they generate different off-shell form factors. We conclude that off-shell effects are not only model dependent but also representation dependent.

  1. Analysis of a village chicken production system and performance of improved dual purpose chickens under a subtropical hill agro-ecosystem in India.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Chhetri, Bijoy; Ahmed, S K; Haunshi, Santosh

    2008-08-01

    This study was designed to analyze the low input backyard poultry production system practiced by the tribal farmers, and evaluate the performance of an improved dual-purpose breed, the Vanaraja. Results revealed that a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of farmers used temporary, non-conventional poultry houses made of locally available materials, such as bamboo and wood. Most of the farmers (65.9 %) did not provide balanced feed to their poultry and did not vaccinate their birds against any disease. Under standard management conditions, the average body weight of Vanaraja birds at 6 weeks was 625 +/- 10.9 g. Under backyard conditions, the body weight at 18 months was 3.6 +/- 0.8 kg. The age at first egg was 154 +/- 9 days in the backyard system, whereas under the intensive system it was 196 +/- 4 days. Annual production under the backyard and intensive systems of rearing was 176 +/- 9 and 152 +/- 7 eggs, respectively. Mortality of adult birds was 12 % and predation by foxes and wild cats accounted for 1.67 %. This study revealed that village chickens are an important income source for household expenses, and that traditional free-range poultry production in the smallholder sector of developing countries can possibly be improved through the use of improved dual-purpose birds.

  2. Improvements to a Compton Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavness, Brandon; Gaskell, Dave; Dalton, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab in Newport News, Virginia, uses a polarized beam of electrons to perform research on the substructure of nuclei and nucleons. Jefferson Lab uses a relatively new Compton polarimeter to continuously measure the polarization of the electron beam delivered by the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator. The Compton polarimeter determines beam polarization by colliding a high-power laser with the electron beam and measuring the scattered photons and electrons. The Compton polarimeter utilizes this asymmetry of Compton scattering rates to measure polarization to (+/-)1% every few hours. For an accurate measurement, the laser polarization and the position of the scattered photon cone must be well known. The focus of this project was to expand the instrumentation to monitor and control the Compton polarimeter with the intent of improving the electron beam polarization measurement. The individual components of the system are all working as intended, but the system as a whole will not be tested until beam operations resume. An improved measurement of the electron beam polarization will reduce the uncertainty of future experiments.

  3. The Compton Effect Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierein, John

    2004-05-01

    In 1923 (Phil Mag. 46, 897.) A. H. Compton noted that the Compton effect produces a red shift for all wavelengths when the scattered electron is free and not bound to an atom or molecule. He suggested that the red shift in the visible spectrum at the limb of the sun is larger than that at the center due to the Compton effect from the greater number of free electrons in the sun's atmosphere along the line of sight. Kierein and Sharp (1968, Solar Physics 3, 450) quantified this and showed a good correlation of red shift observations with the variation in the number of these electrons along the line of sight from center to limb and suggested that the quasar red shift and cosmological red shift could be similarly explained. Grote Reber mapped and measured the background hectometric radiation and found it to be unexpectedly bright. In 1968 (J. Franklin Inst. 285,1), while describing these measurements and maps he explained this brightness as being due to the Compton effect causing the cosmological red shift and accelerating intergalactic electrons. The resulting universe is static. The predicted red shift from the Compton effect deviates from Hubble's law only at large red shifts.

  4. Compton scattering and generalized polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.

    2005-05-06

    In recent years, real and virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon have attracted considerable interest from both the experimental and theoretical sides. Real Compton scattering gives access to the so-called electromagnetic polarizabilities containing the structure information beyond the global properties of the nucleon such as its charge, mass, and magnetic moment. These polarizabilities have an intuitive interpretation in terms of induced dipole moments and thus characterize the response of the constituents of the nucleon to a soft external stimulus. The virtual Compton scattering reaction e- p {yields} e- p{gamma} allows one to map out the local response to external fields and can be described in terms of generalized electromagnetic polarizabilities. A simple classical interpretation in terms of the induced electric and magnetic polarization densities is proposed. We will discuss experimental results for the polarizabilities of the proton and compare them with theoretical predictions.

  5. Timelike Compton Scattering at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Paremuzyan, Rafayel G.

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated, that with exclusive final state, data from electron scattering experiments that are recorded with loose trigger requirements can be used to analyze photoproduction reactions. A preliminary results on Timelike Compton Scattering using the electroproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab are presented. In particular, using final state (pe{sup -}e{sup +}) photoproduction of vector mesons and timelike photon is studied. Angular asymmetries in Timelike Compton Scattering region is compared with model predictions in the framework of Generalized Parton Distribution.

  6. First-Generation Hybrid Compact Compton Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M; Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cork, C; Fabris, L; Gunter, D; Krings, T; Lange, D; Hull, E; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Niedermayr, T; Protic, D; Valentine, J; Vetter, K; Wright, D

    2005-11-07

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are pursuing the development of a gamma-ray imaging system using the Compton effect. We have built our first generation hybrid Compton imaging system, and we have conducted initial calibration and image measurements using this system. In this paper, we present the details of the hybrid Compton imaging system and initial calibration and image measurements.

  7. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  8. The "Temporary Recommendations for Use": A dual-purpose regulatory framework for off-label drug use in France.

    PubMed

    Degrassat-Théas, Albane; Bocquet, François; Sinègre, Martine; Peigné, Jérôme; Paubel, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, following the Mediator(®) (benfluorex) scandal, France displayed the ambitious goal to implement a regulatory framework for controlling off-label drug use: the "Temporary Recommendations for Use" (RTUs). It aims to regulate the use of pharmaceuticals outside the scope of a marketing authorization (MA) by establishing a framework for patient monitoring and data collection. This is intended to ensure that the benefit/risk ratio is favorable for the indication approved by the RTU. The granting of an RTU enables the reimbursement of off-label drug use and encourages pharmaceutical companies to expand their MA. Between 2012 and 2014, the regulator framework for RTUs was amended twice in order to allow the bypassing of an MA for economic reasons, when a licensed alternative drug exists (so far, this is only illustrated by the bevacizumab (Avastin(®))/ranibizumab (Lucentis(®)) case). The primary purpose of the RTU framework is interesting by implementing an original national control for off-label uses that respond to a public health need. The secondary purpose is more controversial as it promotes off-label use. This has raised legal issues and has created a ground for litigation between pharmaceutical firms and health authorities. RTUs provide an interesting example for other countries that are exploring the possibility of regulating off-label drug use. At the same time, the processes surrounding the implementation of RTUs illustrate the difficulties of public policies to balance public health needs, safety and economic goals. PMID:26455642

  9. The Compton polarimeter for SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Fero, M.J.; The SLD Collaboration

    1992-12-01

    We report on the use of a Compton scattering based polarimeter to measure beam polarization near the e{sup +}e{sub -} interaction point at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). Measurement of the beam polarization to a statistical precision of {delta}P/P={plus_minus}3% requires approximately three minutes under normal conditions. An average beam polarization of 22.4{plus_minus}0.7%(syst.) was measured over the course of the 1992 polarized beam run.

  10. The Compton polarimeter for SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Fero, M.J. )

    1992-12-01

    We report on the use of a Compton scattering based polarimeter to measure beam polarization near the e[sup +]e[sub -] interaction point at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). Measurement of the beam polarization to a statistical precision of [delta]P/P=[plus minus]3% requires approximately three minutes under normal conditions. An average beam polarization of 22.4[plus minus]0.7%(syst.) was measured over the course of the 1992 polarized beam run.

  11. SPEIR: A Ge Compton Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K M; Burks, M T; Hull, E L; Craig, W W

    2004-02-11

    The SPEctroscopic Imager for {gamma}-Rays (SPEIR) is a new concept of a compact {gamma}-ray imaging system of high efficiency and spectroscopic resolution with a 4-{pi} field-of-view. The system behind this concept employs double-sided segmented planar Ge detectors accompanied by the use of list-mode photon reconstruction methods to create a sensitive, compact Compton scatter camera.

  12. Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual-purpose cattle populations: The Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Sartori, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first-parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factor scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2), and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows, were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a data set accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F 0010 (ra≥0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F 0005 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations were lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual-purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to

  13. Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual-purpose cattle populations: The Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Sartori, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first-parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factor scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2), and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows, were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a data set accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F 0010 (ra≥0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F 0005 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations were lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual-purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual purpose cattle herds in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Saa, Luis Rodrigo; Perea, Anselmo; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas, Antonio José; Jara, Diego Vinicio; Ramos, Raul; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2012-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds from Ecuador. A total of 2,367 serum samples from 346 herds were collected from June 2008 through February 2009. A questionnaire, which included variables related to cattle, health, management measures, and the environment, was filled out in each herd. A commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was used to determine the seropositivity. A logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors at herd level. The individual seroprevalence for BVDV in non-vaccinated herds in Ecuador was 36.2% (857/2,367; CI(95%), 34.3-38.1%). The herd prevalence was 74% (256/346; CI(95%), 69.4-78.6%) and the intra-herd prevalence ranged between 11.1% and 100% (mean = 51.6%). The logistic regression model showed that the density of cattle farms in the area (more than 70%; OR, 1.94; CI(95%), 1.21-3.2) and the altitude (higher than 2,338 m above sea level; 2.33; CI(95%), 1.4-3.9) are potential risk factors associated with BVDV infection.

  15. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. N.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  16. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  17. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  18. Synchro-Compton emission from superluminal sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    1987-01-01

    The application of synchro-Compton theory to real compact radio sources, the question of a self-Compton origin of the X-rays in radio-loud quasars and active galactic nuclei, and the phenomenology of superluminal motion are discussed in a review of research concerning synchro-Compton emission from superluminal sources. After examining the basic synchro-Compton theory of ideal sources, applications of the theory to real sources is discussed. It is concluded that the Compton problem and total energy requirements are not substantially mitigated by considering source structures more complicated than the multiple, uniform-component model used by most investigators. Also, alternatives to the standard model of superluminal motion are discussed, focusing on the assumptions usually made when interpreting superluminal sources.

  19. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  20. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory being released from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-35 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered the Earth's atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, GRO's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center, kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientist to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of star, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in BATSE's science program.

  1. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  2. Hidden baryons: The physics of Compton composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Frederick J.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of the mass-energy of the Universe appears to be composed of Compton composites. How is it then that these composites are not frequently observed in experiments? This paper addresses this question, and others, by reviewing recent publications that: 1) introduced Compton composites, 2) showed how and where they are formed and 3) explained how they interact with other systems. Though ubiquitous in many physical situations, Compton composites are almost completely hidden in experiments due to their unique interaction characteristics. Still, their presence has been indirectly observed, though not interpreted as such until recently. Looking to the future, direct-detection experiments are proposed that could verify the composites' components. It is with deep sadness that I dedicate this paper to my mentor, collaborator, and friend, Dr. John R. Reitz, who passed away within days of the publication of our paper “Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe”.

  3. Neutron Compton scattering from selectively deuterated acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Fielding, A. L.; Middendorf, H. D.

    With the aim of developing the application of neutron Compton scattering (NCS) to molecular systems of biophysical interest, we are using the Compton spectrometer EVS at ISIS to characterize the momentum distribution of protons in peptide groups. In this contribution we present NCS measurements of the recoil peak (Compton profile) due to the amide proton in otherwise fully deuterated acetanilide (ACN), a widely studied model system for H-bonding and energy transfer in biomolecules. We obtain values for the average width of the potential well of the amide proton and its mean kinetic energy. Deviations from the Gaussian form of the Compton profile, analyzed on the basis of an expansion due to Sears, provide data relating to the Laplacian of the proton potential.

  4. RELATIVISTIC ACCRETION MEDIATED BY TURBULENT COMPTONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle E-mail: socrates@astro.princeton.ed

    2010-08-10

    Black hole and neutron star accretion flows display unusually high levels of hard coronal emission in comparison to all other optically thick, gravitationally bound, turbulent astrophysical systems. Since these flows sit in deep relativistic gravitational potentials, their random bulk motions approach the speed of light, therefore allowing turbulent Comptonization to be an important effect. We show that the inevitable production of hard X-ray photons results from turbulent Comptonization in the limit where the turbulence is trans-sonic and the accretion power approaches the Eddington limit. In this regime, the turbulent Compton y-parameter approaches unity and the turbulent Compton temperature is a significant fraction of the electron rest mass energy, in agreement with the observed phenomena.

  5. Development of a conditioning system for the dual-purpose transport and storage cask for spent nuclear fuel from decommissioned Russian submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Guskov, V.; Makarchuk, T.

    2007-07-01

    Russia, stores large quantities of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from submarine and ice-breaker nuclear powered naval vessels. This high-level radioactive material presents a significant threat to the Arctic and marine environments. Much of the SNF from decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines is stored either onboard the submarines or in floating storage vessels in Northwest and Far East Russia. Some of the SNF is damaged, stored in an unstable condition, or of a type that cannot currently be reprocessed. In many cases, the existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing all of this fuel from remote locations. Additional transport and storage options are required. Some of the existing storage facilities being used in Russia do not meet health and safety and physical security requirements. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a new dual-purpose metal-concrete transport and storage cask (TUK-108/1) for their military SNF and assisted them in building several new facilities for off-loading submarine SNF and storing these TUK-108/1 casks. These efforts have reduced the technical, ecological, and security challenges for removal, handling, interim storage, and shipment of this submarine fuel. Currently, Russian licensing limits the storage period of the TUK-108/1 casks to no more than two years before the fuel must be shipped for reprocessing. In order to extend this licensed storage period, a system is required to condition the casks by removing residual water and creating an inert storage environment by backfilling the internal canisters with a noble gas such as argon. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a mobile cask conditioning system for the TUK-108/1 cask. This new conditioning system allows the TUK 108/1 casks to be stored for up to five years after which the license may be considered for renewal for an additional five years or the fuel will be shipped to

  6. Inverse compton effect: some consequences for quasars.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, J; Grewing, M

    1966-12-16

    The inverse Compton effect can transform enough energy of relativistic electrons into radiation so that an upper limit to the mean energy of the electrons is set. In quasars, the limit is too small to allow the production of any appreciable amount of synchrotron or inverse Compton radiation, unless either the distances are not cosmological or the lifetimes of the relativistic electrons are extremely short, of the order of hours.

  7. Compton scattering with low intensity radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, Carroll

    2012-03-01

    Compton scattering experiments with gamma rays typically require a ``hot'' source (˜5mCi of Cs137) to observe the scattering as a function of angle. (See Ortec AN34 Experiment #10 Compton Scattering) Here a way is described to investigate Compton scattering with micro Curie level radioactive sources that are more commonly available in the undergraduate laboratory. A vertical-looking 2 inch coaxial hpGe detector, collimated with a 2 inch thick lead shield, was used. Cylindrical Al targets of various thicknesses were placed over the collimator and several available sources were placed around the target so that the average Compton scattering angle into the collimator was 90 deg. A peak could be observed at the expected energy for 90 deg. Compton scattering by doing 24 hour target-in minus target-out runs. The peak was broadened by the spread in the scattering angle due to the variation in the angle of the incoming gamma ray and the angular acceptance of the collimator. A rough analysis can be done by modeling the angular spread due to the geometry and correcting for the gamma ray absorption from the target center. Various target materials and sources can be used and some variation in average Compton scattering angle can be obtained by adjusting the geometry of the source and target.

  8. A software package for Stellar and solar Inverse Compton emission: StellarICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Elena; Strong, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We present our software to compute gamma-ray emission from inverse-Compton scattering by cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere, as well as in the photospheres of stars. It includes a formulation of modulation in the heliosphere, but can be used for any user-defined modulation model. Profiles and spectra are output to FITS files in a variety of forms for convenient use. Also included are general-purpose inverse-Compton routines with other features like energy loss rates and emissivity for any user-defined target photon and lepton spectra. The software is publicly available and it is under continuing development.

  9. A Compton camera for spectroscopic imaging from 100 keV to 1 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Earnhart, J.R.D.

    1998-12-31

    A review of spectroscopic imaging issues, applications, and technology is presented. Compton cameras based on solid state semiconductor detectors stands out as the best system for the nondestructive assay of special nuclear materials. A camera for this application has been designed based on an efficient specific purpose Monte Carlo code developed for this project. Preliminary experiments have been performed which demonstrate the validity of the Compton camera concept and the accuracy of the code. Based on these results, a portable prototype system is in development. Proposed future work is addressed.

  10. Technical Note: Influence of Compton currents on profile measurements in small-volume ion chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Tanny, Sean; Sperling, Nicholas; Parsai, E. Ishmael; Holmes, Shannon

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This work is to evaluate the effects of Compton current generation in three small-volume ionization chambers on measured beam characteristics for electron fields. Methods: Beam scans were performed using Exradin A16, A26, and PTW 31014 microchambers. Scans with varying chamber components shielded were performed. Static point measurements, output factors, and cable only irradiations were performed to determine the contribution of Compton currents to various components of the chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate why one microchamber showed a significant reduction in Compton current generation. Results: Beam profiles demonstrated significant distortion for two of the three chambers when scanned parallel to the chamber axis, produced by electron deposition within the wire. Measurements of ionization produced within the cable identified Compton current generation as the cause of these distortions. The size of the central collecting wire was found to have the greatest influence on the magnitude of Compton current generation. Conclusions: Microchambers can demonstrate significant (>5%) deviations from properties as measured with larger volume chambers (0.125 cm{sup 3} and above). These deviations can be substantially reduced by averaging measurements conducted at opposite polarities.

  11. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and continue to be made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments and the observing programs for the first three years of the mission. During Phases 2 and 3 of the mission a Guest Investigator program has been in progress with the Guest Observers' time share increasing from 30% to over 50% for the later mission phases.

  12. A Compton scatter attenuation gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A Compton scatter attenuation gamma ray spectrometer conceptual design is discussed for performing gamma spectral measurements in monodirectional gamma fields from 100 R per hour to 1,000,000 R per hour. Selectable Compton targets are used to scatter gamma photons onto an otherwise heavily shielded detector with changeable scattering efficiencies such that the count rate is maintained between 500 and 10,000 per second. Use of two sum-Compton coincident detectors, one for energies up to 1.5 MeV and the other for 600 keV to 10 MeV, will allow good peak to tail pulse height ratios to be obtained over the entire spectrum and reduces the neutron recoil background rate.

  13. FRONT-END ASIC FOR A SILICON COMPTON TELESCOPE.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; FRIED, J.; FROST, E.; PHLIPS, B.; VERNON, E.; WULF, E.A.

    2007-10-27

    We describe a front-end application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed for a silicon Compton telescope. Composed of 32 channels, it reads out signals in both polarities from each side of a Silicon strip sensor, 2 mm thick 27 cm long, characterized by a strip capacitance of 30 pF. Each front-end channel provides low-noise charge amplification, shaping with a stabilized baseline, discrimination, and peak detection with an analog memory. The channels can process events simultaneously, and the read out is sparsified. The charge amplifier makes uses a dual-cascode configuration and dual-polarity adaptive reset, The low-hysteresis discriminator and the multi-phase peak detector process signals with a dynamic range in excess of four hundred. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) below 200 electrons was measured at 30 pF, with a slope of about 4.5 electrons/pF at a peaking time of 4 {micro}s. With a total dissipated power of 5 mW the channel covers an energy range up to 3.2 MeV.

  14. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a final report for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program from 06/01/91-07/31/97. The topics include: 1) Solar Flare Neutron Spectra and Accelerated Ions; 2) Gamma Ray Lines From The Orion Complex; 3) Implications of Nuclear Line Emission From The Orion Complex; 4) Possible Sites of Nuclear Line Emission From Massive OB Associations; 5) Gamma-Ray Burst Repitition and BATSE Position Uncertainties; 6) Effects of Compton Scattering on BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra; and 7) Selection Biases on the Spectral and Temporal Distribution of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  15. Timelike Compton Scattering - A First Look (CLAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel Nadel-Turonski

    2009-12-01

    A major goal of the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab is to map out the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) in the valence region. This is primarily done through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), which provides the simplest and cleanest way of accessing the GPDs. However, the “inverse” process, Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS), can provide an important complement, in particular formeasuring the real part of the amplitude and understanding corrections at finite Q2. The first measurements of TCS have recently been carried out in Hall B at Jefferson Lab, using both tagged and untagged photon beams.

  16. The Compton effect: Transition to quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuewer, R. H.

    2000-11-01

    The discovery of the Compton effect at the end of 1922 was a decisive event in the transition to the new quantum mechanics of 1925-1926 because it stimulated physicists to examine anew the fundamental problem of the interaction between radiation and matter. I first discuss Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and why physicists greeted it with extreme skepticism, despite Robert A. Millikan's confirmation of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. I then follow in some detail the experimental and theoretical research program that Arthur Holly Compton pursued between 1916 and 1922 at the University of Minnesota, the Westinghouse Lamp Company, the Cavendish Laboratory, and Washington University that culminated in his discovery of the Compton effect. Surprisingly, Compton was not influenced directly by Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis, in contrast to Peter Debye and H.A. Kramers, who discovered the quantum theory of scattering independently. I close by discussing the most significant response to that discovery, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory of 1924, its experimental refutation, and its influence on the emerging new quantum mechanics.

  17. Investigating the Compton Effect with a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinderman, Jesusa Valdez

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation of the Compton effect designed to lead students to discover (1) the relationship of the electron's final kinetic energy to its angle of scattering and (2) the relationship between the scattering angles of the outgoing electron and photon. (MDH)

  18. Compton Scattering Sources and Applications at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Felicie; Anderson, S. G.; Anderson, G.; Bayramian, A.; Betts, S. M.; Cross, R. R.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M.; Shverdin, M. Y.; Wu, S. S.; Hartemann, F. V.; Scarpetti, R.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2010-11-01

    We report the design and current status of a monoenergetic laser-based Compton scattering 0.5-2.5 MeV γ-ray source. Previous nuclear resonance fluorescence results and future linac and laser developments for the source are presented.

  19. Compton coincidence volumetric imaging: a new x-ray volumetric imaging modality based on Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaochao

    2014-03-01

    Compton scattering is a dominant interaction during radiography and computed tomography x-ray imaging. However, the scattered photons are not used for extracting imaging information, but seriously degrade image quality. Here we introduce a new scheme that overcomes most of the problems associated with existing Compton scattering imaging schemes and allows Compton scattered photons to be effectively used for imaging. In our scheme, referred as Compton coincidence volumetric imaging (CCVI), a collimated monoenergetic x-ray beam is directed onto a thin semiconductor detector. A small portion of the photons is Compton scattered by the detector and their energy loss is detected. Some of the scattered photons intersect the imaging object, where they are Compton scattered a second time. The finally scattered photons are recorded by an areal energy resolving detector panel around the object. The two detectors work in coincidence mode. CCVI images the spatial electron density distribution in the imaging object. Similar to PET imaging, the event location can be located within a curve; therefore the imaging reconstruction algorithms are also similar to those of PET. Two statistical iterative imaging reconstruction algorithms are tested. Our study verifies the feasibility of CCVI in imaging acquisition and reconstruction. Various aspects of CCVI are discussed. If successfully implemented, it will offer a great potential for imaging dose reduction compared with x-ray CT. Furthermore, a CCVI modality will have no moving parts, which potentially offers cost reduction and faster imaging speed.

  20. A Diamond Micro-strip Electron Detector for Compton Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Amrendra

    2012-03-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab aims to measure the weak charge of the proton with a precision of 4.1% by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in polarized electron-proton elastic scattering. Beam polarimetry is the largest experimental contribution to the error budget. A new Compton polarimeter was installed in Fall 2010 for a non-invasive and continuous monitoring of the electron beam polarization in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The Compton-scattered electrons are detected in four planes of diamond micro-strip detectors. This is the first use of diamond micro-strip detectors as a tracking device in a physics experiment. These detectors are read out using custom built electronic modules that include a pre-amplifier, a pulse shaping amplifier and a discriminator for each detector micro-strip. We use Field Programmable Gate Array based general purpose logic modules for event selection and histogramming. This polarimeter is being used for online monitoring of beam polarization in the experiment. We have achieved the design goals of 1% statistical uncertainity per hour and expect to achieve 1% systematic uncertainity. We will discuss the details of our polarimetry setup, the analysis approach and the preliminary results.

  1. Compton imaging with AGATA and SmartPET for DESPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, S.; Arnés, B. Q.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Davinson, T.; Gadea, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Judson, D. S.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Page, R. D.; Prieto, A. H.; Simpson, J.

    2011-12-01

    DESPEC (DEcay SPECtroscopy) is a spectrometer, currently under construction, which is to be used at the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) facility at GSI Darmstadt, Germany, as part of the NuSTAR (Nuclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions) project. Its goal is to analyse the decay of exotic nuclei produced via the Super-FRS (SUPERconducting FRagment Separator). The optimal configuration of certain elements of the spectrometer, namely a HPGe (High Purity Germanium) tracking array, is still under consideration. Work currently being carried out at the University of Liverpool using a segmented, coaxial HPGe detector (AGATA B009) and a pixelated, planar HPGe detector (SmartPET 1) in a Compton camera configuration aims to inform this process by providing insight into the potential performance of such a configuration. This will determine its suitability for the intended purpose, i.e. Compton reconstruction of gamma rays emitted from exotic nuclei implanted into the DESPEC implantation detector, AIDA (Advanced Implantation Detector Array). Preliminary results from this investigation, along with plans for the future direction of this work, are presented.

  2. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process.

  3. Simulation for CZT Compton PET (Maximization of the efficiency for PET using Compton event)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Changyeon; Lee, Wonho; Lee, Taewoong

    2011-10-01

    Multiple interactions in positron emission tomography (PET) using scintillators are generally treated as noise events because each interacted position and energy of the multiple interactions cannot be obtained individually and the sequence of multiple scattering is not fully known. Therefore, the first interaction position, which is the crucial information for a PET image reconstruction, cannot be determined correctly. However, in the case of a pixelized semiconductor detector, such as CdZnTe, each specific position and energy information of multiple interactions can be obtained. Moreover, for the emission of two 511 keV radiations in PET, if one radiation deposits all the energy in one position (photoelectric effect) and the other radiation undergoes Compton scattering followed by the photoelectric effect, the sequence of Compton scattering followed by the photoelectric effect can be determined using the Compton scattering formula. Hence, the correct position of Compton scattering can be determined, and the Compton scattering effect, which is discarded in conventional PET systems can be recovered in the new system reported in this study. The PET system in this study, which was simulated using GATE 5.0 code, was composed of 20 mm×10 mm×10 mm CdZnTe detectors consisting of 1 mm×0.5 mm×2.5 mm pixels. The angular uncertainties caused by Doppler broadening, pixelization effect and energy broadening were estimated and compared. The pixelized effect was the main factor in increasing the angular uncertainty and was strongly dependent on the distance between the 1st and 2nd interaction positions. The effect of energy broadening to an angular resolution less than expected and that of Doppler broadening was minimal. The number of Compton events was double that of the photoelectric effect assuming full energy absorption. Therefore, the detection efficiency of this new PET system can be improved greatly because both the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering are

  4. The tracks of the Compton effect.

    PubMed

    del Regato, J A

    1981-01-01

    The observation of scattered radiations of larger wavelength than the primary had been repeatedly rejected or explained away by many researchers, including Compton. After years of vacillations, he recognized the effect named after him and was the first to develop a quantal equation predicting the wavelength of scattered radiation. It became one of the most significant contributions to modern radiation physics, opening the doors of quantum mechanics.

  5. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Oldaker, Mark E.

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  6. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    F.X. Girod

    2007-12-17

    The beam spin asymmetries of the reaction ep -> epg in the Bjorken regime were measured over a wide kinematical domain using the CLAS detector and a new lead-tungstate calorimeter. Through the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process with Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering, those asymmetries provide constraints for the nucleon Generalized Parton Distributions models. The observed shapes are in agreement with twist-2 dominance predictions.

  7. Compton imager using room temperature silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfess, James D.; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2007-08-01

    We have been developing a multi-layer Compton Gamma Ray Imager using position-sensitive, intrinsic silicon detectors. Advantages of this approach include room temperature operation, reduced Doppler broadening, and use of conventional silicon fabrication technologies. We have obtained results on the imaging performance of a multi-layer instrument where each layer consists of a 2×2 array of double-sided strip detectors. Each detector is 63 mm×63 mm×2 mm thick and has 64 strips providing a strip pitch of approximately 0.9 mm. The detectors were fabricated by SINTEF ICT (Oslo Norway) from 100 mm diameter wafers. The use of large arrays of silicon detectors appears especially advantageous for applications that require excellent sensitivity, spectral resolution and imaging such as gamma ray astrophysics, detection of special nuclear materials, and medical imaging. The multiple Compton interactions (three or more) in the low-Z silicon enable the energy and direction of the incident gamma ray to be determined without full deposition of the incident gamma-ray energy in the detector. The performance of large volume instruments for various applications are presented, including an instrument under consideration for NASA's Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) mission and applications to Homeland Security. Technology developments that could further extend the sensitivity and performance of silicon Compton Imagers are presented, including the use of low-energy (few hundred keV) electron tracking within novel silicon detectors and the potential for a wafer-bonding approach to produce thicker, position-sensitive silicon detectors with an associated reduction of required electronics and instrument cost.

  8. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. We discuss these effects, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  9. Resonant Compton Physics for Magnetar Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ickes, Jesse; Gonthier, Peter L.; Eiles, Matthew; Baring, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Various telescopes including RXTE, INTEGRAL, Suzaku, and Fermi have detected steady non-thermal X-ray emission in the 10 - 200 keV band from strongly magnetic neutron stars known as magnetars. Magnetic inverse Compton scattering is believed to be the leading candidate for the production of this intense X-ray radiation. Scattering at ultra-relativistic energies leads to attractive simplifications in the analytics of the magnetic Compton cross section. We have recently addressed such a case by developing compact analytic expressions using correct spin-dependent widths acquired through the implementation of Sokolov & Ternov basis states, focusing specifically on ground-state-ground-state scattering. Compton scattering in magnetar magnetospheres can cool electrons down to mildly relativistic energies. Moreover, soft gamma-ray flaring in magnetars may involve strong Comptonization in expanding clouds of mildly relativistic pairs. Such environs necessitate the development of more general magnetic scattering cross sections, in which the incoming photons acquire substantial incident angles relative to the field in the rest frame of the electron leading to arbitrary Landau excitations of the intermediate and final states. Due to the rapid transitions of the excited-state to the ground-state, the initial electron is still assumed to be in the ground state. The cross sections treat the plethora of harmonic resonances associated with various cyclotron transitions between Landau states. Polarization and spin dependence of the cross section for the four scattering modes is compared to the cross section obtained with spin-averaged widths. We present numerical results to show the comparisons to highlight the role of the spin-dependent widths of the resonances. The findings presented here will have applications to various neutron star problems, including computation of Eddington luminosities and polarization mode-switching rates in transient magnetar fireballs.

  10. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Voutier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is the golden exclusive channel for the study of the partonic structure of hadrons, within the universal framework of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This paper presents the aim and general ideas of the DVCS experimental program off nuclei at the Jefferson Laboratory. The benefits of the study of the coherent and incoherent channels to the understanding of the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) effect are discussed, along with the case of nuclear targets to access neutron GPDs.

  11. Compton scattering gamma-ray source optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, Frederic; Wu, Sheldon; Albert, Félicie; Barty, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of a bright relativistic electron beam with an intense laser pulse via Compton scattering can generate tunable gamma-rays for precision nuclear photonics applications. The properties of the gamma-ray phase space will be outlined, in relation with the 6D electron bunch and 6D laser pulse phase space, along with collimation, nonlinear effects and other sources of spectral broadening. Optimization strategies will be outlines within the context of nuclear photonics applications.

  12. Helium Compton Form Factor Measurements at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Voutier, Eric J.-M.

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of the parton content of nuclei, as encoded via the generalized parton distributions (GPDs), can be accessed via the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process contributing to the cross section for leptoproduction of real photons. Similarly to the scattering of light by a material, DVCS provides information about the dynamics and the spatial structure of hadrons. The sensitivity of this process to the lepton beam polarization allows to single-out the DVCS amplitude in terms of Compton form factors that contain GPDs information. The beam spin asymmetry of the $^4$He($\\vec {\\mathrm e}$,e$' \\gamma ^4$He) process was measured in the experimental Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory to extract the real and imaginary parts of the twist-2 Compton form factor of the $^4$He nucleus. The experimental results reported here demonstrate the relevance of this method for such a goal, and suggest the dominance of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude to the unpolarized process in the kinematic range explored by the experiment.

  13. Ground calibrations of Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Liu, Zhong-Kai; Bandstra, Mark S.; Bellm, Eric C.; Liang, Jau-Shian; Perez-Becker, Daniel; Zoglauer, Andreas; Boggs, Steven E.; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Huang, Minghuey A.; Amman, Mark; Chiang, Shiuan-Juang; Hung, Wei-Che; Lin, Chih-Hsun; Luke, Paul N.; Run, Ray-Shine; Wunderer, Cornelia B.

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear line emission and polarization. The heart of NCT is an array of 12 cross-strip germanium detectors, designed to provide 3D positions for each photon interaction with full 3D position resolution to < 2 mm^3. Tracking individual interactions enables Compton imaging, effectively reduces background, and enables the measurement of polarization. The keys to Compton imaging with NCT's detectors are determining the energy deposited in the detector at each strip and tracking the gamma-ray photon interaction within the detector. The 3D positions are provided by the orthogonal X and Y strips, and by determining the interaction depth using the charge collection time difference (CTD) between the anode and cathode. Calibrations of the energy as well as the 3D position of interactions have been completed, and extensive calibration campaigns for the whole system were also conducted using radioactive sources prior to our flights from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico, USA in Spring 2009, and from Alice Springs, Australia in Spring 2010. Here we will present the techniques and results of our ground calibrations so far, and then compare the calibration results of the effective area throughout NCT's field of view with Monte Carlo simulations using a detailed mass model.

  14. Induced Compton-scattering effects in radiation-transport approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.R. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions.

  15. 90° Compton and Rayleigh measurements and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesareo, R.; Balogun, F.; Brunetti, A.; Cappio Borlino, C.

    2001-06-01

    A simple apparatus for measurement and imaging of objects using scattered X-rays was designed and constructed. This is composed of a well-collimated photon beam from an X-ray tube, a CZT thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detector and an ( x, y, ϑ) translation-rotation table containing the object to be studied. First, the output beam was monochromatized; studies on Compton and Rayleigh scattered radiation were then carried out, including the Compton profile. Then direct bremsstrahlung radiation of proper energy was employed, and energy intervals are selected where Rayleigh or Compton effects largely prevail. Compton images were finally obtained.

  16. A novel pressed porous silicon-polycaprolactone composite as a dual-purpose implant for the delivery of cells and drugs to the eye.

    PubMed

    Irani, Yazad D; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Mengjia; Klebe, Sonja; McInnes, Steven J; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Coffer, Jeffery L; Williams, Keryn A

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of corneal epithelial stem cells can result in painful and blinding disease of the ocular surface. In such cases, treatment may involve transfer of growth factor and normal adult stem cells to the ocular surface. Our purpose was to develop an implantable scaffold for the delivery of drugs and cells to the ocular surface. We examined the potential of novel composite biomaterials fabricated from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibres into which nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) microparticles of varying sizes (150-250 μm or <40 μm) had been pressed. The PCL fabric provided a flexible support for mammalian cells, whereas the embedded pSi provided a substantial surface area for efficient delivery of adsorbed drugs and growth factors. Measurements of tensile strength of these composites revealed that the pSi did not strongly influence the mechanical properties of the polymer microfiber component for the Si loadings evaluated. Human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) attached to the composite materials, and exhibited enhanced attachment and growth when the materials were coated with foetal bovine serum. To examine the ability of the materials to deliver a small-drug payload, pSi microparticles were loaded with fluorescein diacetate prior to cell attachment. After 6 hours (h), cells exhibited intracellular fluorescence, indicative of transfer of the fluorescein diacetate into viable cells and its subsequent enzymatic conversion to fluorescein. To investigate loading of large-molecule biologics, murine BALB/c 3T3 cells, responsive to epidermal growth factor, insulin and transferrin, were seeded on composite materials. The cells showed significantly more proliferation at 48 h when seeded on composites loaded with these biologics, than on unloaded composites. No cell proliferation was observed on PCL alone, indicating the biologics had loaded into the pSi microparticles. Drug release, measured by ELISA for insulin, indicated a burst followed by a slower

  17. A novel pressed porous silicon-polycaprolactone composite as a dual-purpose implant for the delivery of cells and drugs to the eye.

    PubMed

    Irani, Yazad D; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Mengjia; Klebe, Sonja; McInnes, Steven J; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Coffer, Jeffery L; Williams, Keryn A

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of corneal epithelial stem cells can result in painful and blinding disease of the ocular surface. In such cases, treatment may involve transfer of growth factor and normal adult stem cells to the ocular surface. Our purpose was to develop an implantable scaffold for the delivery of drugs and cells to the ocular surface. We examined the potential of novel composite biomaterials fabricated from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibres into which nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) microparticles of varying sizes (150-250 μm or <40 μm) had been pressed. The PCL fabric provided a flexible support for mammalian cells, whereas the embedded pSi provided a substantial surface area for efficient delivery of adsorbed drugs and growth factors. Measurements of tensile strength of these composites revealed that the pSi did not strongly influence the mechanical properties of the polymer microfiber component for the Si loadings evaluated. Human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) attached to the composite materials, and exhibited enhanced attachment and growth when the materials were coated with foetal bovine serum. To examine the ability of the materials to deliver a small-drug payload, pSi microparticles were loaded with fluorescein diacetate prior to cell attachment. After 6 hours (h), cells exhibited intracellular fluorescence, indicative of transfer of the fluorescein diacetate into viable cells and its subsequent enzymatic conversion to fluorescein. To investigate loading of large-molecule biologics, murine BALB/c 3T3 cells, responsive to epidermal growth factor, insulin and transferrin, were seeded on composite materials. The cells showed significantly more proliferation at 48 h when seeded on composites loaded with these biologics, than on unloaded composites. No cell proliferation was observed on PCL alone, indicating the biologics had loaded into the pSi microparticles. Drug release, measured by ELISA for insulin, indicated a burst followed by a slower

  18. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    M. Mazouz; A. Camsonne; C. Munoz Camacho; C. Ferdi; G. Gavalian; E. Kuchina; M. Amarian; K. A. Aniol; M. Beaumel; H. Benaoum; P. Bertin; M. Brossard; J.-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; R. Feuerbach; J.-M. Fieschi; S. Frullani; M. Garcon; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; J. Gomez; P. Gueye; P.A.M. Guichon; B. Guillon; O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; R. Igarashi; X. Jiang; H.S. Jo; L.J. Kaufman; A. Kelleher; A. Kolarkar; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J.J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; H.-J. Lu; D.J. Margaziotis; Z.-E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R. Michaels; B. Michel; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; M. Potokar; Y. Qiang; R.D. Ransome; J.-S. Real; B. Reitz; Y. Roblin; J. Roche; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; V. Sulkosky; P.E. Ulmer; E. Voutier; K. Wang; L.B. Weinstein; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-12-01

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  19. Study of Compton vs. Photoelectric Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J B; Johnson, S C; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-07-09

    We have studied how often incoming photons interact via a Compton interaction and/or a photoelectric interaction as a function of energy and detector material Results are using a 1m{sup 3} detector, and discrete energy photons from 0.1 MeV up to 10 MeV. Essentially all of the lower energy photons interact at least once in a detector of this size. This is not the case at higher energies. Each detector, photon energy combination was simulated with 2000 photons.

