Science.gov

Sample records for dual somatosensory input

  1. Convergence of sensory inputs upon projection neurons of somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Zarzecki, P; Wiggin, D M

    1982-01-01

    Cortico-cortical neurons and pyramidal tract neurons of the cat were tested for convergent inputs from forelimb afferents. Neurons were recorded in cortical areas 1, 2, and 3a. Consideration was given to both suprathreshold and subthreshold inputs evoked by electrical stimulation of forelimb nerves. Individual cortico-cortical neurons and also pyramidal tract neurons were characterized by convergence of multiple somatosensory inputs from different regions of skin, from several muscle groups, and between group I deep afferents and low threshold cutaneous afferents. Certain patterns of afferent input varied with cytoarchitectonic area. There was, however, no difference between area 3a and areas 1-2 in the incidence of cross-modality convergence in the form of input from cutaneous and also deep nerves. Many of the inputs were subthreshold. Arguments are presented that these inputs, though subthreshold, must be considered for a role in cortical information processing. The convergent nature of the sensory inputs is discussed in relation to the proposed specificities of cortical columns. The patterns of afferent inputs reaching cortico-cortical neurons seem to be appropriate for them to have a role in the formation of sensory fields of motor cortex neurons. PT neurons of somatosensory cortex have possible roles as modifiers of ascending sensory systems, however, the convergent input which these PT neurons receive argues against a simple relationship between the modality of peripheral stimuli influencing them and the modality of the ascending tract neurons under their descending control. PMID:7140889

  2. Synaptic potentials evoked by convergent somatosensory and corticocortical inputs in raccoon somatosensory cortex: substrates for plasticity.

    PubMed

    Smits, E; Gordon, D C; Witte, S; Rasmusson, D D; Zarzecki, P

    1991-09-01

    1. "Unmasking" of weak synaptic connections has been suggested as a mechanism for the early changes in cortical topographic maps that follow alterations of sensory activity. For such a mechanism to operate, convergent sensory inputs must already exist in the normal cortex. 2. We tested for topographic and cross-modality convergence in primary somatosensory cortex of raccoon. The representation of glabrous skin of forepaw digits was chosen because, even though it is dominated by inputs from the glabrous skin of a single digit, it nevertheless comes to respond to stimulation of other digits when, e.g., a digit is removed. 3. Intracellular recordings were made from 109 neurons in the representation of glabrous skin of digit 4. Neurons were tested for somatosensory inputs with electrical and natural stimulation of digits. 4. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were evoked in 100% of the neurons (109/109) by electrical stimulation of glabrous skin of digit 4, and in 79% (31 of 39) by vibrotactile stimulation. 5. Glabrous skin of digit 4 was not the sole source of somatosensory inputs. A minority of neurons generated EPSPs after electrical stimulation of hairy skin of digit 4 (10 of 98 neurons, 10%). Electrical stimulation of digits 3 or 5 evoked EPSPs in 22 of 103 neurons (21%). Natural stimulation (vibrotactile or hair bending) was also effective in most of these latter cases (digit 3, 6/7; digit 5, 9/10). 6. Intracortical microstimulation of the "heterogeneous zone" was used to test for corticocortical connections to neurons in the glabrous zone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1753280

  3. Representation of somatosensory inputs within the cortical autonomic network.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ruma; Frances, Maria Fernanda; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2011-01-15

    Regions of the cortical autonomic network (CAN) are activated during muscle contraction. However, it is not known to what extent CAN activation patterns reflect muscle sensory inputs, top-down signals from the motor cortex, and/or motor drive to cardiovascular structures. The present study explored the functional representation of somatosensory afferent input within the CAN with an a priori interest in the insula and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) (n=12). Heart rate (HR) and functional MRI data were acquired during 1) 30s periods of electrical stimulation of the wrist flexors at sub-motor (SUB; Type I,II afferents) and 2) motor thresholds (MOT; Type I,II,III afferents), 3) volitional wrist flexion at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) to match the MOT tension (VOL5%), and 4) volitional handgrip at 35% MVC to elicit tachycardia (VOL35%). Compared with rest, HR did not change during SUB, MOT, or VOL5% but increased during VOL35% (p<0.001). High frequency HR variability was 29.42±18.87 ms(2) (mean±S.D.) at rest and 39.85±27.60 ms(2) during SUB (p=0.06). High frequency HR variability was decreased during VOL35% compared to rest (p≤0.005). SUB increased activity in the bilateral posterior insula, vMPFC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), and posterior cingulate cortex. MOT increased activity in the left posterior insula and MCC. During VOL5%, activity increased in the right anterior-mid insula. VOL35% was associated with activity in the bilateral insula as well as vMPFC and subgenual ACC deactivation. These data suggest that the left posterior insula processes sensory input from muscle during passive conditions and specifically that Type I and/or II muscle afferent stimulation during SUB impacts the vMPFC and/or subgenual ACC, regions believed to be involved in brain default mode and parasympathetic activity. PMID:20884359

  4. Somatosensory Anticipatory Alpha Activity Increases to Suppress Distracting Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegens, Saskia; Luther, Lisa; Jensen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Effective processing of sensory input in daily life requires attentional selection and amplification of relevant input and, just as importantly, attenuation of irrelevant information. It has been proposed that top-down modulation of oscillatory alpha band activity (8-14 Hz) serves to allocate resources to various regions, depending on task…

  5. Somatosensory inputs modify auditory spike timing in dorsal cochlear nucleus principal cells

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Seth D; Pradhan, Shashwati; Manis, Paul B; Shore, Susan E

    2010-01-01

    In addition to auditory inputs, dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) pyramidal cells in the guinea pig receive and respond to somatosensory inputs and perform multisensory integration. DCN pyramidal cells respond to sounds with characteristic spike-timing patterns that are partially controlled by rapidly inactivating potassium conductances. Deactivating these conductances can modify both spike rate and spike timing of responses to sound. Somatosensory pathways are known to modify response rates to subsequent acoustic stimuli, but their effect on spike timing is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that preceding tonal stimulation with spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation significantly alters the first spike latency, the first interspike interval, and the average discharge regularity of firing evoked by the tone. These effects occur whether the neuron is excited or inhibited by Sp5 stimulation alone. Our results demonstrate that multisensory integration in DCN alters spike-timing representations of acoustic stimuli in pyramidal cells. These changes likely occur through synaptic modulation of intrinsic excitability or synaptic inhibition. PMID:21198989

  6. The primary somatosensory cortex and the insula contribute differently to the processing of transient and sustained nociceptive and non-nociceptive somatosensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Zhang, Li; Chen, Rui; Yu, Hongbo; Li, Hong; Mouraux, André

    2015-11-01

    Transient nociceptive stimuli elicit consistent brain responses in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (S1, S2), the insula and the anterior and mid-cingulate cortex (ACC/MCC). However, the functional significance of these responses, especially their relationship with sustained pain perception, remains largely unknown. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterize the differential involvement of these brain regions in the processing of sustained nociceptive and non-nociceptive somatosensory input. By comparing the spatial patterns of activity elicited by transient (0.5 ms) and long-lasting (15 and 30 s) stimuli selectively activating nociceptive or non-nociceptive afferents, we found that the contralateral S1 responded more strongly to the onset of non-nociceptive stimulation as compared to the onset of nociceptive stimulation and the sustained phases of nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation. Similarly, the anterior insula responded more strongly to the onset of nociceptive stimulation as compared to the onset of non-nociceptive stimulation and the sustained phases of nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation. This suggests that S1 is specifically sensitive to changes in incoming non-nociceptive input, whereas the anterior insula is specifically sensitive to changes in incoming nociceptive input. Second, we found that the MCC responded more strongly to the onsets as compared to the sustained phases of both nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation, suggesting that it could be involved in the detection of change regardless of sensory modality. Finally, the posterior insula and S2 responded maximally during the sustained phase of non-nociceptive stimulation but not nociceptive stimulation, suggesting that these regions are preferentially involved in processing non-nociceptive somatosensory input. PMID:26252509

  7. Keeping in touch with the visual system: spatial alignment and multisensory integration of visual-somatosensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Molholm, Sophie; Butler, John S; Sehatpour, Pejman; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Ritter, Walter; Foxe, John J

    2015-01-01

    Correlated sensory inputs coursing along the individual sensory processing hierarchies arrive at multisensory convergence zones in cortex where inputs are processed in an integrative manner. The exact hierarchical level of multisensory convergence zones and the timing of their inputs are still under debate, although increasingly, evidence points to multisensory integration (MSI) at very early sensory processing levels. While MSI is said to be governed by stimulus properties including space, time, and magnitude, violations of these rules have been documented. The objective of the current study was to determine, both psychophysically and electrophysiologically, whether differential visual-somatosensory (VS) integration patterns exist for stimuli presented to the same versus opposite hemifields. Using high-density electrical mapping and complementary psychophysical data, we examined multisensory integrative processing for combinations of visual and somatosensory inputs presented to both left and right spatial locations. We assessed how early during sensory processing VS interactions were seen in the event-related potential and whether spatial alignment of the visual and somatosensory elements resulted in differential integration effects. Reaction times to all VS pairings were significantly faster than those to the unisensory conditions, regardless of spatial alignment, pointing to engagement of integrative multisensory processing in all conditions. In support, electrophysiological results revealed significant differences between multisensory simultaneous VS and summed V + S responses, regardless of the spatial alignment of the constituent inputs. Nonetheless, multisensory effects were earlier in the aligned conditions, and were found to be particularly robust in the case of right-sided inputs (beginning at just 55 ms). In contrast to previous work on audio-visual and audio-somatosensory inputs, the current work suggests a degree of spatial specificity to the earliest

  8. Micromachined dual input axis rate gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneau, Thor Nelson

    The need for inexpensive yet reliable angular rate sensors in fields ranging from automotive to consumer electronics has motivated prolific micromachined rate gyroscope research. The vast majority of research has focused on single input axis rate gyroscopes based upon either translational resonance, such as tuning forks, or structural mode resonance, such as vibrating rings. However, this work presents a novel, contrasting approach based on angular resonance of a rotating rigid rotor suspended by torsional springs. The inherent symmetry of the circular design allows angular rate measurement about two axes simultaneously, hence the name micromachined dual-axis rate gyroscope. The underlying theory of operation, mechanical structure design optimization, electrical interface circuitry, and signal processing are described in detail. Several operational versions were fabricated using two different fully integrated surface micromachining processes as proof of concept. The heart of the dual-axis rate gyroscope is a ˜2 mum thick polysilicon disk or rotor suspended above the substrate by a four beam suspension. When this rotor in driven into angular oscillation about the axis perpendicular to the substrate, a rotation rate about the two axes parallel to the substrate invokes an out of plane rotor tilting motion due to Coriolis acceleration. This tilting motion is capacitively measured and on board integrated signal processing provides two output voltages proportional to angular rate input about the two axes parallel to the substrate. The design process begins with the derivation of gyroscopic dynamics. The equations suggest that tuning sense mode frequencies to the drive oscillation frequency can vastly increase mechanical sensitivity. Hence the supporting four beam suspension is designed such that electrostatic tuning can match modes despite process variations. The electrostatic tuning range is limited only by rotor collapse to the substrate when tuning-voltage induced

  9. Cerebellar inhibitory output shapes the temporal dynamics of its somatosensory inferior olivary input.

    PubMed

    Hogri, Roni; Segalis, Eyal; Mintz, Matti

    2014-08-01

    The cerebellum is necessary and sufficient for the acquisition and execution of adaptively timed conditioned motor responses following repeated paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. The underlying plasticity depends on the convergence of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli signals relayed to the cerebellum by the pontine nucleus and the inferior olive (IO), respectively. Adaptive timing of conditioned responses relies on the correctly predicted onset of the unconditioned stimulus, usually a noxious somatosensory stimulus. We addressed two questions: First, does the IO relay information regarding the duration of somatosensory stimuli to the cerebellum? Multiple-unit recordings from the IO of anesthetized rats that received periorbital airpuffs of various durations revealed that sustained somatosensory stimuli are invariably transformed into phasic IO outputs. The phasic response was followed by a post-peak depression in IO activity as compared to baseline, providing the cerebellum with a highly synchronous signal, time-locked to the stimulus' onset. Second, we sought to examine the involvement of olivocerebellar interactions in this signal transformation. Cerebello-olivary inhibition was interrupted using temporary pharmacological inactivation of cerebellar output nuclei, resulting in more sustained (i.e., less synchronous) IO responses to sustained somatosensory stimuli, in which the post-peak depression was substituted with elevated activity as compared to baseline. We discuss the possible roles of olivocerebellar negative-feedback loops and baseline cerebello-olivary inhibition levels in shaping the temporal dynamics of the IO's response to somatosensory stimuli and the consequences of this shaping for cerebellar plasticity and its ability to adapt to varying contexts.