  20. Compton scattering in ignited thermonuclear plasmas.

    PubMed

    Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2008-03-28

    Inertially confined, ignited thermonuclear D-T plasmas will produce intense blackbody radiation at temperatures T greater, similar20 keV; it is shown that the injection of GeV electrons into the burning core can efficiently generate high-energy Compton scattering photons. Moreover, the spectrum scattered in a small solid angle can be remarkably monochromatic, due to kinematic pileup; a peak brightness in excess of 10;{30} photons/(mm(2) mrad(2) s 0.1% bandwidth) is predicted. These results are discussed within the context of the Schwinger field and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.

  1. Biophysical applications of neutron Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Albergamo, F.; Hayward, R. L.; Middendorf, H. D.

    Neutron Compton scattering (NCS) can be applied to measuring nuclear momentum distributions and potential parameters in molecules of biophysical interest. We discuss the analysis of NCS spectra from peptide models, focusing on the characterisation of the amide proton dynamics in terms of the width of the H-bond potential well, its Laplacian, and the mean kinetic energy of the proton. The Sears expansion is used to quantify deviations from the high-Q limit (impulse approximation), and line-shape asymmetry parameters are evaluated in terms of Hermite polynomials. Results on NCS from selectively deuterated acetanilide are used to illustrate this approach.

  2. Experimental confirmation of neoclassical Compton scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aristov, V. V.; Yakunin, S. N.; Despotuli, A. A.

    2013-12-15

    Incoherent X-ray scattering spectra of diamond and silicon crystals recorded on the BESSY-2 electron storage ring have been analyzed. All spectral features are described well in terms of the neoclassical scattering theory without consideration for the hypotheses accepted in quantum electrodynamics. It is noted that the accepted tabular data on the intensity ratio between the Compton and Rayleigh spectral components may significantly differ from the experimental values. It is concluded that the development of the general theory (considering coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, and Bragg diffraction) must be continued.

  3. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the Neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Mazouz, M.; Guillon, B.; Real, J.-S.; Voutier, E.

    2007-12-14

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D(e-vector,e{sup '}{gamma})X cross section measured at Q{sup 2}=1.9 GeV{sup 2} and x{sub B}=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to E{sub q}, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  4. The development of a Compton lung densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Madden, N.W.; Simon, D.S.

    1988-11-01

    A field instrument is being developed for the non-invasive determination of absolute lung density using unique Compton backscattering techniques. A system consisting of a monoenergetic gamma-ray beam and a shielded high resolution high-purity-germanium (HPGe) detector in a close-coupled geometry is designed to minimize errors due to multiple scattering and uncontrollable attenuation in the chestwall. Results of studies on system performance with phantoms, the optimization of detectors, and the fabrication of a practical gamma-ray source are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Design and experimental testing of air slab caps which convert commercial electron diodes into dual purpose, correction-free diodes for small field dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, P. H.; Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Thwaites, D. I.; Kairn, T.; Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.; Pedrazzini, G.; Aland, T.; Kenny, J.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Two diodes which do not require correction factors for small field relative output measurements are designed and validated using experimental methodology. This was achieved by adding an air layer above the active volume of the diode detectors, which canceled out the increase in response of the diodes in small fields relative to standard field sizes. Methods: Due to the increased density of silicon and other components within a diode, additional electrons are created. In very small fields, a very small air gap acts as an effective filter of electrons with a high angle of incidence. The aim was to design a diode that balanced these perturbations to give a response similar to a water-only geometry. Three thicknesses of air were placed at the proximal end of a PTW 60017 electron diode (PTWe) using an adjustable “air cap”. A set of output ratios (OR{sub Det}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}}) for square field sizes of side length down to 5 mm was measured using each air thickness and compared to OR{sub Det}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}} measured using an IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD). k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was transferred from the SFD to the PTWe diode and plotted as a function of air gap thickness for each field size. This enabled the optimal air gap thickness to be obtained by observing which thickness of air was required such that k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was equal to 1.00 at all field sizes. A similar procedure was used to find the optimal air thickness required to make a modified Sun Nuclear EDGE detector (EDGEe) which is “correction-free” in small field relative dosimetry. In addition, the feasibility of experimentally transferring k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r

  6. Compton scattering from a pion: Off-shell effects and the equivalence theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.; Fearing, H.W.

    1995-05-10

    We consider Compton scattering from a pion in the framework of chiral perturbation theory ({chi}{ital PT}). We investigate off-shell effects in the s- and u-channel pole diagrams. For that purpose we perform a field transformation which, in comparison with the standard Gasser and Leutwyler lagrangian, generates additional terms at order {ital p}{sup 4} proportional to the lowest-order equation of motion. We demonstrate that the two lagrangians which generate different off-shell form factors predict the same Compton scattering S-matrix. This result is interpreted as an application of a generalized equivalence theorem. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  8. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, Sylvester; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The European Muon Collaboration (EMC) observed the first signs of a modification of the partonic structure of the nucleon when present in a nuclear medium. The precise nature of these effects, as well as their underlying cause, is yet to be determined. The generalized parton distribution (GPD) framework provides a powerful tool to study the partonic structure of nucleons inside a nucleus. Hard exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon off a nucleon, deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS), is presently considered the cleanest experimental access to the GPDs, through the Compton form factors (CFFs). This is especially the case for scattering off the spin-zero helium nucleus, where only a single CFF contributes to the process. The real and imaginary parts of this CFF can be constrained through the beam-spin asymmetry (BSA). We will present the first measurements of the DVCS process off 4He using the CEBAF 6 GeV polarized electron beam and the CLAS detector at JLab. The CLAS detector was supplemented with an inner electromagnetic calorimeter for photons produced at small angles, as well as a radial time projection chamber (RTPC) to detect low-energy recoil nuclei. This setup allowed for a clean measurement of the BSA in both the coherent and incoherent channels.

  9. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  10. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  11. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  12. A correction method for dual energy liquid CT image reconstruction with metallic containers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhiqiang; Li, Liang

    2012-01-01

    With its capability of material discrimination, dual energy computed tomography (DECT) is widely used in security inspection for the purpose of detecting contraband. DECT provides effective atomic number image and electron density image in addition to traditional attenuation images. In dual energy liquid inspection system, the presence of metallic containers will cause partial volume effect (PVE) that leads to severe deviation in effective atomic number image. Usually, the deviation is too large for a reliable material discrimination and may cause false results. In this paper, a projection splitting method is proposed to combat the PVE. This method is based on the assumption that a prior projection of the empty container is available and photoelectric and Compton coefficient integrals can be calculated via dual energy decomposition. Each integral is split into two parts by subtracting the integral of the empty container from the total integral. The subtraction removes the integral part contributed by the container, thus discarding the error source created by PVE that appears on the boundary of the sinogram. Images are reconstructed in which only the interior liquid area remains. Experiments are performed in a real liquid inspection system to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. Accuracy of the reconstructed effective atomic number is greatly improved with this method, which helps a lot in determining the type of the object.

  13. Dual-purpose laboratory cage/antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalande, B. H.

    1977-01-01

    Part of steel cage enclosing laboratory animals is used as an antenna to transmit biotelemetry over short distances. Receiving and signal processing equipment are located above ground potential to avoid transmission-path difficulties.

  14. Synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from blazar jets - III. Compton-dominant blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, William J.; Cotter, Garret

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we develop the extended jet model of Potter & Cotter to model the simultaneous multiwavelength spectra of six Compton-dominant blazars. We include an accelerating parabolic base transitioning to a slowly decelerating conical jet with a geometry set by observations of M87 and consistent with simulations and theory. We investigate several jet models and find that the optically thick to thin synchrotron break in the radio spectrum requires the jet to first come into equipartition at large distances along the jet, consistent with the observed transition from parabolic to conical at 105Rs in the jet of M87. We confirm this result analytically and calculate the expected frequency core-shift relations for the models under consideration. We find that a parabolic jet transitioning to a ballistic conical jet at 105Rs, which starts in equipartition and becomes more particle dominated at larger distances, fits the multiwavelength data of the six blazars well, whilst an adiabatic equipartition conical section requires very large bulk Lorentz factors to reproduce the Compton dominance of the blazars. We find that all these blazars require high power (>1039 W), high bulk Lorentz factor (>20) jets observed close to the line of sight (<2°) as we expect from the blazar sequence and consistent with the results from Paper II. The inverse-Compton emission in our fits is due to inverse-Compton scattering of high-redshift cosmic microwave background photons at large distances along the jet due to the high bulk Lorentz factors of the jets. We postulate a new interpretation of the blazar sequence based on the radius of the transition region of the jet (where the jet is brightest in synchrotron emission) scaling linearly with black hole mass.

  15. Nucleon Compton scattering in the Dyson-Schwinger approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.

    2013-02-01

    We analyze the nucleon’s Compton scattering amplitude in the Dyson-Schwinger/Faddeev approach. We calculate a subset of diagrams that implements the nonperturbative handbag contribution as well as all t-channel resonances. At the quark level, these ingredients are represented by the quark Compton vertex whose analytic properties we study in detail. We derive a general form for a fermion two-photon vertex that is consistent with its Ward-Takahashi identities and free of kinematic singularities, and we relate its transverse part to the on-shell nucleon Compton amplitude. We solve an inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation for the quark Compton vertex in rainbow-ladder truncation and implement it in the nucleon Compton scattering amplitude. The remaining ingredients are the dressed quark propagator and the nucleon’s bound-state amplitude which are consistently solved from Dyson-Schwinger and covariant Faddeev equations. We verify numerically that the resulting quark Compton vertex and nucleon Compton amplitude both reproduce the πγγ transition form factor when the pion pole in the t channel is approached.

  16. Compton Radiation for Nuclear Waste Management and Transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    Compton inverse radiation is emitted in the process of backscattering of the laser pulses off the relativistic electrons. This radiation possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons--in hard x-ray up to gammaray energy range--with moderate electron energies (hundreds of MeV up to 1 GeV) due to short wavelength of the laser radiation. The Compton radiation is well collimated: emitting within a narrow cone along the electron beam. A distinct property of the Compton inverse radiation is a steep high-energy cutoff of the spectrum and the maximal intensity just below the cutoff. The Compton sources can attain: spectral density up to 1014 gammas/(s 0.1%bandwidth) in MeV range of energies, and spectral brightness up to 1020 gammas/(smm2mr2 0.1% bw). Applicability of Compton sources for nuclear waste management and detection of radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides are discussed in the report. Also application limits of Compton gamma sources for transmutation of radioactive isotopes are estimated. A recently proposed subtracting method, in which two sets of data obtained by irradiating the object by the Compton beams with slightly different maximal energies are compared, will enhance resolution of detection radioactive elements at the 'atomic' (hundreds of keV) and the 'nuclear' (a few MeV) photon energies.

  17. The GSFC Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R.; Fichtel, C.; Kniffen, D.; Trombka, J.; Stacy, G.

    1983-01-01

    A new telescope is being developed at GSFC for the study of point sources of gamma rays in the energy range 1-30 MeV. Using the detection principle of a Compton scatter in a 2.5 cm thick NaI(Tl) detector followed by absorption in a 15 cm thick NaI(Tl) detector, the telescope uses a rocking collimator for field-of-view reduction and background subtraction. Background reduction techniques include lead-plastic scintillator shielding, pulse shape discrimination and Anger camera operation to both NaI detectors, as well as a time-of-flight measurement between them. The instrument configuration and status is described.

  18. The GSFC Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, R.; Fichtel, C.; Kniffen, D.; Trombka, J.; Stacy, G.

    1983-08-01

    A new telescope is being developed at GSFC for the study of point sources of gamma rays in the energy range 1-30 MeV. Using the detection principle of a Compton scatter in a 2.5 cm thick NaI(Tl) detector followed by absorption in a 15 cm thick NaI(Tl) detector, the telescope uses a rocking collimator for field-of-view reduction and background subtraction. Background reduction techniques include lead-plastic scintillator shielding, pulse shape discrimination and Anger camera operation to both NaI detectors, as well as a time-of-flight measurement between them. The instrument configuration and status is described.

  19. BLAZAR FLARES FROM COMPTON DRAGGED SHELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Omri; Levinson, Amir

    2015-08-10

    We compute the dynamics and emission of dissipative shells that are subject to a strong Compton drag, under simplifying assumptions about the dissipation mechanism. We show that under conditions prevailing in blazars, substantial deceleration is anticipated on sub-parsec and parsec scales in cases of rapid dissipation. Such episodes may be the origin of some of the flaring activity occasionally observed in gamma-ray blazars. The shape of the light curves thereby produced reflects the geometry of the emitting surface if the deceleration is very rapid, or the dynamics of the shell if the deceleration is delayed, or initially more gradual, owing, e.g., to continuous injection of energy and momentum.

  20. The Compton Mirror in NGC 4151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poutanen, Juri; Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Magdziarz, Pawel

    1996-01-01

    We show that the sharp cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151, unusual for Seyfert 1 galaxies, can be reconciled with the average Seyfert 1 spectrum if we assume that the central source is completely hidden from our line of sight by the thick part of the accretion disk or by the broad emission-line clouds. The observed X-ray radiation is produced by scattering of the Seyfert 1 type spectrum in the higher, cooler parts of the accretion disk corona, or in a wind. A sharp cutoff appears as a result of the Compton recoil effect. This model naturally explains a discrepancy regarding the inclination of the central source, inferred to be low (face-on) from observations of the iron K-alpha emission line, but inferred to be high on the basis of optical and UV observations.

  1. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition. PMID:25430200

  2. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L.

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  3. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  4. Compton scattering off polarized electrons with a high-finesse Fabry-Perot Cavity at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas Falletto; Martial Authier; Maud Baylac; M. Boyer; Francois Bugeon; Etienne Burtin; Christian Cavata; Nathalie Colombel; G. Congretel; R. Coquillard; G. Coulloux; Bertrand Couzy; P Deck; Alain Delbart; D. Desforges; A. Donati; B. Duboue; Stephanie Escoffier; F. Farci; Bernard Frois; P Girardot; J Guillotau; C Henriot; Claude Jeanney; M Juillard; J. P. Jorda; P. Legou; David Lhuillier; Y Lussignol; Phillippe Mangeot; X. Martin; Frederic Marie; Jacques Martino; M. Maurier; Bernard Mazeau; J.F. Millot; F. Molinie; J.-P. Mols; Jean-pierre Mouly; M. Mur; Damien Neyret; T. Pedrol; Stephane Platchkov; G. Pontet; Thierry Pussieux; Yannick Queinec; Philippe Rebourgeard; J. C. Sellier; Gerard Tarte; Christian Veyssiere; Andre Zakarian; Pierre Bertin; Alain Cosquer; Jian-ping Chen; Joseph Mitchell; J.-M. Mackowski; L. Pinard

    2001-03-01

    We built and commissioned a new type of Compton polarimeter to measure the electron beam polarization at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Virginia, USA). The heart of this polarimeter is a high-finesse monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. Its purpose is to amplify a primary 300 mW laser beam in order to improve the signal to noise ratio of the polarimeter. It is the first time that a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity is enclosed in the vacuum of a particle accelerator to monitor the beam polarization by Compton polarimetry. The measured finesse and amplification gain of the cavity are F=26000 and G=7300. The electron beam crosses this high-power photon source at an angle of 23 mrad in the middle of the cavity where the photon beam power density is estimated to be 0.85MW/cm2. We have used this facility during the HAPPEX experiment (April-July 1999) and we give a preliminary measurement of Compton scattering asymmetry.

  5. Dual Coding in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  6. Effect of amount and source of manganese and/or phytase supplementation on productive and reproductive performance and some physiological traits of dual purpose cross-bred hens in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Qota, E M; Bovera, F; Tag El-Din, A E; Mansour, S A

    2010-04-01

    1. The effect of different amounts of added manganese (Mn) (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) in inorganic and organic form and phytase (0 and 300 U) was investigated on productive, reproductive and haematological traits on 480 hens and 60 cocks (Inchas breeds) divided into 12 groups: 10 and 20 Mn x 0 and 300 phytase x 2 Mn sources (8 groups), two negative controls (0 Mn x 2 levels of phytase) and two positive controls (40 Mn x 2 Mn sources). 2. Phytase supplementation increased laying rate by 1.1% and egg weight by 0.4 g. 3. Manganese supplementation at 10 mg/kg over dietary sources improved hatchability, at 20 mg/kg decreased death embryos and abnormality as those of hens supplemented with 40 mg/kg Mn. Inorganic Mn at 10 mg/kg significantly increased egg mass compared to the organic form. Inorganic Mn was more efficient in decreasing abnormal chicks than organic Mn. Phytase supplementation significantly increased hatchability of fertile eggs and decreased the number of abnormal chicks of groups fed on diets unsupplemented with Mn and those supplemented with 10 mg/kg Mn. 4. Mn supplementation at 10 mg/kg over dietary sources significantly improved sperm mass motility and decreased abnormal sperm. Phytase significantly decreased lymphocyte cells and plasma AST. 5. Mn supplementation of the control diet (containing only 16 mg/kg from raw materials) with 20 mg/kg of Mn from either organic or inorganic source is adequate to support egg production traits, egg quality, reproductive traits and economic efficiency of dual purpose cross-bred hens; however, phytase supplementation may reduce the required Mn supplementation to 10 mg/kg.

  7. Compton Profile Study of Intermetallic Ti{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, V.; Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Sharma, B. K.; Joshi, K. B.

    2011-10-20

    The Compton scattering measurement on intermetallic alloy Ti{sub 3}Al is reported in this work. The measurement is made using 59.54 keV gamma-rays from Am{sup 241} source. Theoretical calculation of Compton profile is also performed employing CRYSTAL code within the framework of density functional theory to compare with the measurement. The theoretical profile of the alloy is also synthesized following the superposition model taking the published Compton profiles of elemental solids from the APW method. The experimental study of charge transfer in the alloys has also been done by performing the experimental Compton profile measurements on Ti and Al following the superposition model and charge transfer from Al to Ti is clearly seen on the alloy formation.

  8. Investigation of Compton profiles of molecular methane and ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Xu, Long-Quan; Kang, Xu; Liu, Ya-Wei; Ni, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yang, Ke Ma, Yong-Peng; Yan, Shuai

    2015-02-28

    The Compton profiles of methane and ethane molecules have been determined at an incident photon energy of 20 keV based on the third generation synchrotron radiation, and the statistical accuracy of 0.2% is achieved near p{sub z} = 0. The density functional theory with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set was used to calculate the Compton profiles of methane and ethane. The present experimental Compton profiles are in better agreement with the theoretical calculations in the whole p{sub z} region than the previous experimental results, which indicates that the present experimental Compton profiles are accurate enough to serve as the benchmark data for methane and ethane molecules.

  9. Evidence for virtual Compton scattering from the proton

    SciTech Connect

    van den Brand, J.F.J.; Ent, R.; Anthony, P.L.; Arnold, R.G.; Arrington, J.; Beise, E.J.; Belz, J.E.; Bosted, P.E.; Bulten, H.; Chapman, M.S.; Coulter, K.P.; Dietrich, F.S.; Epstein, M.; Filippone, B.W.; Gao, H.; Gearhart, R.A.; Geesaman, D.F.; Hansen, J.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; Jones, C.E.; Keppel, C.E.; Kinney, E.R.; Kuhn, S.; Lee, K.; Lorenzon, W.; Lung, A.; Makins, N.C.R.; Margaziotis, D.J.; McKeown, R.D.; Milner, R.G.; Mueller, B.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, J.; O`Neill, T.G.; Papavassiliou, V.; Petratos, G.G.; Potterveld, D.H.; Rock, S.E.; Spengos, M.; Szalata, Z.M.; Tao, L.H.; van Bibber, K.; Wasson, D.A.; White, J.L.; Zeidman, B. ||||||||||

    1995-11-01

    In virtual Compton scattering an electron is scattered off a nucleon such that the nucleon emits a photon. We show that these events can be selected experimentally, and present the first evidence for virtual Compton scattering from the proton in data obtained at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The angular and energy dependence of the data is well described by a calculation that includes the coherent sum of electron and proton radiation.

  10. Bin mode estimation methods for Compton camera imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, S.; Odaka, H.; Uemura, M.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takeda, S.

    2014-10-01

    We study the image reconstruction problem of a Compton camera which consists of semiconductor detectors. The image reconstruction is formulated as a statistical estimation problem. We employ a bin-mode estimation (BME) and extend an existing framework to a Compton camera with multiple scatterers and absorbers. Two estimation algorithms are proposed: an accelerated EM algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and a modified EM algorithm for the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. Numerical simulations demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods.

  11. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, W. S.; Eudell, A. H.; Kulp, L. S.; Lindrose, L. A.; Harman, R. R.

    1993-02-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton GRO. The results show a 27-arcsecond shift between the bore sights of the FHST's with respect to prelaunch measurements. The alignments of the two FSS's shifted by 0.20 and 0.05 degree. During the same time period, the Compton GRO science teams performed an alignment calibration of the science instruments with respect to the attitude reported by the on board computer (OBC). In order to preserve these science alignments, FDF adjusted the overall alignments of the FHST's and FSS's, obtained by the FDF calibration, such that when up linked to the OBC, the shift in the OBC-determined attitude is minimized. FDF also calibrated the inertial reference unit (IRU), which consists of three dual-axis gyroscopes. The observed gyro bias matched the bias that was solved for by the OBC. This bias drifted during the first 6 days after release. The results of the FDF calibration of scale factor and alignment shifts showed changes that were of the same order as their uncertainties.

  12. The results of the in-flight attitude sensor calibration for the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. S.; Eudell, A. H.; Kulp, L. S.; Lindrose, L. A.; Harman, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in April 1991. This paper presents the results of the attitude sensor calibration that was performed during the early mission. The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) performed an alignment calibration of the two fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and two fine Sun sensors (FSS's) on board Compton GRO. The results show a 27-arcsecond shift between the bore sights of the FHST's with respect to prelaunch measurements. The alignments of the two FSS's shifted by 0.20 and 0.05 degree. During the same time period, the Compton GRO science teams performed an alignment calibration of the science instruments with respect to the attitude reported by the on board computer (OBC). In order to preserve these science alignments, FDF adjusted the overall alignments of the FHST's and FSS's, obtained by the FDF calibration, such that when up linked to the OBC, the shift in the OBC-determined attitude is minimized. FDF also calibrated the inertial reference unit (IRU), which consists of three dual-axis gyroscopes. The observed gyro bias matched the bias that was solved for by the OBC. This bias drifted during the first 6 days after release. The results of the FDF calibration of scale factor and alignment shifts showed changes that were of the same order as their uncertainties.

  13. Unified ab initio treatment of attosecond photoionization and Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, G. L.; Bondar, D. I.; Patchkovskii, S.; Corkum, P. B.; Bandrauk, A. D.

    2009-10-01

    We present a new theoretical approach to attosecond laser-assisted photo- and Compton ionization. Attosecond x-ray absorption and scattering are described by \\hat{\\mathscr{S}}^{(1,2)} -matrices, which are coherent superpositions of 'monochromatic' \\skew{3}\\hat{S}^{(1,2)} -matrices in a laser-modified Furry representation. Besides refining the existing theory of the soft x-ray photoelectron attosecond streak camera and spectral phase interferometry (ASC and ASPI), we formulate a theory of hard x-ray photoelectron and Compton ASC and ASPI. The resulting scheme has a simple structure and leads to closed-form expressions for ionization amplitudes. We investigate Compton electron interference in the separable Coulomb-Volkov continuum with both Coulomb and laser fields treated non-perturbatively. We find that at laser-field intensities below 1013 Wcm-2 normalized Compton lines almost coincide with the lines obtained in the laser-free regime. At higher intensities, attosecond interferences survive integration over electron momenta, and feature prominently in the Compton lines themselves. We define a regime where the electron ground-state density can be measured with controllable accuracy in an attosecond time interval. The new theory provides a firm basis for extracting photo- and Compton electron phases and atomic and molecular wavefunctions from experimental data.

  14. Why compton-suppressed germanium detector arrays?

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.

    1993-10-01

    Nuclear spectroscopic studies have provided a strong incentive to obtain {gamma}-ray detectors with increasingly better energy resolution, higher full-energy peak efficiencies, and greater sensitivity or resolving power. A major step was the introduction of Ge detectors in the early 60`s. But because of the low atomic number of Ge they have a poor response function; a majority of interacting gamma rays of moderate energy Compton scatter out of the detector leaving a large low-energy background. The remedy was to add a Compton-suppression shield made of NaI around the Ge crystal, and if interactions occurred simultaneously in the NaI scintillator and in the Ge detector to veto that event. Efficiencies also increased greatly when an English-Danish collaboration assembled five Ge detectors, each with a NaI suppressor, into the first array at the end of 1980. Obviously, a system of five such detectors gave much better statistics than the usual two bare detectors used for obtaining coincidence data (by a factor of 10). A few years later, another major improvement came with replacement of the NaI suppressors with shields made of the much denser bismuth germanate (BGO) as scintillator, as these could be thinner leading to arrays with of order 20 detectors. Use of such a large number of detectors led to the realization that for cascades of coincident gamma rays, as in going down a band, the improvement in the peak/background ratio observed and already appreciated in going from singles spectra to gated (double-) coincidence spectra continued when doubly-gated triple-coincidence data were compared for the first time to singly-gated double-coincidence ones. The higher-gated spectra were much cleaner and more selective, though with poorer statistics, and the advantages of higher folds and efficiencies led to the proposals for the larger 4{pi} arrays of today, Eurogam and GASP in Europe and Gammasphere in the U.S.

  15. Inverse compton scattering gamma ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, S.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Ruelas, M.; Jovanovic, I.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.

    2009-09-01

    Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) (e.g. U-235, Pu-239) can be detected by active interrogation with gamma rays (>6 MeV) through photofission. For long-range detection (˜1 km), an intense beam of gamma rays (˜10 14 per second) is required in order to produce measurable number of neutrons. The production of such fluxes of gamma rays, and in the pulse formats useful for detection, presents many technical challenges, and requires novel approaches to the accelerator and laser technology. RadiaBeam is currently designing a gamma ray source based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high-energy electron beam. To achieve this, improvements in photoinjector, linac, final focus, and laser system are planned. These enhanced sub-systems build on parallel work being performed at RadiaBeam, UCLA, and elsewhere. A high-repetition rate photoinjector, a high-gradient S-band linac, and a laser pulse recirculator will be used. The proposed system will be a transportable source of high-flux, high-energy quasi-monochromatic gamma rays for active interrogation of special nuclear materials.

  16. Scaling limit of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    A. Radyushkin

    2000-07-01

    The author outlines a perturbative QCD approach to the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process {gamma}{sup *}p {r_arrow} {gamma}p{prime} in the limit of vanishing momentum transfer t=(p{prime}{minus}p){sup 2}. The DVCS amplitude in this limit exhibits a scaling behavior described by a two-argument distributions F(x,y) which specify the fractions of the initial momentum p and the momentum transfer r {equivalent_to} p{prime}{minus}p carried by the constituents of the nucleon. The kernel R(x,y;{xi},{eta}) governing the evolution of the non-forward distributions F(x,y) has a remarkable property: it produces the GLAPD evolution kernel P(x/{xi}) when integrated over y and reduces to the Brodsky-Lepage evolution kernel V(y,{eta}) after the x-integration. This property is used to construct the solution of the one-loop evolution equation for the flavor non-singlet part of the non-forward quark distribution.

  17. New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

    1985-10-01

    Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Compact Laser Technology for Compton Scattering Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shverdin, M.; Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Bayramian, A.; Betts, S. M.; Ebbers, C.; Gibson, D.; Messerly, M.; Hartemann, F. V.; Siders, C. W.; McNabb, D. P.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2009-11-01

    We describe compact laser technology for Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering light source at LLNL. The high energy, 120W interaction laser utilizes chirped pulse amplification (CPA) in Nd:YAG to amplify a sub-nanometer bandwidth 20 μJ pulses from a fiber system to 1J. A novel pulse stretcher provides a dispersion of over 7000ps/nm to expand a several picosecond wide seed pulse to 6ns. After amplification, the pulse is recompressed to 10ps with a hyper-dispersive pulse compressor. We also describe a technique for over an order of magnitude increase in the generated gamma-ray flux by recirculation of the interaction laser pulse. This technique, termed Recirculation Injection by Nonlinear Gating (RING), consists of frequency doubling the incident laser pulse inside a dichroic mirror cavity. The resonator mirrors transmit at 1φ and reflect at 2φ. The 2^nd harmonic of the incident pulse then becomes trapped inside the cavity. To date, we demonstrated 14 times cavity enhancement of 180mJ, 10ps, 532nm laser pulses.

  19. Rapid Compton-thick/Compton-thin Transitions in the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1365

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risaliti, G.; Elvis, M.; Fabbiano, G.; Baldi, A.; Zezas, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present multiple Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365, which shows the most dramatic X-ray spectral changes observed so far in an active galactic nucleus: the source switched from reflection-dominated to transmission-dominated and back in just 6 weeks. During this time the soft thermal component, arising from a approx. 1 kpc region around the center, remained constant. The reflection component is constant at all timescales, and its high flux relative to the primary component implies the presence of thick gas covering a large fraction of the solid angle. The presence of this gas, and the fast variability timescale, suggest that the Compton-thick to Compton-thin change is due to variation in the line-of-sight absorber rather than to extreme intrinsic emission variability. We discuss a structure of the circumuclear absorber/reflector that can explain the observed X-ray spectral and temporal properties.

  20. Results with a 32-element dual mode imager.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Gerling, Mark; Brennan, James S.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mrowka, Stanley; Marleau, Peter

    2010-12-01

    We present advances with a 32 element scalable, segmented dual mode imager. Scaling up the number of cells results in a 1.4 increase in efficiency over a system we deployed last year. Variable plane separation has been incorporated which further improves the efficiency of the detector. By using 20 cm diameter cells we demonstrate that we could increase sensitivity by a factor of 6. We further demonstrate gamma ray imaging in from Compton scattering. This feature allows for powerful dual mode imaging. Selected results are presented that demonstrate these new capabilities.

  1. Results with a 32 element dual mode imager.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Gerling, Mark; Brennan, James S.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mrowka, Stanley; Marleau, Peter

    2010-11-01

    We present advances with a 32 element scalable, segmented dual mode imager. Scaling up the number of cells results in a 1.4 increase in efficiency over a system we deployed last year. Variable plane separation has been incorporated which further improves the efficiency of the detector. By using 20 cm diameter cells we demonstrate that we could increase sensitivity by a factor of 6. We further demonstrate gamma ray imaging in from Compton scattering. This feature allows for powerful dual mode imaging. Selected results are presented that demonstrate these new capabilities.

  2. A Compton profile representation for some second period elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Geoffrey; Olesinski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Compton profiles for the elements C, N and O, which are important both in medical science and security screening, are represented here as weighted sums of three Gaussians. Simple scaling relationships describe the dependence on atomic number ( Z) of the amplitudes and standard deviations of the component Gaussians, which are identified with the Compton profiles of the 1s, 2s and 2p orbitals. This representation of the Compton profile agrees with tabulated values for C, N and O to a rms deviation of the order of 1% of the mean profile amplitude over the momentum range 0≤ q≤4, where q is expressed in units of the hydrogen ground state momentum. This representation allows a "mean atomic number" for mixtures and compounds dominated by second period elements to be assigned on the basis of experimental measurements of the Doppler broadening of back-scattered X-ray K characteristic lines. Processed spectra of water and ethanol from a Compton spectrometer equipped with a room-temperature semiconductor detector are compared with the Compton profiles synthesized as suggested here, and a satisfactory agreement between the measured and theoretical mean atomic numbers and the profile shapes is found.

  3. Results of a Si/Cdte Compton Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Oonuki, Kousuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Takefumi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nomachi, Masaharu; /Sagamihara, Inst. Space Astron. Sci. /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Hiroshima U. /Osaka U.

    2005-09-23

    We have been developing a semiconductor Compton telescope to explore the universe in the energy band from several tens of keV to a few MeV. We use a Si strip and CdTe pixel detector for the Compton telescope to cover an energy range from 60 keV. For energies above several hundred keV, the higher efficiency of CdTe semiconductor in comparison with Si is expected to play an important role as an absorber and a scatterer. In order to demonstrate the spectral and imaging capability of a CdTe-based Compton Telescope, we have developed a Compton telescope consisting of a stack of CdTe pixel detectors as a small scale prototype. With this prototype, we succeeded in reconstructing images and spectra by solving the Compton equation from 122 keV to 662 keV. The energy resolution (FWHM) of reconstructed spectra is 7.3 keV at 511 keV and 3.1 keV at 122 keV, respectively. The angular resolution obtained at 511 keV is measured to be 12.2{sup o}(FWHM).

  4. Coded-aperture Compton camera for gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, Aaron M.

    This dissertation describes the development of a novel gamma-ray imaging system concept and presents results from Monte Carlo simulations of the new design. Current designs for large field-of-view gamma cameras suitable for homeland security applications implement either a coded aperture or a Compton scattering geometry to image a gamma-ray source. Both of these systems require large, expensive position-sensitive detectors in order to work effectively. By combining characteristics of both of these systems, a new design can be implemented that does not require such expensive detectors and that can be scaled down to a portable size. This new system has significant promise in homeland security, astronomy, botany and other fields, while future iterations may prove useful in medical imaging, other biological sciences and other areas, such as non-destructive testing. A proof-of-principle study of the new gamma-ray imaging system has been performed by Monte Carlo simulation. Various reconstruction methods have been explored and compared. General-Purpose Graphics-Processor-Unit (GPGPU) computation has also been incorporated. The resulting code is a primary design tool for exploring variables such as detector spacing, material selection and thickness and pixel geometry. The advancement of the system from a simple 1-dimensional simulation to a full 3-dimensional model is described. Methods of image reconstruction are discussed and results of simulations consisting of both a 4 x 4 and a 16 x 16 object space mesh have been presented. A discussion of the limitations and potential areas of further study is also presented.

  5. New Spectral State of Supercritical Accretion Flow with Comptonizing Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Tomohisa; Ohsuga, Ken; Mineshige, Shin; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Takabe, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2009-08-01

    Supercritical accretion flows inevitably produce radiation-pressure driven outflows, which Compton up-scatter soft photons from the underlying accretion flow, thereby making hard emission. We performed two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations of supercritical accretion flows and outflows, while incorporating such Compton scattering effects, and demonstrated that there appears a new hard spectral state at higher photon luminosities than that of the slim-disk state. In this state, as the photon luminosity increases, the photon index decreases and the fraction of the hard emission increases. The Compton y-parameter is on the order of unity (and thus the photon index will be ˜2) when the apparent photon luminosity is ˜30LE (with LE being the Eddington luminosity) for nearly face-on sources. This explains the observed spectral hardening of the ULX NGC 1313 X-2 in its brightening phase, and thus supports the model of supercritical accretion onto stellar-mass black holes in this ULX.

  6. G. E. M. Jauncey and the Compton Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkin, John

    In late 1922 Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962) discovered that an X-ray quantum of radiation undergoes a discrete change in wavelength when it experiences a billiard-ball collision with a single atomic electron, a phenomenon that became known as the Compton effect and for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1927. But for more than five years before he made his discovery, Compton had analyzed X-ray scattering in terms of classical electrodynamics. I suggest that his colleague at Washington University in St. Louis, G. E. M. Jauncey (1888-1947), helped materially to persuade him to embrace the quantum interpretation of his X-ray scattering experiments.

  7. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker

    2005-12-31

    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  8. The scanning Compton polarimeter for the SLD experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-10-01

    For the 1994/95 run of the SLD experiment at SLAC, a Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron beam polarization to be (77.2 {+-} 0.5)%. This excellent accuracy is achieved by measuring the rate asymmetry of Compton-scattered electrons near the kinematic endpoint. The polarimeter takes data continuously while the electron and positron beams are in collision and achieves a statistical precision of better than 1% in a three minute run. To calibrate the polarimeter and demonstrate its accuracy, many scans are frequently done. These include scans of the laser polarization, the detector position with respect to the kinematic edge, and the laser power.

  9. A Compton scattering study of refractory niobium diborides.

    PubMed

    Bhamu, K C; Ahuja, B L

    2012-06-01

    Isotropic Compton profile of NbB(2) using 20 Ci (137)Cs Compton spectrometer is compared with our theoretical profiles obtained from the density functional theory (DFT) within the first and the second order generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the hybridization of Hartree-Fock and DFT. A good agreement between GGA based profiles and the experiment validates the applicability of second order GGA in momentum densities. Energy bands, density of states and real space analysis of the experimental profile show metallic character of NbB(2).

  10. Generalized parton distributions from deep virtual compton scattering at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Guidal, M.

    2010-04-24

    Here, we have analyzed the beam spin asymmetry and the longitudinally polarized target spin asymmetry of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process, recently measured by the Jefferson Lab CLAS collaboration. Our aim is to extract information about the Generalized Parton Distributions of the proton. By fitting these data, in a largely model-independent procedure, we are able to extract numerical values for the two Compton Form Factors $H_{Im}$ and $\\tilde{H}_{Im}$ with uncertainties, in average, of the order of 30%.

  11. Generalized parton distributions from deep virtual compton scattering at CLAS

    DOE PAGES

    Guidal, M.

    2010-04-24

    Here, we have analyzed the beam spin asymmetry and the longitudinally polarized target spin asymmetry of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process, recently measured by the Jefferson Lab CLAS collaboration. Our aim is to extract information about the Generalized Parton Distributions of the proton. By fitting these data, in a largely model-independent procedure, we are able to extract numerical values for the two Compton Form Factorsmore » $$H_{Im}$$ and $$\\tilde{H}_{Im}$$ with uncertainties, in average, of the order of 30%.« less

  12. Spin and orbital magnetization loops obtained using magnetic Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Koizumi, A.

    2013-02-25

    We present an application of magnetic Compton scattering (MCS) to decompose a total magnetization loop into spin and orbital magnetization contributions. A spin magnetization loop of SmAl{sub 2} was measured by recording the intensity of magnetic Compton scattering as a function of applied magnetic field. Comparing the spin magnetization loop with the total magnetization one measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer, the orbital magnetization loop was obtained. The data display an anti-coupled behavior between the spin and orbital magnetizations and confirm that the orbital part dominates the magnetization.

  13. Low-intensity nonlinear spectral effects in compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Hartemann, Frederic V; Albert, Félicie; Siders, Craig W; Barty, C P J

    2010-09-24

    Nonlinear effects are known to occur in Compton scattering light sources, when the laser normalized potential A approaches unity. In this Letter, it is shown that nonlinear spectral features can appear at arbitrarily low values of A, if the fractional bandwidth of the laser pulse Δϕ⁻¹ is sufficiently small to satisfy A²Δϕ≃1. A three-dimensional analysis, based on a local plane wave, slow-varying envelope approximation, enables the study of these effects for realistic interactions between an electron beam and a laser pulse, and their influence on high-precision Compton scattering light sources.