  10. Short-term dynamics of causal information transfer in thalamocortical networks during natural inputs and microstimulation for somatosensory neuroprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Semework, Mulugeta; DiStasio, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Recording the activity of large populations of neurons requires new methods to analyze and use the large volumes of time series data thus created. Fast and clear methods for finding functional connectivity are an important step toward the goal of understanding neural processing. This problem presents itself readily in somatosensory neuroprosthesis (SSNP) research, which uses microstimulation (MiSt) to activate neural tissue to mimic natural stimuli, and has the capacity to potentiate, depotentiate, or even destroy functional connections. As the aim of SSNP engineering is artificially creating neural responses that resemble those observed during natural inputs, a central goal is describing the influence of MiSt on activity structure among groups of neurons, and how this structure may be altered to affect perception or behavior. In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of Granger causality, combined with maximum likelihood methods, applied to neural signals recorded before, during, and after natural and electrical stimulation. We show how these analyses can be used to evaluate the changing interactions in the thalamocortical somatosensory system in response to repeated perturbation. Using LFPs recorded from the ventral posterolateral thalamus (VPL) and somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized rats, we estimated pair-wise functional interactions between functional microdomains. The preliminary results demonstrate input-dependent modulations in the direction and strength of information flow during and after application of MiSt. Cortico-cortical interactions during cortical MiSt and baseline conditions showed the largest causal influence differences, while there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-stimulation baseline causal activities. These functional connectivity changes agree with physiologically accepted communication patterns through the network, and their particular parameters have implications for both rehabilitation and brain

  11. Dual arm robotic system with sensory input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozguner, U.

    1987-01-01

    The need for dual arm robots in space station assembly and satellite maintainance is of increasing significance. Such robots will be in greater demand in the future when numerous tasks will be assigned to them to relieve the direct intervention of humans in space. Technological demands from these robots will be high. They will be expected to perform high speed tasks with a certain degree of autonomy. Various levels of sensing will have to be used in a sophisticated control scheme. Ongoing research in control, sensing and real-time software to produce a two-arm robotic system than can accomplish generic assembly tasks is discussed. The control hierarchy and the specific control approach are discussed. A decentralized implementation of model-reference adaptive control using Variable Structure controllers and the incorporation of tactile feedback is considered.

  12. Do Visual and Vestibular Inputs Compensate for Somatosensory Loss in the Perception of Spatial Orientation? Insights from a Deafferented Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bringoux, Lionel; Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Borel, Liliane; Macaluso, Thomas; Sarlegna, Fabrice R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the consequences of a massive loss of somatosensory inputs on the perception of spatial orientation. The occurrence of possible compensatory processes for external (i.e., object) orientation perception and self-orientation perception was examined by manipulating visual and/or vestibular cues. To that aim, we compared perceptual responses of a deafferented patient (GL) with respect to age-matched Controls in two tasks involving gravity-related judgments. In the first task, subjects had to align a visual rod with the gravitational vertical (i.e., Subjective Visual Vertical: SVV) when facing a tilted visual frame in a classic Rod-and-Frame Test. In the second task, subjects had to report whether they felt tilted when facing different visuo-postural conditions which consisted in very slow pitch tilts of the body and/or visual surroundings away from vertical. Results showed that, much more than Controls, the deafferented patient was fully dependent on spatial cues issued from the visual frame when judging the SVV. On the other hand, the deafferented patient did not rely at all on visual cues for self-tilt detection. Moreover, the patient never reported any sensation of tilt up to 18° contrary to Controls, hence showing that she did not rely on vestibular (i.e., otoliths) signals for the detection of very slow body tilts either. Overall, this study demonstrates that a massive somatosensory deficit substantially impairs the perception of spatial orientation, and that the use of the remaining sensory inputs available to a deafferented patient differs regarding whether the judgment concerns external vs. self-orientation. PMID:27199704

  13. Do Visual and Vestibular Inputs Compensate for Somatosensory Loss in the Perception of Spatial Orientation? Insights from a Deafferented Patient.

    PubMed

    Bringoux, Lionel; Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Borel, Liliane; Macaluso, Thomas; Sarlegna, Fabrice R

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the consequences of a massive loss of somatosensory inputs on the perception of spatial orientation. The occurrence of possible compensatory processes for external (i.e., object) orientation perception and self-orientation perception was examined by manipulating visual and/or vestibular cues. To that aim, we compared perceptual responses of a deafferented patient (GL) with respect to age-matched Controls in two tasks involving gravity-related judgments. In the first task, subjects had to align a visual rod with the gravitational vertical (i.e., Subjective Visual Vertical: SVV) when facing a tilted visual frame in a classic Rod-and-Frame Test. In the second task, subjects had to report whether they felt tilted when facing different visuo-postural conditions which consisted in very slow pitch tilts of the body and/or visual surroundings away from vertical. Results showed that, much more than Controls, the deafferented patient was fully dependent on spatial cues issued from the visual frame when judging the SVV. On the other hand, the deafferented patient did not rely at all on visual cues for self-tilt detection. Moreover, the patient never reported any sensation of tilt up to 18° contrary to Controls, hence showing that she did not rely on vestibular (i.e., otoliths) signals for the detection of very slow body tilts either. Overall, this study demonstrates that a massive somatosensory deficit substantially impairs the perception of spatial orientation, and that the use of the remaining sensory inputs available to a deafferented patient differs regarding whether the judgment concerns external vs. self-orientation. PMID:27199704

  14. Experience-dependent changes in spatiotemporal properties of cutaneous inputs remodel somatosensory cortical maps following skin flap rotation.

    PubMed

    Rosselet, Céline; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i; Escoffier, Guy; Kirmaci, Fatma; Xerri, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Contiguous skin surfaces that tend to be synchronously stimulated are represented in neighbouring sectors of primary somatosensory maps. Moreover, neuronal receptive fields (RFs) are reshaped through ongoing competitive/cooperative interactions that segregate/desegregate inputs converging onto cortical neuronal targets. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of spatio-temporal constraints on somatotopic map organization. A vascularized and innervated pedicle flap of the ventrum skin bearing nipples was rotated by 180 degrees . Electrophysiological maps of ventrum skin were elaborated in the same rats at 24 h after surgery and 2 weeks after parturition. Neurones with split RFs resulting from the surgical separation of formerly adjoining skin surfaces were more numerous in non-nursing than nursing rats. RFs that included newly adjacent skin surfaces on both sides of the scar line emerged in nursing rats, suggesting that the spatial contiguity of formerly separated skin surfaces induced a fusion of their cortical representations through nursing-induced stimulation. In addition, nursing-dependent inputs were found to reincorporate the rotated skin flap representation in an updated topographical organization of the cortical map. A skin territory including recipient and translocated skin areas was costimulated for 7 h, using a brushing device. Neural responses evoked by a piezoelectric-induced skin indentation before and after skin brushing confirmed the emergence of RFs crossing the scar line and contraction of non-brushed components of split RFs. Our findings provide further evidence that the spatiotemporal structure of sensory inputs changing rapidly or evolving in a natural context is critical for experience-dependent reorganization of cortical map topography. PMID:18312588

  15. The effect of somatosensory input on motor imagery depends upon motor imagery capability

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated that the relationship between motor imagery ability and the effect of tactile input associated with holding a tennis racket on motor imagery of the forehand and backhand swings. The effect was assessed by the time utilized for motor imagery (mental chronometry). Seventeen tennis players imagined forehand and backhand swings with a forehand grip, a backhand grip or while holding nothing. In all cases, imaging the swings took longer than the time taken for a real swing. For imagery of the backhand swing, holding a racket with a backhand grip decreased the imaging time (p < 0.05) as compared to the trials with a forehand grip or while holding nothing. On the other hand, holding the racket with a backhand grip tended to increase the time required for forehand swing imagery. These results suggest that a congruent grip improves, and an incongruent grip deteriorates, motor imagery of the backhand swing. For players who took a longer time in the condition where they held nothing (i.e., poor imaging ability), the effect of a congruent backhand grip was greater (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). However, a congruent forehand grip did not improve motor imagery of the forehand swing. Since 15 of the participants in the present study favored the forehand swing compared to the backhand swing, the participants would have been more familiar with the forehand swing. Thus it would have been easy to vividly imagine the (familiar) forehand swing even when they were not holding a racket. We speculate that tactile input associated with holding a tool improves a vividness of motor imagery of a less familiar movement, especially for those who have poor imaging ability. In the future, it will be important to clarify whether the effect of tactile input associated with holding a tool is dependent upon movement familiarity/performance level. PMID:25729373

  16. Cortical inhibition of laser pain and laser-evoked potentials by non-nociceptive somatosensory input.

    PubMed

    Testani, Elisa; Le Pera, Domenica; Del Percio, Claudio; Miliucci, Roberto; Brancucci, Alfredo; Pazzaglia, Costanza; De Armas, Liala; Babiloni, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2015-10-01

    Although the inhibitory action that tactile stimuli can have on pain is well documented, the precise timing of the interaction between the painful and non-painful stimuli in the central nervous system is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue by measuring the timing of the amplitude modulation of laser evoked potentials (LEPs) due to conditioning non-painful stimuli. LEPs were recorded from 31 scalp electrodes in 10 healthy subjects after painful stimulation of the right arm (C6-C7 dermatomes). Non-painful electrical stimuli were applied by ring electrodes on the second and third finger of the right hand. Electrical stimuli were delivered at +50, +150, +200 and +250 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) after the laser pulses. LEPs obtained without any conditioning stimulation were used as a baseline. As compared to the baseline, non-painful electrical stimulation reduced the amplitude of the vertex N2/P2 LEP component and the laser pain rating when electrical stimuli followed the laser pulses only at +150 and +200 ms ISIs. As at these ISIs the collision between the non-painful and painful input is likely to take place at the cortical level, we can conclude that the late processing of painful (thermal) stimuli is partially inhibited by the processing of non-painful (cutaneous) stimuli within the cerebral cortex. Moreover, our results do not provide evidence that non-painful inputs can inhibit pain at a lower level, including the spinal cord.