  14. Low-Intensity Nonlinear Spectral Effects in Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Albert, Félicie; Siders, Craig W.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2010-09-01

    Nonlinear effects are known to occur in Compton scattering light sources, when the laser normalized potential A approaches unity. In this Letter, it is shown that nonlinear spectral features can appear at arbitrarily low values of A, if the fractional bandwidth of the laser pulse Δϕ-1 is sufficiently small to satisfy A2Δϕ≃1. A three-dimensional analysis, based on a local plane wave, slow-varying envelope approximation, enables the study of these effects for realistic interactions between an electron beam and a laser pulse, and their influence on high-precision Compton scattering light sources.

  15. Low-intensity nonlinear spectral effects in compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Hartemann, Frederic V; Albert, Félicie; Siders, Craig W; Barty, C P J

    2010-09-24

    Nonlinear effects are known to occur in Compton scattering light sources, when the laser normalized potential A approaches unity. In this Letter, it is shown that nonlinear spectral features can appear at arbitrarily low values of A, if the fractional bandwidth of the laser pulse Δϕ⁻¹ is sufficiently small to satisfy A²Δϕ≃1. A three-dimensional analysis, based on a local plane wave, slow-varying envelope approximation, enables the study of these effects for realistic interactions between an electron beam and a laser pulse, and their influence on high-precision Compton scattering light sources. PMID:21230757

  16. Broadband Observations of the Compton-thick Nucleus of NGC 3393

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael J.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Baronchelli, L.; Teng, S. H.; Baloković, M.; Puccetti, S.; Bauer, F. E.; Arévalo, P.; Assef, R.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Comastri, A.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present new Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR ) and Chandra observations of NGC 3393, a galaxy reported to host the smallest separation dual active galactic nuclei (AGN) resolved in the X-rays. While past results suggested a 150 pc separation dual AGN, three times deeper Chandra imaging, combined with adaptive optics and radio imaging suggest a single, heavily obscured, radio-bright AGN. Using Very Large Array and Very Long Baseline Array data, we find an AGN with a two-sided jet rather than a dual AGN and that the hard X-ray, UV, optical, near-infrared, and radio emission are all from a single point source with a radius <0 .″ 2. We find that the previously reported dual AGN is most likely a spurious detection resulting from the low number of X-ray counts (<160) at 6-7 keV and Gaussian smoothing of the data on scales much smaller than the point-spread function (PSF) (0 .″ 25 versus 0 .″ 80 FWHM). We show that statistical noise in a single Chandra PSF generates spurious dual peaks of the same separation (0 .″ 55±0 .″ 07 versus 0 .″ 6) and flux ratio (39% ± 9% versus 32% counts) as the purported dual AGN. With NuSTAR, we measure a Compton-thick source ({N}{{H}}=2.2+/- 0.4× {10}24 {{cm}}-2) with a large torus half-opening angle, {θ }{tor}={79}-19+1^\\circ which we postulate results from feedback from strong radio jets. This AGN shows a 2-10 keV intrinsic-to-observed flux ratio of ≈ 150 ({L}2-10\\{keV\\{int}}=2.6+/- 0.3× {10}43 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 versus {L}2-10\\{keV\\{observed}}=1.7+/- 0.2× {10}41 {erg} {{{s}}}-1). Using simulations, we find that even the deepest Chandra observations would severely underestimate the intrinsic luminosity of NGC 3393 above z\\gt 0.2, but would detect an unobscured AGN of this luminosity out to high redshift (z≈ 5).

  17. Broadband Observations of the Compton-thick Nucleus of NGC 3393

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael J.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Baronchelli, L.; Teng, S. H.; Baloković, M.; Puccetti, S.; Bauer, F. E.; Arévalo, P.; Assef, R.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Comastri, A.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present new Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR ) and Chandra observations of NGC 3393, a galaxy reported to host the smallest separation dual active galactic nuclei (AGN) resolved in the X-rays. While past results suggested a 150 pc separation dual AGN, three times deeper Chandra imaging, combined with adaptive optics and radio imaging suggest a single, heavily obscured, radio-bright AGN. Using Very Large Array and Very Long Baseline Array data, we find an AGN with a two-sided jet rather than a dual AGN and that the hard X-ray, UV, optical, near-infrared, and radio emission are all from a single point source with a radius <0 .″ 2. We find that the previously reported dual AGN is most likely a spurious detection resulting from the low number of X-ray counts (<160) at 6–7 keV and Gaussian smoothing of the data on scales much smaller than the point-spread function (PSF) (0 .″ 25 versus 0 .″ 80 FWHM). We show that statistical noise in a single Chandra PSF generates spurious dual peaks of the same separation (0 .″ 55±0 .″ 07 versus 0 .″ 6) and flux ratio (39% ± 9% versus 32% counts) as the purported dual AGN. With NuSTAR, we measure a Compton-thick source ({N}{{H}}=2.2+/- 0.4× {10}24 {{cm}}-2) with a large torus half-opening angle, {θ }{tor}={79}-19+1^\\circ which we postulate results from feedback from strong radio jets. This AGN shows a 2–10 keV intrinsic-to-observed flux ratio of ≈ 150 ({L}2-10\\{keV\\{int}}=2.6+/- 0.3× {10}43 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 versus {L}2-10\\{keV\\{observed}}=1.7+/- 0.2× {10}41 {erg} {{{s}}}-1). Using simulations, we find that even the deepest Chandra observations would severely underestimate the intrinsic luminosity of NGC 3393 above z\\gt 0.2, but would detect an unobscured AGN of this luminosity out to high redshift (z≈ 5).

  18. A novel dual mode neutron-gamma imager.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Gerling, Mark; Brennan, James S.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mrowka, Stanley; Marleau, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The Neutron Scatter Camera (NSC) can image fission sources and determine their energy spectra at distances of tens of meters and through significant thicknesses of intervening materials in relatively short times [1]. We recently completed a 32 element scatter camera and will present recent advances made with this instrument. A novel capability for the scatter camera is dual mode imaging. In normal neutron imaging mode we identify and image neutron events using pulse shape discrimination (PSD) and time of flight in liquid scintillator. Similarly gamma rays are identified from Compton scatter in the front and rear planes for our segmented detector. Rather than reject these events, we show it is possible to construct a gamma-ray image by running the analysis in a 'Compton mode'. Instead of calculating the scattering angle by the kinematics of elastic scatters as is appropriate for neutron events, it can be found by the kinematics of Compton scatters. Our scatter camera has not been optimized as a Compton gamma-ray imager but is found to work reasonably. We studied imaging performance using a Cs137 source. We find that we are able to image the gamma source with reasonable fidelity. We are able to determine gamma energy after some reasonable assumptions. We will detail the various algorithms we have developed for gamma image reconstruction. We will outline areas for improvement, include additional results and compare neutron and gamma mode imaging.

  19. Simple modification of Compton polarimeter to redirect synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J.; Franklin, G. B.; Quinn, B. P.; Paschke, K. D.

    2015-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation produced as an electron beam passes through a bending magnet is a significant source of background in many experiments. Using modeling, we show that simple modifications of the magnet geometry can reduce this background by orders of magnitude in some circumstances. Specifically, we examine possible modifications of the four dipole magnets used in Jefferson Lab's Hall A Compton polarimeter chicane. This Compton polarimeter has been a crucial part of experiments with polarized beams and the next generation of experiments will utilize increased beam energies, up to 11 GeV, requiring a corresponding increase in Compton dipole field to 1.5 T. In consequence, the synchrotron radiation (SR) from the dipole chicane will be greatly increased. Three possible modifications of the chicane dipoles are studied; each design moves about 2% of the integrated bending field to provide a gentle bend in critical regions along the beam trajectory which, in turn, greatly reduces the synchrotron radiation within the acceptance of the Compton polarimeter photon detector. Each of the modifications studied also softens the SR energy spectrum at the detector sufficiently to allow shielding with 5 mm of lead. Simulations show that these designs are each capable of reducing the background signal due to SR by three orders of magnitude. The three designs considered vary in their need for vacuum vessel changes and in their effectiveness.

  20. Analytical reconstruction formula for one-dimensional Compton camera

    SciTech Connect

    Basko, R.; Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Compton camera has been proposed as an alternative to the Anger camera in SPECT. The advantage of the Compton camera is its high geometric efficiency due to electronic collimation. The Compton camera collects projections that are integrals over cone surfaces. Although some progress has been made toward image reconstruction from cone projections, at present no filtered backprojection algorithm exists. This paper investigates a simpler 2D version of the imaging problem. An analytical formula is developed for 2D reconstruction from data acquired by a 1D Compton camera that consists of two linear detectors, one behind the other. Coincidence photon detection allows the localization of the 2D source distribution to two lines in the shape of a {open_quotes}V{close_quotes} with the vertex on the front detector. A set of {open_quotes}V{close_quotes} projection data can be divided into subsets whose elements can be viewed as line-integrals of the original image added with its mirrored shear transformation. If the detector has infinite extent, reconstruction of the original image is possible using data from only one such subset. Computer simulations were performed to verify the newly developed algorithm.

  1. Gamma-spectrometry with Compton suppressed detectors arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Schueck, C.; Hannachi, F.; Chapman, R.; Lisle, J.C.; Mo, J.N.; Paul, E.; Love, D.J.G.; Nolan, P.J.; Nelson, A.H.; Walker, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of experiments performed with two different Compton-suppressed detectors arrays in Daresbury and Berkeley (/sup 163,164/Yb and /sup 154/Er, respectively), are presented together with a brief description of the national French array presently under construction in Strasbourg. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  2. A Non-Relativistic Look at the Compton Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Steve; Giri, Sandeep; Zakrasek, Nicholas; Affatigato, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In a usual modern physics class the Compton effect is used as the pedagogical model for introducing relativity into quantum effects. The shift in photon wavelengths is usually introduced and derived using special relativity. Indeed, this works well for explaining the effect. However, in the senior author's class one of the student coauthors…

  3. New JLab/Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering results

    SciTech Connect

    Defurne, Maxime

    2015-08-01

    New data points for unpolarized Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering cross sections have been extracted from the E00-110 experiment at Q2=1.9 GeV2 effectively doubling the statistics available in the valence region. A careful study of systematic uncertainties has been performed.

  4. Simulation and Analysis of Large-Scale Compton Imaging Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Manini, H A; Lange, D J; Wright, D M

    2006-12-27

    We perform simulations of two types of large-scale Compton imaging detectors. The first type uses silicon and germanium detector crystals, and the second type uses silicon and CdZnTe (CZT) detector crystals. The simulations use realistic detector geometry and parameters. We analyze the performance of each type of detector, and we present results using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves.

  5. Models of unsaturated Compton disks around supermassive black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, E. P. T.; Thompson, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two inverse-Compton disk models for the hard X-ray spectra of quasi-stellar objects and active galactic nuclei are studied and compared. One is a slightly generalized version of the Shapiro, Lightman and Eardley optically thin disk model, and the other is a conduction-stabilized Corona model. Observational distinctions between the two models are discussed.

  6. Wide angle Compton scattering on the proton: study of power suppressed corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivel, N.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2015-10-01

    We study the wide angle Compton scattering process on a proton within the soft-collinear factorization (SCET) framework. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the effect due to certain power suppressed corrections. We consider all possible kinematical power corrections and also include the subleading amplitudes describing the scattering with nucleon helicity flip. Under certain assumptions we present a leading-order factorization formula for these amplitudes which includes the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. We apply the formalism and perform a phenomenological analysis of the cross section and asymmetries in the wide angle Compton scattering on a proton. We assume that in the relevant kinematical region where -t,-u>2.5 GeV2 the dominant contribution is provided by the soft-spectator mechanism. The hard coefficient functions of the corresponding SCET operators are taken in the leading-order approximation. The analysis of existing cross section data shows that the contribution of the helicity-flip amplitudes to this observable is quite small and comparable with other expected theoretical uncertainties. We also show predictions for double polarization observables for which experimental information exists.

  7. Advanced Compton scattering light source R&D at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Gibson, D J; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M; Shverdin, M Y; Wu, S; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-02-16

    We report the design and current status of a monoenergetic laser-based Compton scattering 0.5-2.5 MeV {gamma}-ray source. Previous nuclear resonance fluorescence results and future linac and laser developments for the source are presented. At MeV photon energies relevant for nuclear processes, Compton scattering light sources are attractive because of their relative compactness and improved brightness above 100 keV, compared to typical 4th generation synchrotrons. Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A new precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. Based on the success of the previous Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-rays (T-REX) Compton scattering source at LLNL, the source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. After a brief presentation of successful nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments done with T-REX, the new source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  8. RXTE, Chandra, and XMM Spectroscopy of the Fe-K Lines and Compton Reflection in Type 1 AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir

    2004-01-01

    This award pertains to an RXTE observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Akn 120. The purpose of the observation was to measure the Fe-K emission line and the Compton reflection continuum with RXTE, simultaneously with Chandra and XMM. Such measurements can severely constrain accretion disk models of the central engine since the Fe-K line emission and Compton reflection are intimately related in terms of the physics of X-ray reprocessing in optically-thick matter. Akn 120 was selected for this study because it is amongst the brightest AGN in its class and has a particularly strong and apparently broad Fe-K emission line. The results could then also be used to lay the ground work for even higher resolution studies with Astro-E2. Unfortunately, the Chandra observation was not performed but a contemporaneous XMM observation was performed by another group of researchers. Those data recently became public and can be compared with the RXTE data. In addition, non-contemporaneous observations with other missions do still provide additional important constraints (for example any non-varying line or continuum emission components can be established and used to reject or preserve various model scenarios). We analyzed the RXTE data and found a strong Fe-K emission line (resolved even with the poor resolution of RXTE), and a strong Compton-reflection continuum (see Fig. l(a)). We found that the results of archival ASCA data on Akn 120 had not been published in the literature so we analyzed the ASCA data too, in order to compare with the new RXTE data. Fig. l(b) shows that the ASCA data also reveal a strong, broad FeK emission line (but the data are not sensitive to the Compton-reflection continuum). We compared our spectral fitting results for the RXTE and ASCA data with the results from XMM and from previous RXTE observations.

  9. Learning from the Past: Dual Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Nicole; Justice, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    This study involved identifying, categorizing, and comparing critical incidents related to qualifying dual credit high school students' decisions to enroll or not to enroll in dual credit coursework in either a traditional or early college high school. The purpose of the study was (a) to identify the reasons qualifying students decide to enroll in…

  10. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, P. G.; Torres-Espallardo, I.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gillam, J. E.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Oliver, J. F.; Sala, P. R.; Solevi, P.; Rafecas, M.

    2015-02-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of

  11. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega, P G; Torres-Espallardo, I; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Gillam, J E; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Oliver, J F; Sala, P R; Solevi, P; Rafecas, M

    2015-03-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of

  12. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  13. Compact Laser-Compton X-ray Source Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Po-Chun

    The state-of-the-art X-ray source based on inverse-Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam produced by an X-band RF accelerator and a high-intensity laser pulse generated by chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) has been carried out by our research team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system is called "Compact Laser-Compton X-ray Source". The applications include nuclear resonance fluorescence, medical imaging and therapy, and nuclear waste imaging and assay. One of the key factors in this system is how we know the interaction happened in the vacuum chamber, which is the spectrometer of electron beams. The other key factor is the interaction after the spectrometer, which is the outgoing X-ray. In this thesis, the work in the simulation for the result of the interaction between electrons and the laser, the calibration of spectrometer, and laser focus characterization are discussed.

  14. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  15. Compton profile study of polycrystalline ZnBr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaka, M. S.; Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Kothari, R. K.; Sharma, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    The first ever Compton profile study of polycrystalline ZnBr{sub 2} is presented in this paper. The measurement of polycrystalline sample of ZnBr{sub 2} is performed using 59.54 keV gamma-rays emanating from an {sup 241}Am radioisotope. Theoretical calculations are performed following the Ionic model calculations for a number of configurations Zn{sup +x}Br{sub 2}{sup -x/2}(0.0{<=}x{<=}2.0 in step of 0.5) utilizing free atom profiles. The ionic model suggest transfer of 2.0 electrons from 4 s state of Zn to 4 p state of two Br atoms. The autocorrelation function B(z) is also derived from experiment and the most favoured ionic valence Compton profiles.

  16. External inverse-Compton Emission from Blazar Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Jennifer E.; Chiang, James; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    According to leptonic models for the high-energy emission from blazars, relativistic electrons in the inner jets inverse-Compton scatter photons from a variety of sources. Seed photons are certainly introduced via the synchrotron process from the electrons themselves, but external sources of seed photons may also be present. In this paper, we present detailed derivations of the equations describing external inverse-Compton scattering from two sources of seed photons: direct emission from the accretion disk, and accretion disk photons that have scattered off the broad line region. For each source, we derive the seed photon spectrum incident on the jet, the single electron energy loss rate, and the emitted photon spectrum.

  17. Generalized Parton Distributions And Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering At Clas

    SciTech Connect

    De Masi, Rita

    2007-09-01

    The deeply virtual Compton scattering is the simplest process to access the generalized parton distributions of the nucleon. A dedicated large statistics experiment for the measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering with a 6 GeV polarized electron beam on a proton target has been performed at the Hall-B of Jefferson Laboratory with the CLAS spectrometer. The experiment covered a wide kinematic range, allowing the study of the beam spin asymmetry as function of the Bjorken variable xB, the Mandelstam variable t, the virtual photon four-momentum squared Q2 and the angle phi between leptonic and hadronic planes. The preliminary results are in agreement with previous measurements and with the predicted twist-2 dominance.

  18. COMPACT, TUNABLE COMPTON SCATTERING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2009-08-20

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  19. A prototype compton camera for in-vivo dosimetry of ion beam cancer irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kormoll, T.; Fiedler, F.; Golnik, C.; Heidel, K.; Kempe, M.; Schoene, S.; Sobiella, M.; Zuber, K.; Enghardt, W.

    2011-07-01

    Three-dimensional in-vivo dose monitoring of ion beam cancer irradiation can improve the quality of treatment. For this purpose we investigate the feasibility of imaging the single photon emissions due to nuclear reactions of projectiles with target nuclei (in-beam SPECT). A suitable imaging technique in the energy range of the emitted gamma rays is the Compton camera. A prototype based on prior simulations is currently under construction. Te system comprises two CdZnTe cross-strip detectors with steering grid and depth-of-interaction capability and one segmented LSO scintillator crystal with modified Anger light readout. We present the concept of the system including the front-end and DAQ electronics as well as first measurements. (authors)

  20. Comptonization Processes in Galactic and Extragalactic High Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-12-01

    I review the principal radiation mechanisms which can be responsible for the production of high energy emission of Galactic and extragalactic sources. The spectral properties of Comptonization processes are studied. I present a rigorous treatment of the problem in terms of the Boltzmann kinetic equation formalism. I also overview the different exact and approximate analytical and numerical techniques which decouple the photon transport in six dimensions to that in the configuration space and in energy space separately. CGRO, RXTE, SAX, XMM and CHANDRA observations of Galactic black hole, neutron star systems, and Seyfert nuclei show that their spectra can be fitted by thermal Comptonization models in the hard state, and two components in the soft state. In the latter case, these components show a blackbody like spectrum with the color temperature which is a fraction of keV and tens of eV for Galactic and extragalactic sources, respectively, and an extended power-law with spectral index between 1 and 2 (in the neutron star systems in their soft state this power-law component is not detected). I give arguments for an explanation of these two types of spectral states in the framework of the thermal and bulk motion Comptonization processes. Furthermore I demonstrate that the change of X-ray spectra during the soft-hard transition is related to the temperature of the bulk inflow. In other words the effect of the bulk Comptonization compared to thermal one is getting stronger when the plasma temperature drops below 10 keV. It is clear that the spectra emerging from the converging inflow are inevitable stamp of black hole sources where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces.

  1. Compton Imaging Capabilities of AGATA for Background Rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Doncel, M.; Quintana, B.; Recchia, F.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.

    2010-04-26

    In this work we present the results of the test performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) aiming to characterize the capabilities of the AGATA detectors to discriminate between different gamma source locations. AGATA detectors are position sensitive to the interaction points through Pulse Shape Analysis allowing location of the gamma sources by using Compton imaging algorithm. The final goal is to increase the array sensitivity reducing the background originated outside the AGATA target.

  2. Measuring Flash X-Ray Spectra with a Compton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Espy, Michelle; Haines, Todd; Hunter, James; King, Nick; Merrill, Frank; Sedillo, Robert; Urbaitis, Algis; Volegov, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The determination of the x-ray energy spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult due to the short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). Recently, a Compton spectrometer has been refurbished and investigated as a potential device for conducting these measurements. The spectrometer was originally designed and characterized by Morgan et al.. The spectrometer consists of a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet and measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In this apparatus, the incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam before encountering a converter foil. Compton electrons are ejected and collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the device. The position of the electrons on the magnet focal plane is a function of their energy, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent energy calibration measurements and the spectrum reconstruction of a Bremsstrahlung source will be presented. The determination of the x-ray energy spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult due to the short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). Recently, a Compton spectrometer has been refurbished and investigated as a potential device for conducting these measurements. The spectrometer was originally designed and characterized by Morgan et al.. The spectrometer consists of a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet and measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In this apparatus, the incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam before encountering a converter foil. Compton electrons are ejected and collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the device. The position of the electrons on the magnet focal plane is a function of their energy, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent energy calibration measurements and the spectrum reconstruction of a Bremsstrahlung source will be presented. LA-UR-14-23602.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOEpatents

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.; Goulding, Frederick S.

    1991-01-01

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons Compton backscattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to monimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering.

  5. Relativistic induced Compton scattering in synchrotron self-absorbed sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincell, Mark W.; Krolik, Julian H.

    1994-01-01

    We present a model of the radio emission from synchrotron self-absorbed sources, including the effects of induced Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in the source. Order of magnitude estimates show that stimulated scattering becomes the dominant absorption process when (kT(sub B)/m(sub e) c(exp 2))Tau(sub T) greater than or approximately 1.0. Numerical simulations demonstrate that relativistic induced Compton scattering limits the brightness temperature of a self-absorbed synchroton sources to T(sub B) less than or approximately 2 x 10(exp 11) nu(exp -1/p + 3) (sub zero, 9) gamma(exp p + 2/p + 5) (sub min) K, where gamma(sub min) is the low-energy cutoff to the relativistic electron distribution with a power-law index of p. It can also significantly flatten the radio spectrum. The radio spectrum of the core of 3C 279 is well matched by a model in which stimulated scattering is important, and the additional constraint T(sub B) less than 2 x 10(exp 11)K may be important to the interpretation of the broadband spectra in variable extragalactic compact radio sources. Stimulated scattering reduces the amplitude of the radio frequency variability relative to the X-ray variability, an effect which can be detected by multiwavelength variability studies. Data for a sample of resolved compact radio cores indicate that it is inconsistent to neglect induced Compton scattering when inferring the physical parameters of the sources. The necessary generalizations to the standard synchrotron self-Compton theory are p resented.

  6. Resonant Compton scattering and gamma-ray burst continuum spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomson limit of resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars is considered as a mechanism for producing gamma-ray burst continuum spectra. Photon production spectra and electron cooling rates are presented using the full magnetic Thomson cross-section. Model emission spectra are obtained as self-consistent solutions of a set of photon and electron kinetic equations, displaying spectral breaks and other structure at gamma-ray energies.

  7. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palamà, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.

    2005-07-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the "Raphael's stanze".

  8. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the JLab real compton scattering experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D J; Wojtsekhowski, B; Annand, J.R. M.; Chang, T -H; Chudakov, E; Danagoulian, A; Degtyarenko, P; Egiyan, K; Gilman, R; Gorbenko, V; Hines, J; Hovhannisyan, E; Hyde-Wright, C E; de Jager, C W; Ketikyan, A; Mamyan, V H; Michaels, R; Natham, A M; Nelyubin, V; Rachek, I; Roedelbrom, M; Petrosyan, A; Pomatsalyuk, R; Popov, V; Segal, J; Shestakov, Y; Templon, J; Voskanyan, H

    2011-07-01

    A lead–glass hodoscope calorimeter that was constructed for use in the Jefferson Lab Real Compton Scattering experiment is described. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6%/View the MathML source. Features of both the detector design and its performance in the high luminosity environment during the experiment are presented.

  9. Nucleon Compton Scattering with Two Space-Like Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Afanasev; I. Akushevich; N.P. Merenkov

    2002-08-01

    We calculate two-photon exchange effects for elastic electron-proton scattering at high momentum transfers. The corresponding nucleon Compton amplitude is defined by two space-like virtual photons that appear to have significant virtualities. We make predictions for (a) a single-spin beam asymmetry, and (b) a single-spin target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization caused by an unpolarized electron beam.

  10. Magnetic properties of Ga doped cobalt ferrite: Compton scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arvind; Sahariya, Jagrati; Mund, H. S.; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2014-04-01

    We present the spin momentum density of Ga doped CoFe2O4 at 100 K using magnetic Compton scattering. The measurement has been performed using circularly polarized synchrotron radiations of 182.65 keV at SPring8, Japan. The experimental profile is decomposed into its constituent profile to determine the spin moment at individual sites. Co atom has the maximum contribution (about 58%) in the total spin moment of the doped CoFe2O4.

  11. Gamma-Ray Compton Light Source Development at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, Frederic; Anderson, Scott; Gibson, David; Hagmann, Chris; Johnson, Micah; Jovanovic, Igor; Messerly, Mike; Pruet, Jason; Shverdin, Miro; Tremaine, Aaron; McNabb, Dennis; Siders, Craig; Barty, Chris

    2007-03-01

    A new class of tunable, monochromatic gamma-ray sources capable of operating at high peak and average brightness is currently being developed at LLNL for nuclear photo-science and applications. These novel systems are based on Compton scattering of laser photons by a high brightness relativistic electron beam produced by an rf photoinjector. Key technologies, basic scaling laws, and recent experimental results will be presented, along with an overview of future research and development directions.

  12. Effect of position resolution on LoR discrimination for a dual-head Compton camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillam, John E.; Beveridge, Toby E.; Boston, Andrew J.; Boston, Helen C.; Cooper, Reynold J.; Hall, Chris J.; Mather, Andrew R.; Nolan, Paul J.; Lewis, Rob A.

    2007-04-01

    With the current increase in effective germanium semiconductor detection technology, a positron emission tomography system comprising two opposing HPGe detectors is under development. This type of detection offers not only improvement to some aspects of PET, but also the ability to record single-photon information in the detection process. This information can be used in stand-alone imaging, and also as an additional information source in the PET process. Discrimination based on this single-photon information was proposed; however, the effectiveness of this discrimination is dependent on the resolution of the single-photon information. Simulations of the detection system, in which the positional resolution of the interaction information is variable, was conducted. The single-photon information has then been used in the PET imaging process and its effect on image improvement shown. Much like mechanical collimation, electronic collimation may be used to remove false LoRs from an image, at the expense of efficiency. Moreover, unlike mechanical collimation, this trade off may be dynamically adjusted post data acquisition.

  13. Stabilizing dual-energy x-ray computed tomography reconstructions using patch-based regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracey, Brian H.; Miller, Eric L.

    2015-10-01

    Recent years have seen growing interest in exploiting dual- and multi-energy measurements in computed tomography (CT) in order to characterize material properties as well as object shape. Materials characterization is performed by decomposing the scene into constitutive basis functions, such as Compton scatter and photoelectric absorption functions. While well motivated physically, the joint recovery of the spatial distribution of photoelectric and Compton properties is severely complicated by the fact that the data are several orders of magnitude more sensitive to Compton scatter coefficients than to photoelectric absorption, so small errors in Compton estimates can create large artifacts in the photoelectric estimate. To address these issues, we propose a model-based iterative approach which uses patch-based regularization terms to stabilize inversion of photoelectric coefficients, and solve the resulting problem through use of computationally attractive alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) solution techniques. Using simulations and experimental data acquired on a commercial scanner, we demonstrate that the proposed processing can lead to more stable material property estimates which should aid materials characterization in future dual- and multi-energy CT systems.

  14. The Compton Polarimeter in Hall C of Jefferson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Amrendra

    2013-04-01

    A new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab and used during the Qweak experiment which aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.1%. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light stored in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in a lead tungstate crystal. We extract the beam polarization by fitting the experimental asymmetry for each detector strip to the corresponding asymmetry calculated in QED. During the experiment, we took data to cross-calibrate Moller and Compton polarimeters in Hall C. We will share our preliminary conclusions from this comparison. In this talk, we will also present the results from Monte Carlo studies performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties of the polarization measurement along with comparing results from two independent extraction of the polarization involving very different time scales. The Compton polarimeter has achieved the design goals of 1% statistical uncertainty per hour and we expect to achieve less than 1% systematic uncertainty.

  15. Laser-electron Compton interaction in plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hirose, T.

    1998-10-01

    A concept of high intensity femtosecond laser synchrotron source (LSS) is based on Compton backscattering of focused electron and laser beams. The short Rayleigh length of the focused laser beam limits the length of interaction to a few picoseconds. However, the technology of the high repetition rate high-average power picosecond lasers required for high put through LSS applications is not developed yet. Another problem associated with the picosecond laser pulses is undesirable nonlinear effects occurring when the laser photons are concentrated in a short time interval. To avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering, the laser beam has to be split, and the required hard radiation flux is accumulated over a number of consecutive interactions that complicates the LSS design. In order to relieve the technological constraints and achieve a practically feasible high-power laser synchrotron source, the authors propose to confine the laser-electron interaction region in the extended plasma channel. This approach permits to use nanosecond laser pulses instead of the picosecond pulses. That helps to avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering regime and allows to utilize already existing technology of the high-repetition rate TEA CO{sub 2} lasers operating at the atmospheric pressure. They demonstrate the advantages of the channeled LSS approach by the example of the prospective polarized positron source for Japan Linear Collider.

  16. LASER-ELECTRON COMPTON INTERACTION IN PLASMA CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    POGORELSKY,I.V.

    1998-10-01

    A concept of high intensity femtosecond laser synchrotron source (LSS) is based on Compton backscattering of focused electron and laser beams. The short Rayleigh length of the focused laser beam limits the length of interaction to a few picoseconds. However, the technology of the high repetition rate high-average power picosecond lasers required for high put through LSS applications is not developed yet. Another problem associated with the picosecond laser pulses is undesirable nonlinear effects occurring when the laser photons are concentrated in a short time interval. To avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering, the laser beam has to be split, and the required hard radiation flux is accumulated over a number of consecutive interactions that complicates the LSS design. In order to relieve the technological constraints and achieve a practically feasible high-power laser synchrotron source, we propose to confine the laser-electron interaction region in the extended plasma channel. This approach permits to use nanosecond laser pulses instead of the picosecond pulses. That helps to avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering regime and allows to utilize already existing technology of the high-repetition rate TEA CO{sub 2} lasers operating at the atmospheric pressure. We demonstrate the advantages of the channeled LSS approach by the example of the prospective polarized positron source for Japan Linear Collider.

  17. Non-linear Compton Scattering in Short Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Jerzy

    2012-06-01

    The generation of short X-ray laser pulses attracts a great deal of attention. One of mechanisms to achieve this goal is the non-linear Compton scattering at very high laser powers. The majority of previous works on the non-linear Compton scattering have been devoted to the case when the incident laser field is treated as a monochromatic plane wave. There is, however, recent interest in analyzing the effect of a pulsed laser field on the non-linear Compton scattering [1-4]. We study the process for different durations of the incident laser pulse and compare it with the results for both a plane wave laser field and a laser pulse train. [4pt] [1] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053403 (2009).[0pt] [2] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 446 (2011).[0pt] [3] D. Seipt and B. Kämpfer, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022101 (2011).[0pt] [4] F. Mackenroth and A. Di Piazza, Phys. Rev. A 83, 032106 (2011).

  18. The role of Compton scattering in scinti-mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Scopinaro, F.; Pergola, A.

    1996-12-31

    Functional breast imaging using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI is showing that this technique is able to detect cancer with more than 90% specificity. Using a dedicated gamma camera, with the breast under compression, i.e. in similar conditions of mammography, the detection of sub-centimeter cancers can be improved. A number of factors affects the detection of small cancers as: thickness of the breast, distance between tumor and collimator, cardiac activity. Radioactivity emitted from the body can obscure the breast activity mainly due to the large difference on radioactivity concentration. In this work we analyze the intensity and the energy distribution of Compton scattering coming from the breast by a Germanium detector and by a dedicated imager with a small FOV placed in a geometrical condition similar to mammography. In vivo measurements were performed in patients with a breast cancer ranging between 8 mm and 15 mm. Intensity of Compton scattering from 4 to 10 times greater than full energy peak events resulted. Measurements were compared with ones obtained by a phantom simulating the breast without chest activity demonstrating how large is the Compton contribution from the chest.

  19. High-resolution Compton line shapes: Fermi break of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Huotari, S.; Monaco, G.; Sternemann, C.; Volmer, M.; Schuelke, W.

    2007-12-15

    The Be[110] Compton profile was measured with high resolution utilizing x rays with energy of 16-18 keV. The momentum resolution due to the experimental factors was set to 0.018 atomic units of momentum (a.u.). Electron final-state effects were estimated to have an approximate broadening effect of the spectral features equivalent to 0.028 a.u., resulting in a total momentum resolution of 0.033 a.u., i.e., more than a factor of 2 better than in previous Compton scattering studies. In this way, it was possible to study the ground-state momentum density of the electrons in metallic beryllium with a very high accuracy. As a result, the Fermi-surface-related fine structure is well observed in the experimental Compton profile and its derivative. However, the observed features are broader and less pronounced than anticipated by theoretical estimates. The remaining difference may be due to a non-negligible ground-state correlation and its effects on the momentum density and the Fermi surface of beryllium metal.

  20. Three-dimensional theory of weakly nonlinear Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.; Hartemann, F. V.

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear effects are known to occur in light sources when the wiggler parameter, or normalized 4-potential, A =e√-AμAμ /m0c, approaches unity. In this paper, it is shown that nonlinear spectral features can appear at arbitrarily low values of A if the fractional bandwidth of the undulator, Δϕ-1, is sufficiently small and satisfies the condition A2Δϕ ˜1. Consequences for the spectral brightness of Compton scattering light sources are outlined. Compton and Thomson scattering theories are compared with the Klein-Nishina cross-section formula to highlight differences in the case of narrow band gamma-ray operation. A weakly nonlinear Compton scattering theory is developed in one (plane wave) and three (local plane wave approximation) dimensions. Analytical models are presented and benchmarked against numerical calculations solving the Lorentz force equation with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. Finally, narrow band gamma-ray spectra are calculated for realistic laser and electron beams.

  1. 15 CFR 730.6 - Control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control purposes. 730.6 Section 730.6... Control purposes. The export control provisions of the EAR are intended to serve the national security... carry out its international obligations. Some controls are designed to restrict access to dual use...

  2. 49 CFR 538.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to specify one of the criteria in 49 U.S.C. chapter 329 “Automobile Fuel Economy” for identifying dual-fueled passenger automobiles that are manufactured in model years 1993 through 2019. The...

  3. 49 CFR 538.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to specify one of the criteria in 49 U.S.C. chapter 329 “Automobile Fuel Economy” for identifying dual-fueled passenger automobiles that are manufactured in model years 1993 through 2019. The...

  4. 49 CFR 538.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to specify one of the criteria in 49 U.S.C. chapter 329 “Automobile Fuel Economy” for identifying dual-fueled passenger automobiles that are manufactured in model years 1993 through 2019. The...

  5. 49 CFR 538.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to specify one of the criteria in 49 U.S.C. chapter 329 “Automobile Fuel Economy” for identifying dual-fueled passenger automobiles that are manufactured in model years 1993 through 2019. The...

  6. 49 CFR 538.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to specify one of the criteria in 49 U.S.C. chapter 329 “Automobile Fuel Economy” for identifying dual-fueled passenger automobiles that are manufactured in model years 1993 through 2019. The...

  7. Compton DIV: Using a Compton-Based Gamma-Ray Imager for Design Information Verification of Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, M; Verbeke, J; Dougan, A; Wang, T; Decman, D

    2009-07-04

    A feasibility study has been performed to determine the potential usefulness of Compton imaging as a tool for design information verification (DIV) of uranium enrichment plants. Compton imaging is a method of gamma-ray imaging capable of imaging with a 360-degree field of view over a broad range of energies. These systems can image a room (with a time span on the order of one hour) and return a picture of the distribution and composition of radioactive material in that room. The effectiveness of Compton imaging depends on the sensitivity and resolution of the instrument as well the strength and energy of the radioactive material to be imaged. This study combined measurements and simulations to examine the specific issue of UF{sub 6} gas flow in pipes, at various enrichment levels, as well as hold-up resulting from the accumulation of enriched material in those pipes. It was found that current generation imagers could image pipes carrying UF{sub 6} in less than one hour at moderate to high enrichment. Pipes with low enriched gas would require more time. It was also found that hold-up was more amenable to this technique and could be imaged in gram quantities in a fraction of an hour. another questions arises regarding the ability to separately image two pipes spaced closely together. This depends on the capabilities of the instrument in question. These results are described in detail. In addition, suggestions are given as to how to develop Compton imaging as a tool for DIV.

  8. Densitometry and temperature measurement of combustion gas by X-ray Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Itou, Masayoshi; Tomita, Eiji; Suzuki, Kosuke; Sakurai, Yoshiharu

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of combustion gas by high-energy X-ray Compton scattering is reported. The intensity of Compton-scattered X-rays has shown a position dependence across the flame of the combustion gas, allowing us to estimate the temperature distribution of the combustion flame. The energy spectra of Compton-scattered X-rays have revealed a significant difference across the combustion reaction zone, which enables us to detect the combustion reaction. These results demonstrate that high-energy X-ray Compton scattering can be employed as an in situ technique to probe inside a combustion reaction.

  9. Densitometry and temperature measurement of combustion gas by X-ray Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Itou, Masayoshi; Tomita, Eiji; Suzuki, Kosuke; Sakurai, Yoshiharu

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of combustion gas by high-energy X-ray Compton scattering is reported. The intensity of Compton-scattered X-rays has shown a position dependence across the flame of the combustion gas, allowing us to estimate the temperature distribution of the combustion flame. The energy spectra of Compton-scattered X-rays have revealed a significant difference across the combustion reaction zone, which enables us to detect the combustion reaction. These results demonstrate that high-energy X-ray Compton scattering can be employed as an in situ technique to probe inside a combustion reaction. PMID:26917151

  10. Densitometry and temperature measurement of combustion gas by X-ray Compton scattering

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Itou, Masayoshi; Tomita, Eiji; Suzuki, Kosuke; Sakurai, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of combustion gas by high-energy X-ray Compton scattering is reported. The intensity of Compton-scattered X-rays has shown a position dependence across the flame of the combustion gas, allowing us to estimate the temperature distribution of the combustion flame. The energy spectra of Compton-scattered X-rays have revealed a significant difference across the combustion reaction zone, which enables us to detect the combustion reaction. These results demonstrate that high-energy X-ray Compton scattering can be employed as an in situ technique to probe inside a combustion reaction. PMID:26917151

  11. A mathematical approach to image reconstruction on dual-energy computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwhan; Ahn, Chi Young; Kang, Sung-Ho; Ha, Taeyoung; Jeon, Kiwan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we provide a mathematical approach to reconstruct the Compton scatter and photo-electronic coefficients using the dual-energy CT system. The proposed imaging method is based on the mean value theorem to handle the non-linear integration coming from the polychromatic energy based CT scan system. We show a numerical simulation result for the validation of the proposed algorithm

  12. Testing of the BGO Compton-suppression detectors for gammasphere

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Annan, G.A.

    1995-08-01

    Gammasphere, the national {gamma}-ray facility, when completed will consist of 110 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. The bismuth germanate (BGO) Compton-suppression detector system for each Ge detector consists of one tapered hexagonal BGO side shield and one slotted BGO back plug. Due to the geometry of the array, three types of annular shields are required. These types are referred to as B, C and D, and the array consists of 60, 30 and 20 of these units, respectively. Shield types B, C and D have a hexagonal geometry. They are divided into six optically separate sections, each with its own pair of photomultiplier tubes. Argonne assumed responsibility for the procurement and testing of the BGO Compton-suppression units. We received all detectors from the two vendors. In the past year, twenty-four of the B-type detectors were delivered to Stony Brook for evaluation tests. Since the number of crystals to test is quite large (six per detector), we involved undergraduate students working at ANL under the Department of Educational Programs (DEP) in this effort. The quality of students was excellent, and they played a major role in the performance testing of these detectors. Ninety-nine of the hexagonal side shields and 112 backplug detectors were shipped to LBL for use in Gammasphere. The remaining detectors did not meet the performance criteria when they were first delivered and tested and are either at the vendor being repaired or were returned to us for retesting. We anticipate that the remaining detectors will be ready for use in Gammasphere within the next few months.

  13. External inverse-Compton emission from jetted tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-05-01

    The recent discoveries of Sw J1644+57 and Sw J2058+05 show that tidal disruption events (TDEs) can launch relativistic jets. Super-Eddington accretion produces a strong radiation field of order Eddington luminosity. In a jetted TDE, electrons in the jet will inverse-Compton scatter the photons from the accretion disc and wind (external radiation field). Motivated by observations of thermal optical-UV spectra in Sw J2058+05 and several other TDEs, we assume the spectrum of the external radiation field intercepted by the relativistic jet to be blackbody. Hot electrons in the jet scatter this thermal radiation and produce luminosities 1045-1048 erg s- 1 in the X/γ-ray band. This model of thermal plus inverse-Compton radiation is applied to Sw J2058+05. First, we show that the blackbody component in the optical-UV spectrum most likely has its origin in the super-Eddington wind from the disc. Then, using the observed blackbody component as the external radiation field, we show that the X-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with the inverse-Compton emission, under the following conditions: (1) the jet Lorentz factor is Γ ≃ 5-10; (2) electrons in the jet have a power-law distribution dN_e/dγ _e ∝ γ _e^{-p} with γmin ˜ 1 and p = 2.4; (3) the wind is mildly relativistic (Lorentz factor ≳ 1.5) and has isotropic-equivalent mass-loss rate ˜ 5 M⊙ yr- 1. We describe the implications for jet composition and the radius where jet energy is converted to radiation.

  14. Nonlinear single Compton scattering of an electron wave packet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angioi, A.; Mackenroth, F.; Di Piazza, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear single Compton scattering has been thoroughly investigated in the literature under the assumption that the electron initially has a definite momentum. Here, we study a more general initial state and consider the electron as a wave packet. In particular, we investigate the energy spectrum of the emitted radiation and show that, in typical experimental situations, some features of the spectra shown in previous works are almost completely washed out. Moreover, we show that, at comparable relative uncertainties, the one in the momentum of the incoming electron has a larger impact on the photon spectra at a fixed observation direction than the one on the laser frequency.

  15. Compton imager based on a single planar segmented HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaplanov, A.; Pettersson, J.; Cederwall, B.

    2007-10-01

    A collimator-free Compton imaging system has been developed based on a single high-purity germanium detector and used to generate images of radioactive sources emitting γ rays. The detector has a planar crystal with one pixellated contact with a total of 25 segments. Pulse shape analysis has been applied to achieve a 3D-position sensitivity of the detector. The first imaging results from this detector are presented, based on the reconstruction of events where a γ ray is fully absorbed after scattering between adjacent segments.

  16. Polarisation Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, David Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E99-114 comprised a series of measurements to explore proton Compton scattering at high momentum transfer. For the first time, the polarisation transfer observables in the p ($\\vec{γ}$, γ' \\vec{p}$) reaction were measured in the GeV energy range, where it is believed that quark-gluon degrees of freedom begin to dominate. The experiment utilised a circularly polarised photon beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target, with the scattered photon and recoil proton detected in a lead-glass calorimeter and a magnetic spectrometer, respectively.

  17. Magnetic Bunch Compression for a Compact Compton Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gamage, B.; Satogata, Todd J.

    2013-12-01

    A compact electron accelerator suitable for Compton source applications is in design at the Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University and Jefferson Lab. Here we discuss two options for transverse magnetic bunch compression and final focus, each involving a 4-dipole chicane with M_{56} tunable over a range of 1.5-2.0m with independent tuning of final focus to interaction point $\\beta$*=5mm. One design has no net bending, while the other has net bending of 90 degrees and is suitable for compact corner placement.

  18. Quantum radiation reaction effects in multiphoton Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Di Piazza, A; Hatsagortsyan, K Z; Keitel, C H

    2010-11-26

    Radiation reaction effects in the interaction of an electron and a strong laser field are investigated in the realm of quantum electrodynamics. We identify the quantum radiation reaction with the multiple photon recoils experienced by the laser-driven electron due to consecutive incoherent photon emissions. After determining a quantum radiation dominated regime, we demonstrate how in this regime quantum signatures of the radiation reaction strongly affect multiphoton Compton scattering spectra and that they could be measurable in principle with presently available laser technology.

  19. Compton scattering from positronium and validity of the impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaliman, Z.; Pisk, K.; Pratt, R. H.

    2011-05-15

    The cross sections for Compton scattering from positronium are calculated in the range from 1 to 100 keV incident photon energy. The calculations are based on the A{sup 2} term of the photon-electron or photon-positron interaction. Unlike in hydrogen, the scattering occurs from two centers and the interference effect plays an important role for energies below 8 keV. Because of the interference, the criterion for validity of the impulse approximation for positronium is more restrictive compared to that for hydrogen.

  20. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at JLab Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Voutier

    2007-04-16

    The deeply virtual Compton scattering reaction has been investigated in the Hall A of the Jefferson Laboratory by measuring longitudinally polarized (e,e'gamma) cross sections, in the valence quark region, for protons and neutrons. In the proton channel, experimental results strongly support the factorization of the cross section at Q2 as low as 2 GeV2, opening the path to systematic measurements of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In the neutron case, preliminary data show sensitivity to the angular momentum of quarks.

  1. Large-Scale Compton Imaging for Wide-Area Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, D J; Manini, H A; Wright, D M

    2006-03-01

    We study the performance of a large-scale Compton imaging detector placed in a low-flying aircraft, used to search wide areas for rad/nuc threat sources. In this paper we investigate the performance potential of equipping aerial platforms with gamma-ray detectors that have photon sensitivity up to a few MeV. We simulate the detector performance, and present receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for a benchmark scenario using a {sup 137}Cs source. The analysis uses a realistic environmental background energy spectrum and includes air attenuation.

  2. Filtered back-projection algorithm for Compton telescopes

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Donald L.

    2008-03-18

    A method for the conversion of Compton camera data into a 2D image of the incident-radiation flux on the celestial sphere includes detecting coincident gamma radiation flux arriving from various directions of a 2-sphere. These events are mapped by back-projection onto the 2-sphere to produce a convolution integral that is subsequently stereographically projected onto a 2-plane to produce a second convolution integral which is deconvolved by the Fourier method to produce an image that is then projected onto the 2-sphere.

  3. Quantum Radiation Reaction Effects in Multiphoton Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Di Piazza, A.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.

    2010-11-26

    Radiation reaction effects in the interaction of an electron and a strong laser field are investigated in the realm of quantum electrodynamics. We identify the quantum radiation reaction with the multiple photon recoils experienced by the laser-driven electron due to consecutive incoherent photon emissions. After determining a quantum radiation dominated regime, we demonstrate how in this regime quantum signatures of the radiation reaction strongly affect multiphoton Compton scattering spectra and that they could be measurable in principle with presently available laser technology.

  4. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M.; Mamyan, V.H.; Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G.; Bosted, P.; Paschke, K.; Calarco, J.R.; Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N.; Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Chen, J.-P.

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  5. A hard X-ray polarimeter utilizing Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, H.; Noma, M.; Niizeki, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a 50-cm-diam prototype of a novel Compton-scattering-type polarimeter for hard X-rays in the energy range 30-100 keV. The characteristics of the prototype polarimeter were investigated for various conditions. It was found that, with polarized X-rays from a simple polarizer, the detection efficiency and the modulation factor of the polarimeter with a 40-mm thick scatterer were 3.2 percent and 0.57 percent, respectively, at about 60 keV.

  6. Two-photon Compton process in pulsed intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipt, Daniel; Kämpfer, Burkhard

    2012-05-01

    Based on strong-field QED in the Furry picture we use the Dirac-Volkov propagator to derive a compact expression for the differential emission probability of the two-photon Compton process in a pulsed intense laser field. The relation of real and virtual intermediate states is discussed, and the natural regularization of the on-shell contributions due to the finite laser pulse is highlighted. The inclusive two-photon spectrum is 2 orders of magnitude stronger than expected from a perturbative estimate.

  7. Time Projection Compton Spectrometer (TPCS). User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Landron, C.O.; Baldwin, G.T.

    1994-04-01

    The Time Projection Compton Spectrometer (TPCS) is a radiation diagnostic designed to determine the time-integrated energy spectrum between 100 keV -- 2 MeV of flash x-ray sources. This guide is intended as a reference for the routine operator of the TPCS. Contents include a brief overview of the principle of operation, detailed component descriptions, detailed assembly and disassembly procedures, guide to routine operations, and troubleshooting flowcharts. Detailed principle of operation, signal analysis and spectrum unfold algorithms are beyond the scope of this guide; however, the guide makes reference to sources containing this information.

  8. The equivalence of inverse Compton scattering and the undulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y,; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Inverse Compton scattering is a method to produce very high frequency photon beam. However, the production mechanism can also be viewed as a undulator emission. This is because the electron sees electric and magnetic fields of the incident laser beam and is driven into transverse oscillatory motion in exactly the same way when the electron passes through a undulator consisting of alternating magnetic field. This note gives a detailed examination of the similarity about the two views. Equivalent undulator parameters are derived for the incident laser beam, as well as the differential cross section of photon emission.

  9. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  10. Development of a Compton camera for safeguards applications in a pyroprocessing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Young Su; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Seo, Hee; Park, Se-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2014-11-01

    The Compton camera has a potential to be used for localizing nuclear materials in a large pyroprocessing facility due to its unique Compton kinematics-based electronic collimation method. Our R&D group, KAERI, and Hanyang University have made an effort to develop a scintillation-detector-based large-area Compton camera for safeguards applications. In the present study, a series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed with Geant4 in order to examine the effect of the detector parameters and the feasibility of using a Compton camera to obtain an image of the nuclear material distribution. Based on the simulation study, experimental studies were performed to assess the possibility of Compton imaging in accordance with the type of the crystal. Two different types of Compton cameras were fabricated and tested with a pixelated type of LYSO (Ce) and a monolithic type of NaI(Tl). The conclusions of this study as a design rule for a large-area Compton camera can be summarized as follows: 1) The energy resolution, rather than position resolution, of the component detector was the limiting factor for the imaging resolution, 2) the Compton imaging system needs to be placed as close as possible to the source location, and 3) both pixelated and monolithic types of crystals can be utilized; however, the monolithic types, require a stochastic-method-based position-estimating algorithm for improving the position resolution.

  11. Nucleon polarizabilities: From Compton scattering to hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelstein, Franziska; Miskimen, Rory; Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of the nucleon polarizabilities and of their role in nucleon Compton scattering and in hydrogen spectrum. We discuss the basic concepts, the recent lattice QCD calculations and advances in chiral effective-field theory. On the experimental side, we review the ongoing programs aimed to measure the nucleon (scalar and spin) polarizabilities via the Compton scattering processes, with real and virtual photons. A great part of the review is devoted to the general constraints based on unitarity, causality, discrete and continuous symmetries, which result in model-independent relations involving nucleon polarizabilities. We (re-)derive a variety of such relations and discuss their empirical value. The proton polarizability effects are presently the major sources of uncertainty in the assessment of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and hyperfine structure. Recent calculations of these effects are reviewed here in the context of the "proton-radius puzzle". We conclude with summary plots of the recent results and prospects for the near-future work.

  12. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  13. Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-12-01

    Bright AGN frequently show ultrafast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ˜ 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one-temperature regime, 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component. The limits on the 2T emission are far weaker, and in fact it is possible that the observed soft X-ray excess of AGN is partially or fully due to the 2T shock emission. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encourage X-ray observers to look for the inverse Compton components calculated here in order to constrain AGN feedback models further.

  14. The polarization effect of a laser in multiphoton Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo-Hua; Lü, Qing-Zheng; Teng, Ai-Ping; Li, Ying-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The multiphoton Compton scattering in a high-intensity laser beam is studied by using the laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics (QED) method, which is a non-perturbative theory for the interaction between a plane electromagnetic field and a charged particle. In order to analyze in the real experimental condition, a Lorentz transformation for the cross section of this process is derived between the laboratory frame and the initial rest frame of electrons. The energy of the scattered photon is analyzed, as well as the cross sections for different laser intensities and polarizations and different electron velocities. The angular distribution of the emitted photon is investigated in a special velocity of the electron, in which for a fixed number of absorbed photons, the electron energy will not change after the scattering in the lab frame. We obtain the conclusion that higher laser intensities suppress few-laser-photon absorption and enhance more-laser-photon absorption. A comparison between different polarizations is also made, and we find that the linearly polarized laser is more suitable to generate nonlinear Compton scattering.

  15. Gamma-ray burst polarization via Compton scattering process

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering are widely accepted as the most likely emission mechanisms of some astrophysical phenomena, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei. The measurement of the polarization of photons provides a useful tool to distinguish different emission mechanisms and structures of the emission region. Based on the differential cross section of a polarized photon scattered by an unpolarized electron of any initial momentum, we derive an analytical formula of polarization for beamed photons scattered by isotropic electrons with a power-law distribution. Numerical calculations are carried out in four special cases: electrons at rest, Thomson limit, head-on collision, and monochromatic electrons. It is found that the maximum polarization can be as high as 100% for low energy photons, if the electrons are at rest. Although polarization is highly suppressed due to the isotropic electrons, a maximum value of ∼10%-20% can still be achieved. The Compton scattering process can be used to explain the polarization of GRB 041219A and GRB 100826A.

  16. Compton profile study and electronic properties of tantalum diboride.

    PubMed

    Raykar, Veera; Bhamu, K C; Ahuja, B L

    2013-07-01

    We have reported the first-ever experimental Compton profile (CP) of TaB2 using 20 Ci(137)Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare the experimental data, we have also computed the theoretical CPs using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and Hartree-Fock (HF) within linear combination of the atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. In addition, we have reported energy bands and density of states of TaB2 using LCAO and full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) methods. A real space analysis of CP of TaB2 confirms its metallic character which is in tune with the cross-overs of Fermi level by energy bands and Fermi surface topology. A comparison of equal-valence-electron-density (EVED) experimental profiles of isoelectronic TaB2 and NbB2 show more covalent (or less ionic) character of TaB2 than that of NbB2 which is in agreement with available ionicity data.

  17. Virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.; Korchin, A.Y.; Koch, J.H.

    1996-08-01

    We investigate the low-energy behavior of the four-point Green{close_quote}s function {Gamma}{sup {mu}{nu}} describing virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon. Using Lorentz invariance, gauge invariance, and crossing symmetry, we derive the leading terms of an expansion of the operator in the four-momenta {ital q} and {ital q}{sup {prime}} of the initial and final photon, respectively. The model-independent result is expressed in terms of the electromagnetic form factors of the free nucleon, i.e., on-shell information which one obtains from electron-nucleon scattering experiments. Model-dependent terms appear in the operator at {ital O}({ital q}{sub {alpha}}{ital q}{sub {beta}}{sup {prime}}), whereas the orders {ital O}({ital q}{sub {alpha}}{ital q}{sub {beta}}) and {ital O}({ital q}{sub {alpha}}{sup {prime}}{ital q}{sub {beta}}{sup {prime}}) are contained in the low-energy theorem for {Gamma}{sup {mu}{nu}}, i.e., no new parameters appear. We discuss the leading terms of the matrix element and comment on the use of on-shell equivalent electromagnetic vertices in the calculation of {open_quote}{open_quote}Born terms{close_quote}{close_quote} for virtual Compton scattering. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. A storage ring based inverse Compton scattering angiography source?

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, E.B.

    1993-09-01

    Producing the 33.17 keV photons required for coronary angiography with synchrotron radiation requires a combination of a high energy storage ring with an extremely high field wiggler. Such a source may be too big and expensive to be installed in even the largest medical center. Something other than synchrotron radiation may be needed for a practical source. Inverse Compton scattering has been used in the LEGS experiment at NSLS and elsewhere to produce high energy photons. In this process, a head on collision between a low energy photon and a high energy electron transfers energy to the photon which is then emitted in approximately the direction of the incoming electron. For a given electron energy, more higher energy photons can be produced by this method than by synchrotron radiation. This suggests that inverse Compton scattering can possibly be used for a low cost angiography source. The prospects for such a source will be examined in this paper. Unfortunately, the results will show that although it is easy to obtain the required photon energy, an extremely complicated source will be needed to produce the required number of photons.

  19. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: Lessons Learned in Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, G. A.; Joseph, G. W.; Behrens, H. W.; Asato, D. I.; Carlson, R. A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was the second of NASA's Great Observatories. At 17 1/2 tons. it was the heaviest astrophysical payload ever flown at the time of its launch on April 5, 1991 aboard the Space Shuttle. During initial, on-orbit priming of the spacecraft's monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system, a severe waterhammer transient was experienced. At that time, anomalous telemetry readings were received from on-board propulsion system instrumentation. This led to ground analyses and laboratory investigations as to the root cause of the waterhammer, potential damage to system integrity and functionality, and risks for switching from the primary (A-side) propulsion system to the redundant (B-side) system. The switchover to B-side was ultimately performed successfully and the spacecraft completed its basic and extended missions in this configuration. Nine years later, following a critical control gyroscope failure, Compton was safely deorbited and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on June 4, 2000. Additional risk assessments concerning viability of A- and B-sides were necessary to provide confidence in attitude and delta-V authority and reliability to manage the precisely controlled reentry. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the propulsion system used on the spacecraft and provides "lessons learned" from the system engineering investigations into the propellant loading procedures, the initial priming anomaly, mission operations, and the commanded re-entry following the gyro failure.

  20. Design of a coded aperture Compton telescope imaging system (CACTIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovskii, Alexander; Clajus, Martin; Gottesman, Stephen R.; Malik, Hans; Schwartz, Kenneth; Tumer, Evren; Tumer, Tumay; Yin, Shi

    2010-08-01

    We have developed a prototype of a scalable high-resolution direction and energy sensitive gamma-ray detection system that operates in both coded aperture (CA) and Compton scatter (CS) modes to obtain optimal efficiency and angular resolution over a wide energy range. The design consists of an active coded aperture constructed from 52 individual CZT planar detectors each measuring 3×3×6 mm3 arranged in a MURA pattern on a 10×10 grid, with a monolithic 20×20×5 mm3 pixelated (8×8) CZT array serving as the focal plane. The combined mode is achieved by using the aperture plane array for both Compton scattering of high-energy photons and as a coded mask for low-energy radiation. The prototype instrument was built using two RENA-3 test systems, one each for the aperture and the focal plane, stacked on top of each other at a distance of 130 mm. The test systems were modified to coordinate (synchronize) readout and provide coincidence information of events within a user-adjustable 40-1,280 ns window. The measured angular resolution of the device is <1 deg (17 mrad) in CA mode and is predicted to be approximately 3 deg (54 mrad) in CS mode. The energy resolution of the CZT detectors is approximately 5% FWHM at 120 keV. We will present details of the system design and initial results for the calibration and performance of the prototype.

  1. A Monte Carlo evaluation of three Compton camera absorbers.

    PubMed

    Uche, C Z; Round, W H; Cree, M J

    2011-09-01

    We present a quantitative study on the performance of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and germanium (Ge) detectors as potential Compton camera absorbers. The GEANT4 toolkit was used to model the performance of these materials over the nuclear medicine energy range. CZT and Ge demonstrate the highest and lowest efficiencies respectively. Although the best spatial resolution was attained for Ge, its lowest ratio of single photoelectric to multiple interactions suggests that it is most prone to inter-pixel cross-talk. In contrast, CZT, which demonstrates the least positioning error due to multiple interactions, has a comparable spatial resolution with Ge. Therefore, we modelled a Compton camera system based on silicon (Si) and CZT as the scatterer and absorber respectively. The effects of the detector parameters of our proposed system on image resolution were evaluated and our results show good agreement with previous studies. Interestingly, spatial resolution which accounted for the least image degradation at 140.5 keV became the dominant degrading factor at 511 keV, indicating that the absorber parameters play some key roles at higher energies. The results of this study have validated the predictions by An et al. which state that the use of a higher energy gamma source together with reduction of the absorber segmentation to sub-millimetre could achieve the image resolution of 5 mm required in medical imaging.

  2. Development of Compton gamma-ray sources at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M. J.; Prantil, M. A.; Wu, S.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2012-12-21

    Compact Compton scattering gamma-ray sources offer the potential of studying nuclear photonics with new tools. The optimization of such sources depends on the final application, but generally requires maximizing the spectral density (photons/eV) of the gamma-ray beam while simultaneously reducing the overall bandwidth on target to minimize noise. We have developed an advanced design for one such system, comprising the RF drive, photoinjector, accelerator, and electron-generating and electron-scattering laser systems. This system uses a 120 Hz, 250 pC, 2 ps, 0.35 mm mrad electron beam with 250 MeV maximum energy in an X-band accelerator scattering off a 150 mJ, 10 ps, 532 nm laser to generate 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} photons/eV/s/Sr at 0.5 MeV with an overall bandwidth of less than 1%. The source will be able to produce photons up to energies of 2.5 MeV. We also discuss Compton scattering gamma-ray source predictions given by numerical codes.

  3. Energy measurement of electron beams by Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppel, Cynthia

    1995-01-01

    A method has been proposed to utilize the well-known Compton scattering process as a tool to measure the centroid energy of a high energy electron beam at the 0.01% level. It is suggested to use the Compton scattering of an infrared laser off the electron beam, and then to measure the energy of the scattered gamma-rays very precisely using solid-state detectors. The technique proposed is applicable for electron beams with energies from 200 MeV to 16 GeV using presently available lasers. This technique was judged to be the most viable of all those proposed for beam energy measurements at the nearby Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Plans for a prototype test of the technique are underway, where the main issues are the possible photon backgrounds associated with an electron accelerator and the electron and laser beam stabilities and diagnostics. The bulk of my ASEE summer research has been spent utilizing the expertise of the staff at the Aerospace Electronics Systems Division at LaRC to assist in the design of the test. Investigations were made regarding window and mirror transmission and radiation damage issues, remote movement of elements in ultra-high vacuum conditions, etc. The prototype test of the proposed laser backscattering method is planned for this December.

  4. Inspection of reinforced concrete samples by Compton backscattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldo, E. M.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2014-02-01

    Reinforced concrete structures require frequent monitoring to ensure the concrete quality during its service life and for evaluation of in situ existing conditions. Compton backscattering of gamma rays is a nondestructive technique used for material characterization and detection of defects and inclusions in materials and can be employed on reinforced concrete. The methodology allows one-sided inspection of large structures, is relatively inexpensive and can be portable. The concept is based on detection of backscattered radiation produced from a collimated beam aimed at the sample. By measuring the spectrum of these scattered gamma rays it is possible to determine local density perturbations. In this work we used the Compton backscattering technique to locate and measure steel, defects and crushed stone inside concrete. The samples were irradiated with gamma rays from a Ø2 mm diameter collimated 241Am (100 mCi) source and the inelastically scattered photons were recorded at an angle of 135° by a high resolution CdTe semiconductor detector. Scanning was achieved by lateral movement of the sample blocks across the source and detector field of view in steps of 1 mm. A previous optimization of the experimental setup was performed with Monte Carlo simulation. The results showed that it was possible to locate inclusions and defects with Ø8 mm positioned at a depth of 20 mm below the surface of the sample. It was observed that aggregates such as crushed stone could mask defects at specific points due to high attenuation of the incident and scattered beam.

  5. Development of Compton gamma-ray sources at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M. J.; Prantil, M. A.; Wu, S.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Compact Compton scattering gamma-ray sources offer the potential of studying nuclear photonics with new tools. The optimization of such sources depends on the final application, but generally requires maximizing the spectral density (photons/eV) of the gamma-ray beam while simultaneously reducing the overall bandwidth on target to minimize noise. We have developed an advanced design for one such system, comprising the RF drive, photoinjector, accelerator, and electron-generating and electron-scattering laser systems. This system uses a 120 Hz, 250 pC, 2 ps, 0.35 mm mrad electron beam with 250 MeV maximum energy in an X-band accelerator scattering off a 150 mJ, 10 ps, 532 nm laser to generate 5 × 1010 photons/eV/s/Sr at 0.5 MeV with an overall bandwidth of less than 1%. The source will be able to produce photons up to energies of 2.5 MeV. We also discuss Compton scattering gamma-ray source predictions given by numerical codes.

  6. The effect of relativistic Compton scattering on thermonuclear burn of pure deuterium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemizad, A.; Nazirzadeh, M.; Khanbabaei, B.

    2016-08-01

    The relativistic effects of the Compton scattering on the thermonuclear burn-up of pure deuterium fuel in non-equilibrium plasma have been studied by four temperature (4T) theory. In the limit of low electron temperatures and photon energies, the nonrelativistic Compton scattering is valid and a convenient approximation, but in the high energy exchange rates between electrons and photons, is seen to break down. The deficiencies of the nonrelativistic approximation can be overcome by using the relativistic correction in the photons kinetic equation. In this research, we have utilized the four temperature (4T) theory to calculate the critical burn-up parameter for pure deuterium fuel, while the Compton scattering is considered as a relativistic phenomenon. It was shown that the measured critical burn-up parameter in ignition with relativistic Compton scattering is smaller than that of the parameter in the ignition with the nonrelativistic Compton scattering.

  7. Stochastic image reconstruction for a dual-particle imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, M. C.; Polack, J. K.; Poitrasson-Rivière, A.; Flaska, M.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

    2016-02-01

    Stochastic image reconstruction has been applied to a dual-particle imaging system being designed for nuclear safeguards applications. The dual-particle imager (DPI) is a combined Compton-scatter and neutron-scatter camera capable of producing separate neutron and photon images. The stochastic origin ensembles (SOE) method was investigated as an imaging method for the DPI because only a minimal estimation of system response is required to produce images with quality that is comparable to common maximum-likelihood methods. This work contains neutron and photon SOE image reconstructions for a 252Cf point source, two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel canisters representing point sources, and the MOX fuel canisters representing a distributed source. Simulation of the DPI using MCNPX-PoliMi is validated by comparison of simulated and measured results. Because image quality is dependent on the number of counts and iterations used, the relationship between these quantities is investigated.

  8. Induced Compton Scattering by Relativistic Electrons in Magnetized Astrophysical Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincell, Mark William

    1994-01-01

    The effects of stimulated scattering on high brightness temperature radiation are studied in two important contexts. In the first case, we assume that the radiation is confined to a collimated beam traversing a relativistically streaming magnetized plasma. When the plasma is cold in the bulk frame, stimulated scattering is only significant if the angle between the photon motion and the plasma velocity is less than gamma^{-1} , where gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor. Under the assumption that the center of the photon beam is parallel to the bulk motion, we calculate the scattering rate as a function of the angular spread of the beam and gamma. Magnetization changes the photon recoil, without which stimulated scattering has no effect. It also introduces a strong dependence on frequency and polarization: if the photon frequency matches the electron cyclotron frequency, the scattering rate of photons polarized perpendicular to the magnetic field can be substantially enhanced relative to Thomson, and if the photon frequency is much less than the cyclotron frequency the scattering is suppressed. Applying these calculations to pulsars, we find that stimulated scattering of the radio beam in the magnetized wind believed to exist outside the light cylinder can substantially alter the spectrum and polarization state of the radio signal. We suggest that the scattering rate is so high in some pulsars that the ability of the radio signal to penetrate the pulsar magnetosphere requires modification of either the conventional model of the magnetosphere or assumptions about the effects of stimulated scattering upon a beam. In the second case, we present a model of the radio emission from synchrotron self-absorbed sources, including the effects of induced Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in the source. Order of magnitude estimates show that stimulated scattering becomes the dominant absorption process when (kTB/m ec^2)tau_{T }_sp{~}> 0.1. Numerical simulations

  9. Determination of electron beam polarization using electron detector in Compton polarimeter with less than 1% statistical and systematic uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Amrendra

    2015-05-01

    The Q-weak experiment aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.2%. The proposed precision on weak charge required a 2.5% measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron - proton scattering. Polarimetry was the largest experimental contribution to this uncertainty and a new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to make the goal achievable. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in lead tungstate crystals. This diamond micro-strip detector is the first such device to be used as a tracking detector in a nuclear and particle physics experiment. The diamond detectors are read out using custom built electronic modules that include a preamplifier, a pulse shaping amplifier and a discriminator for each detector micro-strip. We use field programmable gate array based general purpose logic modules for event selection and histogramming. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations and data acquisition simulations were performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties. Additionally, the Moller and Compton polarimeters were cross calibrated at low electron beam currents using a series of interleaved measurements. In this dissertation, we describe all the subsystems of the Compton polarimeter with emphasis on the electron detector. We focus on the FPGA based data acquisition system built by the author and the data analysis methods implemented by the author. The simulations of the data acquisition and the polarimeter that helped rigorously establish the systematic uncertainties of the polarimeter are also elaborated, resulting in the first sub 1% measurement of low energy (?1 GeV) electron beam polarization with a Compton electron detector. We have demonstrated that diamond based micro-strip detectors can be used for tracking in a

  10. Determination of electron beam polarization using electron detector in Compton polarimeter with less than 1% statistical and systematic uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Amrendra

    The Q-weak experiment aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.2%. The proposed precision on weak charge required a 2.5% measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron - proton scattering. Polarimetry was the largest experimental contribution to this uncertainty and a new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to make the goal achievable. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in lead tungstate crystals. This diamond micro-strip detector is the first such device to be used as a tracking detector in a nuclear and particle physics experiment. The diamond detectors are read out using custom built electronic modules that include a preamplifier, a pulse shaping amplifier and a discriminator for each detector micro-strip. We use field programmable gate array based general purpose logic modules for event selection and histogramming. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations and data acquisition simulations were performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties. Additionally, the Moller and Compton polarimeters were cross calibrated at low electron beam currents using a series of interleaved measurements. In this dissertation, we describe all the subsystems of the Compton polarimeter with emphasis on the electron detector. We focus on the FPGA based data acquisition system built by the author and the data analysis methods implemented by the author. The simulations of the data acquisition and the polarimeter that helped rigorously establish the systematic uncertainties of the polarimeter are also elaborated, resulting in the first sub 1% measurement of low energy (~1GeV) electron beam polarization with a Compton electron detector. We have demonstrated that diamond based micro-strip detectors can be used for tracking in a

  11. Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, L.N.

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

  12. A DUAL mission for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ballmoos, Peter; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Boggs, Steven E.

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. In order to take full advantage of this potential, the next generation of instrumentation for this domain will have to achieve an improvement in sensitivity over present technologies of at least an order of magnitude. The DUAL mission concept takes up this challenge in two complementary ways. While the Wide-Field Compton Telescope (WCT) accumulates data from the full γ-ray sky (100 keV-10 MeV) over the entire mission lifetime, the Laue-Lens Concentrator (LLC) focuses on 56Co emission from SNe Ia (800-900 keV), collecting γ-rays from its large area crystal lens onto the WCT. A boom or two separated spacecraft flying in formation will maintain the gamma-ray optics and detector at the lens' focal distance. The sensitive gamma-ray spectroscopy that can be performed by DUAL addresses a wide range of fundamental astrophysical questions such as the life cycles of matter and the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions.

  13. The space density of Compton-thick AGN at z ≈ 0.8 in the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, C.; Mignoli, M.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Iwasawa, K.; Zamorani, G.; Mainieri, V.; Bongiorno, A.

    2014-11-01

    Context. The obscured accretion phase in black hole growth is a crucial ingredient in many models linking the active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity with the evolution of their host galaxy. At present, a complete census of obscured AGN is still missing, although several attempts in this direction have been carried out recently, mostly in the hard X-rays and at mid-infrared wavelengths. Aims: The purpose of this work is to assess whether the [Ne v] emission line at 3426 Å can reliably pick up obscured AGN up to z ≈ 1 by assuming that it is a reliable proxy of the intrinsic AGN luminosity and using moderately deep X-ray data to characterize the amount of obscuration. Methods: A sample of 69 narrow-line (Type 2) AGN at z ≈ 0.65-1.20 were selected from the 20k-zCOSMOS Bright galaxy sample on the basis of the presence of the [Ne v]3426 Å emission. The X-ray properties of these galaxies were then derived using the Chandra-COSMOS coverage of the field; the X-ray-to-[Ne v] flux ratio, coupled with X-ray spectral and stacking analyses, was then used to infer whether Compton-thin or Compton-thick absorption is present in these sources. Then the [Ne v] luminosity function was computed to estimate the space density of Compton-thick AGN at z ≈ 0.8. Results: Twenty-three sources were detected by Chandra, and their properties are consistent with moderate obscuration (on average, ≈a few × 1022 cm-2). The X-ray properties of the remaining 46 X-ray undetected Type 2 AGN (among which we expect to find the most heavily obscured objects) were derived using X-ray stacking analysis. Current data, supported by Monte Carlo simulations, indicate that a fraction as high as ≈40% of the present sample is likely to be Compton thick. The space density of Compton-thick AGN with logL2-10 keV> 43.5 at z = 0.83 is ΦThick = (9.1 ± 2.1) × 10-6 Mpc-3, in good agreement with both X-ray background model expectations and the previously measured space density for objects in a similar

  14. Evaluation of a multistage CdZnTe Compton camera for prompt γ imaging for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, M.; Kaye, W.; Mackin, D. S.; Beddar, S.; He, Z.; Polf, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    A new detector system, Polaris J from H3D, has been evaluated for its potential application as a Compton camera (CC) imaging device for prompt γ rays (PGs) emitted during proton radiation therapy (RT) for the purpose of dose range verification. This detector system consists of four independent CdZnTe detector stages and a coincidence module, allowing the user to construct a Compton camera in different geometrical configurations and to accept both double and triple scatter events. Energy resolution for the 662 keV line from 137Cs was found to be 9.7 keV FWHM. The raw absolute efficiencies for double and triple scatter events were 2.2 ×10-5 and 5.8 ×10-7, respectively, for γs from a 60Co source. The position resolution for the reconstruction of a point source from the measured CC data was about 2 mm. Overall, due to the low efficiency of the Polaris J CC, the current system was deemed not viable for imaging PGs emitted during proton RT treatment delivery. However, using a validated Monte Carlo model of the CC, we found that by increasing the size of the detectors and placing them in a two stage configuration, the efficiency could be increased to a level to make PG imaging possible during proton RT.

  15. A Compton camera application for the GAMOS GEANT4-based framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, L. J.; Arce, P.; Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Dormand, J.; Jones, M.; Nolan, P. J.; Sampson, J. A.; Scraggs, D. P.; Sweeney, A.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.

    2012-04-01

    Compton camera systems can be used to image sources of gamma radiation in a variety of applications such as nuclear medicine, homeland security and nuclear decommissioning. To locate gamma-ray sources, a Compton camera employs electronic collimation, utilising Compton kinematics to reconstruct the paths of gamma rays which interact within the detectors. The main benefit of this technique is the ability to accurately identify and locate sources of gamma radiation within a wide field of view, vastly improving the efficiency and specificity over existing devices. Potential advantages of this imaging technique, along with advances in detector technology, have brought about a rapidly expanding area of research into the optimisation of Compton camera systems, which relies on significant input from Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper, the functionality of a Compton camera application that has been integrated into GAMOS, the GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations, is described. The application simplifies the use of GEANT4 for Monte-Carlo investigations by employing a script based language and plug-in technology. To demonstrate the use of the Compton camera application, simulated data have been generated using the GAMOS application and acquired through experiment for a preliminary validation, using a Compton camera configured with double sided high purity germanium strip detectors. Energy spectra and reconstructed images for the data sets are presented.

  16. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carlin, C.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D’Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Senderovich, I.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tian, Y.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.

    2015-01-22

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep → e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and Φ, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. In conclusion, these results bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.

  17. Gauge invariance and Compton scattering from relativistic composite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Gross, F. |

    1993-09-01

    Using the Ward-Takahashi (W-T) identity and the Bethe-Salpeter (B-S) wave equation, we investigate the dynamical requirements imposed by electromagnetic gauge invariance on Compton scattering from relativistic composite system. The importance of off-shell rescattering in intermediate states, which is equivalent to final state interactions in inclusive processes, is clarified in the context of current conservation. It is shown that, if the nuclear force is nonlocal, there will be both two-photon interaction currents and rescattering contributions to terms involving one-photon interaction currents. We derive the two-body W-T identity for the two-photon interaction currents, and obtain explicit forms for the interaction current operators for three illustrative models of nuclear forces: (a) two-pion exchange forces with baryon resonances, (b) covariant separable forces, and (c) charged one-pion exchange.