  17. Cortical inhibition of laser pain and laser-evoked potentials by non-nociceptive somatosensory input.

    PubMed

    Testani, Elisa; Le Pera, Domenica; Del Percio, Claudio; Miliucci, Roberto; Brancucci, Alfredo; Pazzaglia, Costanza; De Armas, Liala; Babiloni, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2015-10-01

    Although the inhibitory action that tactile stimuli can have on pain is well documented, the precise timing of the interaction between the painful and non-painful stimuli in the central nervous system is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue by measuring the timing of the amplitude modulation of laser evoked potentials (LEPs) due to conditioning non-painful stimuli. LEPs were recorded from 31 scalp electrodes in 10 healthy subjects after painful stimulation of the right arm (C6-C7 dermatomes). Non-painful electrical stimuli were applied by ring electrodes on the second and third finger of the right hand. Electrical stimuli were delivered at +50, +150, +200 and +250 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) after the laser pulses. LEPs obtained without any conditioning stimulation were used as a baseline. As compared to the baseline, non-painful electrical stimulation reduced the amplitude of the vertex N2/P2 LEP component and the laser pain rating when electrical stimuli followed the laser pulses only at +150 and +200 ms ISIs. As at these ISIs the collision between the non-painful and painful input is likely to take place at the cortical level, we can conclude that the late processing of painful (thermal) stimuli is partially inhibited by the processing of non-painful (cutaneous) stimuli within the cerebral cortex. Moreover, our results do not provide evidence that non-painful inputs can inhibit pain at a lower level, including the spinal cord. PMID:26227011

  18. Differential effects of continuous theta burst stimulation over left premotor cortex and right prefrontal cortex on modulating upper limb somatosensory input.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matt J N; Staines, W Richard

    2016-02-15

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) represent somatosensory processing in non-primary motor areas (i.e. frontal N30 and N60) and somatosensory cortices (i.e. parietal P50). It is well-known that the premotor cortex (PMC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are involved in the preparation and planning of upper limb movements but it is currently unclear how they modulate somatosensory processing for upper limb motor control. In the current study, two experiments examined SEP modulations after continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was used to transiently disrupt the left PMC (Experiment 1) and right PFC (Experiment 2). Both Experiment 1 (n=15) and Experiment 2 (n=16) used pre-post experimental designs. In both experiments participants performed a task requiring detection of varying amplitudes of attended vibrotactile (VibT) stimuli to the left index finger (D2) and execution of a pre-matched finger sequence with the right (contralateral) hand to specific VibT targets. During the task, SEPs were measured to median nerve (MN) stimulations time-locked during pre-stimulus (250 ms before VibT), early response selection (250 ms after VibT), late preparatory (750 ms after VibT) and execution (1250 ms VibT) phases. The key findings of Experiment 1 revealed significant decreases in N30 and N60 peak amplitudes after cTBS to PMC. In contrast, the results of Experiment 2, also found significant decreased N60 peak amplitudes as well as trends for increased N30 and P50 peak amplitudes. A direct comparison of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 confirmed differential modulation of N30 peak amplitudes after PMC (gated) compared to PFC (enhanced) cTBS. Collectively, these results support that both the left PMC and right PFC have modulatory roles on early somatosensory input into non-primary motor areas, such as PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA), represented by frontal N30 and N60 SEPs. These results confirm that PMC and PFC are both part of a network that regulates somatosensory input

  19. Comparison of Parameter Estimations Using Dual-Input and Arterial-Input in Liver Kinetic Studies of FDG Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yunfeng; Bai, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Liver kinetic study of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) metabolism in human body is an important tool for functional modeling and glucose metabolic rate estimation. In general, the arterial blood time-activity curve (TAC) and the tissue TAC are required as the input and output functions for the kinetic model. For liver study, however, the arterial-input may be not consistent with the actual model input because the liver has a dual blood supply from the hepatic artery (HA) and the portal vein (PV) to the liver. In this study, the result of model parameter estimation using dual-input function is compared with that using arterial-input function. First, a dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) experiment is performed after injection of FDG into the human body. The TACs of aortic blood, PV blood, and five regions of interest (ROIs) in liver are obtained from the PET image. Then, the dual-input curve is generated by calculating weighted sum of both the arterial and PV input curves. Finally, the five liver ROIs' kinetic parameters are estimated with arterial-input and dual-input functions respectively. The results indicate that the two methods provide different parameter estimations and the dual-input function may lead to more accurate parameter estimation.

  20. Steady-state evoked potentials to study the processing of tactile and nociceptive somatosensory input in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Colon, E; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A

    2012-10-01

    The periodic presentation of a sensory stimulus induces, at certain frequencies of stimulation, a sustained electroencephalographic response of corresponding frequency, known as steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EP). In visual, auditory and vibrotactile modalities, studies have shown that SS-EP reflect mainly activity originating from early, modality-specific sensory cortices. Furthermore, it has been shown that SS-EP have several advantages over the recording of transient event-related brain potentials (ERP), such as a high signal-to-noise ratio, a shorter time to obtain reliable signals, and the capacity to frequency-tag the cortical activity elicited by concurrently presented sensory stimuli. Recently, we showed that SS-EP can be elicited by the selective activation of skin nociceptors and that nociceptive SS-EP reflect the activity of a population of neurons that is spatially distinct from the somatotopically-organized population of neurons underlying vibrotactile SS-EP. Hence, the recording of SS-EP offers a unique opportunity to study the cortical representation of nociception and touch in humans, and to explore their potential crossmodal interactions. Here, (1) we review available methods to achieve the rapid periodic stimulation of somatosensory afferents required to elicit SS-EP, (2) review previous studies that have characterized vibrotactile and nociceptive SS-EP, (3) discuss the nature of the recorded signals and their relationship with transient event-related potentials and (4) outline future perspectives and potential clinical applications of this technique.

  1. Dual-Modality Input in Repeated Reading for Foreign Language Learners with Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yeu-Ting; Todd, Andrew Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Research into dual-modality theory has long rested on the assumption that presenting input in two modalities leads to better learning outcomes. However, this may not always hold true. This study explored the possible advantages of using dual modality in repeated reading--a pedagogy often used to enhance reading development--for two literacy…

  2. A dual input DNA-based molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Nesterova, Irina V; Elsiddieg, Siddieg O; Nesterov, Evgueni E

    2014-11-01

    We have designed and characterized a DNA-based molecular switch which processes two physiologically relevant inputs: pH (i.e. alkalinisation) and enzymatic activity, and generates a chemical output (in situ synthesized oligonucleotide). The design, based on allosteric interactions between i-motif and hairpin stem within the DNA molecule, addresses such critical physiological system parameters as molecular simplicity, tunability, orthogonality of the two input sensing domains, and compatibility with intracellular operation/delivery. PMID:25099914

  3. The most sensitive inputs to cutaneous representing regions of primary somatosensory cortex do not change with behavioral training.

    PubMed

    Blake, David T; Spingath, Elsie

    2015-12-01

    Learning a sensory detection task leads to an increased primary sensory cortex response to the detected stimulus, while learning a sensory discrimination task additionally leads to a decreased sensory cortex response to the distractor stimulus. Neural responses are scaled up, and down, in strength, along with concomitant changes in receptive field size. The present work considers neural response properties that are invariant to learning. Data are drawn from two animals that were trained to detect and discriminate spatially separate taps delivered to positions on the skin of their fingers. Each animal was implanted with electrodes positioned in area 3b, and responses were derived on a near daily basis over 84 days in animal 1 and 202 days in animal 2. Responses to taps delivered in the receptive field were quantitatively measured each day, and receptive fields were audiomanually mapped each day. In the subset of responses that had light cutaneous receptive fields, a preponderance of the days, the most sensitive region of the field was invariant to training. This skin region was present in the receptive field on all, or nearly all, occasions in which the receptive field was mapped, and this region constituted roughly half of the most sensitive region. These results suggest that maintaining the most sensitive inputs as dominant in cortical receptive fields provide a measure of stability that may be transformationally useful for minimizing reconstruction errors and perceptual constancy. PMID:26634900

  4. Somatosensory inputs by application of KinesioTaping: effects on spasticity, balance, and gait in chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Tamburella, Federica; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Leg paralysis, spasticity, reduced interlimb coordination, and impaired balance are the chief limitations to overground ambulation in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). In recent years, the application of KinesioTaping (KT) has been proposed to enhance sensory inputs, decreasing spasticity by proprioception feedback and relieving abnormal muscle tension. Because no studies have examined KT-based techniques in SCI subjects, our goal was to analyze the effects of ankle joint KT on spasticity, balance, and gait. Materials and Methods: A randomized crossover case control design was used to compare the effects of KT and conventional nonelastic silk tape (ST) in 11 chronic SCI subjects, AIS level D, with soleus/gastrocnemius (S/G) muscle spasticity and balance and gait impairments. Treatment: 48 h of treatment with KT or ST was followed by 48 h with the other technique after 1 week. A single Y-strip of Cure© tape (KT) and ST was to the S and G muscles with 0% stretch. Before and 48 h after of application of KT and ST, clinical data on the range of motion (ROM), spasticity, clonus, pain, balance, and gait were collected. Stabilometric platform assessment of center of pressure (COP) movements; bidimensional gait analysis; and recording of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the S, G, and tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis lungus muscles were also performed. Results: Only KT had significant effects on spasticity (p < 0.05), clonus (p < 0.001) and COP movements (p < 0.05), kinematic gait parameters (p < 0.001), and EMG activity (p < 0.001). Comparison between ST and KT improvements pointed out significant differences as concerns ROM (p < 0.001), spasticity (p < 0.001), clonus (p < 0.001), pain (p < 0.001), COP parameters (p < 0.05), and most kinematic gait data (p < 0.05). Discussion: Short-term application of KT reduces spasticity and pain and improves balance and gait in chronic SCI subjects. Although these data are promising, they

  5. The Effect of Somatosensory and Cognitive-motor Tasks on the Paretic Leg of Chronic Stroke Patients in the Standing Posture

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate how different standing surfaces alter somatosensory input and how postural control is affected by these changes during the performance of a dual task with a cognitive-motor aspect. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 chronic stroke patients: 18 males, 2 females. [Methods] COP total distance, sway velocity, and the weight load on the paretic leg were measured while subjects performed the following three tasks (somatosensory task, cognitive-motor task, and dual task). [Results] Both COP total distance and sway velocity significantly decreased during the performance of all tasks. COP total distance and sway velocity significantly decreased during the somatosensory task and the dual task. The weight load significantly increased during performance of the somatosensory task and the dual task. [Conclusion] Compensatory mechanisms in the non-paretic leg were limited by placing it on an air cushion, and we observed an increase in somatosensory input from the paretic leg due to an enhanced weight load. PMID:25540484

  6. Subliminal stimulation and somatosensory signal detection.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Sahani, Maneesh; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Only a small fraction of sensory signals is consciously perceived. The brain's perceptual systems may include mechanisms of feedforward inhibition that protect the cortex from subliminal noise, thus reserving cortical capacity and conscious awareness for significant stimuli. Here we provide a new view of these mechanisms based on signal detection theory, and gain control. We demonstrated that subliminal somatosensory stimulation decreased sensitivity for the detection of a subsequent somatosensory input, largely due to increased false alarm rates. By delivering the subliminal somatosensory stimulus and the to-be-detected somatosensory stimulus to different digits of the same hand, we show that this effect spreads across the sensory surface. In addition, subliminal somatosensory stimulation tended to produce an increased probability of responding "yes", whether the somatosensory stimulus was present or not. Our results suggest that subliminal stimuli temporarily reduce input gain, avoiding excessive responses to further small inputs. This gain control may be automatic, and may precede discriminative classification of inputs into signals or noise. Crucially, we found that subliminal inputs influenced false alarm rates only on blocks where the to-be-detected stimuli were present, and not on pre-test control blocks where they were absent. Participants appeared to adjust their perceptual criterion according to a statistical distribution of stimuli in the current context, with the presence of supraliminal stimuli having an important role in the criterion-setting process. These findings clarify the cognitive mechanisms that reserve conscious perception for salient and important signals.

  7. Subliminal stimulation and somatosensory signal detection.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Sahani, Maneesh; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Only a small fraction of sensory signals is consciously perceived. The brain's perceptual systems may include mechanisms of feedforward inhibition that protect the cortex from subliminal noise, thus reserving cortical capacity and conscious awareness for significant stimuli. Here we provide a new view of these mechanisms based on signal detection theory, and gain control. We demonstrated that subliminal somatosensory stimulation decreased sensitivity for the detection of a subsequent somatosensory input, largely due to increased false alarm rates. By delivering the subliminal somatosensory stimulus and the to-be-detected somatosensory stimulus to different digits of the same hand, we show that this effect spreads across the sensory surface. In addition, subliminal somatosensory stimulation tended to produce an increased probability of responding "yes", whether the somatosensory stimulus was present or not. Our results suggest that subliminal stimuli temporarily reduce input gain, avoiding excessive responses to further small inputs. This gain control may be automatic, and may precede discriminative classification of inputs into signals or noise. Crucially, we found that subliminal inputs influenced false alarm rates only on blocks where the to-be-detected stimuli were present, and not on pre-test control blocks where they were absent. Participants appeared to adjust their perceptual criterion according to a statistical distribution of stimuli in the current context, with the presence of supraliminal stimuli having an important role in the criterion-setting process. These findings clarify the cognitive mechanisms that reserve conscious perception for salient and important signals. PMID:27387873

  8. An Examination of Language Input and Vocabulary Development of Young Latino Dual Language Learners Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Lisa K.; Gillam, Sandra L.; Innocenti, Mark S.; Cook, Gina A.; Ortiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the language status of 120 young, Latino dual language learners living in poverty in the United States. Maternal language input and home language and literacy environments were examined with regard to language development at 24 and 36 months. Results suggested that even when combining English and Spanish…

  9. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies.

  10. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:25030908

  11. Hydraulic actuator mechanism to control aircraft spoiler movements through dual input commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irick, S. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An aircraft flight spoiler control mechanism is described. The invention enables the conventional, primary spoiler control system to retain its operational characteristics while accommodating a secondary input controlled by a conventional computer system to supplement the settings made by the primary input. This is achieved by interposing springs between the primary input and the spoiler control unit. The springs are selected to have a stiffness intermediate to the greater force applied by the primary control linkage and the lesser resistance offered by the spoiler control unit. Thus, operation of the primary input causes the control unit to yield before the springs, yet, operation of the secondary input, acting directly on the control unit, causes the springs to yield and absorb adjustments before they are transmitted into the primary control system.

  12. Visual Responses of Neurons in Somatosensory Cortex of Hamsters with Experimentally Induced Retinal Projections to Somatosensory Thalamus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metin, Christine; Frost, Douglas O.

    1989-01-01

    These experiments investigate the capacity of thalamic and cortical structures in a sensory system to process information of a modality normally associated with another system. Retinal ganglion cells in newborn Syrian hamsters were made to project permanently to the main thalamic somatosensory (ventrobasal) nucleus. When the animals were adults, single unit recordings were made in the somatosensory cortices, the principal targets of the ventrobasal nucleus. The somatosensory neurons responded to visual stimulation of distinct receptive fields, and their response properties resembled, in several characteristic features, those of normal visual cortical neurons. In the visual cortex of normal animals and the somatosensory cortex of operated animals, the same functional categories of neurons occurred in similar proportions, and the neurons' selectivity for the orientation or direction of movement of visual stimuli was comparable. These results suggest that thalamic nuclei or cortical areas at corresponding levels in the visual and somatosensory pathways perform similar transformations on their inputs.

  13. A dual-input nonlinear system analysis of autonomic modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chon, K. H.; Mullen, T. J.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Linear analyses of fluctuations in heart rate and other hemodynamic variables have been used to elucidate cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The role of nonlinear contributions to fluctuations in hemodynamic variables has not been fully explored. This paper presents a nonlinear system analysis of the effect of fluctuations in instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) on heart rate (HR) fluctuations. To successfully employ a nonlinear analysis based on the Laguerre expansion technique (LET), we introduce an efficient procedure for broadening the spectral content of the ILV and ABP inputs to the model by adding white noise. Results from computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of broadening the spectral band of input signals to obtain consistent and stable kernel estimates with the use of the LET. Without broadening the band of the ILV and ABP inputs, the LET did not provide stable kernel estimates. Moreover, we extend the LET to the case of multiple inputs in order to accommodate the analysis of the combined effect of ILV and ABP effect on heart rate. Analyzes of data based on the second-order Volterra-Wiener model reveal an important contribution of the second-order kernels to the description of the effect of lung volume and arterial blood pressure on heart rate. Furthermore, physiological effects of the autonomic blocking agents propranolol and atropine on changes in the first- and second-order kernels are also discussed.

  14. Relating Input Factors and Dual Language Proficiency in French-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…

  15. Error analysis of the quantification of hepatic perfusion using a dual-input single-compartment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shohei; Yamazaki, Youichi; Murase, Kenya

    2008-11-01

    We performed an error analysis of the quantification of liver perfusion from dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) data using a dual-input single-compartment model for various disease severities, based on computer simulations. In the simulations, the time-density curves (TDCs) in the liver were generated from an actually measured arterial input function using a theoretical equation describing the kinetic behavior of the contrast agent (CA) in the liver. The rate constants for the transfer of CA from the hepatic artery to the liver (K1a), from the portal vein to the liver (K1p), and from the liver to the plasma (k2) were estimated from simulated TDCs with various plasma volumes (V0s). To investigate the effect of the shapes of input functions, the original arterial and portal-venous input functions were stretched in the time direction by factors of 2, 3 and 4 (stretching factors). The above parameters were estimated with the linear least-squares (LLSQ) and nonlinear least-squares (NLSQ) methods, and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) between the true and estimated values were calculated. Sensitivity and identifiability analyses were also performed. The RMSE of V0 was the smallest, followed by those of K1a, k2 and K1p in an increasing order. The RMSEs of K1a, K1p and k2 increased with increasing V0, while that of V0 tended to decrease. The stretching factor also affected parameter estimation in both methods. The LLSQ method estimated the above parameters faster and with smaller variations than the NLSQ method. Sensitivity analysis showed that the magnitude of the sensitivity function of V0 was the greatest, followed by those of K1a, K1p and k2 in a decreasing order, while the variance of V0 obtained from the covariance matrices was the smallest, followed by those of K1a, K1p and k2 in an increasing order. The magnitude of the sensitivity function and the variance increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing disease severity and decreased

  16. Analysis of Discontinuity Induced Bifurcations in a Dual Input DC-DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaouris, Damian; Banerjee, Soumitro; Mandal, Kuntal; Al-Hindawi, Mohammed M.; Abusorrah, Abdullah; Al-Turki, Yusuf; El Aroudi, Abdelali

    DC-DC power converters with multiple inputs and a single output are used in numerous applications where multiple sources, e.g. two or more renewable energy sources and/or a battery, feed a single load. In this work, a classical boost converter topology with two input branches connected to two different sources is chosen, with each branch independently being controlled by a separate peak current mode controller. We demonstrate for the first time that even though this converter is similar to other well known topologies that have been studied before, it exhibits many complex nonlinear behaviors that are not found in any other standard PWM controlled power converter. The system undergoes period incrementing cascade as a parameter is varied, with discontinuous hard transitions between consecutive periodicities. We show that the system can be described by a discontinuous map, which explains the observed bifurcation phenomena. The results have been experimentally validated.

  17. Synthetic dual-input mammalian genetic circuits enable tunable and stringent transcription control by chemical and light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjun; Li, Ting; Wang, Xue; Du, Zengmin; Liu, Renmei; Yang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Programmable transcription factors can enable precise control of gene expression triggered by a chemical inducer or light. To obtain versatile transgene system with combined benefits of a chemical inducer and light inducer, we created various chimeric promoters through the assembly of different copies of the tet operator and Gal4 operator module, which simultaneously responded to a tetracycline-responsive transcription factor and a light-switchable transactivator. The activities of these chimeric promoters can be regulated by tetracycline and blue light synergistically or antagonistically. Further studies of the antagonistic genetic circuit exhibited high spatiotemporal resolution and extremely low leaky expression, which therefore could be used to spatially and stringently control the expression of highly toxic protein Diphtheria toxin A for light regulated gene therapy. When transferring plasmids engineered for the gene switch-driven expression of a firefly luciferase (Fluc) into mice, the Fluc expression levels of the treated animals directly correlated with the tetracycline and light input program. We suggest that dual-input genetic circuits using TET and light that serve as triggers to achieve expression profiles may enable the design of robust therapeutic gene circuits for gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:26673714

  18. Synthetic dual-input mammalian genetic circuits enable tunable and stringent transcription control by chemical and light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjun; Li, Ting; Wang, Xue; Du, Zengmin; Liu, Renmei; Yang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Programmable transcription factors can enable precise control of gene expression triggered by a chemical inducer or light. To obtain versatile transgene system with combined benefits of a chemical inducer and light inducer, we created various chimeric promoters through the assembly of different copies of the tet operator and Gal4 operator module, which simultaneously responded to a tetracycline-responsive transcription factor and a light-switchable transactivator. The activities of these chimeric promoters can be regulated by tetracycline and blue light synergistically or antagonistically. Further studies of the antagonistic genetic circuit exhibited high spatiotemporal resolution and extremely low leaky expression, which therefore could be used to spatially and stringently control the expression of highly toxic protein Diphtheria toxin A for light regulated gene therapy. When transferring plasmids engineered for the gene switch-driven expression of a firefly luciferase (Fluc) into mice, the Fluc expression levels of the treated animals directly correlated with the tetracycline and light input program. We suggest that dual-input genetic circuits using TET and light that serve as triggers to achieve expression profiles may enable the design of robust therapeutic gene circuits for gene- and cell-based therapies.

  19. Synthetic dual-input mammalian genetic circuits enable tunable and stringent transcription control by chemical and light

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianjun; Li, Ting; Wang, Xue; Du, Zengmin; Liu, Renmei; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Programmable transcription factors can enable precise control of gene expression triggered by a chemical inducer or light. To obtain versatile transgene system with combined benefits of a chemical inducer and light inducer, we created various chimeric promoters through the assembly of different copies of the tet operator and Gal4 operator module, which simultaneously responded to a tetracycline-responsive transcription factor and a light-switchable transactivator. The activities of these chimeric promoters can be regulated by tetracycline and blue light synergistically or antagonistically. Further studies of the antagonistic genetic circuit exhibited high spatiotemporal resolution and extremely low leaky expression, which therefore could be used to spatially and stringently control the expression of highly toxic protein Diphtheria toxin A for light regulated gene therapy. When transferring plasmids engineered for the gene switch-driven expression of a firefly luciferase (Fluc) into mice, the Fluc expression levels of the treated animals directly correlated with the tetracycline and light input program. We suggest that dual-input genetic circuits using TET and light that serve as triggers to achieve expression profiles may enable the design of robust therapeutic gene circuits for gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:26673714

  20. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  1. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  2. Spatiotemporal dynamics of bimanual integration in human somatosensory cortex and their relevance to bimanual object manipulation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Patrick; Klein, Johannes C; Wibral, Michael; Hoechstetter, Karsten; Bliem, Barbara; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Wahl, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-04-18

    Little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical responses that integrate slightly asynchronous somatosensory inputs from both hands. This study aimed to clarify the timing and magnitude of interhemispheric interactions during early integration of bimanual somatosensory information in different somatosensory regions and their relevance for bimanual object manipulation and exploration. Using multi-fiber probabilistic diffusion tractography and MEG source analysis of conditioning-test (C-T) median nerve somatosensory evoked fields in healthy human subjects, we sought to extract measures of structural and effective callosal connectivity between different somatosensory cortical regions and correlated them with bimanual tactile task performance. Neuromagnetic responses were found in major somatosensory regions, i.e., primary somatosensory cortex SI, secondary somatosensory cortex SII, posterior parietal cortex, and premotor cortex. Contralateral to the test stimulus, SII activity was maximally suppressed by 51% at C-T intervals of 40 and 60 ms. This interhemispheric inhibition of the contralateral SII source activity correlated directly and topographically specifically with the fractional anisotropy of callosal fibers interconnecting SII. Thus, the putative pathway that mediated inhibitory interhemispheric interactions in SII was a transcallosal route from ipsilateral to contralateral SII. Moreover, interhemispheric inhibition of SII source activity correlated directly with bimanual tactile task performance. These findings were exclusive to SII. Our data suggest that early interhemispheric somatosensory integration primarily occurs in SII, is mediated by callosal fibers that interconnect homologous SII areas, and has behavioral importance for bimanual object manipulation and exploration.

  3. The Role of Input and Output Modality Pairings in Dual-Task Performance: Evidence for Content-Dependent Central Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Ruthruff, Eric; Remington, Roger W.

    2006-01-01

    Recent debate regarding dual-task performance has focused on whether costs result from limitations in central capacity, and whether central operations can be performed in parallel. While these questions are controversial, the dominant models of dual-task performance share the assumption that central operations are generic--that is, their…

  4. Functional Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex Supports Motor Learning by Observing.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Heather R; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Gribble, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    An influential idea in neuroscience is that the sensory-motor system is activated when observing the actions of others [1, 2]. This idea has recently been extended to motor learning, in which observation results in sensory-motor plasticity and behavioral changes in both motor and somatosensory domains [3-9]. However, it is unclear how the brain maps visual information onto motor circuits for learning. Here we test the idea that the somatosensory system, and specifically primary somatosensory cortex (S1), plays a role in motor learning by observing. In experiment 1, we applied stimulation to the median nerve to occupy the somatosensory system with unrelated inputs while participants observed a tutor learning to reach in a force field. Stimulation disrupted motor learning by observing in a limb-specific manner. Stimulation delivered to the right arm (the same arm used by the tutor) disrupted learning, whereas left arm stimulation did not. This is consistent with the idea that a somatosensory representation of the observed effector must be available during observation for learning to occur. In experiment 2, we assessed S1 cortical processing before and after observation by measuring somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) associated with median nerve stimulation. SEP amplitudes increased only for participants who observed learning. Moreover, SEPs increased more for participants who exhibited greater motor learning following observation. Taken together, these findings support the idea that motor learning by observing relies on functional plasticity in S1. We propose that visual signals about the movements of others are mapped onto motor circuits for learning via the somatosensory system.