  18. Science Flight Program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven

    This is the lead proposal for this program. We are proposing a 5-year program to perform the scientific flight program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT), consisting of a series of three (3) scientific balloon flights. NCT is a balloon-borne, wide-field telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky (0.2-5 MeV), performing high-resolution spectroscopy, wide-field imaging, and polarization measurements. NCT has been rebuilt as a ULDB payload under the current 2-year APRA grant. (In that proposal we stated our goal was to return at this point to propose the scientific flight program.) The NCT rebuild/upgrade is on budget and schedule to achieve flight-ready status in Fall 2013. Science: NCT will map the Galactic positron annihilation emission, shedding more light on the mysterious concentration of this emission uncovered by INTEGRAL. NCT will survey Galactic nucleosynthesis and the role of supernova and other stellar populations in the creation and evolution of the elements. NCT will map 26-Al and positron annihilation with unprecedented sensitivity and uniform exposure, perform the first mapping of 60-Fe, search for young, hidden supernova remnants through 44-Ti emission, and enable a host of other nuclear astrophysics studies. NCT will also study compact objects (in our Galaxy and AGN) and GRBs, providing novel measurements of polarization as well as detailed spectra and light curves. Design: NCT is an array of germanium gamma-ray detectors configured in a compact, wide-field Compton telescope configuration. The array is shielded on the sides and bottom by an active anticoincidence shield but is open to the 25% of the sky above for imaging, spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The instrument is mounted on a zenith-pointed gondola, sweeping out ~50% of the sky each day. This instrument builds off the Compton telescope technique pioneered by COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. However, by utilizing modern germanium semiconductor strip detectors

  19. Virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, T.R.; Holstein, B.R.; Knoechlein, G.; Scherer, S.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the spin-independent part of the virtual Compton scattering (VCS) amplitude off the nucleon within the framework of chiral perturbation theory. We perform a consistent calculation to third order in external momenta according to Weinberg`s power counting. With this calculation we can determine the second- and fourth-order structure-dependent coefficients of the general low-energy expansion of the spin-averaged VCS amplitude based on gauge invariance, crossing symmetry, and the discrete symmetries. We discuss the kinematical regime to which our calculation can be applied and compare our expansion with the multipole expansion by Guichon, Liu, and Thomas. We establish the connection of our calculation with the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon where it is possible. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Isothermal, Compton-heated coronae above accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of Compton-heated coronae above accretion disks is studied here by using analytic and numerical approaches are used here to determine the direct and scattered radiation reaching the base of the corona for a range of central source luminosities. It is found that the outer region of the corona is unaffected by multiple scattering in the interior, provided that the luminosity of the central source is sufficient below the Eddington limit. How attenuation and scattering by the corona affects the strength of chromospheric emission lines is determined, as is the condition for which the irradiation due to the central source exceeds the locally generated flux from the disk. Finally, it is shown that the stability analysis for irradiated accretion disks of Tuchman et al. is not substantially altered by the corona.

  1. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  2. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; et al

    2015-01-22

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep → e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and Φ, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axialmore » charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. In conclusion, these results bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.« less

  3. Bursts of gamma rays from Compton scattering at cosmological distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Svensson, Roland; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    Compton scattering of the microwave background photons by beams of ultrarelativistic electrons at large redshifts, z much greater than 1, is proposed as a source of some gamma-ray bursts. Such beams may be produced by cusps on superconducting cosmic strings. In the present model, a very narrow beam of ultrarelativistic electron-positron pairs scatters the microwave background photons into a very narrow beam of gamma rays. While the pairs lose energy, the beam of gamma rays opens up and sweeps the observer. The expected time variability and spectra of the resulting gamma-ray burst are calculated. The bursts have a rapid rise time, followed by a more gradual decline. The spectra are initially very hard and become softer during the decline.

  4. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Beam-Spin Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    F.X. Girod; R.A. Niyazov

    2008-01-24

    The beam spin asymmetries in the hard exclusive electroproduction of photons on the proton (ep -> epg) were measured over a wide kinematic range and with high statistical accuracy. These asymmetries result from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process and of deeply virtual Compton scattering. Over the whole kinematic range (x_B from 0.11 to 0.58, Q^2 from 1 to 4.8 GeV^2, -t from 0.09 to 1.8 GeV^2), the azimuthal dependence of the asymmetries is compatible with expectations from leading-twist dominance, A = a*sin(phi)/[1+c*cos(phi)]. This extensive set of data can thus be used to constrain significantly the generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in the valence quark sector.

  5. Wide Angle Compton Scattering within the SCET factorization Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivel, Nikolay

    2016-03-01

    Existing data for the electromagnetic proton form factors and for the cross section of the wide angle Compton scattering (WACS) show that the hard two-gluon exchange mechanism (collinear factorization) is still not applicable in the kinematical region where Mandelstam variables s ~ -t ~ -u are about few GeV2. On the other hand these observables can be described in phenomenological models where spectator quarks are soft which assumes a large contribution due to the soft-overlap mechanism. It turns out that the simple QCD factorization picture is not complete and must also include the soft-overlap contribution which can be described as a certain matrix element in the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). Then the leading power contribution to WACS amplitude is described as a sum of the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. The existing experimental data allows one to check certain conclusions based on the assumption about dominant role of the soft-spectator mechanism.

  6. A Compton camera prototype for prompt gamma medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Aldawood, S.; Böhmer, M.; Bortfeldt, J.; Castelhano, I.; Dedes, G.; Fiedler, F.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golnik, C.; Helmbrecht, S.; Hueso-González, F.; Kolff, H. v. d.; Kormoll, T.; Lang, C.; Liprandi, S.; Lutter, R.; Marinšek, T.; Maier, L.; Pausch, G.; Petzoldt, J.; Römer, K.; Schaart, D.; Parodi, K.

    2016-05-01

    Compton camera prototype for a position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays from proton-induced nuclear reactions is being developed in Garching. The detector system allows to track the Comptonscattered electrons. The camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation absorber crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors acting as scatterers. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has been characterized with radioactive sources. Online commissioning measurements were performed with a pulsed deuteron beam at the Garching Tandem accelerator and with a clinical proton beam at the OncoRay facility in Dresden. The determination of the interaction point of the photons in the monolithic crystal was investigated.

  7. Commissioning of a Compton-Scattering-Based Gamma Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, David; Albert, Felicie; Anderson, Scott; Hartemann, Fred; Messerly, Mike; Shverdin, Miro; McNabb, Dennis; Siders, Craig; Barty, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Recently a Compton-scattering based gamma-ray source, in which a high-intensity laser scatters off a high-brightness electron beam and emerges as a narrow-band gamma-ray beam, has been commissioned at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Operating at energies from 0.1 to 0.9 MeV, the source produces fluxes upwards of 10^6 photons/sec with a brightness of 10^ 15 photons/s/mm^2/mrad^2/0.1% BW. Presented here is a discussion of the design and performance of the laser and electron subsystems that are used to drive the source, and an overview of the parameters of the generated gamma-ray beam.

  8. Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Miguel S.; Djuric, Marko

    2013-04-15

    We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.

  9. Compton suppressed LaBr3 detection system for use in nondestructive spent fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Heidrich, B.; Ünlü, K.

    2015-06-01

    Current methods for safeguarding and accounting for spent nuclear fuel in reprocessing facilities are extremely resource and time intensive. The incorporation of autonomous passive gamma-ray detectors into the procedure could make the process significantly less burdensome. In measured gamma-ray spectra from spent nuclear fuel, the Compton continuum from dominant fission product photopeaks obscure the lower energy lines from other isotopes. The application of Compton suppression to gamma-ray measurements of spent fuel may reduce this effect and allow other less intense, lower energy peaks to be detected, potentially improving the accuracy of multivariate analysis algorithms. Compton suppressed spectroscopic measurements of spent nuclear fuel using HPGe, LaBr3, and NaI(Tl) primary detectors were performed. Irradiated fuel was measured in two configurations: as intact fuel elements viewed through a collimator and as feed solutions in a laboratory to simulate the measurement of a dissolved process stream. These two configurations allowed the direct assessment and quantification of the differences in measured gamma-ray spectra from the application of Compton suppression. In the first configuration, several irradiated fuel elements of varying cooling times from the Penn State Breazeale Reactor spent fuel inventory were measured using the three collimated Compton suppression systems. In the second geometry, Compton suppressed measurements of two samples of Approved Test Material commercial fuel elements were recorded inside the guard detector annulus to simulate the siphoning of small quantities from the main process stream for long dwell measurement periods. Compton suppression was found to improve measured gamma-ray spectra of spent fuel for multivariate analysis by notably lowering the Compton continuum from dominant photopeaks such as 137Cs and 140La, due to scattered interactions in the detector, which allowed more spectral features to be resolved. There was a

  10. Compton scattering of self-absorbed synchrotron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Bing

    2013-11-01

    Synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scattering is an important emission mechanism in many astronomical sources, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei. We give a complete presentation of the analytical approximations for the Compton scattering of synchrotron emission with both weak and strong synchrotron self-absorption. All possible orders of the characteristic synchrotron spectral breaks (νa, νm and νc) are studied. In the weak self-absorption regime, i.e. νa < νc, the electron energy distribution is not modified by the self-absorption process. The shape of the SSC component broadly resembles that of synchrotron, but with the following features: The SSC flux increases linearly with frequency up to the SSC break frequency corresponding to the self-absorption frequency νa; and the presence of a logarithmic term in the high-frequency range of the SSC spectra makes it harder than the power-law approximation. In the strong absorption regime, i.e. νa > νc, heating of low-energy electrons due to synchrotron absorption leads to pile-up of electrons, and form a thermal component besides the broken power-law component. This leads to two-component (thermal + non-thermal) spectra for both the synchrotron and SSC spectral components. For νc < νa < νm, the spectrum is thermal (non-thermal) dominated if ν _a > √{ν _m ν _c} (ν _a < √{ν _m ν _c}). Similar to the weak-absorption regime, the SSC spectral component is broader than the simple broken power-law approximation. We derive the critical condition for strong absorption (electron pile-up), and discuss a case of GRB reverse shock emission in a wind medium, which invokes νa > max(νm, νc).

  11. Performance and promise of the Compton suppression well counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbottle, Garman; Cumming, J. B.

    1994-12-01

    Determination of gamma-ray activities in small environmental samples poses a challenge to measurement technologies: to achieve the lowest possible detection limits, an instrument must combine high efficiency with superior peak-to-background characteristics. These requirements are simultaneously met by a Compton-suppression well counter (CSWC) of intrinsic germanium. The Brookhaven CSWC has a 5-cm deep, 1-cm diameter well and active volume of ˜ 125 cm 3. It is positioned in the 3.3-in through-hole of 10 × 12 in NaI(Tl) crystal. This CSWC was first assembled in the mid 1980s, and used in several research studies: double β - decay of 48Ca, the radioactivity of 180mTa, and high-sensitivity neutron activation analysis of iridium in rocks and minerals. More recently it has been employed in environmental radioactivity research on the transport of the members of the uranium and thorium series in natural soils. The counter typically measures samples of ˜ 3 g of soil, has a peak-to-Compton ratio of ˜ 300:1, and a sensitivity for 235U of ˜ 50 ng. It can detect gamma rays of less than 30 keV, hence can be used to measure environmentally significant nuclides like 210Pb, 230Th and 241Am in small soil samples or soil fractions. Because of the simple geometry self-absorption corrections are straightforward. The paper will discuss the performance of this device, and the projected performance of an advanced model which will incorporate a number of changes materially increasing the sensitivity.

  12. Compton scattering imaging of a working battery using synchrotron high-energy X-rays.

    PubMed

    Itou, Masayoshi; Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Suzuki, Kosuke; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Results of studies on Compton scattering imaging using synchrotron high-energy X-rays are reported. The technique is applied to a discharging coin cell, and the intensity of Compton scattered X-rays from the inside of the cell has been measured as a function of position and time. The position-time intensity map captures the migration of lithium ions in the positive electrode and reveals the structural change due to the volume expansion of the electrode. This experiment is a critical step in developing synchrotron-based Compton scattering imaging for electrochemical cells at a product level.

  13. Gamma-ray burst spectra from photon-deficient Compton scattering by nonthermal electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Lamb, Don Q.

    1986-01-01

    Consideration is given to a model of gamma-ray burst sources based on repeated Compton scatterings of soft photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons. Relativistic electrons which are continuously produced in the source radiate the total power L supplied to them. Higher order Compton scatterings, which occur when L(soft) is much less than L make the model distinct. The spectrum having an X-ray energy index of about one results from the superposition of the spectral components from several orders of Compton scattering; the change of the slope at several hundred keV arises from the Klein-Nishina decline of the scattering cross section.

  14. High flux, narrow bandwidth compton light sources via extended laser-electron interactions

    DOEpatents

    Barty, V P

    2015-01-13

    New configurations of lasers and electron beams efficiently and robustly produce high flux beams of bright, tunable, polarized quasi-monoenergetic x-rays and gamma-rays via laser-Compton scattering. Specifically, the use of long-duration, pulsed lasers and closely-spaced, low-charge and low emittance bunches of electron beams increase the spectral flux of the Compton-scattered x-rays and gamma rays, increase efficiency of the laser-electron interaction and significantly reduce the overall complexity of Compton based light sources.

  15. Compton imaging with a planar semiconductor system using pulse shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Anthony; Boston, Andrew J.; Boston, Helen C.; Cresswell, John P.; Dormand, Jamie; Ellis, Mark; Harkness, Laura J.; Jones, Martin; Judson, Daniel S.; Nolan, Paul J.; Oxley, David C.; Scraggs, David P.; Slee, Mike J.; Thandi, Amandeep

    2011-05-01

    Homeland security agencies have a requirement to locate and identify nuclear material. Compton cameras [1, 2] offer a more efficient method of gamma-ray detection than collimated detector systems. The resolution of the interaction positions within the detectors greatly influences the accuracy of a reconstructed Compton image. Utilizing digital electronics and applying pulse shape analysis [3] allows the spatial resolution to be enhanced beyond the pixel granularity in three dimensions. Analytically reconstructed Compton images from a range of radiation sources shall be presented with and without pulse shape analysis showing the improvements gained along with a discussion of our analysis methods.

  16. A hybrid approach to imaging and anomaly characterization from dual energy CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric; Semerci, Oguz

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel polychromatic dual energy algorithm with an emphasis on detection of anomalies whose physical properties are assumed to be known with some level of uncertainty. We assume that material characteristics are defined by energy independent Compton scatter and photoelectric absorption coefficients. Uncertainty in material properties are characterized by an elliptical constraint regions in the Compton scatterphotoelectric coefficient space. We employ an image based iterative reconstruction algorithm to produce images of Compton scatter and photoelectric absorption coefficients of the medium. The solution is obtained via a nonlinear optimization process where the prior knowledge about the characteristics of object of interest is imposed as hard constraints. We also introduce a novel gradient-based similarity regularizer to cope with physics based limitations on accurately reconstructing the photoelectric absorption coefficient component. Our approach is based on a parametric level-set representation of the characteristic function of the object. For the reconstruction of the background we use basis expansion approach using compactly supported exponential radial basis functions. Numerical results show that the algorithm gives results superior to conventional filtered back projection (FBP) dual energy method in the presence of noise.

  17. Dual Wavelength Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual wavelength lasers are discussed, covering fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics of these systems. Results on Tm:Ho:Er:YAG dual wavelength laser action (Ho at 2.1 m and Er at 2.9 m) as well as Nd:YAG (1.06 and 1.3 m) are presented as examples of such dual wavelength systems. Dual wavelength lasers are not common, but there are criteria that govern their behavior. Based on experimental studies demonstrating simultaneous dual wavelength lasing, some general conclusions regarding the successful operation of multi-wavelength lasers can be made.

  18. Dual relationships in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S

    1991-01-01

    A dual relationship in psychotherapy occurs when the therapist engages in another, significantly different relationship with the patient. The two relationships may be concurrent or sequential. For both sexual and nonsexual dual relationships, men are typically the perpetrators and women are typically the victims. This article presents examples of dual relationships, notes the attention that licensing boards and other agencies devote to this topic, reviews the meager research concerning nonsexual dual relationships, and discusses common strategies that promote both sexual and nonsexual dual relationships. PMID:11649348

  19. Dual-Purpose Millikan Experiment with Polystyrene Spheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, C. N.; Christensen, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    This procedure, using polystyrene spheres of specified diameter, renders the Millikan oil drop experiment more accurate than the conventional procedure of the polystyrene spheres, eliminates size estimation error, and removes the guesswork involved in assigning proper index integers to the observed charges. (MLH)

  20. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-12-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year.

  1. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities in chiral EFT: Status and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grießhammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    We review theoretical progress and prospects for determining the nucleon's static dipole polarisabilities from Compton scattering on few-nucleon targets, including new values; see Refs. [1-5] for details and a more thorough bibliography.

  2. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  3. On the line-shape analysis of Compton profiles and its application to neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, G.; Krzystyniak, M.

    2016-05-01

    Analytical properties of Compton profiles are used in order to simplify the analysis of neutron Compton scattering experiments. In particular, the possibility to fit the difference of Compton profiles is discussed as a way to greatly decrease the level of complexity of the data treatment, making the analysis easier, faster and more robust. In the context of the novel method proposed, two mathematical models describing the shapes of differenced Compton profiles are discussed: the simple Gaussian approximation for harmonic and isotropic local potential, and an analytical Gauss-Hermite expansion for an anharmonic or anisotropic potential. The method is applied to data collected by VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS neutron and muon pulsed source (UK) on Copper and Aluminium samples at ambient and low temperatures.

  4. Least-Squares Deconvolution of Compton Telescope Data with the Positivity Constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheaton, William A.; Dixon, David D.; Tumer, O. Tumay; Zych, Allen D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a Direct Linear Algebraic Deconvolution (DLAD) approach to imaging of data from Compton gamma-ray telescopes. Imposition of the additional physical constraint, that all components of the model be non-negative, has been found to have a powerful effect in stabilizing the results, giving spatial resolution at or near the instrumental limit. A companion paper (Dixon et al. 1993) presents preliminary images of the Crab Nebula region using data from COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.

  5. Calculating electron momentum densities and Compton profiles using the linear tetrahedron method.

    PubMed

    Ernsting, D; Billington, D; Haynes, T D; Millichamp, T E; Taylor, J W; Duffy, J A; Giblin, S R; Dewhurst, J K; Dugdale, S B

    2014-12-10

    A method for computing electron momentum densities and Compton profiles from ab initio calculations is presented. Reciprocal space is divided into optimally-shaped tetrahedra for interpolation, and the linear tetrahedron method is used to obtain the momentum density and its projections such as Compton profiles. Results are presented and evaluated against experimental data for Be, Cu, Ni, Fe3Pt, and YBa2Cu4O8, demonstrating the accuracy of our method in a wide variety of crystal structures.

  6. IS COMPTON COOLING SUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN EVOLUTION OF OBSERVED QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN OUTBURST SOURCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak E-mail: chakraba@bose.res.in

    2015-01-01

    In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up until a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, the Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. In decline phases, the exact opposite should be true. We investigate cause of this evolution of the Compton cloud. The same viscosity parameter that increases the Keplerian disk rate also moves the inner edge of the Keplerian component, thereby reducing the size of the Compton cloud and reducing the cooling timescale. We show that cooling of the Compton cloud by inverse Comptonization is enough for it to collapse sufficiently so as to explain the QPO evolution. In the two-component advective flow configuration of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk, centrifugal force-induced shock represents the boundary of the Compton cloud. We take the rising phase of 2010 outburst of Galactic black hole candidate H 1743-322 and find an estimation of variation of the α parameter of the sub-Keplerian flow to be monotonically rising from 0.0001 to 0.02, well within the range suggested by magnetorotational instability. We also estimate the inward velocity of the Compton cloud to be a few meters per second, which is comparable to what is found in several earlier studies of our group by empirically fitting the shock locations with the time of observations.

  7. Compton scattering of electrons from optical pulses for quantum nondemolition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Friberg, S.R. ); Hawkins, R.J. )

    1995-01-01

    Compton scattering of electrons from photons destroys neither electrons nor photons, permitting quantum nondemolition measurements of the photon number. Here we consider a Compton scattering quantum nondemolition measurement of the photon number of an optical pulse traveling in a prepared optical fiber. A beam of electrons is directed through the evanescent field associated with the optical pulse, causing the electrons to scatter through an angle proportional to the pulse's photon number.

  8. Dual Enrollment: Measuring Factors for Rural High School Student Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Todd E.; Brophy, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons 162 rural area high school students participate in the dual enrollment program. Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to enroll in college courses for credit prior to high school graduation with local school districts covering the cost of tuition. Participants in this study were…

  9. Collective Evidence for Inverse Compton Emission from External Photons in High-Power Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanni; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first collective evidence that Fermi-detected jets of high kinetic power (L(sub kin)) are dominated by inverse Compton emission from upscattered external photons. Using a sample with a broad range in orientation angle, including radio galaxies and blazars, we find that very high power sources (L(sub kin) > 10(exp 45.5) erg/s) show a significant increase in the ratio of inverse Compton to synchrotron power (Compton dominance) with decreasing orientation angle, as measured by the radio core dominance and confirmed by the distribution of superluminal speeds. This increase is consistent with beaming expectations for external Compton (EC) emission, but not for synchrotron self Compton (SSC) emission. For the lowest power jets (L(sub kin) < 10(exp 43.5) erg /s), no trend between Compton and radio core dominance is found, consistent with SSC. Importantly, the EC trend is not seen for moderately high power flat spectrum radio quasars with strong external photon fields. Coupled with the evidence that jet power is linked to the jet speed, this finding suggests that external photon fields become the dominant source of seed photons in the jet comoving frame only for the faster and therefore more powerful jets.

  10. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams.

    PubMed

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-21

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing (22)Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3-5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy. PMID:27352107

  11. DETECTION AND IMAGING OF THE CRAB NEBULA WITH THE NUCLEAR COMPTON TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bandstra, M. S.; Bellm, E. C.; Boggs, S. E.; Perez-Becker, D.; Zoglauer, A.; Chang, H.-K.; Chiu, J.-L.; Liang, J.-S.; Chang, Y.-H.; Liu, Z.-K.; Hung, W.-C.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Chiang, S. J.; Run, R.-S.; Lin, C.-H.; Amman, M.; Luke, P. N.; Jean, P.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Wunderer, C. B.

    2011-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne Compton telescope designed for the study of astrophysical sources in the soft gamma-ray regime (200 keV-20 MeV). NCT's 10 high-purity germanium crossed-strip detectors measure the deposited energies and three-dimensional positions of gamma-ray interactions in the sensitive volume, and this information is used to restrict the initial photon to a circle on the sky using the Compton scatter technique. Thus NCT is able to perform spectroscopy, imaging, and polarization analysis on soft gamma-ray sources. NCT is one of the next generation of Compton telescopes-the so-called compact Compton telescopes (CCTs)-which can achieve effective areas comparable to the Imaging Compton Telescope's with an instrument that is a fraction of the size. The Crab Nebula was the primary target for the second flight of the NCT instrument, which occurred on 2009 May 17 and 18 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Analysis of 29.3 ks of data from the flight reveals an image of the Crab at a significance of 4{sigma}. This is the first reported detection of an astrophysical source by a CCT.

  12. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing 22Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3-5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy.

  13. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing 22Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3–5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy.

  14. Recent Results From a Si/CdTe Semiconductor Compton Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takeda, S.; Oonuki, K.; Mitani, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Takashima, T.; Takahashi, T.; Tajima, H.; Sawamoto, N.; Fukazawa, Y.; Nomachi, M.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Hiroshima U. /Osaka U.

    2007-01-23

    We are developing a Compton telescope based on high resolution Si and CdTe detectors for astrophysical observations in sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray region. Recently, we constructed a prototype Compton telescope which consists of six layers of double-sided Si strip detectors and CdTe pixel detectors to demonstrate the basic performance of this new technology. By irradiating the detector with gamma-rays from radio isotope sources, we have succeeded in Compton reconstruction of images and spectra. The obtained angular resolution is 3.9{sup o} (FWHM) at 511 keV, and the energy resolution is 14 keV (FWHM) at the same energy. In addition to the conventional Compton reconstruction, i.e., drawing cones in the sky, we also demonstrated a full reconstruction by tracking Compton recoil electrons using the signals detected in successive Si layers. By irradiating {sup 137}Cs source, we successfully obtained an image and a spectrum of 662 keV line emission with this method. As a next step, development of larger double-sided Si strip detectors with a size of 4 cm x 4 cm is underway to improve the effective area of the Compton telescope. We are also developing a new low-noise analog ASIC to handle the increasing number of channels. Initial results from these two new technologies are presented in this paper as well.

  15. Collective Evidence for Inverse Compton Emission from External Photons in High-power Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanni; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-06-01

    We present the first collective evidence that Fermi-detected jets of high kinetic power (L kin) are dominated by inverse Compton emission from upscattered external photons. Using a sample with a broad range in orientation angle, including radio galaxies and blazars, we find that very high power sources (L kin > 1045.5 erg s-1) show a significant increase in the ratio of inverse Compton to synchrotron power (Compton dominance) with decreasing orientation angle, as measured by the radio core dominance and confirmed by the distribution of superluminal speeds. This increase is consistent with beaming expectations for external Compton (EC) emission, but not for synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission. For the lowest power jets (L kin < 1043.5 erg s-1), no trend between Compton and radio core dominance is found, consistent with SSC. Importantly, the EC trend is not seen for moderately high power flat spectrum radio quasars with strong external photon fields. Coupled with the evidence that jet power is linked to the jet speed, this finding suggests that external photon fields become the dominant source of seed photons in the jet comoving frame only for the faster and therefore more powerful jets.

  16. Adaptation of filtered back-projection to compton imaging with non-uniform azimuthal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyounggun; Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Wonho

    2016-05-01

    For Compton image reconstruction, analytic reconstruction methods such as filtered backprojection have been used for real-time imaging. The conventional filtered back-projection method assumes a uniformly distributed azimuthal response in the detector system. In this study, we applied filtered back-projection to the experimental data from detector systems with limited azimuthal angle coverage ranges and estimated the limitations of the analytic reconstruction methods when applied to these systems. For the system with a uniform azimuthal response, the images reconstructed by using filtered back-projection showed better angular resolutions than the images obtained by using simple back-projection did. However, when filtered back-projection was applied to reconstruct Compton images based on measurements performed by using Compton cameras with limited response geometries, the reconstructed images exhibited artifacts caused by the geometrical limitations. Our proposed method employs the Compton camera's rotation to overcome the angular response limitations; when the rotation method was applied in this study, the artifacts in the reconstructed images caused by angular response limitations were minimized. With this method, filtered back-projection can be applied to reconstruct real-time Compton images even when the radiation measurements are performed by using Compton cameras with non-uniform azimuthal response geometries.

  17. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams.

    PubMed

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-21

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing (22)Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3-5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy.

  18. Observation of enhanced Compton scattering in a supercavity

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, M.; Asakawa, M.; Chen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The enhanced Compton scattering in a supercavity has been observed experimentally. The supercavity with {approximately}99.99% reflectivity mirrors was used to confine the LD-pumped Nd:YAG laser light ({lambda} {approximately} 1.06 {mu} m, CW power {approximately} 500 mW, bandwidth <5kHz). The confined photons were scattered by 100kV electron beams generated from the laser-heated CW electrostatic accelerator. In this experiment, the scattered photon wavelength was in a visible range (<380nm). In order to increase the beam current and the system efficiency, the design of a beam recovery system is also in progress. As an alternative way to confine the laser power, a novel multi-pass optical resonator is being designed. 9MeV electron bunch from the rf linac with photoinjector will be used to interact with MW {approximately} TW high peak power laser pulse in the resonator. In this experiment, the scattered photon energy is in a x-ray regime. These experimental data is used to design the monochromatic {gamma}-ray sources for annihilation of the radioactive nuclear waste.

  19. Compton-backscattering x-ray source for coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    An X-ray source utilizing Compton-backscattered (CB) photons in a 75-MeV electron storage ring containing an infrared FEL is proposed for producing 33.17-keV X-rays (Iodine K-edge) for coronary angiography. The X-ray intensity into a 4-mrad cone is computed as 7.21 [times] 10[sup 14]/sec for a 500-mA electron beam colliding with 0.2-J/bunch, 3.22-[mu]m photons from an in-ring IR-FEL at the 353.21-MHz rate of a SLAC-PEP 500-kW RF system. The resultant average flux at the patient is 6.4 [times] 10[sup 7] photons/pixel/4-msec aver a 12-cm diameter circle at 3-m from the interaction point for the 0.5 [times]0.5-mm[sup 2] pixel size of the present Si(Li) array of the BNL-SMERF Angiography Facility. This flux is 2.1 times larger than obtains at SMERF at a comparable source-to-patient distance and over an area sufficient to encompass the entire coronary region. However, the X-Ray energy spread due to kinematics alone is 2.63-keV, a factor of 35 larger then SMERF, and presents the major difficulty for the digital subtraction angiography method (DSA) envisioned.

  20. Compton-backscattering x-ray source for coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, L.N.

    1992-12-01

    An X-ray source utilizing Compton-backscattered (CB) photons in a 75-MeV electron storage ring containing an infrared FEL is proposed for producing 33.17-keV X-rays (Iodine K-edge) for coronary angiography. The X-ray intensity into a 4-mrad cone is computed as 7.21 {times} 10{sup 14}/sec for a 500-mA electron beam colliding with 0.2-J/bunch, 3.22-{mu}m photons from an in-ring IR-FEL at the 353.21-MHz rate of a SLAC-PEP 500-kW RF system. The resultant average flux at the patient is 6.4 {times} 10{sup 7} photons/pixel/4-msec aver a 12-cm diameter circle at 3-m from the interaction point for the 0.5 {times}0.5-mm{sup 2} pixel size of the present Si(Li) array of the BNL-SMERF Angiography Facility. This flux is 2.1 times larger than obtains at SMERF at a comparable source-to-patient distance and over an area sufficient to encompass the entire coronary region. However, the X-Ray energy spread due to kinematics alone is 2.63-keV, a factor of 35 larger then SMERF, and presents the major difficulty for the digital subtraction angiography method (DSA) envisioned.

  1. Novel design of a parallax free Compton enhanced PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braem, A.; Chamizo, M.; Chesi, E.; Colonna, N.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Joram, C.; Marrone, S.; Mathot, S.; Nappi, E.; Schoenahl, F.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Zaidi, H.

    2004-06-01

    Molecular imaging by PET is a powerful tool in modern clinical practice for cancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, improvements are needed with respect to the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the technique for its application to specific human organs (breast, prostate, brain, etc.), and to small animals. Presently, commercial PET scanners do not detect the depth of interaction of photons in scintillators, which results in a not negligible parallax error. We describe here a novel concept of PET scanner design that provides full three-dimensional (3D) gamma reconstruction with high spatial resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. It uses matrices of long scintillators read at both ends by hybrid photon detectors. This so-called 3D axial concept also enhances the gamma detection efficiency since it allows one to reconstruct a significant fraction of Compton scattered events. In this note, we describe the concept, a possible design and the expected performance of this new PET device. We also report about first characterization measurements of 10 cm long YAP:Ce scintillation crystals.

  2. [New medical imaging based on electron tracking Compton camera (ETCC)].

    PubMed

    Tanimori, Toru; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) for medical imaging due to its wide energy dynamic range (200-1,500keV) and wide field of view (FOV, 3 str). This camera has a potential of developing the new reagents. We have carried out several imaging reagent studies as examples; (1) 18F-FDG and 131I-MIBG simultaneous imaging for double clinical tracer imaging, (2) imaging of some minerals (Mn-54, Zn-65, Fe-59) in mouse and plants. In addition, ETCC has a potential of real-time monitoring of the Bragg peak location by imaging prompt gamma rays for the beam therapy. We carried out the water phantom experiment using 140MeV proton beam, and obtained the images of both 511 keV and high energy gamma rays (800-2,000keV). Here better correlation of the latter image to the Bragg peak has been observed. Another potential of ETCC is to reconstruct the 3D image using only one-head camera without rotations of both the target and camera. Good 3D images of the thyroid grant phantom and the mouse with tumor were observed. In order to advance those features to the practical use, we are improving the all components and then construct the multi-head ETCC system.

  3. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jixie; Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Rondon, Oscar

    2014-09-01

    The applicability of pQCD to exclusive reactions at medium energies is a subject of considerable interest. Real Compton scattering (RCS) has the potential to provide insight to this unsettled issue. In pQCD, three active quarks and two hard gluons are involved when describing RCS. But the cross sections do not agree with the pQCD predictions. In contrast, a handbag dominance model, involving only one single quark coupling to the spectator through generalized parton distributions (GPDs) does a good job of matching the cross section data. A measurement of the longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL was found inconsistent with predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations within the hand-bag mechanism. Further Miller's handbag approach, which including quark and hadron helicity flip, contradicts pQCD and others which demands that KLL =ALL , the initial state helicity correlation asymmetry, by finding that KLL ≠ALL . The first ever measurement of ALL has been proposed to run in Jefferson Lab's Hall C. This experiment will utilize an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the longitudinally polarized UVA/JLAB proton target. After a brief introduction to the physics, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  4. Measurement of Compton scattering in phantoms by germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zasadny, K.R.; Koral, K.F. . Medical Center); Floyd, C.E. Jr.; Jaszczak, R.J. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-04-01

    Quantitative Anger-camera tomography requires correction for Compton scattering. The Anger camera spectral-fitting technique can measure scatter fractions at designated positions in an image allowing for correction. To permit verification of those measurements for {sup 131}I, the authors have determined scatter fractions with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and various phantom configurations. The scatter fraction values for {sup 99m}Tc were also measured and are compared to results from Monte Carlo simulation. The phantom consisted of a 22.2 cm diameter {times} 18.6 cm high cylinder filled with water and a 6 cm diameter water-filled sphere placed at various locations inside the cylinder. Radioisotope is added to either the sphere or the cylinder. The source is collimated by an Anger camera collimator and the active area of the HPGe detector is defined by a 0.6 cm diameter hole in a lead shielding mask. Corrections include accounting for the HPGe detector efficiency as a function of gamma-ray energy, the finite energy resolution of detector and the HPGe detector energy resolution compared to that for a NaI(Tl) Anger camera.

  5. Advanced PET using both compton and photoelectric events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Changyeon; Lee, Wonho

    2012-08-01

    This study presents image reconstruction and evaluation of advanced positron emission tomography (PET) by using a simple backprojection and an maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method. Advanced PET can use not only the photoelectric effect but also the Compton scattering effect for image reconstruction; hence, the detection efficiency should be inherently higher than that of conventional PET. By using a voxelized cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector, the detected position and deposited energy of the gamma ray were found precisely. With the position and energy information, the interaction sequence, which is one of the main factors to consider in the reconstruction of the source image, was identified correctly. The reconstruction algorithms were simple backprojection and MLEM methods, and three methods were used to evaluate the advanced PET compared with conventional PET, which uses the photoelectric effect only. The full widths at half maximum (FWHM) and the maximum counts of images reconstructed by using simple backprojection were calculated for comparison. Using an MLEM method, the FWHM and the relative standard deviation of the counts in the range of half of the FWHM around the maximum pixel were calculated at each iteration to evaluate the modalities quantitatively. For a 3D source phantom, the simple backprojection and the MLEM methods were applied to each modality, and the reconstructed images were compared with each other by using the relative standard deviation for each component of the reconstructed image and by using visual inspection.

  6. Compton imaging with thick Si and CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Mythili; Wulf, Eric A.; Phlips, Bernard; Krawczynski, Henric; Martin, Jerrad; Dowknott, Paul

    2012-08-01

    A Compton imaging telescope has been constructed using a 0.2 cm thick Silicon (Si) detector of active area 9.0×9.0 cm2 and a pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector of dimensions 2.0×2.0×0.5 cm3. The Si detector is double sided with 64 strips per side in two orthogonal directions. The CZT detector has 64 pixels of pitch 0.25 cm. We used several ASICs (32 channel) to read out both detectors. A 137Cs source was used in the study. The energy deposited in the Si and CZT detectors and the points of interaction of the γ-ray in both detectors were read out. We varied the position of the source as well as the vertical separation between the Si and CZT detectors and measured the angular resolution of the source image for the different configurations. The best angular resolution (1σ) was 2.4°. Monte Carlo simulations were run for similar detector configurations and agree with the experimental results.

  7. Gamma ray polarimetry. [compton scattering and pair production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, K. S.; Novick, R.

    1978-01-01

    Spectroscopic instruments currently being proposed may possess polarimetric capabilities which sould be nurtured and enhanced to permit characterization of basic emission mechanisms which are impossible using other techniques. Compton scattering and pair production detected the polarization of high energy (E is greater than 50 keV) protons in laboratory experiments. The polarization properties of a detection system consisting of 19 germanium crystals in a closed packed array are examined and the advantages of such a detector over Thompson scattering are discussed. The possiblity of using pair production to detect polarization of high energy gamma rays, and the associated modulation factors are discussed. The central difficulty involved in using pair production polarimeters in astrophysical applications is that the typical opening of the electron or positron direction with respect to the incident photon aircitron is small, of order E/sq mc. Multiple scattering in the material used to convert the photons to an electron positron pair causes deviations in the direction of the electron and positron.

  8. Realistic simulation of the Space-borne Compton Polarimeter POLAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    POLAR is a compact wide field space-borne detector dedicated for precise measurements of the linear polarization of hard x-rays emitted by transient sources. Its energy range sensitivity is optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). POLAR is developed by an international collaboration of China, Switzerland and Poland. It is planned to be launched into space in 2016 onboard the Chinese space laboratory TG2. The energy range of POLAR spans between 50 keV and 500 keV. POLAR detects gamma rays with an array of 1600 plastic scintillator bars read out by 25 muti-anode PMTs (MAPMTs). Polarization measurements use Compton scattering process and are based on detection of energy depositions in the scintillator bars. Reconstruction of the polarization degree and polarization angle of GRBs requires comparison of experimental modulation curves with realistic simulations of the full instrument response. In this paper we present a method to model and parameterize the detector response including efficiency of the light collection, contributions from crosstalk and non-uniformity of MAPMTs as well as dependency on low energy detection thresholds and noise from readout electronics. The performance of POLAR for determination of polarization is predicted with such realistic simulations and carefully cross-checked with dedicated laboratory tests.

  9. Deeply virtual Compton scattering and generalized parton distributions at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Niccolai, Silvia

    2008-11-01

    The exclusive electroproduction of real photons and mesons at high momentum transfer allows us to access the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). The formalism of the GPDs provides a unified description of the hadronic structure in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular, the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), ep â e2p2Å , is one of the key reactions to determine the GPDs experimentally, as it is the simplest process that can be described in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS has been carried out in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. Beam-spin asymmetries, resulting from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process and DVCS have been extracted over the widest kinematic range ever accessed for this reaction ( 1.2 < Q 2 < 3.7 (GeV/c 2, 0.09 < - t < 1.3 (GeV/c 2, 0.13 < x B < 0.46 . In this paper, the results obtained experimentally are shown and compared to GPD parametrizations.

  10. Compton Thick AGN in the XMM-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Gruppioni, C.; Comastri, A.

    2016-06-01

    I will present results we published in two recent papers (Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A&A 573A 137, Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A≈A 578A 120) on the properties of X-ray selected Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^{24} cm^{-2}) AGN, in the XMM-COSMOS survey. We exploited the rich multi-wavelength dataset available in this field, to show that CT AGN tend to harbor smaller, rapidly growing SMBH with respect to unobscured AGN, and have a higher chance of being hosted by star-forming, merging and post-merger systems. We also demonstrated the detectability of even more heavily obscured AGN (NH>10^{25} cm^{-2}), thanks to a truly multi-wavelength approach in the same field, and to the unrivaled XMM sensitivity. The extreme source detected in this way shows strong evidences of ongoing powerful AGN feedback, detected as blue-shifted wings of high ionization optical emission lines such as [NeV] and [FeVII], as well as of the [OIII] emission line. The results obtained from these works point toward a scenario in which highly obscured AGN occupy a peculiar place in the galaxy-AGN co-evolution process, in which both the host and the SMBH rapidly evolve toward the local relations.