  5. Functional Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex Supports Motor Learning by Observing.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Heather R; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Gribble, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    An influential idea in neuroscience is that the sensory-motor system is activated when observing the actions of others [1, 2]. This idea has recently been extended to motor learning, in which observation results in sensory-motor plasticity and behavioral changes in both motor and somatosensory domains [3-9]. However, it is unclear how the brain maps visual information onto motor circuits for learning. Here we test the idea that the somatosensory system, and specifically primary somatosensory cortex (S1), plays a role in motor learning by observing. In experiment 1, we applied stimulation to the median nerve to occupy the somatosensory system with unrelated inputs while participants observed a tutor learning to reach in a force field. Stimulation disrupted motor learning by observing in a limb-specific manner. Stimulation delivered to the right arm (the same arm used by the tutor) disrupted learning, whereas left arm stimulation did not. This is consistent with the idea that a somatosensory representation of the observed effector must be available during observation for learning to occur. In experiment 2, we assessed S1 cortical processing before and after observation by measuring somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) associated with median nerve stimulation. SEP amplitudes increased only for participants who observed learning. Moreover, SEPs increased more for participants who exhibited greater motor learning following observation. Taken together, these findings support the idea that motor learning by observing relies on functional plasticity in S1. We propose that visual signals about the movements of others are mapped onto motor circuits for learning via the somatosensory system. PMID:26972317

  6. Beta oscillations define discrete perceptual cycles in the somatosensory domain

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Thomas J.; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Whether seeing a movie, listening to a song, or feeling a breeze on the skin, we coherently experience these stimuli as continuous, seamless percepts. However, there are rare perceptual phenomena that argue against continuous perception but, instead, suggest discrete processing of sensory input. Empirical evidence supporting such a discrete mechanism, however, remains scarce and comes entirely from the visual domain. Here, we demonstrate compelling evidence for discrete perceptual sampling in the somatosensory domain. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a tactile temporal discrimination task in humans, we find that oscillatory alpha- and low beta-band (8–20 Hz) cycles in primary somatosensory cortex represent neurophysiological correlates of discrete perceptual cycles. Our results agree with several theoretical concepts of discrete perceptual sampling and empirical evidence of perceptual cycles in the visual domain. Critically, these results show that discrete perceptual cycles are not domain-specific, and thus restricted to the visual domain, but extend to the somatosensory domain. PMID:26324922

  7. Somatosensory Findings of Pusher Syndrome in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Kyeong Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the somatosensory findings of pusher syndrome in stroke patients. Methods Twelve pusher patients and twelve non-pusher patients were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were unilateral stroke, sufficient cognitive abilities to understand and follow instructions, and no visual problem. Patients were evaluated for pusher syndrome using a standardized scale for contraversive pushing. Somatosensory finding was assessed by the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index (CSII) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) at 1 and 14 weeks after the stroke onset. Data of SEPs with median and tibial nerve stimulation were classified into the normal, abnormal, and no response group. Results In the baseline characteristics (sex, lesion character, and side) of both groups, significant differences were not found. The score of CSII decreased in both groups at 14 weeks (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in the CSII scores between the two groups at 1 and 14 weeks. There were no significant differences in SEPs between the two groups at 1 and 14 weeks after the stroke onset. Conclusion It appears that somatosensory input plays a relatively minor role in pusher syndrome. Further study will be required to reveal the mechanism of pusher syndrome. PMID:23525623

  8. Neuromagnetic correlates of adaptive plasticity across the hand-face border in human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Muret, Dollyane; Daligault, Sébastien; Dinse, Hubert R; Delpuech, Claude; Mattout, Jérémie; Reilly, Karen T; Farnè, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that permanent or transient reduction of somatosensory inputs, following hand deafferentation or anesthesia, induces plastic changes across the hand-face border, supposedly responsible for some altered perceptual phenomena such as tactile sensations being referred from the face to the phantom hand. It is also known that transient increase of hand somatosensory inputs, via repetitive somatosensory stimulation (RSS) at a fingertip, induces local somatosensory discriminative improvement accompanied by cortical representational changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). We recently demonstrated that RSS at the tip of the right index finger induces similar training-independent perceptual learning across the hand-face border, improving somatosensory perception at the lips (Muret D, Dinse HR, Macchione S, Urquizar C, Farnè A, Reilly KT.Curr Biol24: R736-R737, 2014). Whether neural plastic changes across the hand-face border accompany such remote and adaptive perceptual plasticity remains unknown. Here we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the electrophysiological correlates underlying RSS-induced behavioral changes across the hand-face border. The results highlight significant changes in dipole location after RSS both for the stimulated finger and for the lips. These findings reveal plastic changes that cross the hand-face border after an increase, instead of a decrease, in somatosensory inputs.

  9. Somatosensory Substrates of Flight Control in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kara L.; Chadha, Mohit; deSouza, Laura A.; Sterbing-D’Angelo, Susanne J.; Moss, Cynthia F.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections. PMID:25937277

  10. Somatosensory substrates of flight control in bats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kara L; Chadha, Mohit; deSouza, Laura A; Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne J; Moss, Cynthia F; Lumpkin, Ellen A

    2015-05-12

    Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  11. Somatosensory integration controlled by dynamic thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gabernet, Laetitia; Jadhav, Shantanu P; Feldman, Daniel E; Carandini, Matteo; Scanziani, Massimo

    2005-10-20

    The temporal features of tactile stimuli are faithfully represented by the activity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex. However, the cellular mechanisms that enable cortical neurons to report accurate temporal information are not known. Here, we show that in the rodent barrel cortex, the temporal window for integration of thalamic inputs is under the control of thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition and can vary from 1 to 10 ms. A single thalamic fiber can trigger feed-forward inhibition and contacts both excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons. The dynamics of feed-forward inhibition exceed those of each individual synapse in the circuit and are captured by a simple disynaptic model of the thalamocortical projection. The variations in the integration window produce changes in the temporal precision of cortical responses to whisker stimulation. Hence, feed-forward inhibitory circuits, classically known to sharpen spatial contrast of tactile inputs, also increase the temporal resolution in the somatosensory cortex.

  12. Neural mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Hysaj, Kristjana; Niebur, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    Selective attention allows organisms to extract behaviorally relevant information while ignoring distracting stimuli that compete for the limited resources of their central nervous systems. Attention is highly flexible, and it can be harnessed to select information based on sensory modality, within-modality feature(s), spatial location, object identity, and/or temporal properties. In this review, we discuss the body of work devoted to understanding mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system. In particular, we describe the effects of attention on tactile behavior and corresponding neural activity in somatosensory cortex. Our focus is on neural mechanisms that select tactile stimuli based on their location on the body (somatotopic-based attention) or their sensory feature (feature-based attention). We highlight parallels between selection mechanisms in touch and other sensory systems and discuss several putative neural coding schemes employed by cortical populations to signal the behavioral relevance of sensory inputs. Specifically, we contrast the advantages and disadvantages of using a gain vs. spike-spike correlation code for representing attended sensory stimuli. We favor a neural network model of tactile attention that is composed of frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas that controls somatosensory cells encoding the relevant stimulus features to enable preferential processing throughout the somatosensory hierarchy. Our review is based on data from noninvasive electrophysiological and imaging data in humans as well as single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates. PMID:27334956

  13. Topography of somatosensory processing: cerebral lateralization and focused attention.

    PubMed

    Meador, K J; Allison, J D; Loring, D W; Lavin, T B; Pillai, J J

    2002-03-01

    Healthy dextrals underwent fMRI during a task of graphesthesia requiring detection of any number written consecutively from an otherwise random number sequence. Test conditions included (1) focus on unilateral right hand stimuli, (2) focus on unilateral left hand stimuli, (3) focus on right hand only during bilateral hand stimulation, (4) focus on left hand only during bilateral hand stimulation, and (5) rest. Attention to unilateral hand stimulation produced bihemispheric activation with minimal or no activation of ipsilateral primary sensorimotor region. Attention to unilateral left hand stimuli resulted in more activation than attention to unilateral right hand stimuli. Stimulation of the nonattended hand activated the contralateral somatosensory area, but to a lesser spatial extent than attended stimuli. Comparing focused attention to the left versus right side during identical sensory inputs (i.e., bilateral hand stimulation), focused attention to the right hand increased activation in the left somatosensory region, but focused attention to the left hand increased activation in both cerebral hemispheres. Thus, focused attention to unilateral somatosensory stimuli produces bilateral cerebral activation, but the increase in blood flow is greater in the contralateral hemisphere. Unattended stimuli activate the contralateral primary somatosensory area. Left/right asymmetries were demonstrated consistent with cerebral lateralization.

  14. A complementary dual-slope ADC with high frame rate and wide input range for fast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daehee; Cho, Minsik; Kang, Dong-Uk; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong

    2014-02-01

    The single-slope analog-to-digital converter (SS-ADC) is the most commonly used column-level ADC for high-speed industrial, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based X-ray image sensors because of its small chip area (the width of a pixel), its simple circuit structure, and its low power consumption. However, it generally has a long conversion time, so we propose an innovative design: a complimentary dual-slope ADC (CDS-ADC) that uses two opposite ramp signals instead of a single ramp to double the conversion speed. This CDS-ADC occupies only 15% more area than the original SS-ADC. A prototype 12-bit CDS-ADC and a 12-bit SS-ADC were fabricated using a 0.35-µm 1P 4M CMOS process. During comparison of the two, the measured maximum differential non-linearity (DNL) of the CDS-ADC was a 0.49 least significant bit (LSB), the maximum integral non-linearity (INL) was a 0.43 LSB, the effective number of bits (ENOB) was 9.18 bits, and the figure of merit (FOM) was 0.03 pJ/conversion. The total power consumption was 0.031 uW. The conversion time of the new CDS-ADC was half that of the SS-ADC. The proposed dual-slope concept can be extended to further multiply the conversion speed by using multiple pairs of dual-slope ramps.