  11. Hadron Optics: Diffraction Patterns in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S

    2006-05-16

    We show that the Fourier transform of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) amplitude with respect to the skewness variable {zeta} provides a unique way to visualize the light-front wavefunctions (LFWFs) of the target state in the boost-invariant longitudinal coordinate space variable ({sigma} = P{sup +}y{sup -}/2). The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics in which the dependence of the amplitude on {sigma} measures the physical size of the scattering center of a one-dimensional system. If one combines this longitudinal transform with the Fourier transform of the DVCS amplitude with respect to the transverse momentum transfer {Delta}{sup {perpendicular}}, one can obtain a complete three-dimensional description of hadron optics at fixed light-front time {tau} = t + z/c. As a specific example, we utilize the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED to obtain the behavior of the DVCS amplitude for electron-photon scattering. We then simulate the wavefunctions for a hadron by differentiating the above LFWFs with respect to M{sup 2} and study the corresponding DVCS amplitudes in {sigma} space.

  12. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Guegan, Baptistse

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  13. Comptonization of thermal photons by relativistic electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Joseph K.; Harding, Alice K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical calculation of gamma-ray emission produced by Compton scattering of relativistic electron beams on background thermal radiation, which includes spatial dependence of electron energy losses and cyclotron resonance scattering in a strong magnetic field. In the first version, the scattering is described by the fully relativistic Klein-Nishina cross section, but the magnetic field is neglected. In the second version, the scattering is described by the magnetic resonant cross section in the Thomson limit. It is found that when the magnetic field is not included, electron energy losses are important only at higher neutron star surface temperatures (T about 3,000,000 K). In the presence of a strong magnetic field, (10 to the 12th G), resonant scattering greatly increases electron energy losses, making scattering very efficient even at lower surface temperatures. Resulting photon and electron spectra for both cases ae discussed in relation to models for pulsar X-ray and gamma-ray emission.

  14. Semiconductor detectors for Compton imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, LJ; Judson, D. S.; Kennedy, H.; Sweeney, A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Sampson, J. A.; Burrows, I.; Groves, J.; Headspith, J.; Lazarus, I. H.; Simpson, J.; Bimson, W. E.; Kemp, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation is underway at the University of Liverpool to assess the suitability of two position sensitive semiconductor detectors as components of a Compton camera for nuclear medical imaging. The ProSPECTus project aims to improve image quality, provide shorter data acquisition times and lower patient doses by replacing conventional Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems. These mechanically collimated systems are employed to locate a radioactive tracer that has been administered to a patient to study specifically targeted physiological processes. The ProSPECTus system will be composed of a Si(Li) detector and a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, a configuration deemed optimum using a validated Geant4 simulation package. Characterising the response of the detectors to gamma irradiation is essential in maximising the sensitivity and image resolution of the system. To this end, the performance of the HPGe ProSPECTus detector and a suitable Si(Li) detector has been assessed at the University of Liverpool. The energy resolution of the detectors has been measured and a surface scan of the Si(Li) detector has been performed using a finely collimated 241Am gamma ray source. Results from the investigation will be presented.

  15. Laser Design for Next Generation Compton Scattering Source at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shverdin, Miro; Albert, Felicie; Anderson, Scott; Bayramian, Andy; Betts, Shawn; Cross, Rick; Ebbers, Chris; Gibson, David; Marsh, Roark; Messerly, Michael; Hartemann, Fred; Scarpetti, Ray; Siders, Craig; Barty, Chris

    2010-11-01

    We describe laser systems designed for the next generation Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-ray) Compton scattering light source at LLNL. An 80 fs Yb:doped fiber oscillator seeds a photogun drive laser (PDL) and a high energy interaction system laser (ILS). Utilizing chirped pulse amplification (CPA) in fiber, the PDL will generate 80 μJ, spatially and temporally shaped pulses at 263 nm at 120 Hz precisely synchronized to the linac RF. The PDL system employs large mode photonic bandgap fibers and large area multi-layer dielectric gratings to generate over 1mJ per pulse with high recompression fidelity prior to frequency quadrupling. The high energy, 120 W ILS utilizes (CPA) in Nd:YAG to amplify a sub-nanometer bandwidth 20 μJ pulses from a fiber system to 1 J. A novel pulse stretcher provides a dispersion of over 7000 ps/nm to expand a several picosecond wide seed pulse to 6 ns. After amplification, the pulse is recompressed to 10 ps with a hyper-dispersive pulse compressor. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Beam-shape effects in nonlinear Compton and Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzl, T.; Seipt, D.; Kaempfer, B.

    2010-02-15

    We discuss intensity effects in collisions between beams of optical photons from a high-power laser and relativistic electrons. Our main focus is on the modifications of the emission spectra due to realistic finite-beam geometries. By carefully analyzing the classical limit we precisely quantify the distinction between strong-field QED Compton scattering and classical Thomson scattering. A purely classical, but fully covariant, calculation of the bremsstrahlung emitted by an electron in a plane-wave laser field yields radiation into harmonics, as expected. This result is generalized to pulses of finite duration and explains the appearance of line broadening and harmonic substructure as an interference phenomenon. The ensuing numerical treatment confirms that strong focusing of the laser leads to a broad continuum while higher harmonics become visible only at moderate focusing, and hence lower intensity. We present a scaling law for the backscattered photon spectral density which facilitates averaging over electron beam phase space. Finally, we propose a set of realistic parameters such that the observation of intensity-induced spectral red shift, higher harmonics, and their substructure becomes feasible.

  17. Narrative Abilities in Monolingual and Dual Language Learning Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia L.; Girolametto, Luigi E.; Chen, Xi; Johnson, Carla J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare narrative abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI) who are monolingual and those who are dual language learners. Method: The participants were 26 children with SLI, 14 monolingual English speakers and 12 dual language learners. The dual language learners were English dominant and…

  18. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  3. Dual frequency twist Cassegrain tracking antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, R.; Karnevi, S.

    1983-10-01

    The development and test results of a dual-frequency twist Cassegrain antenna is presented. In an already existing X-band antenna design a higher-frequency band (Ka) has been integrated without degrading the performance in the X-band. The purpose of this was to obtain a narrower beam for low-flying target application.

  4. Saturn orbiter dual probe mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The described Saturn orbiter dual probe mission and spacecraft combines three systems into a multi-purpose Saturn exploration package. The spacecraft consists of: (1) Saturn orbiter; (2) Saturn probe; and (3) Titan probe or lander. This single spacecraft provides the capability to conduct in situ measurements of the Saturn and Titan atmospheres, and, possibly the Titan surface, as well as a variety of remote sensing measurements. The remote sensing capabilities will be used to study the surfaces, interiors and environments of Saturn's satellites, the rings of Saturn, Saturn's magnetosphere, and synoptic properties of Saturn's atmosphere.

  5. Performance evaluation and optimization for a newly developed digital list-mode data acquisition Compton suppression spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Keeshan, Benjamin; Mekarski, Pawel; Yi, Jing; Ungar, Kurt

    2013-11-01

    A comparative study was carried out between an analog timing and a digital list-mode data acquisition system for a Compton suppression spectrometer. The performance of both Compton suppression systems has been evaluated using the conventional, coincidence and anticoincidence spectra measured by (60)Co and (137)Cs point sources. The present study focuses on improving and optimizing the energy peak resolution and peak-to-Compton background ratios of the digital list-mode system.

  6. Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the “dual-use dilemma”. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

  7. Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the 'dual-use dilemma'. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

  8. Contribution of inner shell Compton ionization to the X-ray fluorescence line intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    The Compton effect is a potential ionization mechanism of atoms. It produces vacancies in inner shells that are filled with the same mechanism of atomic relaxation as the one following photo-absorption. This contribution to X-ray fluorescence emission is frequently neglected because the total Compton cross-section is apparently much lower than the photoelectric one at useful X-ray energies. However, a more careful analysis suggests that is necessary to consider single shell cross sections (instead of total cross sections) as a function of energy. In this article these Compton cross sections are computed for the shells K, L1-L3 and M1-M5 in the framework of the impulse approximation. By comparing the Compton and the photoelectric cross-section for each shell it is then possible to determine the extent of the Compton correction to the intensity of the corresponding characteristic lines. It is shown that for the K shell the correction becomes relevant for excitation energies which are too high to be influent in X-ray spectrometry. In contrast, for L and M shells the Compton contribution is relevant for medium-Z elements and medium energies. To illustrate the different grades of relevance of the correction, for each ionized shell, the energies for which the Compton contribution reaches the extent levels of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100% of the photoelectric one are determined for all the elements with Z = 11-92. For practical applications it is provided a simple formula and fitting coefficients to compute average correction levels for the shells considered.

  9. Dual-use review policies of biomedical research journals.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Barner, Dionne D; Dinse, Gregg E

    2011-03-01

    To address biosecurity issues, government agencies, academic institutions, and professional societies have developed policies concerning the publication of "dual-use" biomedical research-that is, research that could be readily applied to cause significant harm to the public, the environment, or national security. We conducted an e-mail survey of life science journals to determine the percentage that have a dual-use policy. Of the 155 journals that responded to our survey (response rate 39%), only 7.7% stated that they had a written dual-use policy and only 5.8% said they had experience reviewing dual-use research in the past 5 years. Among the potential predictors we investigated, the one most highly associated with a journal having a written dual-use policy was membership in the Nature Publishing Group (positive association). When considered individually, both previous experience with reviewing dual-use research and the journal's impact factor appeared to be positively associated with having a written dual-use policy, but only the former remained significant after adjusting for publishing group. Although preventing the misuse of scientific research for terrorist or criminal purposes is an important concern, few biomedical journals have dual-use review policies. Journals that are likely to review research that raises potential dual-use concerns should consider developing dual-use policies.

  10. Parity assignments in photon scattering using Compton polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, U.

    The high selectivity of the Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence method in exciting dipole transitions in combination with the progress achieved in measuring polarization observables has led to a substantial amount of new experimental data concerning the distribution of magnetic and electric dipole strengths in deformed nuclei. Systematic experiments have been performed at the bremsstrahlung facility of the Stuttgart Dynamitron. Precise excitation energies, transition strengths, spins and decay branching ratios were deduced for numerous low lying dipole excitations in deformed rare earth nuclei. Measurements of the linear polarization of resonantly scattered photons using simultaneously two Compton polarimeters enabled model independent parity assignments. With this technique for the first time positive parities could be established for groups of states in the neighbouring deformed nuclei 150Nd, 160Gd, 162Dy. Most of these states are concentrated near 3 MeV and should be attributed to orbital isovector M1 excitations (often referred to as “ Scissors Mode”). The surprising novel result of the present systematic studies, however, was the first observation of enhanced electric dipole excitations in the same deformed nuclei at excitation energies of 2.414, 2.471, and 2.520 MeV, respectively. Furthermore, all three states systematically exhibit decay branching ratios which hint at K-mixing. The transition energies and the enhanced B( E1)↑ strengths of 3 to 5.10 -3e 2fm 2 support the interpretation in terms of the predicted new type of collective electric dipole excitations in deformed nuclei due to reflection asymmetric shapes like octupole deformations and/or cluster configurations.

  11. Observations of GRB 990123 by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, M. S.; Band, D. L.; Kippen, R. M.; Preece, R. D.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanParadijs, J.; Share, G. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Matz, S. M.; Connors, A.

    1999-01-01

    GRB 990123 was the first burst from which simultaneous optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray emission was detected; its afterglow has been followed by an extensive set of radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We have studied the gamma-ray burst itself as observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detectors. We find that gamma-ray fluxes are not correlated with the simultaneous optical observations and that the gamma-ray spectra cannot be extrapolated simply to the optical fluxes. The burst is well fitted by the standard four-parameter GRB function, with the exception that excess emission compared with this function is observed below approx. 15 keV during some time intervals. The burst is characterized by the typical hard-to-soft and hardness-intensity correlation spectral evolution patterns. The energy of the peak of the vf (sub v), spectrum, E (sub p), reaches an unusually high value during the first intensity spike, 1470 plus or minus 110 keV, and then falls to approx. 300 keV during the tail of the burst. The high-energy spectrum above approx. 1 MeV is consistent with a power law with a photon index of about -3. By fluence, GRB 990123 is brighter than all but 0.4% of the GRBs observed with BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment), clearly placing it on the -3/2 power-law portion of the intensity distribution. However, the redshift measured for the afterglow is inconsistent with the Euclidean interpretation of the -3/2 power law. Using the redshift value of greater than or equal to 1.61 and assuming isotropic emission, the gamma-ray energy exceeds 10 (exp 54) ergs.

  12. GAMMA-RAY COMPTON LIGHT SOURCE DEVELOPMENT AT LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Jovanovic, I; Messerly, M J; Pruet, J A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; McNabb, D P; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2007-08-15

    A new class of tunable, monochromatic {gamma}-ray sources capable of operating at high peak and average brightness is currently being developed at LLNL for nuclear photoscience and applications. These novel systems are based on Compton scattering of laser photons by a high brightness relativistic electron beam produced by an rf photoinjector. A prototype, capable of producing > 10{sup 8} 0.7 MeV photons in a single shot, with a fractional bandwidth of 1%, and a repetition rate of 10 Hz, is currently under construction at LLNL; this system will be used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments. A new symmetrized S-band rf gun, using a Mg photocathode, will produce up to 1 nC of charge in an 8 ps bunch, with a normalized emittance modeled at 0.8 mm.mrad; electrons are subsequently accelerated up to 120 MeV to interact with a 500 mJ, 10 ps, 355 nm laser pulse and generate {gamma}-rays. The laser front end is a fiber-based system, using corrugated-fiber Bragg gratings for stretching, and drives both the frequency-quadrupled photocathode illumination laser and the Nd:YAG interaction laser. Two new technologies are used in the laser: a hyper-Michelson temporal pulse stacker capable of producing 8 ps square UV pulses, and a hyper-dispersion compressor for the interaction laser. Other key technologies, basic scaling laws, and recent experimental results will also be presented, along with an overview of future research and development directions.

  13. A new Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, S.

    1986-02-01

    Pulmonary edema (PE) is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. The chest x-ray, the standard method for validating the presence of PE, is neither quantitative nor sensitive. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical use. To deal with the problem of attenuation along the beam paths, previous gamma-ray techniques require simultaneous measurement of transmitted and scattered beams. Since multiple scattering is a strong function of the density of the scattering medium and the mass distribution within the detection geometry, there will be inherent uncertainties in the system calibration unless it is performed on a body structure closely matched to that of each individual patient. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density, measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray.

  14. The COMPTON Observatory: Reflections on its origins and history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Gehrels, N.

    1997-05-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was planned as a mission to make the first comprehensive study of the gamma-ray sky over the full gamma-ray spectrum. It followed on the heels of two successful small astronomy satellites with high energy gamma-ray telescopes, SAS-2 and COS-B, and the High Energy Astronomical Observatory (HEAO) with low-energy gamma-ray detectors. The guideline was to cover the spectrum from the high energy limit of the x-ray domain to the highest energies for which a detectable flux might be reasonably observed. The objective was to include transients as well as persistent sources. The efforts to get such a mission approved stands as a model for developing a consensus of the scientific community for a mission involving a relatively small community of observers. A broad and vigorous guest investigator program was a key element in this effort. The results of the guest investigator program are testimony to the wisdom of this plan. The great success of GRO (now the Compton Observatory) was a result of the dedicated efforts of a few individuals and a project management team that understood how to work with scientists. In spite of increasing budgetary pressure and long delays beyond their control, the project management brought GRO to its successful launch with a minimum of cost growth resulting from the delays. This development period set the stage for what has been one of the most successful scientific programs in NASA's history. The very exciting results presented at this conference by a very broad community of scientists is a testimony to the dedicated efforts of a small group of visionaries with the foresight to see the potential of such a mission.

  15. X-Rays Compton Detectors For Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Paolo; Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Moschini, Giuliano; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Navarria, Francesco; Battistella, Andrea; Bello, Michele; Bollini, Dante; Bonvicini, Valter; Rashevsky, Alexander; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Gennaro, Gisella; Uzunov, Nikolay

    2011-06-01

    Collimators are usually needed to image sources emitting X-rays that cannot be focused. Alternately, one may employ a Compton Camera (CC) and measure the direction of the incident X-ray by letting it interact with a thin solid, liquid or gaseous material (Tracker) and determine the scattering angle. With respect to collimated cameras, CCs allow higher gamma-ray efficiency in spite of lighter geometry, and may feature comparable spatial resolution. CCs are better when the X-ray energy is high and small setups are required. We review current applications of CCs to Gamma Ray Astronomy and Biomedical systems stressing advantages and drawbacks. As an example, we focus on a particular CC we are developing, which is designed to image small animals administered with marked pharmaceuticals, and assess the bio-distribution and targeting capability of these latter. This camera has to address some requirements: relatively high activity of the imaged objects; detection of gamma-rays of different energies that may range from 140 keV (Tc99m) to 511 keV; presence of gamma and beta radiation with energies up to 2 MeV in case of 188Re. The camera consists of a thin position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detector as Tracker, and a further downstream position-sensitive system employing scintillating crystals and a multi-anode photo-multiplier (Calorimeter). The choice of crystal, pixel size, and detector geometry has been driven by measurements and simulations with the tracking code GEANT4. Spatial resolution, efficiency and scope are discussed.

  16. Study of Compton suppression for use in spent nuclear fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Sarah

    The focus of this study has been to assess Compton suppressed gamma-ray detection systems for the multivariate analysis of spent nuclear fuel. This objective has been achieved using direct measurement of samples of irradiated fuel elements in two geometrical configurations with Compton suppression systems. In order to address the objective to quantify the number of additionally resolvable photopeaks, direct Compton suppressed spectroscopic measurements of spent nuclear fuel in two configurations were performed: as intact fuel elements and as dissolved feed solutions. These measurements directly assessed and quantified the differences in measured gamma-ray spectrum from the application of Compton suppression. Several irradiated fuel elements of varying cooling time from the Penn State Breazeale Reactor spent fuel inventory were measured using three Compton suppression systems that utilized different primary detectors: HPGe, LaBr3, and NaI(Tl). The application of Compton suppression using a LaBr3 primary detector to the measurement of the current core fuel element, which presented the highest count rate, allowed four additional spectral features to be resolved. In comparison, the HPGe-CSS was able to resolve eight additional photopeaks as compared to the standalone HPGe measurement. Measurements with the NaI(Tl) primary detector were unable to resolve any additional peaks, due to its relatively low resolution. Samples of Approved Test Material (ATM) commercial fuel elements were obtained from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The samples had been processed using the beginning stages of the PUREX method and represented the unseparated feed solution from a reprocessing facility. Compton suppressed measurements of the ATM fuel samples were recorded inside the guard detector annulus, to simulate the siphoning of small quantities from the main process stream for long dwell measurement periods. Photopeak losses were observed in the measurements of the dissolved ATM

  17. The Dual Career Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  18. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  19. An energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera design for in vivo medical imaging of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, R.C.; Valentine, J.D.

    1996-12-01

    A Compton scatter camera (CSC) design is proposed for imaging radioisotopes used as biotracers. A clinical version may increase sensitivity by a factor of over 100, while maintaining or improving spatial resolution, as compared with existing Anger cameras that use lead collimators. This novel approach is based on using energy subtraction ({Delta}E = E{sub 0} {minus} E{sub SC}, where E{sub 0}, {Delta}E, and E{sub SC} are the energy of the emitted gamma ray, the energy deposited by the initial Compton scatter, and the energy of the Compton scattered photon) to determine the amount of energy deposited in the primary system. The energy subtraction approach allows the requirement of high energy resolution to be placed on a secondary detector system instead of the primary detector system. Requiring primary system high energy resolution has significantly limited previous CSC designs for medical imaging applications. Furthermore, this approach is dependent on optimizing the camera design for data acquisition of gamma rays that undergo only one Compton scatter in a low-Z primary detector system followed by a total absorption of the Compton scattered photon in a high-Z secondary detector system. The proposed approach allows for a more compact primary detector system, a more simplified pulse processing interface, and a much less complicated detector cooling scheme as compared with previous CSC designs. Analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulation results for some specific detector materials and geometries are presented.

  20. Measuring the Spin-Polarizabilities of the Proton in Polarized Compton scattering at MAMI-Mainz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskimen, Rory; A2 Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    At O (ω3) four new structure constants are present in the nucleon Compton scattering amplitude; these are the spin-polarizabilities γE 1 E 1, γM 1 M 1, γE 1 M 2, and γM 1 E 2. The most model independent way to determine the spin-polarizabilities is by measuring a double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetry with polarized target and circularly polarized photons, and by measuring an in-plane/transverse-plane Compton scattering asymmetry with linearly polarized photons (Σ3) . This talk will present new Compton scattering asymmetry data taken in the Δ region by the A2 Collaboration using the Crystal Ball at Mainz, with transverse polarized proton target and circularly polarized photons, the Σ2 x asymmetry (1). A dispersion model and an EFT calculation of Compton scattering are used to fit the four spin-polarizabilities to the new experimental data on Σ2 x, earlier results (2) on Σ3, and previous determinations of γ0 and γπ. The results of the fits are compared with theoretical calculations.

  1. Determining the Essential Components of State and Institution Dual Credit Program Policy in New Mexico: A Delphi Study with High School and College Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gregory Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Delphi study was to determine the essential components of dual credit in New Mexico. Dual credit experts from colleges and high schools in New Mexico were asked to participate in a three-round Delphi study to determine what the future policy of dual credit should be, and why it should be that way. Definitions of dual credit may…

  2. Accurate, low-energy Compton polarimetry for Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Donald

    2012-03-01

    A new Compton polarimeter has recently been commissioned in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, to provide a non-invasive, continuous measurement of electron beam polarization. The new Compton polarimeter is currently measuring electron beam polarization for Qweak, an experiment with a strict error budget allowing a combined statistical and systematic error of only ±1% for beam polarization. Using well-established techniques we are able to determine electron beam polarization by measuring the scattering asymmetry of both the backscattered photons and the scattered electrons. Although the photon and electron detectors provide somewhat independent measurements they share the common systematic of the laser polarization. I discuss the optical setup for the photon target used in the Compton polarimeter and recent efforts in reducing systematic error in determination of laser polarization.

  3. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  4. A Compton scattering technique to determine wood density and locating defects in it

    SciTech Connect

    Tondon, Akash Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan; Singh, Mohinder

    2015-08-28

    A Compton scattering technique is presented to determine density and void location in the given wooden samples. The technique uses a well collimated gamma ray beam from {sup 137}Cs along with the NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. First, a linear relationship is established between Compton scattered intensity and known density of chemical compounds, and then density of the wood is determined from this linear relation. In another experiment, the ability of penetration of gamma rays is explored to detect voids in wooden (low Z) sample. The sudden reduction in the Compton scattered intensities agrees well with the position and size of voids in the wooden sample. It is concluded that wood density and the voids of size ∼ 4 mm and more can be detected easily by this method.

  5. A graphical tool for an analytical approach of scattering photons by the Compton effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannavino, Francisco A.; Cruvinel, Paulo E.

    2012-05-01

    The photons scattered by the Compton effect can be used to characterize the physical properties of a given sample due to the influence that the electron density exerts on the number of scattered photons. However, scattering measurements involve experimental and physical factors that must be carefully analyzed to predict uncertainty in the detection of Compton photons. This paper presents a method for the optimization of the geometrical parameters of an experimental arrangement for Compton scattering analysis, based on its relations with the energy and incident flux of the X-ray photons. In addition, the tool enables the statistical analysis of the information displayed and includes the coefficient of variation (CV) measurement for a comparative evaluation of the physical parameters of the model established for the simulation.

  6. Results of a first demonstrator prototype of a Compton prostate probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llosá, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Burdette, D.; Chesi, E.; Cindro, V.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Lacasta, C.; Mikuž, M.; Modesto, P.; Rogers, W. L.; Steinberg, J.; Studen, A.; Weilhammer, P.; Zhang, L.; Žontar, D.

    2006-12-01

    A prostate probe based on the Compton imaging technique can outperform the methods currently employed for prostate imaging, improving early tumour detection, determination of its extent and follow-up of the response to treatment. Although nuclear imaging techniques have proven extremely valuable for this task in a wide variety of non-urologic cancers, present instrumentation is not adequate for prostate imaging. Compton imaging overcomes the resolution-efficiency tradeoff imposed by mechanical collimators, allowing both to improve simultaneously. A first Compton probe prototype has been developed, employing thick silicon sensors as scatter detectors, and its performance has been optimized. A series of measurements have been performed with 57Co and 133Ba sources. The results confirm the correct functioning of the prototype and the improvement of the spatial resolution with photon energy, low scattering angles and distance from the first to the second detector.

  7. On Compton reflection in the sources of the cosmic X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Zycki, Piotr T.; Svensson, Roland; Boldt, Elihu

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to recent models for the cosmic X-ray background that assume that it originates from unresolved AGN emitting spectra due to enhanced Compton reflection of a power-law photon spectrum incident on cold matter. The parameter space of the Compton reflection model is studied, and the allowed parameter space is found to be severely constrained by physical and cosmological effects. For an incident power-law energy index alpha is greater than about 1, the X-ray peak in the observed spectrum from a population of AGN is necessarily at an energy less than that of the observed peak. Two examples of improved fits to the X-ray background are shown. It is concluded that the Compton reflection models proposed to date do not provide a straightforward explanation of the X-ray background spectrum.

  8. Optimization of Compton-suppression and summing schemes for the TIGRESS HPGe detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Maharaj, R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2007-04-01

    Methods of optimizing the performance of an array of Compton-suppressed, segmented HPGe clover detectors have been developed which rely on the physical position sensitivity of both the HPGe crystals and the Compton-suppression shields. These relatively simple analysis procedures promise to improve the precision of experiments with the TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS). Suppression schemes will improve the efficiency and peak-to-total ratio of TIGRESS for high γ-ray multiplicity events by taking advantage of the 20-fold segmentation of the Compton-suppression shields, while the use of different summing schemes will improve results for a wide range of experimental conditions. The benefits of these methods are compared for many γ-ray energies and multiplicities using a GEANT4 simulation, and the optimal physical configuration of the TIGRESS array under each set of conditions is determined.

  9. Image Artifacts Resulting from Gamma-Ray Tracking Algorithms Used with Compton Imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Carolyn E.; He, Zhong

    2005-10-01

    For Compton imaging it is necessary to determine the sequence of gamma-ray interactions in a single detector or array of detectors. This can be done by time-of-flight measurements if the interactions are sufficiently far apart. However, in small detectors the time between interactions can be too small to measure, and other means of gamma-ray sequencing must be used. In this work, several popular sequencing algorithms are reviewed for sequences with two observed events and three or more observed events in the detector. These algorithms can result in poor imaging resolution and introduce artifacts in the backprojection images. The effects of gamma-ray tracking algorithms on Compton imaging are explored in the context of the 4π Compton imager built by the University of Michigan.

  10. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed.

  11. Arthur Compton's 1941 Report on explosive fission of U-235: A look at the physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2007-12-01

    In November 1941, the third of three reports on atomic fission commissioned by Vannevar Bush through the National Academy of Sciences examined the prospects for explosive fission in U-235. This report, prepared by Arthur Compton, developed a model for estimating the critical mass and efficiency of an atomic bomb. I examine Compton's physics, attempt to discern the provenance of the numbers he adopted for various parameters, and compare his results with those yielded by a full diffusion-theory approach with contemporary values for the fission parameters. I conclude that Compton's physics is sound. A combination of somewhat optimistic parameter values and a conservative model for critical mass lead him to a numerical value for the bare critical radius of U-235 that is in fairly good accord with that yielded by diffusion theory. His estimated efficiency proved to be quite accurate for the Little Boy bomb.

  12. Resonant Compton cooling and annihilation line production in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, R. D.; Harding, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a synchrotron self-Compton emission model for gamma-ray bursts which produces narrow annihilation features for a variety of field strengths, primary electron injection energies, and injection rates. In this model, primary electrons are injected and cooled by synchrotron emission in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field, resulting in a pair cascade. Multiple resonant scattering with cyclotron photons efficiently traps and cools pairs in the ground state to an average energy where the Compton energy loss rate is zero, which is in agreement with previous estimates of a Compton temperature. The particle distributions in the ground state are determined by numerically solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the steady state. In the case of isotropic injection of primary electrons, a significant narrow-line feature appears in the overall emission. In the case of beamed injection, the annihilation line is broadened to the extent that it would not be observable.

  13. Galactic gamma rays produced by Compton scattering of cosmic ray electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Previous models of the Compton scattering of the galactic gamma rays have been based on starlight distributions determined from galactic mass models and a constant luminosity per unit mass. The fact that the spiral arms have a significantly higher photon density than does the base disk containing the bulk of the galactic mass has been neglected in calculating the Compton gamma-ray component. The inclusion of the spiral arm Compton component produces enhanced gamma-ray intensities along tangents to spiral arms. Irrespective of whether the cosmic-ray electron density is enhanced in the spiral arms, increased gamma-ray emission is produced along the spiral arm tangents due to increased photon density. Thus, cosmic ray sources are not necessarily located in the arms.

  14. Electronic properties of Laves phase ZrFe2 using Compton spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Samir; Kumar, Kishor; Dashora, Alpa; Ahuja, B. L.

    2016-05-01

    First-ever experimental Compton profile of Laves phase ZrFe2, using indigenous 20 Ci 137Cs Compton spectrometer, is presented. To analyze the experimental electron momentum density, we have deduced the theoretical Compton profiles using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and Hartree-Fock scheme within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. The energy bands and density of states are also calculated using LCAO prescription. The theoretical profile based on local density approximation gives a better agreement with the experimental profile than other reported schemes. The present investigations validate the inclusion of correlation potential of Perdew-Zunger in predicting the electronic properties of ZrFe2.

  15. High energy Compton spectroscopy and electronic structure of Laves phase ZrFe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Samir; Kumar, Kishor; Arora, Gunjan; Bapna, Komal; Ahuja, B. L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first-ever experimental Compton profile of Laves phase ZrFe2 using indigenous 20 Ci 137Cs Compton spectrometer. To annotate the experimental electron momentum density, we have calculated the theoretical Compton profiles using density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of Hartree-Fock and DFT within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. The spin-polarized energy bands and density of states are computed using LCAO and full potential-linearized augmented plane wave methods. The revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional (for solids) based theoretical profile gives a marginally better agreement with the experimental profile as compared to other approximations considered in the present work. The Fermi surface topology of ZrFe2 is explained in terms of majority- and minority-spin energy bands.

  16. Compton sources for the observation of elastic photon-photon scattering events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micieli, D.; Drebot, I.; Bacci, A.; Milotti, E.; Petrillo, V.; Conti, M. Rossetti; Rossi, A. R.; Tassi, E.; Serafini, L.

    2016-09-01

    We present the design of a photon-photon collider based on conventional Compton gamma sources for the observation of elastic γ γ scattering. Two symmetric electron beams, generated by photocathodes and accelerated in linacs, produce two primary gamma rays through Compton backscattering with two high energy lasers. The elastic photon-photon scattering is analyzed by start-to-end simulations from the photocathodes to the detector. A new Monte Carlo code has been developed ad hoc for the counting of the QED events. Realistic numbers of the secondary gamma yield, obtained by using the parameters of existing or approved Compton devices, a discussion of the feasibility of the experiment and of the nature of the background are presented.

  17. Analysis of the electronic structure of ZrO{sub 2} by Compton spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mahammad, F. M.; Mahammed, S. F.; Kumar, R.; Vijay, Y. K.; Sharma, B. K.; Sharma, G.

    2013-07-15

    The electronic structure of ZrO{sub 2} is studied using the Compton scattering technique. The first-ever Compton profile measurement on polycrystalline ZrO{sub 2} was obtained using 59.54 keV gamma-rays emanating from the {sup 241}Am radioisotope. To explain the experimental data, we compute theoretical Compton profile values using the method of linear combination of atomic orbitals in the framework of density functional theory. The correlation scheme proposed by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and the exchange scheme of Becke are considered. The ionic-model-based calculations for a number of configurations, i.e., Zr{sup +x}(O{sup -x/2}){sub 2} (0 {<=} x {<=} 2), are also performed to estimate the charge transfer on compound formation, and the study supports transfer of 1.5 electrons from Zr to O atoms.

  18. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  19. Polarized gamma-rays with laser-Compton backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ohgaki, H.; Noguchi, T.; Sugiyama, S.

    1995-12-31

    Polarized gamma-rays were generated through laser-Compton backscattering (LCS) of a conventional Nd:YAG laser with electrons circulating in the electron storage ring TERAS at Electrotechnical Laboratory. We measured the energy, the energy spread, and the yield of the gamma-rays to characterize our gamma-ray source. The gamma-ray energy can be varied by changing the energy of the electrons circulating the storage ring. In our case, the energy of electrons in the storage ring were varied its energy from 200 to 750 MeV. Consequently, we observed gamma-ray energies of 1 to 10 MeV with 1064 run laser photons. Furthermore, the gamma-ray energy was extended to 20 MeV by using the 2nd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. This shows a good agreement with theoretical calculation. The gamma-ray energy spread was also measured to be 1% FWHM for -1 MeV gamma-rays and to be 4% FWHM for 10 MeV gamma-rays with a narrow collimator that defined the scattering cone. The gamma-ray yield was 47.2 photons/mA/W/s. This value is consistent with a rough estimation of 59.5 photons/mA/W/s derived from theory. Furthermore, we tried to use these gamma-rays for a nuclear fluorescence experiment. If we use a polarized laser beam, we can easily obtain polarized gamma-rays. Elastically scattered photons from {sup 208} Pb were clearly measured with the linearly polarized gamma-rays, and we could assign the parity of J=1 states in the nucleus. We should emphasize that the polarized gamma-ray from LCS is quit useful in this field, because we can use highly, almost completely, polarized gamma-rays. We also use the LCS gamma-rays to measure the photon absorption coefficients. In near future, we will try to generate a circular polarized gamma-ray. We also have a plan to use an FEL, because it can produce intense laser photons in the same geometric configuration as the LCS facility.

  20. Compton thick active galactic nuclei in Chandra surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, Murray; Nandra, Kirpal; Salvato, Mara; Hsu, Li-Ting; Aird, James; Rangel, Cyprian

    2014-09-01

    We present the results from an X-ray spectral analysis of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra Deep Field-South, All-wavelength Extended Groth-strip International Survey (AEGIS)-Deep X-ray survey (XD) and Chandra-Cosmic Evolution Surveys (COSMOS), focusing on the identification and characterization of the most heavily obscured, Compton thick (CT, NH > 1024 cm-2) sources. Our sample is comprised of 3184 X-ray selected extragalactic sources, which has a high rate of redshift completeness (96.6 per cent), and includes additional spectroscopic redshifts and improved photometric redshifts over previous studies. We use spectral models designed for heavily obscured AGN which self-consistently include all major spectral signatures of heavy absorption. We validate our spectral fitting method through simulations, identify CT sources not selected through this method using X-ray colours and take considerations for the constraints on NH given the low count nature of many of our sources. After these considerations, we identify a total of 100 CT AGN with best-fitting NH > 1024 cm-2 and NH constrained to be above 1023.5 cm-2 at 90 per cent confidence. These sources cover an intrinsic 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity range of 1042-3 × 1045 erg s-1 and a redshift range of z = 0.1-4. This sample will enable characterization of these heavily obscured AGN across cosmic time and to ascertain their cosmological significance. These survey fields are sites of extensive multiwavelength coverage, including near-infrared Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) data and far-infrared Herschel data, enabling forthcoming investigations into the host properties of CT AGN. Furthermore, by using the torus models to test different covering factor scenarios, and by investigating the inclusion of the soft scattered emission, we find evidence that the covering factor of the obscuring material decreases with LX for all redshifts, consistent with the receding torus model

  1. Dual Credit Enrollment and GPA by Ethnicity and Gender at Texas 2-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which differences were present in dual credit course enrollment. Specifically examined were whether differences were present in the first semester GPA and at the end of the first two semesters for students who enrolled in dual credit courses while in high school from…

  2. Study of X-Ray Polarization Due to Comptonization of Photons inside Thick Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Ghosh, Himadri

    2016-07-01

    We study the Comptonization of Photons inside generalized relativistic thick disks. Relativistic and non- relativistic effect of Photon paths on the spectrum are computed. We include the polarization of photons induced by the Compton scattering. The degree of polarization for initially unpolarized and linearly polarized photons are calculated separately. Variation of X-ray polarization with number of scattering is presented. Finally, the polarimetric images of thick disk for different energy bands are shown. We compare our simulated results with outbursting black hole candidates. We are also adding effects of spin of the black hole on the degree of polarization. These results are useful for future missions which could measure polarization very accurately.

  3. Gravitation and Special Relativity from Compton Wave Interactions at the Planck Scale: An Algorithmic Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.

  4. Quality Control of Pavements and Tarmacs Using ({sup 137}Cs){gamma} Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, F.; Barros, H.; Bernal, M.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Palacios, D.; Greaves, E. D.; Viesti, G.

    2010-08-04

    The {gamma} Compton scattering over a volume of concrete has been studied in order to design an instrument for density measurements. It will be used for the quality control in road construction, where large surfaces must be monitored. The experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations of the {gamma} Compton scattering over homogeneous and inhomogeneous volumes of concrete are shown. MC simulations have been useful to optimize the values of several parameters to improve the experimental set up and to estimate the extension of the explored volume.

  5. Double electron ionization in Compton scattering of high energy photons by helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M.Y.; Mikhailov, A.I.

    1995-08-01

    The cross section for double-electron ionization of two-electron atoms and ions in Compton scattering of high energy photons is calculated. It is demonstrated that its dependence on the incoming photon frequency is the same as that for single-electron ionization. The ratio of {open_quotes}double-to-single{close_quotes} ionization in Compton scattering was found to be energy independent and almost identical with the corresponding value for photoionization. For the He atom it is 1.68%. This surprising result deserves experimental verification.

  6. Compton Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Gibson, D J; Brown, W J; Rousse, A; Phuoc, K T; Pukhov, A

    2005-10-19

    Recent laser wakefield acceleration experiments have demonstrated the generation of femtosecond, nano-Coulomb, low emittance, nearly monokinetic relativistic electron bunches of sufficient quality to produce bright, tunable, ultrafast x-rays via Compton scattering. Design parameters for a proof-of-concept experiment are presented using a three-dimensional Compton scattering code and a laser-plasma interaction particle-in-cell code modeling the wakefield acceleration process; x-ray fluxes exceeding 10{sup 22} s{sup -1} are predicted, with a peak brightness > 10{sup 20} photons/(mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x s x 0.1% bandwidth).

  7. High intensity compact Compton X-ray sources: Challenges and potential of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, M.

    2014-07-01

    Thanks to the exceptional development of high power femtosecond lasers in the last 15 years, Compton based X-ray sources are in full development over the world in the recent years. Compact Compton sources are able to combine the compactness of the instrument with a beam of high intensity, high quality, tunable in energy. In various fields of applications such as biomedical science, cultural heritage preservation and material science researches, these sources should provide an easy working environment and the methods currently used at synchrotrons could be largely developed in a lab-size environment as hospitals, labs, or museums.