  15. Beta rhythm modulation by speech sounds: somatotopic mapping in somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura; Campus, Claudio; D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    During speech listening motor regions are somatotopically activated, resembling the activity that subtends actual speech production, suggesting that motor commands can be retrieved from sensory inputs. Crucially, the efficient motor control of the articulators relies on the accurate anticipation of the somatosensory reafference. Nevertheless, evidence about somatosensory activities elicited by auditory speech processing is sparse. The present work looked for specific interactions between auditory speech presentation and somatosensory cortical information processing. We used an auditory speech identification task with sounds having different place of articulation (bilabials and dentals). We tested whether coupling the auditory task with a peripheral electrical stimulation of the lips would affect the pattern of sensorimotor electroencephalographic rhythms. Peripheral electrical stimulation elicits a series of spectral perturbations of which the beta rebound reflects the return-to-baseline stage of somatosensory processing. We show a left-lateralized and selective reduction in the beta rebound following lip somatosensory stimulation when listening to speech sounds produced with the lips (i.e. bilabials). Thus, the somatosensory processing could not return to baseline due to the recruitment of the same neural resources by speech stimuli. Our results are a clear demonstration that heard speech sounds are somatotopically mapped onto somatosensory cortices, according to place of articulation. PMID:27499204

  16. Beta rhythm modulation by speech sounds: somatotopic mapping in somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura; Campus, Claudio; D’Ausilio, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    During speech listening motor regions are somatotopically activated, resembling the activity that subtends actual speech production, suggesting that motor commands can be retrieved from sensory inputs. Crucially, the efficient motor control of the articulators relies on the accurate anticipation of the somatosensory reafference. Nevertheless, evidence about somatosensory activities elicited by auditory speech processing is sparse. The present work looked for specific interactions between auditory speech presentation and somatosensory cortical information processing. We used an auditory speech identification task with sounds having different place of articulation (bilabials and dentals). We tested whether coupling the auditory task with a peripheral electrical stimulation of the lips would affect the pattern of sensorimotor electroencephalographic rhythms. Peripheral electrical stimulation elicits a series of spectral perturbations of which the beta rebound reflects the return-to-baseline stage of somatosensory processing. We show a left-lateralized and selective reduction in the beta rebound following lip somatosensory stimulation when listening to speech sounds produced with the lips (i.e. bilabials). Thus, the somatosensory processing could not return to baseline due to the recruitment of the same neural resources by speech stimuli. Our results are a clear demonstration that heard speech sounds are somatotopically mapped onto somatosensory cortices, according to place of articulation. PMID:27499204

  17. Population analysis of single neurons in cat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Warren, R A; Dykes, R W

    1992-01-01

    Single neurons in the somatosensory cortex are divisible into a population with receptive fields and a population without receptive fields. These two populations display different laminar distributions, and their respective functions are unknown. We compared other physiological characteristics of these two neuronal populations in an attempt to understand why some neurons lack a receptive field. Only 23% of 465 neurons isolated in the somatosensory cortex of halothane-anesthetized cats displayed a cutaneous receptive field. The iontophoretic administration of glutamate uncovered input from the periphery in another 34% of the sample, leaving 43% of the neurons without evidence of peripheral input under these experimental conditions. Neurons with a receptive field were spontaneously active much more often than neurons lacking peripheral inputs, and their rates of discharge were higher. No differences were found between neurons having a receptive field uncovered with glutamate and those unaffected by glutamate. In all classes of neurons, those cells with spontaneous activity were excited by smaller amounts of glutamate than were silent neurons, but sensitivity to glutamate was not correlated with the presence or absence of a receptive field. We infer that some classes of somatosensory cortical neurons receive strong thalamocortical inputs, whereas others have only relatively weak or no thalamocortical connections. In other experiments we have shown also that those neurons lacking a receptive field and/or spontaneous activity were more likely to be plastic than those with stronger inputs (see Warren and Dykes, 1993a,b), suggesting that neurons having weaker afferent inputs can be more readily modified under certain circumstances. PMID:1362827

  18. The somatosensory evoked magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kakigi, R; Hoshiyama, M; Shimojo, M; Naka, D; Yamasaki, H; Watanabe, S; Xiang, J; Maeda, K; Lam, K; Itomi, K; Nakamura, A

    2000-08-01

    Averaged magnetoencephalography (MEG) following somatosensory stimulation, somatosensory evoked magnetic field(s) (SEF), in humans are reviewed. The equivalent current dipole(s) (ECD) of the primary and the following middle-latency components of SEF following electrical stimulation within 80-100 ms are estimated in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), the posterior bank of the central sulcus, in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulated site. Their sites are generally compatible with the homunculus which was reported by Penfield using direct cortical stimulation during surgery. SEF to passive finger movement is generated in area 3a or 2 of SI, unlike with electrical stimulation. Long-latency components with peaks of approximately 80-120 ms are recorded in the bilateral hemispheres and their ECD are estimated in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) in the bilateral hemispheres. We also summarized (1) the gating effects on SEF by interference tactile stimulation or movement applied to the stimulus site, (2) clinical applications of SEF in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology and (3) cortical plasticity (reorganization) of the SI. SEF specific to painful stimulation is also recorded following painful stimulation by CO(2) laser beam. Pain-specific components are recorded over 150 ms after the stimulus and their ECD are estimated in the bilateral SII and the limbic system. We introduced a newly-developed multi (12)-channel gradiometer system with the smallest and highest quality superconducting quantum interference device (micro-SQUID) available to non-invasively detect the magnetic fields of a human peripheral nerve. Clear nerve action fields (NAFs) were consistently recorded from all subjects.

  19. Neural coding and perceptual detection in the primate somatosensory thalamus.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Yuriria; Zainos, Antonio; Alvarez, Manuel; Salinas, Emilio; Romo, Ranulfo

    2012-09-11

    The contribution of the sensory thalamus to perception and decision making is not well understood. We addressed this problem by recording single neurons in the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the somatosensory thalamus while trained monkeys judged the presence or absence of a vibrotactile stimulus of variable amplitude applied to the skin of a fingertip. We found that neurons in the VPL nucleus modulated their firing rate as a function of stimulus amplitude, and that such modulations accounted for the monkeys' overall psychophysical performance. These neural responses did not predict the animals' decision reports in individual trials, however. Moreover, the sensitivity to changes in stimulus amplitude was similar when the monkeys' performed the detection task and when they were not required to report stimulus detection. These results suggest that the primate somatosensory thalamus likely provides a reliable neural representation of the sensory input to the cerebral cortex, where sensory information is transformed and combined with other cognitive components associated with behavioral performance.

  20. Dual Input AND Gate Fabricated From a Single Channel Poly (3-Hexylthiophene) Thin Film Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, N. J.; Perez, R.; Mueller, C. H.; Theofylaktos, N.; Miranda, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    A regio-regular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (RRP3HT) thin film transistor having a split-gate architecture has been fabricated on a doped silicon/silicon nitride substrate and characterized. This device demonstrates AND logic functionality. The device functionality was controlled by applying either 0 or -10 V to each of the gate electrodes. When -10 V was simultaneously applied to both gates, the device was conductive (ON), while any other combination of gate voltages rendered the device resistive (OFF). The p-type carrier charge mobility was about 5x10(exp -4) per square centimeter per V-sec. The low mobility is attributed to the sharp contours of the RRP3HT film due to substrate non-planarity. A significant advantage of this architecture is that AND logic devices with multiple inputs can be fabricated using a single RRP3HT channel with multiple gates.

  1. Somatosensory loss increases vestibulospinal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Horak, F B; Hlavacka, F

    2001-08-01

    To determine whether subjects with somatosensory loss show a compensatory increase in sensitivity to vestibular stimulation, we compared the amplitude of postural lean in response to four different intensities of bipolar galvanic stimulation in subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PNP) and age-matched control subjects. To determine whether healthy and neuropathic subjects show similar increases in sensitivity to galvanic vestibular stimulation when standing on unstable surfaces, both groups were exposed to galvanic stimulation while standing on a compliant foam surface. In these experiments, a 3-s pulse of galvanic current was administered to subjects standing with eyes closed and their heads turned toward one shoulder (anodal current on the forward mastoid). Anterior body tilt, as measured by center of foot pressure (CoP), increased proportionately with increasing galvanic vestibular stimulation intensity for all subjects. Subjects with peripheral neuropathy showed larger forward CoP displacement in response to galvanic stimulation than control subjects. The largest differences between neuropathy and control subjects were at the highest galvanic intensities, indicating an increased sensitivity to vestibular stimulation. Neuropathy subjects showed a larger increase in sensitivity to vestibular stimulation when standing on compliant foam than control subjects. The effect of galvanic stimulation was larger on the movement of the trunk segment in space than on the body's center of mass (CoM) angle, suggesting that the vestibular system acts to control trunk orientation rather than to control whole body posture. This study provides evidence for an increase in the sensitivity of the postural control system to vestibular stimulation when somatosensory information from the surface is disrupted either by peripheral neuropathy or by standing on an unstable surface. Simulations from a simple model of postural orientation incorporating feedback from the vestibular

  2. Forebrain organization representing baroreceptor gating of somatosensory afferents within the cortical autonomic network.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ruma; Frances, Maria Fernanda; Steinback, Craig Douglas; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2012-07-01

    Somatosensory afferents are represented within the cortical autonomic network (CAN). However, the representation of somatosensory afferents, and the consequent cardiovascular effects, may be modified by levels of baroreceptor input. Thus, we examined the cortical regions involved with processing somatosensory inputs during baroreceptor unloading. Neuroimaging sessions (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) recorded brain activity during 30 mmHg lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) alone and combined with somatosensory stimulation (LBNP+SS) of the forearm (n = 14). Somatosensory processing was also assessed during increased sympathetic outflow via end-expiratory apnea. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (Q), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded during the same protocols in a separate laboratory session. SS alone had no effect on any cardiovascular or MSNA variable at rest. Measures of HR, BP, and Q during LBNP were not different compared with LBNP+SS. The rise in MSNA burst frequency was attenuated during LBNP+SS versus LBNP alone (8 vs. 12 bursts/min, respectively, P < 0.05). SS did not affect the change in MSNA during apnea. Activations within the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) observed during LBNP were not seen during LBNP+SS. Anterior insula and ACC activations occurring during apnea were not modified by SS. Thus, the absence of insular and dorsal ACC activity during LBNP+SS along with an attenuation of MSNA burst frequency suggest sympathoinhibitory effects of sensory stimulation during decreased baroreceptor input by a mechanism that includes conjoint insula-dorsal ACC regulation. These findings reveal that the level of baroreceptor input influences the forebrain organization of somatosensory afferents. PMID:22514285

  3. Effects of passive heat stress on human somatosensory processing.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Oshiro, Misaki; Namba, Mari; Shibasaki, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we investigated the effects of passive heat stress on human somatosensory processing recorded by somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). Fifteen healthy subjects received a median nerve stimulation at the left wrist under two thermal conditions: Heat Stress and normothermic Time Control. The latencies and amplitudes of P14, N20, P25, N35, P45, and N60 at C4' and P14, N18, P22, and N30 at Fz were evaluated. Under the Heat Stress condition, SEPs were recorded at normothermic baseline (1st), early in heat stress (2nd), when esophageal temperature had increased by ~1.0°C (3rd) and ~2.0°C (4th), and after heat stress (5th). In the Time Control condition, SEPs were measured at the same time intervals as those in the Heat Stress condition. The peak latencies and amplitudes of SEPs did not change early in heat stress. However, the latencies of P14, N20, and N60 at C4' and P14, N18, and P22 at Fz were significantly shorter in the 4th session than in the 1st session. Furthermore, the peak amplitudes of P25 and N60 at C4', and P22 and N30 at Fz decreased with increases in body temperature. On the other hand, under the Time Control condition, no significant differences were observed in the amplitudes or latencies of any component of SEPs. These results suggested that the conduction velocity of the ascending somatosensory input was accelerated by increases in body temperature, and hyperthermia impaired the neural activity of cortical somatosensory processing. PMID:26468258

  4. Listening to Another Sense: Somatosensory Integration in the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Stefanescu, Roxana A.; Martel, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, sensory systems are viewed as separate entities, each with its own physiological process serving a different purpose. However, many functions require integrative inputs from multiple sensory systems, and sensory intersection and convergence occur throughout the central nervous system. The neural processes for hearing perception undergo significant modulation by the two other major sensory systems, vision and somatosensation. This synthesis occurs at every level of the ascending auditory pathway: the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and the auditory cortex. In this review, we explore the process of multisensory integration from 1) anatomical (inputs and connections), 2) physiological (cellular responses), 3) functional, and 4) pathological aspects. We focus on the convergence between auditory and somatosensory inputs in each ascending auditory station. This review highlights the intricacy of sensory processing, and offers a multisensory perspective regarding the understanding of sensory disorders. PMID:25526698

  5. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; Darainy, Mohammad; Bricolo, Emanuela; Ostry, David J

    2013-10-01

    Observing the actions of others has been shown to affect motor learning, but does it have effects on sensory systems as well? It has been recently shown that motor learning that involves actual physical practice is also associated with plasticity in the somatosensory system. Here, we assessed the idea that observational learning likewise changes somatosensory function. We evaluated changes in somatosensory function after human subjects watched videos depicting motor learning. Subjects first observed video recordings of reaching movements either in a clockwise or counterclockwise force field. They were then trained in an actual force-field task that involved a counterclockwise load. Measures of somatosensory function were obtained before and after visual observation and also following force-field learning. Consistent with previous reports, video observation promoted motor learning. We also found that somatosensory function was altered following observational learning, both in direction and in magnitude, in a manner similar to that which occurs when motor learning is achieved through actual physical practice. Observation of the same sequence of movements in a randomized order did not result in somatosensory perceptual change. Observational learning and real physical practice appear to tap into the same capacity for sensory change in that subjects that showed a greater change following observational learning showed a reliably smaller change following physical motor learning. We conclude that effects of observing motor learning extend beyond the boundaries of traditional motor circuits, to include somatosensory representations.

  6. Human task-specific somatosensory activation.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, M D; Yoshii, F; Vibulsresth, S; Chang, J Y; Duara, R; Barker, W W; Boothe, T E

    1987-08-01

    We used positron emission tomography to study normal patterns of local cortical metabolic activation induced by somatosensory stimuli. Palpation and sorting of mah-jongg tiles by textured design increased local glucose metabolic rate (lCMRgl), by 18% on average, in contralateral somatosensory cortex. A graphesthesia task gave a similar result. In contrast, vigorous vibrotactile stimulation of fingers, face, or knee did not produce a consistent focus of activation. Our results indicate that lCMRgl activation is best achieved by somatosensory tasks requiring an active perceptual effort.

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity analyses reveal efference-copy to primary somatosensory area, BA2.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fang; Arnstein, Dan; Thomas, Rajat Mani; Maurits, Natasha M; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Some theories of motor control suggest efference-copies of motor commands reach somatosensory cortices. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test these models. We varied the amount of efference-copy signal by making participants squeeze a soft material either actively or passively. We found electromyographical recordings, an efference-copy proxy, to predict activity in primary somatosensory regions, in particular Brodmann Area (BA) 2. Partial correlation analyses confirmed that brain activity in cortical structures associated with motor control (premotor and supplementary motor cortices, the parietal area PF and the cerebellum) predicts brain activity in BA2 without being entirely mediated by activity in early somatosensory (BA3b) cortex. Our study therefore provides valuable empirical evidence for efference-copy models of motor control, and shows that signals in BA2 can indeed reflect an input from motor cortices and suggests that we should interpret activations in BA2 as evidence for somatosensory-motor rather than somatosensory coding alone.

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Connectivity Analyses Reveal Efference-Copy to Primary Somatosensory Area, BA2

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Arnstein, Dan; Thomas, Rajat Mani; Maurits, Natasha M.; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Some theories of motor control suggest efference-copies of motor commands reach somatosensory cortices. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test these models. We varied the amount of efference-copy signal by making participants squeeze a soft material either actively or passively. We found electromyographical recordings, an efference-copy proxy, to predict activity in primary somatosensory regions, in particular Brodmann Area (BA) 2. Partial correlation analyses confirmed that brain activity in cortical structures associated with motor control (premotor and supplementary motor cortices, the parietal area PF and the cerebellum) predicts brain activity in BA2 without being entirely mediated by activity in early somatosensory (BA3b) cortex. Our study therefore provides valuable empirical evidence for efference-copy models of motor control, and shows that signals in BA2 can indeed reflect an input from motor cortices and suggests that we should interpret activations in BA2 as evidence for somatosensory-motor rather than somatosensory coding alone. PMID:24416222

  9. Dissociating vestibular and somatosensory contributions to spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Bart B G T; Selen, Luc P J; Bertolini, Giovanni; Straumann, Dominik; Medendorp, W Pieter; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-07-01

    Inferring object orientation in the surroundings heavily depends on our internal sense of direction of gravity. Previous research showed that this sense is based on the integration of multiple information sources, including visual, vestibular (otolithic), and somatosensory signals. The individual noise characteristics and contributions of these sensors can be studied using spatial orientation tasks, such as the subjective visual vertical (SVV) task. A recent study reported that patients with complete bilateral vestibular loss perform similar as healthy controls on these tasks, from which it was conjectured that the noise levels of both otoliths and body somatosensors are roll-tilt dependent. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 10 healthy human subjects by roll tilting the head relative to the body to dissociate tilt-angle dependencies of otolith and somatosensory noise. Using a psychometric approach, we measured the perceived orientation, and its variability, of a briefly flashed line relative to the gravitational vertical (SVV). Measurements were taken at multiple body-in-space orientations (-90 to 90°, steps of 30°) and head-on-body roll tilts (30° left ear down, aligned, 30° right ear down). Results showed that verticality perception is processed in a head-in-space reference frame, with a systematic SVV error that increased with larger head-in-space orientations. Variability patterns indicated a larger contribution of the otolith organs around upright and a more substantial contribution of the body somatosensors at larger body-in-space roll tilts. Simulations show that these findings are consistent with a statistical model that involves tilt-dependent noise levels of both otolith and somatosensory signals, confirming dynamic shifts in the weights of sensory inputs with tilt angle. PMID:27075537

  10. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring. PMID:26557929

  11. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring.

  12. Testis of prepubertal rhesus monkeys receives a dual catecholaminergic input provided by the extrinsic innervation and an intragonadal source of catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, A; Danilchik, M; Pau, K Y; Lara, H E; Russell, L D; Ojeda, S R

    1996-09-01

    regulatory domain of the enzyme. The cDNA that was obtained predicts an amino acid sequence similar, but not identical, to that encoded by the alternatively spliced type 1 TH mRNA form present in the adrenal gland. These results indicate 1) that the primate testis receives a dual catecholaminergic input, one provided by the extrinsic innervation and the other by neuron-like cells located within the gonad itself, and 2) that the influence exerted by both sources on testicular function may be more prominent during the prepubertal period than in adulthood. The presence in the testis of a TH mRNA variant encoding amino acid substitutions in its 5' end suggests that regulation of testicular TH enzyme activity may include a gonad-specific component.

  13. Effects of bicuculline application on the somatosensory responses of secondary vestibular neurons.

    PubMed

    Grasso, C; Li Volsi, G; Cataldo, E; Manzoni, D; Barresi, M

    2016-10-29

    Limb somatosensory signals modify the discharge of vestibular neurons and elicit postural reflexes, which stabilize the body position. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the γ-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) to the responsiveness of vestibular neurons to somatosensory inputs. The activity of 128 vestibular units was recorded in anesthetized rats in resting conditions and during sinusoidal foreleg rotation around the elbow or shoulder joints (0.026-0.625Hz, 45° peak amplitude). None of the recorded units was influenced by elbow rotation, while 40% of them responded to shoulder rotation. The selective GABAA antagonist receptor, bicuculline methiodine (BIC), was applied by microiontophoresis on single vestibular neurons and the changes in their activity at rest and during somatosensory stimulation was studied. In about half of cells the resting activity increased after the BIC application: 75% of these neurons showed also an increased response to somatosensory inputs whereas 17% exhibited a decrease. Changes in responsiveness in both directions were detected also in the units whose resting activity was not influenced by BIC. These data suggest that the responses of vestibular neurons to somatosensory inputs are modulated by GABA through a tonic release, which modifies the membrane response to the synaptic current. It is also possible that a phasic release of GABA occurs during foreleg rotation, shaping the stimulus-elicited current passing through the membrane. If this is the case, the changes in the relative position of body segments would modify the GABA release inducing changes in the vestibular reflexes and in learning processes that modify their spatio-temporal development.

  14. Effects of bicuculline application on the somatosensory responses of secondary vestibular neurons.

    PubMed

    Grasso, C; Li Volsi, G; Cataldo, E; Manzoni, D; Barresi, M

    2016-10-29

    Limb somatosensory signals modify the discharge of vestibular neurons and elicit postural reflexes, which stabilize the body position. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the γ-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) to the responsiveness of vestibular neurons to somatosensory inputs. The activity of 128 vestibular units was recorded in anesthetized rats in resting conditions and during sinusoidal foreleg rotation around the elbow or shoulder joints (0.026-0.625Hz, 45° peak amplitude). None of the recorded units was influenced by elbow rotation, while 40% of them responded to shoulder rotation. The selective GABAA antagonist receptor, bicuculline methiodine (BIC), was applied by microiontophoresis on single vestibular neurons and the changes in their activity at rest and during somatosensory stimulation was studied. In about half of cells the resting activity increased after the BIC application: 75% of these neurons showed also an increased response to somatosensory inputs whereas 17% exhibited a decrease. Changes in responsiveness in both directions were detected also in the units whose resting activity was not influenced by BIC. These data suggest that the responses of vestibular neurons to somatosensory inputs are modulated by GABA through a tonic release, which modifies the membrane response to the synaptic current. It is also possible that a phasic release of GABA occurs during foreleg rotation, shaping the stimulus-elicited current passing through the membrane. If this is the case, the changes in the relative position of body segments would modify the GABA release inducing changes in the vestibular reflexes and in learning processes that modify their spatio-temporal development. PMID:27579770

  15. Origins of choice-related activity in mouse somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongdian; Kwon, Sung E.; Severson, Kyle S.; O’Connor, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    During perceptual decisions about faint or ambiguous sensory stimuli, even identical stimuli can produce different choices. Spike trains from sensory cortex neurons can predict trial-to-trial variability in choice. Choice-related spiking is widely studied to link cortical activity to perception, but its origins remain unclear. Using imaging and electrophysiology, we found that mouse primary somatosensory cortex neurons showed robust choice-related activity during a tactile detection task. Spike trains from primary mechanoreceptive neurons did not predict choices about identical stimuli. Spike trains from thalamic relay neurons showed highly transient, weak choice-related activity. Intracellular recordings in cortex revealed a prolonged choice-related depolarization in most neurons that was not accounted for by feedforward thalamic input. Top-down axons projecting from secondary to primary somatosensory cortex signaled choice. An intracellular measure of stimulus sensitivity determined which neurons converted choice-related depolarization into spiking. Our results reveal how choice-related spiking emerges across neural circuits and within single neurons. PMID:26642088

  16. Origins of choice-related activity in mouse somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongdian; Kwon, Sung E; Severson, Kyle S; O'Connor, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    During perceptual decisions about faint or ambiguous sensory stimuli, even identical stimuli can produce different choices. Spike trains from sensory cortex neurons can predict trial-to-trial variability in choice. Choice-related spiking is widely studied as a way to link cortical activity to perception, but its origins remain unclear. Using imaging and electrophysiology, we found that mouse primary somatosensory cortex neurons showed robust choice-related activity during a tactile detection task. Spike trains from primary mechanoreceptive neurons did not predict choices about identical stimuli. Spike trains from thalamic relay neurons showed highly transient, weak choice-related activity. Intracellular recordings in cortex revealed a prolonged choice-related depolarization in most neurons that was not accounted for by feed-forward thalamic input. Top-down axons projecting from secondary to primary somatosensory cortex signaled choice. An intracellular measure of stimulus sensitivity determined which neurons converted choice-related depolarization into spiking. Our results reveal how choice-related spiking emerges across neural circuits and within single neurons. PMID:26642088

  17. Somatosensory nuclei of the manatee brainstem and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Sarko, Diana K; Johnson, John I; Switzer, Robert C; Welker, Wally I; Reep, Roger L

    2007-09-01

    Florida manatees have an extensive, well-developed system of vibrissae distributed over their entire bodies and especially concentrated on the face. Although behavioral and anatomical assessments support the manatee's reliance on somatosensation, a systematic analysis of the manatee thalamus and brainstem areas dedicated to tactile input has never been completed. Using histochemical and histological techniques (including stains for myelin, Nissl, cytochrome oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase), we characterized the relative size, extent, and specializations of somatosensory regions of the brainstem and thalamus. The principal somatosensory regions of the brainstem (trigeminal, cuneate, gracile, and Bischoff's nucleus) and the thalamus (ventroposterior nucleus) were disproportionately large relative to nuclei dedicated to other sensory modalities, providing neuroanatomical evidence that supports the manatee's reliance on somatosensation. In fact, areas of the thalamus related to somatosensation (the ventroposterior and posterior nuclei) and audition (the medial geniculate nucleus) appeared to displace the lateral geniculate nucleus dedicated to the subordinate visual modality. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that, although the manatee cortex contains Rindenkerne (barrel-like cortical nuclei located in layer VI), no corresponding cell clusters were located in the brainstem ("barrelettes") or thalamus ("barreloids"). PMID:17722080

  18. The contribution of primary and secondary somatosensory cortices to the representation of body parts and body sides: an fMRI adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Tamè, Luigi; Braun, Christoph; Lingnau, Angelika; Schwarzbach, Jens; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Li Hegner, Yiwen; Farnè, Alessandro; Pavani, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Although the somatosensory homunculus is a classically used description of the way somatosensory inputs are processed in the brain, the actual contributions of primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortices to the spatial coding of touch remain poorly understood. We studied adaptation of the fMRI BOLD response in the somatosensory cortex by delivering pairs of vibrotactile stimuli to the finger tips of the index and middle fingers. The first stimulus (adaptor) was delivered either to the index or to the middle finger of the right or left hand, and the second stimulus (test) was always administered to the left index finger. The overall BOLD response evoked by the stimulation was primarily contralateral in SI and was more bilateral in SII. However, our fMRI adaptation approach also revealed that both somatosensory cortices were sensitive to ipsilateral as well as to contralateral inputs. SI and SII adapted more after subsequent stimulation of homologous as compared with nonhomologous fingers, showing a distinction between different fingers. Most importantly, for both somatosensory cortices, this finger-specific adaptation occurred irrespective of whether the tactile stimulus was delivered to the same or to different hands. This result implies integration of contralateral and ipsilateral somatosensory inputs in SI as well as in SII. Our findings suggest that SI is more than a simple relay for sensory information and that both SI and SII contribute to the spatial coding of touch by discriminating between body parts (fingers) and by integrating the somatosensory input from the two sides of the body (hands).