  8. Cross calibration of the JLab, Hall C, Compton and Møller polarimeters and a study of systematic uncertainties of the Compton electron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Amrendra

    2014-03-01

    A Compton polarimeter was commissioned at Jefferson Lab, Hall C, for continuous non-invasive measurement of the electron beam polarization. It uses ~ 1 . 5 kW of green light for the e-> - γ-> scattering. The polarimeter has several planes of diamond micro-strip detectors to detect the Compton scattered electrons and a PbWO4 crystal for detecting back-scattered photons. It was successfully used to measure the electron beam polarization along with periodic polarization measurements by the standard Moller polarimeter. The diamond micro-strip electron detector provided a standalone measurement of the beam polarization with < 1 % statistical uncertainty per hour, for a 1.16 GeV, 180 μ A electron beam. The systematic uncertainties are projected to be better than 1%. We will discuss the various contributions to the systematic uncertainties for the electron detector. We also collected data at low current for a Moller-Compton cross calibration. The preliminary results from the analysis of these data will be presented. This work was supported by DOE grant number: DE-FG02-07ER41528 for ``Precision Measurements at Medium Energy.''

  9. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: III. Implications for Compton Corona and ADAF Models. Report 3; Implications for Compton Corona and ADAF Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Vaughan, Brian A.; Dove, James B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1999-01-01

    We have recently shown that a 'sphere + disk' geometry Compton corona model provides a good description of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the hard/low state of Cygnus X-1. Separately, we have analyzed the temporal data provided by RXTE. In this paper we consider the implications of this timing analysis for our best-fit 'sphere + disk' Comptonization models. We focus our attention on the observed Fourier frequency-dependent time delays between hard and soft photons. We consider whether the observed time delays are: created in the disk but are merely reprocessed by the corona; created by differences between the hard and soft photon diffusion times in coronae with extremely large radii; or are due to 'propagation' of disturbances through the corona. We find that the time delays are most likely created directly within the corona; however, it is currently uncertain which specific model is the most likely explanation. Models that posit a large coronal radius [or equivalently, a large Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF) region] do not fully address all the details of the observed spectrum. The Compton corona models that do address the full spectrum do not contain dynamical information. We show, however, that simple phenomenological propagation models for the observed time delays for these latter models imply extremely slow characteristic propagation speeds within the coronal region.

  10. Compton thick AGN in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Ranalli, P.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Georgakakis, A.; Delvecchio, I.; Akylas, T.; Berta, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Hasinger, G.; Iwasawa, K.; Koekemoer, A.; Lusso, E.; Marchesi, S.; Mainieri, V.; Merloni, A.; Mignoli, M.; Piconcelli, E.; Pozzi, F.; Rosario, D. J.; Salvato, M.; Silverman, J.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-01-01

    Heavily obscured, Compton thick (CT, NH> 1024 cm-2) active galactic nuclei (AGN) may represent an important phase in AGN/galaxy co-evolution and are expected to provide a significant contribution to the cosmic X-ray background at its peak. However, unambiguously identifying CT AGN beyond the local Universe is a challenging task even in the deepest X-ray surveys, and given the expected low spatial density of these sources in the 2-10 keV band, large area surveys are needed to collect sizable samples. Through direct X-ray spectra analysis, we selected 39 heavily obscured AGN (NH>3 × 1023 cm-2) at bright X-ray fluxes (F2-10 ≳ 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2) in the 2 deg2 XMM-COSMOS survey. After selecting CT AGN based on the fit of a simple absorbed two power law model to the shallow XMM-Newton data, the presence of bona fide CT AGN was confirmed in 80% of the sources using deeper Chandra data and more complex models. The final sample comprises ten CT AGN (six of them also have a detected Fe Kα line with EW ~ 1 keV), spanning a wide range of redshifts (z ~ 0.1-2.5) and luminosity (L2-10 ~ 1043.5-1045 erg s-1) and is complemented by 29 heavily obscured AGN spanning the same redshift and luminosity range. We collected the rich multi-wavelength information available for all these sources, in order to study the distribution of super massive black hole and host properties, such as black hole mass (MBH), Eddington ratio (λEdd), stellar mass (M∗), specific star formation rate (sSFR) in comparison with a sample of unobscured AGN. We find that highly obscured sources tend to have significantly smaller MBH and higher λEdd with respect to unobscured sources, while a weaker evolution in M∗ is observed. The sSFR of highly obscured sources is consistent with the one observed in the main sequence of star forming galaxies, at all redshifts. We also present and briefly discuss optical spectra, broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and morphology for the sample of ten CT AGN. Both

  11. On the possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to study magnetoelectrical properties of crystals.

    PubMed

    Collins, S P; Laundy, D; Connolley, T; van der Laan, G; Fabrizi, F; Janssen, O; Cooper, M J; Ebert, H; Mankovsky, S

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using Compton scattering--an inelastic X-ray scattering process that yields a projection of the electron momentum density--to probe magnetoelectrical properties. It is shown that an antisymmetric component of the momentum density is a unique fingerprint of such time- and parity-odd physics. It is argued that polar ferromagnets are ideal candidates to demonstrate this phenomenon and the first experimental results are shown, on a single-domain crystal of GaFeO3. The measured antisymmetric Compton profile is very small (≃ 10(-5) of the symmetric part) and of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors. Relativistic first-principles simulations of the antisymmetric Compton profile are presented and it is shown that, while the effect is indeed predicted by theory, and scales with the size of the valence spin-orbit interaction, its magnitude is significantly overestimated. The paper outlines some important constraints on the properties of the antisymmetric Compton profile arising from the underlying crystallographic symmetry of the sample. PMID:26919371

  12. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df.

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Kong, A K H

    2016-01-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova's lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova. PMID:27481538

  13. Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Compton, A. H.

    1942-09-01

    This letter from Compton to Fermi describes developments bearing on the establishment of site X (which, as of the letter date, is definitely determined as at the Tennessee Valley) for the construction of a pile and associated pilot plant buildings, describes the situation as of the letter date, and offers counsel as to how to proceed.

  14. Compton profiles and electronic structure of monoclinic zinc and cadmium tungstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, B. S.; Heda, N. L.; Mund, H. S.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    We report the first ever Compton scattering study of ZnWO4 and CdWO4 using 20 Ci 137Cs Compton spectrometer at momentum resolution of 0.34 a.u. To compare the experimental Compton profiles, we have also deduced the momentum densities using density functional theory (DFT) within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) methods. It is seen that the experimental Compton profiles of both the tungstates give a better agreement with LCAO-DFT calculations within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) employing Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation energies than other approximations included in the present work. Further, energy bands, density of states (DOS) and band gaps have also been calculated using LCAO-DFT-GGA-PBE scheme and full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. Both the computational schemes show a semiconducting nature of both the tungstates, with a direct band gap at Y point of Brillouin zone. Further, a relative nature of bonding on equal-valence-electron-density scale shows more covalent character in ZnWO4 than CdWO4 which reconciles with the conclusions drawn using integrated DOS and Mulliken's population data.

  15. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df.

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Kong, A K H

    2016-08-02

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova's lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova.

  16. A compact Compton backscatter X-ray source for mammography and coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Weber, M.E.; Volz, S.K.; Gierman, S.M.; Hayes, K.; Vernon, W.; Goldstein, D.J.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective is to generate a large flux of tunable, monochromatic x-rays for use in mammography and coronary angiography. The approach is based on Compton backscattering of an ultraviolet solid-state laser beam against the high-brightness 20-MeV electron beams from a compact linear accelerator. The direct Compton backscatter approach failed to produce a large flux of x-rays due to the low photon flux of the scattering solid-state laser. The authors have modified the design of a compact x-ray source to the new Compton backscattering geometry with use of a regenerative amplifier free-electron laser. They have successfully demonstrated the production of a large flux of infrared photons and a high-brightness electron beam focused in both dimensions for performing Compton backscattering in a regenerative amplifier geometry.

  17. Compton backscattering of intracavity storage ring free-electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dattoli, G.; Giannessi, L.; Torre, A.

    1995-12-31

    We discuss the{gamma}-ray production by Compton backscattering of intracavity storage ring Free-Electron Laser radiation. We use a semi-analytical model which provides the build up of the signal combined with the storage ring damping mechanism and derive simple relations yielding the connection between backscattered. Photons brightness and the intercavity laser equilibrium intensity.

  18. The Compton-Belkovich Region of the Moon: Remotely Sensed Observations and Lunar Sample Association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, D. J.; Lawson, S. L.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    Clementine (UVVIS, FeO, and LWIR) data, and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray data for Th are compared with compositional data from lunar samples to show evidence of an association between the Compton-Belkovich high-Th anomaly and alkali anorthosites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. X-ray irradiated model stellar atmospheres. II. Comprehensive treatment of Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madej, J.; Rózańska, A.

    2000-11-01

    We present equations and details of the computer code for model atmosphere computations, in which we include both nonzero external illumination by very hard X-rays, and Compton scattering opacity and emissivity. We assume both radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium, and LTE equation of state. The code solves simultaneously transfer of thermal radiation emitted by a hot main sequence stellar atmosphere and incident hard X-rays of photon energy approaching electron rest mass. The equation of radiative transfer and remaining equations of equilibrium contain Compton scattering terms appropriate for scattering of photons of arbitrarily large initial energies. In our paper we consider Compton scattering of photons of energy up to 400 keV on free electrons in fully relativistic thermal motion. In this paper we consider illumination of a B3 V type star by isotropic X-rays of diluted thermal spectral distribution with temperature Trad=108 K. Two series of models are computed, hydrogen-helium models and iron rich models. Our results demonstrate, that the external illumination causes extreme temperature rise at least in the uppermost layers. Outgoing spectra exhibit: big UV bump, numerous H, He, and Fe b-f opacity jumps mostly in emission, and also reflected incident spectrum with Compton cut-off. The model spectra also reflect qualitatively spectral properties of the active galactic nuclei (AGN).

  20. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    PubMed Central

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova’s lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova. PMID:27481538

  1. On the possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to study magnetoelectrical properties of crystals

    PubMed Central

    Collins, S. P.; Laundy, D.; Connolley, T.; van der Laan, G.; Fabrizi, F.; Janssen, O.; Cooper, M. J.; Ebert, H.; Mankovsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using Compton scattering – an inelastic X-ray scattering process that yields a projection of the electron momentum density – to probe magnetoelectrical properties. It is shown that an antisymmetric component of the momentum density is a unique fingerprint of such time- and parity-odd physics. It is argued that polar ferromagnets are ideal candidates to demonstrate this phenomenon and the first experimental results are shown, on a single-domain crystal of GaFeO3. The measured antisymmetric Compton profile is very small (≃ 10−5 of the symmetric part) and of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors. Relativistic first-principles simulations of the antisymmetric Compton profile are presented and it is shown that, while the effect is indeed predicted by theory, and scales with the size of the valence spin–orbit interaction, its magnitude is significantly overestimated. The paper outlines some important constraints on the properties of the antisymmetric Compton profile arising from the underlying crystallographic symmetry of the sample. PMID:26919371

  2. Evaluation of detector material and radiation source position on Compton camera's ability for multitracer imaging.

    PubMed

    Uche, C Z; Round, W H; Cree, M J

    2012-09-01

    We present a study on the effects of detector material, radionuclide source and source position on the Compton camera aimed at realistic characterization of the camera's performance in multitracer imaging as it relates to brain imaging. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation software was used to model the physics of radiation transport and interactions with matter. Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) detectors were evaluated for the scatterer, and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr(3):Ce) were considered for the absorber. Image quality analyses suggest that the use of Si as the scatterer and CZT as the absorber would be preferred. Nevertheless, two simulated Compton camera models (Si/CZT and Si/LaBr(3):Ce Compton cameras) that are considered in this study demonstrated good capabilities for multitracer imaging in that four radiotracers within the nuclear medicine energy range are clearly visualized by the cameras. It is found however that beyond a range difference of about 2 cm for (113m)In and (18)F radiotracers in a brain phantom, there may be a need to rotate the Compton camera for efficient brain imaging.

  3. The limitations of resonant Compton scattering as a gamma-ray burst model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Resonant Compton upscattering is commended as a mechanism that produces a hard gamma-ray spectrum while suppressing X-rays. This model, however, has severe physical and observational limitations. Effective X-ray suppression places a lower limit on the electron density; above this limit X-rays scatter multiple times, so the single-scattering approximation of this mechanism is invalid. Multiple scattering produces a spectrum that is much harder than the single-scattering spectrum. As the Thomson optical depth of a power-law electron beam approaches unity, photon spawning commences at a high rate and physically invalidates the underlying electron distribution. The Compton upscattering model is therefore only valid over a narrow range of electron densities. An observational consequence of this model is the absence of the third cyclotron resonance. Resonant scattering produces gamma-rays that propagate nearly along the magnetic field. The resonant cross section of the third harmonic, which is strongly angle dependent, falls below the Compton continuum for these gamma rays. The observation of a third cyclotron resonance in a gamma-ray burst spectrum would eliminate resonant Compton scattering as a gamma-ray burst process.

  4. Verification of Compton Collision and Klein-Nishina Formulas--An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, R. P.; Burns, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to verify the Compton collision formula and the angular dependance of the Klein-Nishina formula. Equipment used is a 1-mCi(137)Cs source, 2x2 in. NaI detector and a multichannel analyzer. Suitable for honor undergraduates. (Author/GA)

  5. Combining harmonic generation and laser chirping to achieve high spectral density in Compton sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzić, Balša; Reeves, Cody; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2016-04-01

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. As a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results to demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. This combination of chirping and higher harmonics can lead to substantial savings in the design, construction and operational costs of the new Compton sources. This is of particular importance to the widely popular laser-plasma accelerator based Compton sources, as the improvement in their beam quality enters the regime where chirping is most effective.

  6. Exclusive Vector Meson Production and Deep Virtual Compton Scattering in Electron-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cazaroto, E. R.; Navarra, F. S.; Carvalho, F.; Kugeratski, M. S.; Goncalves, V. P.

    2010-11-12

    We calculate the nuclear cross section for coherent and incoherent deep virtual Compton scattering as well as for coherent and incoherent vector meson production for the mesons J/{Psi}, {phi} and {rho} within the QCD color dipole picture, including saturation effects. Theoretical estimates for scattering on both light and heavy nuclei are given over a wide range of energy.

  7. Next-to-leading order mass effects in QCD Compton process of polarized DIS

    SciTech Connect

    I. Akushevich; A.Ilyichev; N.Shumeiko

    2001-04-01

    The method originally developed for the exact calculations in QED theory is applied for the calculation of NLO effects in QCD Compton processes. QCD corrections to the structure functions and sum rules are obtained. Different interpretations of the NLO effects due to finite quark mass are discussed.

  8. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2016-08-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova’s lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova.

  9. The Financial Resource Allocation Process at Compton Community College: A Redirection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton Community Coll. Federation of Teachers, CA.

    This paper presents a historical portrait of the process of financial resource allocation at Compton Community College (CCC). Introductory material provides information on the college, its organization, and its budgeting and accounting procedures. Next, changes in finances occurring between 1974-75 and 1977-78 are outlined, including the growth of…

  10. Technical Note: Relation between dual-energy subtraction of CT images for electron density calibration and virtual monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the author previously proposed a simple conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the relation between the ΔHU image for ρ{sub e} calibration and a virtually monochromatic CT image by performing numerical analyses based on the basis material decomposition in dual-energy CT. Methods: The author determined the weighting factor, α{sub 0}, of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion through numerical analyses of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report-46 human body tissues using their attenuation coefficients and given ρ{sub e} values. Another weighting factor, α(E), for synthesizing a virtual monochromatic CT image from high- and low-kV CT images, was also calculated in the energy range of 0.03 < E < 5 MeV, assuming that cortical bone and water were the basis materials. The mass attenuation coefficients for these materials were obtained using the XCOM photon cross sections database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 and 100–140 kV/Sn. Results: The determined α{sub 0} values were 0.455 for 80–140 kV/Sn and 0.743 for 100–140 kV/Sn. These values coincided almost perfectly with the respective maximal points of the calculated α(E) curves located at approximately 1 MeV, in which the photon-matter interaction in human body tissues is exclusively the incoherent (Compton) scattering. Conclusions: The ΔHU image could be regarded substantially as a CT image acquired with monoenergetic 1-MeV photons, which provides a linear relationship between CT numbers and electron densities.

  11. Foreign body detection in food materials using compton scattered x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Nigel James Bruce

    This thesis investigated the application of X-ray Compton scattering to the problem of foreign body detection in food. The methods used were analytical modelling, simulation and experiment. A criterion was defined for detectability, and a model was developed for predicting the minimum time required for detection. The model was used to predict the smallest detectable cubes of air, glass, plastic and steel. Simulations and experiments were performed on voids and glass in polystyrene phantoms, water, coffee and muesli. Backscatter was used to detect bones in chicken meat. The effects of geometry and multiple scatter on contrast, signal-to-noise, and detection time were simulated. Compton scatter was compared with transmission, and the effect of inhomogeneity was modelled. Spectral shape was investigated as a means of foreign body detection. A signal-to-noise ratio of 7.4 was required for foreign body detection in food. A 0.46 cm cube of glass or a 1.19 cm cube of polystyrene were detectable in a 10 cm cube of water in one second. The minimum time to scan a whole sample varied as the 7th power of the foreign body size, and the 5th power of the sample size. Compton scatter inspection produced higher contrasts than transmission, but required longer measurement times because of the low number of photon counts. Compton scatter inspection of whole samples was very slow compared to production line speeds in the food industry. There was potential for Compton scatter in applications which did not require whole-sample scanning, such as surface inspection. There was also potential in the inspection of inhomogeneous samples. The multiple scatter fraction varied from 25% to 55% for 2 to 10 cm cubes of water, but did not have a large effect on the detection time. The spectral shape gave good contrasts and signal-to-noise ratios in the detection of chicken bones.

  12. Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET scanner by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-11-01

    In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with a limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient causes scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these scanners require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger-type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence. In this work, we evaluated effect of sensitivity improvement using Compton kinetics in several types of DOI-PET scanners. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scatter angles calculated on the coincidence line-of-response. We simulated an animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consists of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO and GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably when effective atomic number of a scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate

  13. Comptonization of diffuse ambient radiation by a relativistic jet: The source of gamma rays from blazars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rees, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent Energy Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) observations of blazars have revealed strong, variable gamma-ray fluxes with no signatures of gamma-ray absorption by pair production. This radiation probably originates from the inner parts of relativistic jets which are aimed nearly toward us. On sub-parsec scales, the jet will be pervaded by radiation from the broad-line region, as well as by photons from the central continuum source (some of which will be scattered by thermal plasma). In a frame moving with the relativistic outflow, the energy of this ambient radiation would be enhanced. This radiation would be Comptonized by both cold and relativistic electrons in the jet, yielding (in the observer's frame) a collimated beam of X-rays and gamma rays. On the assumption that this process dominates self-Comptonization of synchrotron radiation, we develop a self-consistent model for variable gamma-ray emission, involving a single population of relativistic electrons accelerated by a disturbance in the jet. The spectral break between the X-ray and gamma-ray band, observed in 3C 279 and deduced for other blazars, results from inefficient radiative cooling of lower energy electrons. The existence of such a break strongly favors a model involving Comptonization of an external radiation field over a synchrotron self-Compton model. We derive constraints on such model parameters as the location and speed of the source, its dimensions and internal physical parameters, the maximum photon energies produced in the source, and the density and distribution of ambient radiation. Finally, we discuss how observations might discriminate between our model and alternative ones invoking Comptonization of ambient radiation.

  14. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

  15. COOLING RATES FOR RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONS UNDERGOING COMPTON SCATTERING IN STRONG MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Baring, Matthew G.; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Gonthier, Peter L. E-mail: zw1@rice.edu

    2011-05-20

    For inner magnetospheric models of hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission in high-field pulsars and magnetars, resonant Compton upscattering is anticipated to be the most efficient process for generating continuum radiation. This is in part due to the proximity of a hot soft photon bath from the stellar surface to putative radiation dissipation regions in the inner magnetosphere. Moreover, because the scattering process becomes resonant at the cyclotron frequency, the effective cross section exceeds the classical Thomson value by over two orders of magnitude, thereby enhancing the efficiency of continuum production and the cooling of relativistic electrons. This paper presents computations of the electron cooling rates for this process, which are needed for resonant Compton models of non-thermal radiation from such highly magnetized pulsars. The computed rates extend previous calculations of magnetic Thomson cooling to the domain of relativistic quantum effects, sampled near and above the quantum critical magnetic field of 44.13 TG. This is the first exposition of fully relativistic, quantum magnetic Compton cooling rates for electrons, and it employs both the traditional Johnson and Lippmann cross section and a newer Sokolov and Ternov (ST) formulation of Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields. Such ST formalism is formally correct for treating spin-dependent effects that are important in the cyclotron resonance and has not been addressed before in the context of cooling by Compton scattering. The QED effects are observed to profoundly lower the rates below extrapolations of the familiar magnetic Thomson results, as expected, when recoil and Klein-Nishina reductions become important.

  16. Design of Terahertz-Wave Spectrophotometry by Compton Backscattering Using Relativistic Electron Bunches and their Coherent Synchrotron Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, Norihiro; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    We propose a new terahertz-wave spectrophotometry by Compton backscattering using relativistic electron bunches and coherent radiations generated by them. The terahertz-wave spectrophotometry can be realized simultaneously with Compton backscattering, where the characteristics in the terahertz-wave region are converted to those in the visible and ultraviolet regions. The number of Compton backscattered photons is estimated to be more than 100 counts per second with a wavelength divergence of 5% in the visible and ultraviolet regions using the compact S-band linac at National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. This spectrophotometry becomes significant in energy recovery linacs.

  17. A Bulk Comptonization Model for the Prompt GRB Emission and its Relation to the Fermi GRB Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2010-01-01

    We present a model in which the GRB prompt emission at E E(sub peak) is due to bulk Comptonization by the relativistic blast wave motion of either its own synchrotron photons of ambient photons of the stellar configuration that gave birth to the GRB. The bulk Comptonization process then induces the production of relativistic electrons of Lorentz factor equal to that of the blast wave through interactions with its ambient protons. The inverse compton emission of these electrons produces a power law component that extends to multi GeV energies in good agreement with the LAT GRB observations.

  18. The diffuse galactic gamma radiation: The Compton contribution and component separation by energy interval and galactic coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation to be expected from cosmic ray interactions with matter and photons was examined. Particular emphasis is placed on the Compton emission. Both the photon density in and near the visible region and that in the region are deduced from the estimates of the emission functions throughout the Galaxy. The blackbody radiation is also included in the estimate of the total Compton emission. The result suggests that the gamma ray Compton radiation from cosmic ray ineractions with galactic visible and infrared photons is substantially larger than previously believed.

  19. An extension of the dual magnetometer method for use on a dual spinning spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1977-01-01

    A method of estimating and correcting for the magnetic field of a dual spinning spacecraft has been developed by employing an extension of the dual magnetometer technique. This new method is useful for those situations in which a magnetometer boom of modest length is attached to the spinning part of a large spacecraft. The purpose of using a dual spinning spacecraft is to accommodate two types of instruments: imaging and similar pointed remote sensing systems on the stationary platform, and fields, particles and other in-situ measuring instruments on the spinning portion. The new method assumes that the stationary part of the spacecraft possesses a magnetic field which is represented by a combination of a dipole and a quadrupole field.

  20. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  1. Dual Species NMR Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Joshua; Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Walker, Thad

    2016-05-01

    We present progress towards a dual species nuclear magnetic oscillator using synchronous spin exchange optical pumping. By applying the bias field as a sequence of alkali 2 π pulses, we generate alkali polarization transverse to the bias field. The alkali polarization is then modulated at the noble gas resonance so that through spin exchange collisions the noble gas becomes polarized. This novel method of NMR suppresses the alkali field frequency shift by at least a factor of 2500 as compared to longitudinal NMR. We will present details of the apparatus and measurements of dual species co-magnetometry using this method. Research supported by the NSF and Northrop-Grumman Corp.

  2. Proposal for an advanced hybrid K-edge/XRF densitometry (HKED) using a monochromatic photon beam from laser Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Sonoda, Takashi; Seya, Michio

    2011-10-01

    The general purpose Monte Carlo electron-gamma shower computer code (EGS5) was used to obtain the U, Np, and Pu X-ray response from the hybrid K-edge/XRF densitometry (HKED). In the present simulation, we adopt a monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beam generated by using inverse Compton scattering of laser light with high-energy electrons from an energy recovery linac. The simulation has been carried out under various conditions of the U, Np, and Pu concentrations to investigate the effect of counting rates as well as counting precision. The results of the simulation show that the assessment time for low concentration Pu input solutions is reduced by improving the signal-to-background ratios. It is also shown that the Np concentration is determined with the counting precision of 0.67-1.8% in standard deviation during 1 h live time measurement for a 3N HNO 3 sample solution (1.1-1.3 g/cm 2) including U (10-200 g/L), Np (0.1 g/L), and Pu (10 g/L).

  3. 7 CFR 248.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) General § 248.1 General... out the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. The dual purposes of the FMNP are: (a) To...

  4. 7 CFR 248.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) General § 248.1 General... out the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. The dual purposes of the FMNP are: (a) To...

  5. 7 CFR 248.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) General § 248.1 General... out the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. The dual purposes of the FMNP are: (a) To...

  6. 7 CFR 248.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) General § 248.1 General... out the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. The dual purposes of the FMNP are: (a) To...

  7. 7 CFR 248.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) General § 248.1 General... out the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. The dual purposes of the FMNP are: (a) To...

  8. Design and First Results of the CoDeX Liquid-Xenon Compton-Imaging Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Brian; Cahn, Sidney; Bernard, Ethan; Boulton, Elizabeth; Destefano, Nicholas; Edwards, Blair; Hackenburg, Ariana; Horn, Markus; Larsen, Nicole; Nikkel, James; Wahl, Christopher; Gai, Moshe; McKinsey, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    CoDeX (Compton-imaging Detector in Xenon) is an R&D Compton gamma-ray imaging detector that uses 30 kg of xenon in a two-phase time projection chamber. Time projection relative to the initial scintillation signal provides the vertical interaction positions, and either PMT-sensed gas electroluminescence or a charge-sensitive amplifier quantifies the drifted ionization signal. Detector features to enable Compton imaging are a pair of instrumented wire grids added to sense the horizontal position of clouds of drifted electrons that traverse the detector. Each wire is individually amplified in the cold xenon environment. Design choices addressing the thermodynamic and xenon purity constraints of this system will be discussed. We will also discuss the mechanical designs, engineering challenges, and performance of this Compton-imaging detector.

  9. Dual beam optical interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A dual beam interferometer device is disclosed that enables moving an optics module in a direction, which changes the path lengths of two beams of light. The two beams reflect off a surface of an object and generate different speckle patterns detected by an element, such as a camera. The camera detects a characteristic of the surface.

  10. Early Dual Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  11. A portable Si/CdTe Compton camera and its applications to the visualization of radioactive substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Harayama, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Genba, Kei; Matsuura, Daisuke; Ikebuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Tomonaka, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray imagers with the potential for visualizing the distribution of radioactive materials are required in the fields of astrophysics, medicine, nuclear applications, and homeland security. Based on the technology of the Si/CdTe Compton camera, we have manufactured the first commercial Compton camera for practical use. Through field tests in Fukushima, we demonstrated that the camera is capable of hot spot detection and the evaluation of radioactive decontamination.

  12. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, C.; Cisbani, E.; Hamilton, D. J.; Salmé, G.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ahmidouch, A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Beaufait, J.; Bosted, P.; Brash, E. J.; Butuceanu, C.; Carter, P.; Christy, E.; Chudakov, E.; Danagoulian, S.; Day, D.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Fowler, M.; Frlez, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gilman, R.; Horn, T.; Huber, G. M.; de Jager, C. W.; Jensen, E.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Khandaker, M.; Kohl, M.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lassiter, S.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Lovelace, H.; Luo, W.; Mack, D.; Mamyan, V.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Maxwell, J.; Mbianda, G.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Miller, J.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mulholland, J.; Nelyubin, V.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Punjabi, V.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Slifer, K.; Smith, G.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S.; Ye, Z.; Zheng, X.

    2015-10-01

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The wide-angle Compton scattering polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θcmp=70 ° . The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ±0.059 ±0.048 , where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ˜3 times larger than predicted by the generalized-parton-distribution-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  13. Study of the proton structure by measurements of polarization transfers in real Compton scattering at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano Fanelli; Cisbani, Evarostp; Hamilton, David; Salme, G.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-03-01

    A preliminary analysis of polarization-transfer data at large scattering angle (70°), obtained in an experiment of real Compton scattering on proton, performed in Hall-C of Jefferson Lab, is presented. It is also discussed the relevance of this kind of experiments for shedding light on the non-perturbative structure of the proton, at low energy, and on the transition from the non-perturbative regime to the perturbative one, that occurs at high energy. Moreover, the possibility to extract Compton form factors and the Generalized Parton Distributions, one of the most promising theoretical tool to determine the total angular momentum contribution of quarks and gluons to nucleon spin, is emphasized.

  14. A measurement method of a detector response function for monochromatic electrons based on the Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhlanov, S. V.; Bazlov, N. V.; Derbin, A. V.; Drachnev, I. S.; Kayunov, A. S.; Muratova, V. N.; Semenov, D. A.; Unzhakov, E. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a method of scintillation detector energy calibration using the gamma-rays. The technique is based on the Compton scattering of gamma-rays in a scintillation detector and subsequent photoelectric absorption of the scattered photon in the Ge-detector. The novelty of this method is that the source of gamma rays, the germanium and scintillation detectors are immediately arranged adjacent to each other. The method presents an effective solution for the detectors consisting of a low atomic number materials, when the ratio between Compton effect and photoelectric absorption is large and the mean path of gamma-rays is comparable to the size of the detector. The technique can be used for the precision measurements of the scintillator light yield dependence on the electron energy.

  15. First refraction contrast imaging via Laser-Compton Scattering X-ray at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Tatsuro; Washio, Masakazu; Araki, Sakae; Fukuda, Masafumi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji

    2012-07-31

    Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS) is one of the most feasible techniques for high quality, high brightness, and compact X-ray source. High energy electron beam produced by accelerators scatters off the laser photon at a small spot. As a laser target, we have been developing a pulsedlaser storage cavity for increasing an X-ray flux. The X-ray flux was still inadequate that was 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}/sec, however, we performed first refraction contrast imaging in order to evaluate the quality of LCS X-ray. Edge enhanced contrast imaging was achieved by changing the distance from sample to detector. The edge enhancement indicates that the LCS X-ray has small source size, i.e. high brightness. We believe that the result has demonstrated good feasibility of linac-based high brightness X-ray sources via laser-electron Compton scatterings.

  16. X-RAY AFTERGLOW OF SWIFT J1644+57: A COMPTON ECHO?

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Ko, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Swift, Chandra, and XMM have found a weak but nearly constant X-ray component from Swift J1644+57 that appeared at ∼500 days and was visible at least until ∼1400 days after the stellar capture, which cannot be explained by standard tidal disruption theories. We suggest that this X-ray afterglow component may result from the Thomson scattering between the primary X-rays and its surrounding plasma, i.e., a Compton echo effect. Similar phenomena have also been observed from molecular clouds in our Galactic Center, which were caused by the past activity of Srg A*. If this interpretation of Swift J1644+57 afterglow is correct, this is the first Compton Echo effect observed in the cosmological distances.

  17. Intracluster Comptonization of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Mean Spectral Distortion and Cluster Number Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colafrancesco, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Rephaeli, Y.; Vittorio, N.

    1997-04-01

    The mean sky-averaged Comptonization parameter, ȳ, describing the scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by hot gas in clusters of galaxies, is calculated in an array of flat and open cosmological and dark matter models. The models are globally normalized to fit cluster X-ray data, and intracluster gas is assumed to have evolved in a manner consistent with current observations. We predict values of ȳ lower than the COBE/FIRAS upper limit. The corresponding values of the overall optical thickness to Compton scattering are <~10-4 for relevant parameter values. Of more practical importance are number counts of clusters across which a net flux (with respect to the CMB) higher than some limiting value can be detected. Such number counts are specifically predicted for the COBRAS/SAMBA and BOOMERANG missions.

  18. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, K. Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M.; Tamura, K.; Katoh, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M.; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.

    2015-08-17

    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  19. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  20. Electronic Properties of ZnO: Band Structure and Directional Compton Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Dhaka, M. S.; Kothari, R. K.; Joshi, K. B.; Sharma, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    The electronic band structure and directional Compton profiles (DCPs) of ZnO are studied in this work. Calculations are performed considering a set of three schemes based on density functional theory (DFT), the Hartree-Fock (HF) method, and a hybrid scheme. All band structures predict direct bandgaps. The best agreement with experiment is, however, shown by the hybrid scheme. The three schemes are also applied to compute DCPs along [100], [110], and [001] directions. These are compared with measurements made on single crystals of ZnO employing a 59.54 keV gamma-ray Compton spectrometer. Calculations overestimate the momentum density in the low-momentum region while underestimate the anisotropies. Positions of extremes in anisotropies deduced from calculations are well reproduced by the measured anisotropies in some cases. Within the experimental limits, the DCPs from the HF method are in better agreement with the measurements compared with DFT.

  1. Quantitative phase retrieval with picosecond X-ray pulses from the ATF Inverse Compton Scattering source

    SciTech Connect

    Endrizzi, M.; Pogorelsky, I.; Gureyev, T.E.; Delogu, P.; Oliva, P.; Golosio, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Yakimenko, Y.; Bottigli, U.

    2011-01-28

    Quantitative phase retrieval is experimentally demonstrated using the Inverse Compton Scattering X-ray source available at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) in the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Phase-contrast images are collected using in-line geometry, with a single X-ray pulse of approximate duration of one picosecond. The projected thickness of homogeneous samples of various polymers is recovered quantitatively from the time-averaged intensity of transmitted X-rays. The data are in good agreement with the expectations showing that ATF Inverse Compton Scattering source is suitable for performing phase-sensitive quantitative X-ray imaging on the picosecond scale. The method shows promise for quantitative imaging of fast dynamic phenomena.

  2. Design and Initial Operation of a Tunable Compton-Scattering Based Gamma-Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, David; Anderson, Scott; Betts, Shawn; Johnson, Micah; McNabb, Dennis; Messerly, Mike; Pruet, Jason; Shverdin, Miroslav; Tremaine, Aaron; Hartemann, Fred; Siders, Craig; Barty, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Tunable, monochromatic gamma-ray sources are currently being developed at LLNL for nuclear photo-science and related applications. These novel systems are based on Compton scattering of laser photons by a high brightness relativistic electron beam produced by an rf photoinjector and offer a path to high-brightness high-energy (> 1 MeV) x-ray & gamma-rays due to their favorable scaling with electron energy. The current demonstration source, called the ``Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-Ray" (T-REX) source, targets photon energies up to 1 MeV. With extensive modeling using PARMELA and well-benchmarked custom Compton-scattering simulation codes, the optimal design parameters for an interaction (including factors such as the collision angle, focal spot size, bunch charge, laser intensity, pulse duration, and laser beam path) can be determined. Here we present the results of this optimization, including early experimental results from the newly commissioned system.

  3. Compton profiles and electronic properties of TiB{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Samir Suthar, K. K.; Ahuja, B. L.; Mishra, Suman K.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, we report the experimental Compton profile (CP) of TiB{sub 2} using high energy {sup 137}Cs γ-rays Compton spectrometer. To interpret the experimental momentum density, we have calculated the CPs using Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and HF within linear combination of atomic orbitals. The theoretical profile with generalized gradient approximation is found to be relatively in better agreement with the experimental profile. A sharp valley in density of states and hence the pseudogap near the Fermi energy is attributed to hybridization of Ti-3d and B-2p states and almost reverse trend of energy bands below and above the Fermi energy.

  4. Design of narrow-band Compton scattering sources for nuclear resonance fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Wu, S. S.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.; Hartemann, F. V.

    2011-05-01

    The design of narrow-band Compton scattering sources for specific applications using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is presented. NRF lines are extremely narrow (ΔE/Ẽ10-6) and require spectrally narrow sources to be excited selectively and efficiently. This paper focuses on the theory of spectral broadening mechanisms involved during Compton scattering of laser photons from relativistic electron beams. It is shown that in addition to the electron beam emittance, energy spread, and the laser parameters, nonlinear processes during the laser-electron interaction can have a detrimental effect on the gamma-ray source bandwidth, including a newly identified weakly nonlinear phase shift accumulated over the effective interaction duration. Finally, a design taking these mechanisms into consideration is outlined.

  5. LLNL Precision Compton Scattering Light Source: X-band RF Photoinjector and Accelerator Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Roark; Anderson, S. G.; Gibson, D. J.; Wu, S. S.; Hartemann, F. V.; Houck, T. L.; Ebbers, C.; Scarpetti, R. D.; Barty, C. P. J.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T. S.; Li, Z.; Tantawi, S. G.; Vlieks, A. E.; Wang, J. W.; Raubenheimer, T. O.

    2010-11-01

    The design and optimization of a Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering source are presented. This precision light source with up to 2.5 MeV photon energy is currently being built at LLNL using high gradient X-band accelerator technology in collaboration with SLAC. The design of a high brightness 5.59 cell X-band RF photoinjector will be presented. An ``early light'' machine has been designed using the 250 pC, <1mm-mrad electron bunches from the photoinjector, a single T53 traveling wave accelerator section, and Joule-class diode pumped laser pulses to produce diagnostic Compton scattered photons. Design of this ``early-light'' machine will be presented with discussion of the various components, layout considerations, and plans for the full 250 MeV linear accelerator.

  6. Directional gamma sensing from covariance processing of inter-detector Compton crosstalk energy asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R. Tinsley, J.

    2014-06-15

    Energy asymmetry of inter-detector crosstalk from Compton scattering can be exploited to infer the direction to a gamma source. A covariance approach extracts the correlated crosstalk from data streams to estimate matched signals from Compton gammas split over two detectors. On a covariance map the signal appears as an asymmetric cross diagonal band with axes intercepts at the full photo-peak energy of the original gamma. The asymmetry of the crosstalk band can be processed to determine the direction to the radiation source. The technique does not require detector shadowing, masking, or coded apertures, thus sensitivity is not sacrificed to obtain the directional information. An angular precision of better than 1° of arc is possible, and processing of data streams can be done in real time with very modest computing hardware.

  7. A Compton X-ray source based on a SC linac at KAERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, A. V.; Han, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. U.; Lee, B. C.; Miginsky, S. V.; Park, S. H.

    2007-05-01

    A quasi-monochromatic X-ray source based on a KAERI SC linac system has been designed and is being manufactured now. 10 MeV 10 mA electron beam together with 20 W 1.06 μm laser beam will be used for 1.8 keV Compton X-ray generation with a few percentage of energy spread and 10 7 photons /s flux. A simple straight beamline was designed to deliver the electron beam with no degradation of its emittance and energy spread and to focus it to a proper size to produce the desired X-rays. We expect the first demonstration of 1.8 keV Compton X-ray generation in autumn 2006.

  8. Physician Dual Practice: A Descriptive Mapping Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    MOGHRI, Javad; ARAB, Mohammad; RASHIDIAN, Arash; AKBARI SARI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physician dual practice is a common phenomenon in almost all countries throughout the world, which could potential impacts on access, equity and quality of services. This paper aims to review studies in physician dual practice and categorize them in order to their main objectives and purposes. Methods: Comprehensive literature searches were undertaken in order to obtain main papers and documents in the field of physician dual practice. Systematic searches in Medline and Embase from 1960 to 2013, and general searches in some popular search engines were carried out in this way. After that, descriptive mapping review methods were utilized to categorize eligible studies in this area. Results: The searches obtained 404 titles, of which 81 full texts were assessed. Finally, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion in our review. These studies were categorized into four groups - “motivation and forces behind dual practice”, “consequences of dual practice”, “dual practice Policies and their impacts”, and “other studies” - based on their main objectives. Our findings showed a dearth of scientifically reliable literature in some areas of dual practice, like the prevalence of the phenomenon, the real consequences of it, and the impacts of the implemented policy measures. Conclusion: Rigorous empirical and evaluative studies should be designed to detect the real consequences of DP and assess the effects of interventions and regulations, which governments have implemented in this field. PMID:27141489

  9. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) cross sections with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Hyon-Suk Jo

    2012-04-01

    Extraction of DVCS unpolarized and polarized cross sections in the largest kinematic domain ever explored in the valence region. Results are in good agreement with GPD model (VGG) predictions. Extraction of Compton Form Factors (M. Guidal) by fitting simultaneously these unpolarizedand polarized cross sections gives a large set of results in a very large kinematic domain for Re(H ) and Im(H ). Analysis of the data from the second part of the e1-DVCS experiment underway.

  10. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: highlights from the first three years of the mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Shrader, C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray observatory is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It has been in operation for over three years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments continue to function nearly flawlessly, and many significant discoveries have been made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and highlight some of the results from the first three years of the mission.

  11. Time-step limits for a Monte Carlo Compton-scattering method

    SciTech Connect

    Densmore, Jeffery D; Warsa, James S; Lowrie, Robert B

    2008-01-01

    Compton scattering is an important aspect of radiative transfer in high energy density applications. In this process, the frequency and direction of a photon are altered by colliding with a free electron. The change in frequency of a scattered photon results in an energy exchange between the photon and target electron and energy coupling between radiation and matter. Canfield, Howard, and Liang have presented a Monte Carlo method for simulating Compton scattering that models the photon-electron collision kinematics exactly. However, implementing their technique in multiphysics problems that include the effects of radiation-matter energy coupling typically requires evaluating the material temperature at its beginning-of-time-step value. This explicit evaluation can lead to unstable and oscillatory solutions. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of this Monte Carlo method and present time-step limits that avoid instabilities and nonphysical oscillations by considering a spatially independent, purely scattering radiative-transfer problem. Examining a simplified problem is justified because it isolates the effects of Compton scattering, and existing Monte Carlo techniques can robustly model other physics (such as absorption, emission, sources, and photon streaming). Our analysis begins by simplifying the equations that are solved via Monte Carlo within each time step using the Fokker-Planck approximation. Next, we linearize these approximate equations about an equilibrium solution such that the resulting linearized equations describe perturbations about this equilibrium. We then solve these linearized equations over a time step and determine the corresponding eigenvalues, quantities that can predict the behavior of solutions generated by a Monte Carlo simulation as a function of time-step size and other physical parameters. With these results, we develop our time-step limits. This approach is similar to our recent investigation of time discretizations for the

  12. A photon calorimeter using lead tungstate crystals for the CEBAF HAll A Compton polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    D. Neyret; T. Pussieux; T. Auger; M. Baylac; E. Burtin; C. Cavata; R. Chipaux; S. Escoffier; N. Falletto; J. Jardillier; S. Kerhoas; D. Lhuillier; F. Marie; C. Veyssiere; J. Ahrens; R. Beck; M. Lang

    2000-05-01

    A new Compton polarimeter is built on the CEBAF Hall A electron beam line. Performances of 10% resolution and 1% calibration are required for the photon calorimeter of this polarimeter. This calorimeter is built with lead tungstate scintillators coming from the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter R&D. Beam tests of this detector have been made using the tagged photon beam line at MAMI, Mainz, and a resolution of 1.76%+2.75%/v+0.41%/E has been measured.

  13. Time-step limits for a Monte Carlo Compton-scattering method

    SciTech Connect

    Densmore, Jeffery D; Warsa, James S; Lowrie, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    We perform a stability analysis of a Monte Carlo method for simulating the Compton scattering of photons by free electron in high energy density applications and develop time-step limits that avoid unstable and oscillatory solutions. Implementing this Monte Carlo technique in multi physics problems typically requires evaluating the material temperature at its beginning-of-time-step value, which can lead to this undesirable behavior. With a set of numerical examples, we demonstrate the efficacy of our time-step limits.

  14. Intershell correlations in nonresonant Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by an atom

    SciTech Connect

    Hopersky, A. N. Nadolinsky, A. M.; Ikoeva, K. Kh.; Khoroshavina, O. A.

    2011-11-15

    The role of intershell correlations in nonresonant Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by a free multielectron atom is studied theoretically for the Ar atom. The results of calculation are of a predictive nature. The developed mathematical formalism is general in nature and can be applied to a wide set of elements from the Periodic Table, for which the description of the wavefunctions of scattering states in the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock approximation remains correct.

  15. A simple method for computing the relativistic Compton scattering kernel for radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, M. K.; Kershaw, D. S.; Beason, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Correct computation of the Compton scattering kernel (CSK), defined to be the Klein-Nishina differential cross section averaged over a relativistic Maxwellian electron distribution, is reported. The CSK is analytically reduced to a single integral, which can then be rapidly evaluated using a power series expansion, asymptotic series, and rational approximation for sigma(s). The CSK calculation has application to production codes that aim at understanding certain astrophysical, laser fusion, and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.

  16. Generalized polarizabilities and the spin-averaged amplitude in virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsel, D.; Knoechlein, G.; Metz, A.; Scherer, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the low-energy behavior of the spin-averaged amplitude of virtual Compton scattering off a nucleon. Based on gauge invariance, Lorentz invariance, and the discrete symmetries, it is shown that to first order in the frequency of the final real photon only two generalized polarizabilities appear. Different low-energy expansion schemes are discussed and put into perspective. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Compton polarimeter for 10–30 keV x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, S.; Beilmann, C.; Shah, C.; Tashenov, S.

    2015-09-15

    We present a simple and versatile polarimeter for x rays in the energy range of 10–30 keV. It uses Compton scattering in low-Z materials such as beryllium or boron carbide. The azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays is sampled by an array of 12 silicon PIN diodes operated at room temperature. We evaluated the polarimetry performance using Monte-Carlo simulations and show experimental results.

  18. HEROIC: 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor with comptonization for black hole accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.

  19. Compton polarimeter for 10-30 keV x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S.; Beilmann, C.; Shah, C.; Tashenov, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple and versatile polarimeter for x rays in the energy range of 10-30 keV. It uses Compton scattering in low-Z materials such as beryllium or boron carbide. The azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays is sampled by an array of 12 silicon PIN diodes operated at room temperature. We evaluated the polarimetry performance using Monte-Carlo simulations and show experimental results.

  20. Compton polarimeter for 10-30 keV x rays.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Beilmann, C; Shah, C; Tashenov, S

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple and versatile polarimeter for x rays in the energy range of 10-30 keV. It uses Compton scattering in low-Z materials such as beryllium or boron carbide. The azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays is sampled by an array of 12 silicon PIN diodes operated at room temperature. We evaluated the polarimetry performance using Monte-Carlo simulations and show experimental results.

  1. First Images of a Three-Layer Compton Telescope Prototype for Treatment Monitoring in Hadron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Llosá, Gabriela; Trovato, Marco; Barrio, John; Etxebeste, Ane; Muñoz, Enrique; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Solaz, Carles; Solevi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC. The system consists of three layers of LaBr3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier arrays. 22Na sources have been successfully imaged reconstructing the data with an ML-EM code. Calibration and temperature stabilization are necessary for the prototype operation at low coincidence rates. A spatial resolution of 7.8 mm FWHM has been obtained in the first imaging tests. PMID:26870693

  2. Compton polarimeter for 10-30 keV x rays.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Beilmann, C; Shah, C; Tashenov, S

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple and versatile polarimeter for x rays in the energy range of 10-30 keV. It uses Compton scattering in low-Z materials such as beryllium or boron carbide. The azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays is sampled by an array of 12 silicon PIN diodes operated at room temperature. We evaluated the polarimetry performance using Monte-Carlo simulations and show experimental results. PMID:26429432

  3. A Compton-thick AGN in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 4785

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Yamada, S.; Ricci, C.; Asmus, D.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Ueda, Y.; Terashima, Y.; La Parola, V.

    2015-05-01

    We present X-ray observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4785. The source is a local Seyfert 2 which has not been studied so far in much detail. It was recently detected with high significance in the 15-60 keV band in the 66-month Swift/BAT (Burst Array Telescope) all sky survey, but there have been no prior pointed X-ray observations of this object. With Suzaku, we clearly detect the source below 10 keV, and find it to have a flat continuum and prominent neutral iron fluorescence line with equivalent width ≳1 keV. Fitting the broad-band spectra with physical reflection models shows the source to be a Compton-thick AGN with NH of at least 2 × 1024 cm-2 and absorption-corrected 2-10 keV X-ray power L2-10 ˜ few times 1042 erg s-1. Realistic uncertainties on L2-10 computed from the joint confidence interval on the intrinsic power-law continuum photon index and normalization are at least a factor of 10. The local bona fide Compton-thick AGN population is highly heterogeneous in terms of WISE mid-infrared source colours, and the nucleus of NGC 4785 appears especially sub-dominant in the mid-infrared when comparing to other Compton-thick AGN. Such sources would not be easily found using mid-infrared selection alone. The extent of host galaxy extinction to the nucleus is not clear, though NGC 4785 shows a complex core with a double bar and inner disc, adding to the list of known Compton-thick AGN in barred host galaxies.

  4. External Compton Scattering in Blazar Jets and the Location of the Gamma-Ray Emitting Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin D.

    2016-10-01

    I study the location of the γ-ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation that is valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein–Nishina regimes, is highly accurate, and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor of ∼10. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, external Compton scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of γ-ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern that could help locate the γ-ray emission region. I show that the bright flare from 3C 454.3 in 2010 November detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is unlikely to originate from a single blob inside the BLR. This is because it moves outside the BLR in a time shorter than the flare duration, although emission by multiple blobs inside the BLR is possible. Also, γ-rays are unlikely to originate from outside of the BLR, due to the scattering of photons from an extended dust torus, since the cooling timescale would be too long to explain the observed short variability.

  5. First Images of a Three-Layer Compton Telescope Prototype for Treatment Monitoring in Hadron Therapy.

    PubMed

    Llosá, Gabriela; Trovato, Marco; Barrio, John; Etxebeste, Ane; Muñoz, Enrique; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, Magdalena; Solaz, Carles; Solevi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC. The system consists of three layers of LaBr3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier arrays. (22)Na sources have been successfully imaged reconstructing the data with an ML-EM code. Calibration and temperature stabilization are necessary for the prototype operation at low coincidence rates. A spatial resolution of 7.8 mm FWHM has been obtained in the first imaging tests. PMID:26870693

  6. Design Considerations Of A Compton Camera For Low Energy Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, L. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Grint, A. N.; Lazarus, I.; Judson, D. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Simpson, J.

    2009-12-01

    Development of a Compton camera for low energy medical imaging applications is underway. The ProSPECTus project aims to utilize position sensitive detectors to generate high quality images using electronic collimation. This method has the potential to significantly increase the imaging efficiency compared with mechanically collimated SPECT systems, a highly desirable improvement on clinical systems. Design considerations encompass the geometrical optimisation and evaluation of image quality from the system which is to be built and assessed.

  7. Gamma ray burst source locations with the Ulysses/Compton/PVO network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Hurley, K. C.; Boer, M.; Sommer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Wilson, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The new interplanetary gamma-ray burst network will determine source fields with unprecedented accuracy. The baseline of the Ulysses mission and the locations of Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and of Mars Observer will ensure precision to a few tens of arc seconds. Combined with the event phenomenologies of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on Compton Observatory, the source locations to be achieved with this network may provide a basic new understanding of the puzzle of gamma ray bursts.

  8. First Images of a Three-Layer Compton Telescope Prototype for Treatment Monitoring in Hadron Therapy.

    PubMed

    Llosá, Gabriela; Trovato, Marco; Barrio, John; Etxebeste, Ane; Muñoz, Enrique; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, Magdalena; Solaz, Carles; Solevi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC. The system consists of three layers of LaBr3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier arrays. (22)Na sources have been successfully imaged reconstructing the data with an ML-EM code. Calibration and temperature stabilization are necessary for the prototype operation at low coincidence rates. A spatial resolution of 7.8 mm FWHM has been obtained in the first imaging tests.

  9. Gamma-ray momentum reconstruction from Compton electron trajectories by filtered back-projection

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, A.; Gunter, D.; Plimley, B.; Pavlovsky, R.; Vetter, K.

    2014-11-03

    Gamma-ray imaging utilizing Compton scattering has traditionally relied on measuring coincident gamma-ray interactions to map directional information of the source distribution. This coincidence requirement makes it an inherently inefficient process. We present an approach to gamma-ray reconstruction from Compton scattering that requires only a single electron tracking detector, thus removing the coincidence requirement. From the Compton scattered electron momentum distribution, our algorithm analytically computes the incident photon's correlated direction and energy distributions. Because this method maps the source energy and location, it is useful in applications, where prior information about the source distribution is unknown. We demonstrate this method with electron tracks measured in a scientific Si charge coupled device. While this method was demonstrated with electron tracks in a Si-based detector, it is applicable to any detector that can measure electron direction and energy, or equivalently the electron momentum. For example, it can increase the sensitivity to obtain energy and direction in gas-based systems that suffer from limited efficiency.

  10. Applications of Gas Imaging Micro-Well Detectors to an Advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Miller, R. S.; Jackson, T. N.; Bai, B.; Jung, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a concept for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) based on the use of pixelized gas micro-well detectors to form a three-dimensional electron track imager. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with thin film transistor array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this approach is the excellent tracking of the Compton recoil electron that is possible in a gas volume. Such good electron tracking allows us to reduce the point spread function of a single incident photon dramatically, greatly improving the imaging capability and sensitivity. The polarization sensitivity, which relies on events with large Compton scattering angles, is particularly enhanced. We describe a possible ACT implementation of this technique, in which the gas tracking volume is surrounded by a CsI calorimeter, and present our plans to build and test a small prototype over the next three years.

  11. Development of a High-Average-Power Compton Gamma Source for Lepton Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, Igor; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.; Yakimenko, Vitaliy; Platonenko, Viktor T.

    2009-01-22

    Gamma-({gamma}{sup -}) ray beams of high average power and peak brightness are of demand for a number of applications in high-energy physics, material processing, medicine, etc. One of such examples is gamma conversion into polarized positrons and muons that is under consideration for projected lepton colliders. A {gamma}-source based on the Compton backscattering from the relativistic electron beam is a promising candidate for this application. Our approach to the high-repetition {gamma}-source assumes placing the Compton interaction point inside a CO{sub 2} laser cavity. A laser pulse interacts with periodical electron bunches on each round-trip inside the laser cavity producing the corresponding train of {gamma}-pulses. The round-trip optical losses can be compensated by amplification in the active laser medium. The major challenge for this approach is in maintaining stable amplification rate for a picosecond CO{sub 2}-laser pulse during multiple resonator round-trips without significant deterioration of its temporal and transverse profiles. Addressing this task, we elaborated on a computer code that allows identifying the directions and priorities in the development of such a multi-pass picosecond CO{sub 2} laser. Proof-of-principle experiments help to verify the model and show the viability of the concept. In these tests we demonstrated extended trains of picosecond CO{sub 2} laser pulses circulating inside the cavity that incorporates the Compton interaction point.

  12. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Bello, Michele; Uzunov, Nikolay; Di Domenico, Giovanni Di

    2013-04-01

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the "electronic collimation", i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a "cone" of possible incident directions are obtained (event with "incomplete geometry"). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  13. Nonthermal Synchrotron and Synchrotron Self-Compton Emission from GRBs: Predictions for Swift and GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Finke, Justin D.; Boettcher, Markus

    2008-05-22

    Results of a leptonic jet model for the prompt emission and early afterglows of GRBs are presented. The synchrotron component is modeled with the canonical Band spectrum and the synchrotron self-Compton component is calculated from the implied synchrotron-emitting electron spectrum in a relativistic plasma blob. In the comoving frame the magnetic field is assumed to be tangled and the electron and photon distributions are assumed to be isotropic. The Compton-scattered spectrum is calculated using the full Compton cross-section in the Thomson through Klein-Nishina using the Jones formula. Pair production photoabsorption, both from ambient radiation in the jet and from the extragalactic background light (EBL), is taken into account. Results are presented as a function of a small set of parameters: the Doppler factor, the observed variability timescale, the comoving magnetic field, the peak synchrotron flux, and the redshift of the burst. Model predictions will be tested by multiwavelength observations, including the Swift and GLAST satellites, which will provide unprecedented coverage of GRBs.

  14. Gamma-ray momentum reconstruction from Compton electron trajectories by filtered back-projection

    DOE PAGES

    Haefner, A.; Gunter, D.; Plimley, B.; Pavlovsky, R.; Vetter, K.

    2014-11-03

    Gamma-ray imaging utilizing Compton scattering has traditionally relied on measuring coincident gamma-ray interactions to map directional information of the source distribution. This coincidence requirement makes it an inherently inefficient process. We present an approach to gamma-ray reconstruction from Compton scattering that requires only a single electron tracking detector, thus removing the coincidence requirement. From the Compton scattered electron momentum distribution, our algorithm analytically computes the incident photon's correlated direction and energy distributions. Because this method maps the source energy and location, it is useful in applications, where prior information about the source distribution is unknown. We demonstrate this method withmore » electron tracks measured in a scientific Si charge coupled device. While this method was demonstrated with electron tracks in a Si-based detector, it is applicable to any detector that can measure electron direction and energy, or equivalently the electron momentum. For example, it can increase the sensitivity to obtain energy and direction in gas-based systems that suffer from limited efficiency.« less

  15. Model Atmospheres and X-Ray Spectra of Bursting Neutron Stars: Hydrogen-Helium Comptonized Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madej, J.; Joss, P. C.; Różańska, A.

    2004-02-01

    Compton scattering plays a crucial role in determining the structure of the atmosphere of an X-ray burster and its theoretical spectrum. Our paper presents a description of the plane-parallel model atmosphere of a very hot neutron star and its theoretical flux spectrum of outgoing radiation. Our model equations take into account all bound-free and free-free monochromatic opacities relevant to hydrogen-helium chemical composition and take into account the effects of Compton scattering of radiation in thermal plasma with fully relativistic thermal velocities. We use Compton scattering terms in the equation of transfer, which precisely describe photon-electron energy and momentum exchange for photons with initial energies exceeding the electron rest mass of 511 keV. Model atmosphere equations are solved with the variable Eddington factors technique. The grid of H-He model atmospheres and flux spectra is computed on a dense mesh of 107K<=Teff<=3×107K and a surface gravity of logg. In many cases, the assumed logg approached the critical gravity loggcr, i.e., the Eddington limit. We confirm that H-He spectra of X-ray bursters deviate from blackbody spectra and discuss their shapes. The table of color to effective temperature ratios shows that theoretical values of Tc/Teff do not exceed 1.9 in H-He atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium.

  16. A Compton-Vetoed Germanium Detector with Increased Sensitivity at Low Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Bates, C; Drury, O B; Burks, M; DiPrete, D

    2012-03-29

    The difficulty to directly detect plutonium in spent nuclear fuel due to the high Compton background of the fission products motivates the design of a Gamma detector with improved sensitivity at low energies. We have built such a detector by operating a thin high-purity Ge detector with a large scintillator Compton veto directly behind it. The Ge detector is thin to absorb just the low-energy Pu radiation of interest while minimizing Compton scattering of high energy radiation from the fission products. The subsequent scintillator is large so that forward scattered photons from the Ge detector interact in it at least once to provide an anti-coincidence veto for the Ge detector. For highest sensitivity, additional material in the line-of-sight is minimized, the radioactive sample is kept thin, and its radiation is collimated. We will discuss the instrument design, and demonstrate the feasibility of the approach with a prototype that employs two large CsI scintillator vetoes. Initial spectra of a thin Cs-137 calibration source show a background suppression of a factor of {approx}2.5 at {approx}100 keV, limited by an unexpectedly thick 4 mm dead layer in the Ge detector.

  17. Crater size-frequency distribution measurements and age of the Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, K. A.; Zanetti, M.; Jolliff, B.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC) is a 25 × 35 km feature on the lunar farside marked by elevated topography, high albedo, high thorium concentration, and high silica content. Morphologies indicate that the complex is volcanic in origin and compositions indicate that it represents rare silicic volcanism on the Moon. Constraining the timing of silicic volcanism at the complex is necessary to better understand the development of evolved magmas and when they were active on the lunar surface. We employ image analysis and crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements on several locations within the complex and at surrounding impact craters, Hayn (87 km diameter), and Compton (160 km diameter), to determine relative and absolute model ages of regional events. Using CSFD measurements, we establish a chronology dating regional resurfacing events and the earliest possible onset of CBVC volcanism at ∼3.8 Ga, the formation of Compton Crater at 3.6 Ga, likely resurfacing by volcanism at the CBVC at ∼3.5 Ga, and the formation of Hayn Crater at ∼1 Ga. For the CBVC, we find the most consistent results are obtained using craters larger than 300 m in diameter; the small crater population is affected by their approach to an equilibrium condition and by the physical properties of regolith at the CBVC.

  18. Estimation of effective atomic number in the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio using different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, M.; Büyükyıldız, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) is a very convenient parameter, which can be utilized in material analysis and estimating effective atomic number (Zeff). In the case for a relatively low scattering angle, for which the energy of the Compton scattered photons is not very much different from that of incident photons, the corrections due to self-absorption for Rayleigh and Compton scattering will be roughly equal. Therefore, it enables a result to be obtained which is almost independent of X-ray attenuation inside the sample and it will depend only on the material under investigation. The most frequently used method for calculation of Zeff available in literature is plotting R/C of elements as a function of atomic number and constituting the best fit curve. From this fit curve, the respective Zeff can be determined using R/C of the material. In the present study, we report Zeff of different materials using different methods such as interpolation and direct methods as possible alternatives to the most common fitting method. The results were compared with the experiments wherever possible. The agreement between interpolation method and the fitting method was found to be very satisfactory as relative changes (%) were always less than 9% while the direct method results with somehow significantly higher values of Zeff when compared to the other methods.

  19. A New Characterization of the Compton Process in the ULX Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Makishima, K.

    2015-07-01

    Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are unusually luminous point sources located at arms of spiral galaxies, and are candidates for the intermediate mass black holes (Makishima+2000). Their spectra make transition betweens power-law shapes (PL state) and convex shapes (disk-like state). The latter state can be explained with either the multi-color disk (MCD)+thermal Comptonization (THC) model or a Slim disk model (Watari+2000). We adopt the former modeling, because it generally gives physically more reasonable parameters (Miyawaki+2009). To characterize the ULXs spectra with a unified way, we applied the MCD+THC model to several datasets of ULXs obtained by Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and Nu-Star. The model well explains all the spectra, in terms of cool disk (T_{in}˜0.2 keV), and a cool thick (T_{e}˜2 keV, τ ˜10) corona. The derived parameters can be characterized by two new parameters. One is Q≡ T_{e}/T_{in} which describes balance between the Compton cooling and gravitational heating of the corona, while the other is f≡ L_{raw}/L_{tot}, namely, the directly-visible (without Comptonization) MCD luminosity. Then, the PL state spectra have been found to show Q˜10 and f˜0.7, while those of the disk-like state Q˜ 3 and f≤0.01. Thus, the two states are clearly separated in terms of Q and f.

  20. A Germanium Detector with Optimized Compton Veto for High Sensitivity at Low Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2011-11-30

    We have built a prototype germanium detector with a Compton veto that is optimized for high sensitivity in the low-energy range around {approx}100 keV. It is specifically designed to address the problem to directly detect plutonium gamma emissions in spent nuclear fuel by non-destructive assay. This is not possible with current detectors due to the large low-energy background of Compton-scattered high-energy radiation from the fission products, whose gamma flux is at least 6 to 7 orders of magnitude higher than the Pu signal. Our instrument is designed to assess the feasibility to selectively suppress the background in the low-energy region around {approx}100 keV with the strongest Pu X-ray and gamma emissions lines. It employs a thin Ge detector with a large Compton veto directly behind it to suppress the background from forward-scattered radiation by anti-coincidence vetoing. This report summarizes the design considerations and the performance of the instrument.

  1. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Uzunov, Nikolay; Di Domenico, Giovanni

    2013-04-19

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the 'electronic collimation', i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a 'cone' of possible incident directions are obtained (event with 'incomplete geometry'). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  2. Electronic properties of mixed molybdenum dichalcogenide MoTeSe: LCAO calculations and Compton spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Ushma; Kumar, Kishor; Joshi, Ritu; Bhavsar, D. N.; Heda, N. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have employed linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method to compute the Mulliken's population (MP), energy bands, density of states (DOS) and Compton profiles for hexagonal MoTeSe. The density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of Hartree-Fock with DFT (B3LYP) have been used within the LCAO approximation. Performance of theoretical models has been tested by comparing the theoretical momentum densities with the experimental Compton profile of MoTeSe measured using 137Cs Compton spectrometer. It is seen that the B3LYP prescription gives a better agreement with the experimental data than other DFT based approximations. The energy bands and DOS depict an indirect band gap character in MoTeSe. In addition, a relative nature of bonding in MoTeSe and its isovalent MoTe2 is discussed in terms of equal-valence-electron-density (EVED) profiles. On the basis of EVED profiles it is seen that MoTeSe is more covalent than MoTe2.

  3. Determining x-ray spectra of radiographic sources with a Compton spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda E.; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd J.; Hunter, James F.; King, Nick S. P.; Manard, Manuel J.; Merrill, Frank E.; Morgan, George L.; Sedillo, Robert; Trainham, Rusty; Urbaitis, Algis V.; Volegov, Petr

    2014-09-01

    Flash radiography is a diagnostic with many physics applications, and the characterization of the energy spectra of such sources is of interest. A Compton spectrometer has been proposed to conduct these measurements. Our Compton spectrometer is a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet constructed by Morgan et al1, and it is designed to measure spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV range. In this device, the x-rays from a radiographic source are collimated into a narrow beam directed on a converter foil. The forward-selected Compton electrons that are ejected from the foil enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The electrons are imaged on a focal plane, with their position determined as a function of their energy. The x-ray spectrum is then reconstructed. Challenges in obtaining these measurements include limited dose of x-rays and the short pulse duration (about 50 ns) for time-resolved measurements. Here we present energy calibration measurements of the spectrometer using a negative ion source. The resolution of the spectrometer was measured in previous calibration experiments to be the greater of 1% or 0.1 MeV/c1. The reconstruction of spectra from a bremsstrahlung source and Co-60 source are also presented.

  4. Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: Spin-independent amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryniuk, Oleksii; Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    We evaluate the forward Compton scattering off the proton, based on Kramers-Kronig kind of relations which express the Compton amplitudes in terms of integrals of total photoabsorption cross sections. We obtain two distinct fits to the world data on the unpolarized total photoabsorption cross section and evaluate the various spin-independent sum rules using these fits. For the sum of proton electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities governed by the Baldin sum rule, we obtain the following average (between the two fits): αE 1+βM 1=14.0 (2 )×1 0-4 fm3 . An analogous sum rule involving the quadrupole polarizabilities of the proton is evaluated too. The spin-independent forward amplitude of proton Compton scattering is evaluated in a broad energy range. The results are compared with previous evaluations and the only experimental data point for this amplitude (at 2.2 GeV). We remark on sum rules for the elastic component of polarizabilities.

  5. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  6. Expected level of self-Compton scattering in radio loud quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Steven D.; Marscher, Alan P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-loud quasars usually contain parsec-scale nonthermal jets. The most compact emission region ('the core'), and perhaps some of the moving 'knots', are expected to be efficient producers of inverse Compton scattered X-rays and gamma-rays since many of the synchrotron photons will upscatter before escaping. Through multifrequency flux density observations and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurements of angular sizes, one can predict the flux density of this self-Compton high-energy emission. It is not always the case that the brightest synchrotron sources are also the brightest X-ray and gamma-ray sources. Perhaps a better predictor of high-energy brightness is the ratio of hard X-ray to high-frequency radio emission. Using the synchrotron self-Compton relations, we predict the gamma-ray fluxes of several sources we expect to be detected by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). More accurate predictions will be made when we complete a program of contemporaneous radio-submillimeter and X-ray observations during the course of the EGRET all-sky survey.

  7. High-Resolution Compton-Suppressed CZT Detector for Fission Products Identification

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aryaeinejd; J. K. Hartwell; Wade W. Scates

    2004-10-01

    Room temperature semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors are currently limited to total detector volumes of 1-2 cm3, which is dictated by the poor charge transport characteristics. Because of this size limitation one of the problems in accurately determining isotope identification is the enormous background from the Compton scattering events. Eliminating this background will not only increase the sensitivity and accuracy of measurements but also help us to resolve peaks buried under the background and peaks in close vicinity of others. We are currently developing a fission products detection system based on the Compton-suppressed CZT detector. In this application, the detection system is required to operate in high radiation fields. Therefore, a small 10x10x5 mm3 CZT detector is placed inside the center of a well-shielded 3" in diameter by 3" long Nal detector. So far we have been able to successfully reduce the Compton background by a factor of 5.4 for a 137Cs spectrum. This reduction of background will definitely enhance the quality of the gamma-ray spectrum in the information-rich energy range below 1 MeV, which consequently increases the detection sensitivity. In this work, we will discuss the performance of this detection system as well as its applications.

  8. A Si/CdTe Compton Camera for gamma-ray lens experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2005-12-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) have been regarded as promising semiconductor materials for hard X-ray and γ-ray detection. However, a considerable amount of charge loss in these detectors results in a reduced energy resolution. We have achieved a significant improvement in the spectral properties by forming the Schottky junction on the Te side of the CdTe wafer. With the further reduction of leakage current by an adoption of guard ring structure, we have demonstrated a CdTe pixel detector with high energy resolution and full charge collection capabilty. The detector has a pixel size of a few mm and a thickness of 0.5 - 1 mm. We apply this high resolution detector to a new silicon and CdTe Compton Camera which features high angular resolution. We also describe a concept of the stack detector which consists of many thin CdTe layers and provides sufficient efficiency for hard X-rays and gamma-rays up to several hundred keV maintaining good energy resolution. A narrow-FOV Compton telescope can be realized by installing a Si/CdTe Compton Camera inside the deep well of an active shield. This configuration is very suitable as focal plane detector for future focusing gamma-ray missions.

  9. Geant4 Model Validation of Compton Suppressed System for Process monitoring of Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Sarah; Unlu, Kenan; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear material accountancy is of continuous concern for the regulatory, safeguards, and verification communities. In particular, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities pose one of the most difficult accountancy challenges: monitoring highly radioactive, fluid sample streams in near real-time. The Multi-Isotope Process monitor will allow for near-real-time indication of process alterations using passive gamma-ray detection coupled with multivariate analysis techniques to guard against potential material diversion or to enhance domestic process monitoring. The Compton continuum from the dominant 661.7 keV 137Cs fission product peak obscures lower energy lines which could be used for spectral and multivariate analysis. Compton suppression may be able to mitigate the challenges posed by the high continuum caused by scattering. A Monte Carlo simulation using the Geant4 toolkit is being developed to predict the expected suppressed spectrum from spent fuel samples to estimate the reduction in the Compton continuum. Despite the lack of timing information between decay events in the particle management of Geant4, encouraging results were recorded utilizing only the information within individual decays without accounting for accidental coincidences. The model has been validated with single and cascade decay emitters in two steps: as an unsuppressed system and with suppression activated. Results of the Geant4 model validation will be presented.

  10. Comptonization signatures in the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Frontera, F.; Farinelli, R.; Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Titarchuk, L.; Amati, L.; Landi, R.

    2013-12-20

    We report results of a systematic study of the broadband (2-2000 keV) time-resolved prompt emission spectra of a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with both Wide Field Cameras (WFCs) on board the BeppoSAX satellite and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The main goal of this paper is to test spectral models of the GRB prompt emission that have recently been proposed. In particular, we test a recent photospheric model proposed, i.e., blackbody plus power law, the addition of a blackbody emission to the Band function in the cases in which this function does not fit the data, and a recent Comptonization model. By considering the few spectra for which the simple Band function does not provide a fully acceptable fit to the data, we find a statistically significant better fit by adding a blackbody to this function only in one case. We confirm earlier results found fitting the BATSE spectra alone with a blackbody plus power law. Instead, when the BATSE GRB spectra are joined to those obtained with WFCs (2-28 keV), this model becomes unacceptable in most time intervals in which we subdivide the GRB light curves. We find instead that the Comptonization model is always acceptable, even in the few cases in which the Band function is inconsistent with the data. We discuss the implications of these results.

  11. X-ray observations of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 5643

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.; Marinucci, A.; Guainazzi, M.; Iwawasa, K.; Jimenez Bailon, E.

    2013-08-01

    We present results from a ~55 ks long XMM-Newton observation of the obscured AGN, NGC 5643, performed in July 2009. A previous, shorter (about 10 ks) XMM-Newton observation in February 2003 had left two major issues open, the nature of the hard X-ray emission (Compton-thin vs. Compton-thick) and of the soft X-ray excess (photoionized vs. collisionally ionized matter). The new observation shows that the source is Compton-thick and that the dominant contribution to the soft X-ray emission is by photoionized matter (even if it is still unclear whether collisionally ionized matter may contribute as well). We also studied three bright X-ray sources that are in the field of NGC 5643. The ULX NGC 5643 X-1 was confirmed to be very luminous, even if more than a factor 2 fainter than in 2003. We then provided the first high-quality spectrum of the cluster of galaxies Abell 3602. The last source, CXOJ143244.5-442020, is likely an unobscured AGN, possibly belonging to Abell 3602.

  12. Using triple gamma coincidences with a pixelated semiconductor Compton-PET scanner: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project presents a novel design using pixelated semiconductor detectors for nuclear medicine applications to achieve the intrinsic image quality limits set by physics. The conceptual design can be extended to a Compton gamma camera. The use of a pixelated CdTe detector with voxel sizes of 1 × 1 × 2 mm3 guarantees optimal energy and spatial resolution. However, the limited time resolution of semiconductor detectors makes it impossible to use Time Of Flight (TOF) with VIP PET. TOF is used in order to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using only the most probable portion of the Line-Of-Response (LOR) instead of its entire length. To overcome the limitation of CdTe time resolution, we present in this article a simulation study using β+-γ emitting isotopes with a Compton-PET scanner. When the β+ annihilates with an electron it produces two gammas which produce a LOR in the PET scanner, while the additional gamma, when scattered in the scatter detector, provides a Compton cone that intersects with the aforementioned LOR. The intersection indicates, within a few mm of uncertainty along the LOR, the origin of the beta-gamma decay. Hence, one can limit the part of the LOR used by the image reconstruction algorithm.

  13. Electronic properties of RDX and HMX: Compton scattering experiment and first-principles calculation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, B L; Jain, Pradeep; Sahariya, Jagrati; Heda, N L; Soni, Pramod

    2013-07-11

    The first-ever electron momentum density (EMD) measurements of explosive materials, namely, RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane, (CH2-N-NO2)3) and HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane, (CH2-N-NO2)4), have been reported using a 740 GBq (137)Cs Compton spectrometer. Experimental Compton profiles (CPs) are compared with the EMDs derived from linear combination of atomic orbitals with density functional theory. It is found that the CPs deduced from generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with Wu-Cohen exchange energies give a better agreement with the corresponding experimental profiles than those from local density approximation and other schemes of GGA. Further, Mulliken population, energy bands, partial and total density of states, and band gap have also been reported using GGA calculations. Present ground state calculations unambiguously show large band gap semiconductor nature of both RDX and HMX. A similar type of bonding in these materials is uniquely established using Compton data and density of states. It is also outstandingly consistent with the Mulliken population, which predicts almost equal amount of charge transfer (0.84 and 0.83 e(-)) from H1 + H2 + N2 to C1 + N1 + O1 + O2 in both the explosives.

  14. SU-E-T-382: Influence of Compton Currents On Profile Measurements in Small- Volume Ion Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Holmes, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Ionization chambers in electron radiation fields are known to exhibit polarity effects due to Compton currents. Previously we have presented a unique manifestation of this effect observed with a microionization chamber. We have expanded that investigation to include three micro-ionization chambers commonly used in radiation therapy. The purpose of this project is to determine what factors influence this polarity effect for micro-chambers and how it might be mitigated. Methods: Three chambers were utilized: a PTW 31016, an Exradin A-16, and an Exradin A- 26. Beam profile scans were obtained on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator in combination with a Wellhofer water phantom for 6, 9, and 12 MeV electrons. Profiles were obtained parallel and perpendicular to the chamber's long axis, with both positive and negative collecting bias. Profiles were obtained with various chamber components shielded by 5 mm of Pb at 6 MeV to determine their relative contributions to this polarity effect. Results: The polarity effect was observed for all three chambers, and the ratio of the polarity effect for the Exradin chambers is proportional to the ratio of chamber volumes. Shielding the stem of both Exradin chambers diminished, but did not remove the polarity effect. However, they demonstrated no out-of-field effect when the cable was shielded with Pb. The PTW chamber demonstrated a significantly reduced polarity effect without any shielding despite its comparable volume with the A-26. Conclusions: The sensitive volume of these micro-chambers is relatively insensitive to collecting polarity. However, charge deposition within the cable can dramatically alter measured ionization profiles. This is demonstrated by the removal of the out-of-field ionization when the cable is shielded for the Exradin chambers. We strongly recommend analyzing any polarity dependence for small-volume chambers used in characterization of electron fields.

  15. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    PubMed Central

    Molloi, Sabee; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:25086548

  16. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Molloi, Sabee Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  17. Interinstitutional Collaboration Practices between Virginia Community Colleges and High Schools Involved in Dual Enrollment Articulation Agreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caradona, Sally Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build on the previous work of articulation practices of Virginia's public school divisions and community colleges participating in dual enrollment partnerships, and to understand the role of the community college in initiating, developing, and implementing dual enrollment programs. The primary focus involved…

  18. Accelerating Pathways to College: The (In)Equitable Effects of Community College Dual Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The proportion of high school students taking college courses (e.g., dual credit) is increasing and state and local policies are expanding, yet little is known about the effect of dual credit policies on key educational outcomes, including the effects for low-income students and students of color. The purpose of this study was to…

  19. Diagnosed Prevalence and Health Care Expenditures of Mental Health Disorders among Dual Eligible Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Terry Y.; Parashuram, Shriram; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Wysocki, Andrea; Shippee, Nathan D.; Homyak, Patricia; Kane, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about mental health disorders (MHDs) and their associated health care expenditures for the dual eligible elders across long-term care (LTC) settings. We estimated the 12-month diagnosed prevalence of MHDs among dual eligible older adults in LTC and non-LTC settings and calculated the average incremental effect of MHDs on…

  20. Attentional Modulation of Word Recognition by Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sangsook; Lotto, Andrew; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated an account of limited short-term memory capacity for children's speech perception in noise using a dual-task paradigm. Method: Sixty-four normal-hearing children (7-14 years of age) participated in this study. Dual tasks were repeating monosyllabic words presented in noise at 8 dB signal-to-noise ratio and…