  19. Dizziness and Loss of Balance in Individuals With Diabetes: Relative Contribution of Vestibular Versus Somatosensory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Walley, Megan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Pippen, Mary Walch; Maitland, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In Brief The authors studied patients with diabetes and complaints of dizziness to determine whether peripheral neuropathy or inner ear dysfunction was more likely to disturb balance. Quantitative testing showed that the majority failed to maintain balance in vestibular-related conditions and had normal equilibrium scores in conditions relying on somatosensory input. Vestibular dysfunction should be an immediate consideration in patients with diabetes and complaints of dizziness regardless of the presence of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26130865

  20. Somatosensory Neurotoxicity: Agents and Assessment Methodology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The somatosensory system is comprised of a variety of sensory receptors located in the skin, muscle tendons, and visceral organs that are innervated by myelinated and nonmyelinated axons of the peripheral nervous system. These peripheral sensory nerve fibers in turn communicate s...

  1. The relationship of a monoamine fiber system to a somatosensory tectal projection in the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum.

    PubMed

    Gruberg, E R; Solish, S P

    1978-08-01

    After hemisection of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata, a projection has been traced to the inner half of the tectal white of the tiger salamander, using Fink-Heimer degeneration staining. By microelectrode recording it was found that the tectal projection forms a topographic somatosensory map of the contralateral half of the body. This map is in register with the overlying retino-tectal visual projection. Using the Falck-Hillarp technique, it was found that the somatosensory tectal input is associated with yellow-fluorescing 5-hydroxytryptamine fibers.

  2. Corticofugal projections induce long-lasting effects on somatosensory responses in the trigeminal complex of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Malmierca, Eduardo; Chaves-Coira, Irene; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Nuñez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    The sensory information flow at subcortical relay stations is controlled by the action of topographic connections from the neocortex. To determinate the functional properties of the somatosensory corticofugal projections to the principal (Pr5) and caudal spinal (Sp5C) trigeminal nuclei, we performed unitary recordings in anesthetized rats. To examine the effect of these cortical projections we used tactile stimulation of the whisker and electrical stimulation of somatosensory cortices. Corticofugal anatomical projections to Pr5 and Sp5C nuclei were detected by using retrograde fluorescent tracers. Neurons projecting exclusively to Pr5 were located in the cingulate cortex while neurons projecting to both Sp5C and Pr5 nuclei were located in the somatosensory and insular cortices (>75% of neurons). Physiological results indicated that primary somatosensory cortex produced a short-lasting facilitating or inhibiting effects (<5 min) of tactile responses in Pr5 nucleus through activation of NMDA glutamatergic or GABAA receptors since effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of APV and bicuculline, respectively. In contrast, stimulation of secondary somatosensory cortex did not affect most of the Pr5 neurons; however both cortices inhibited the nociceptive responses in the Sp5C nucleus through activation of glycinergic or GABAA receptors because effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These and anatomical results demonstrated that the somatosensory cortices projects to Pr5 nucleus to modulate tactile responses by excitatory and inhibitory actions, while projections to the Sp5C nucleus control nociceptive sensory transmission by only inhibitory effects. Thus, somatosensory cortices may modulate innocuous and noxious inputs simultaneously, contributing to the perception of specifically tactile or painful sensations. PMID:24904321

  3. The neural dynamics of somatosensory processing and adaptation across childhood: a high-density electrical mapping study.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Neha; Foxe, John J; Butler, John S; Acluche, Frantzy; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    Young children are often hyperreactive to somatosensory inputs hardly noticed by adults, as exemplified by irritation to seams or labels in clothing. The neurodevelopmental mechanisms underlying changes in sensory reactivity are not well understood. Based on the idea that neurodevelopmental changes in somatosensory processing and/or changes in sensory adaptation might underlie developmental differences in somatosensory reactivity, high-density electroencephalography was used to examine how the nervous system responds and adapts to repeated vibrotactile stimulation over childhood. Participants aged 6-18 yr old were presented with 50-ms vibrotactile stimuli to the right wrist over the median nerve at 5 blocked interstimulus intervals (ranging from ∼7 to ∼1 stimulus per second). Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) revealed three major phases of activation within the first 200 ms, with scalp topographies suggestive of neural generators in contralateral somatosensory cortex. Although overall SEPs were highly similar for younger, middle, and older age groups (6.1-9.8, 10.0-12.9, and 13.0-17.8 yr old), there were significant age-related amplitude differences in initial and later phases of the SEP. In contrast, robust adaptation effects for fast vs. slow presentation rates were observed that did not differ as a function of age. A greater amplitude response in the later portion of the SEP was observed for the youngest group and may be related to developmental changes in responsivity to somatosensory stimuli. These data suggest the protracted development of the somatosensory system over childhood, whereas adaptation, as assayed in this study, is largely in place by ∼7 yr of age. PMID:26763781

  4. Passive somatosensory discrimination tasks in healthy volunteers: differential networks involved in familiar versus unfamiliar shape and length discrimination.

    PubMed

    Van de Winckel, Ann; Sunaert, Stefan; Wenderoth, Nicole; Peeters, Ron; Van Hecke, Paul; Feys, Hilde; Horemans, Els; Marchal, Guy; Swinnen, Stephan P; Perfetti, Carlo; De Weerdt, Willy

    2005-06-01

    Somatosensory discrimination of unseen objects relies on processing of proprioceptive and tactile information to detect spatial features, such as shape or length, as acquired by exploratory finger movements. This ability can be impaired after stroke, because of somatosensory-motor deficits. Passive somatosensory discrimination tasks are therefore used in therapy to improve motor function. Whereas the neural correlates of active discrimination have been addressed repeatedly, little is known about the neural networks activated during passive discrimination of somatosensory information. In the present study, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while the right index finger of ten healthy subjects was passively moved along various shapes and lengths by an fMRI compatible robot. Comparing discriminating versus non-discriminating passive movements, we identified a bilateral parieto-frontal network, including the precuneus, superior parietal gyrus, rostral intraparietal sulcus, and supramarginal gyrus as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor (PMd), and ventral premotor (PMv) areas. Additionally, we compared the discrimination of different spatial features, i.e., discrimination of length versus familiar (rectangles or triangles) and unfamiliar geometric shapes (arbitrary quadrilaterals). Length discrimination activated mainly medially located superior parietal and PMd circuits whereas discrimination of familiar geometric shapes activated more laterally located inferior parietal and PMv regions. These differential parieto-frontal circuits provide new insights into the neural basis of extracting spatial features from somatosensory input and suggest that different passive discrimination tasks could be used for lesion-specific training following stroke.

  5. [The cerebral control of afferent somatosensory projections].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, E V; Orlova, T V; Liubimov, N N

    1993-09-01

    Cortical and dorsal column nuclei somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) induced by electrical stimulation of the median nerve were recorded and analysed in 16 healthy volunteers practising transcendental meditation (TM) for two years. The records were performed before and during TM. The SEP changes during TM consisted of an increase in early SEP components amplitude. There were no changes in early SEP components peak latencies during TM.

  6. The roles of primary somatosensory cortex in the coding of pain

    PubMed Central

    Vierck, Charles J.; Whitsel, Barry L.; Favorov, Oleg V.; Brown, Alexander W.; Tommerdahl, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The intensity and submodality of pain are widely attributed to stimulus encoding by peripheral and subcortical spinal/trigeminal portions of the somatosensory nervous system. Consistent with this interpretation are studies of surgically anesthetized animals, showing that relationships between nociceptive stimulation and activation of neurons are similar at subcortical levels of somatosensory projection and within the primary somatosensory cortex (in cytoarchitectural areas 3b and 1 of SI). Such findings have led to characterizations of SI as a network which preserves, rather than transforms, the excitatory drive it receives from subcortical levels. Inconsistent with this perspective are images and neurophysiological recordings of SI neurons in lightly anesthetized primates. These studies show that an extreme anterior position within SI (area 3a) receives input originating predominantly from unmyelinated nociceptors, distinguishing it from posterior SI (areas 3b and 1), long recognized as receiving input predominantly from myelinated afferents, including nociceptors. Of particular importance, interactions between these subregions during maintained nociceptive stimulation are accompanied by an altered SI response to myelinated and unmyelinated nociceptors. A revised view of pain coding within SI cortex is discussed, and potentially significant clinical implications are emphasized. PMID:23245864

  7. Topographic representation of vestibular and somatosensory signals in the anuran thalamus.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, G; Roth, G; Straka, H

    2004-01-01

    In the isolated brain of the fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis, the spatial distribution of vestibular and somatosensory responses in thalamic nuclei was studied following electrical activation of the Vth nerve, the ramus anterior of the VIIIth nerve and of the dorsal roots of spinal nerves 3 and 8. Responses were systematically mapped in frontal planes through the diencephalon at four rostro-caudal levels. The calculated activity maps were superimposed on the outlines of diencephalic nuclei, and those nuclei that received particularly large inputs from the stimulated sensory nerve roots were indicated. Maximal response amplitudes coincided with ventral, central, and posterior thalamic areas and exhibited a topography that differed for each sensory nerve root. Maximal responses evoked from the Vth nerve were largely separated from those from spinal dorsal roots 3 and 8, whereas maximal vestibular responses partly overlapped with those from the other somatosensory nerve roots. Our findings indicate that within the amphibian thalamus sensory signals originating from different nerve roots are largely represented in separate areas as is the case in the thalamus of amniotes. However, the anterior dorsal thalamus which is the only origin of ascending pathways to the medial and dorsal pallium (assumed homologues of the mammalian hippocampus and neocortex, respectively) receives only minor vestibular and somatosensory input. This corroborates the view that amphibians lack a direct sensory thalamo-cortical, or "lemnothalamic," pathway typical of mammals and birds.

  8. Effect of Range and Angular Velocity of Passive Movement on Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Hideaki; Yamashiro, Koya; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kotan, Shinichi; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    To clarify characteristics of each human somatosensory evoked field (SEF) component following passive movement (PM), PM1, PM2, and PM3, using high spatiotemporal resolution 306-channel magnetoencephalography and varying PM range and angular velocity. We recorded SEFs following PM under three conditions [normal range-normal velocity (NN), small range-normal velocity (SN), and small range-slow velocity (SS)] with changing movement range and angular velocity in 12 participants and calculated the amplitude, equivalent current dipole (ECD) location, and the ECD strength for each component. All components were observed in six participants, whereas only PM1 and PM3 in the other six. Clear response deflections at the ipsilateral hemisphere to PM side were observed in seven participants. PM1 amplitude was larger under NN and SN conditions, and mean ECD location for PM1 was at primary motor area. PM3 amplitude was larger under SN condition and mean ECD location for PM3 under SS condition was at primary somatosensory area. PM1 amplitude was dependent on the angular velocity of PM, suggesting that PM1 reflects afferent input from muscle spindle, whereas PM3 amplitude was dependent on the duration. The ECD for PM3 was located in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting that PM3 reflects cutaneous input. We confirmed the hypothesis for locally distinct generators and characteristics of each SEF component.

  9. Mnemonic neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y D; Fuster, J M

    1996-01-01

    Single-unit activity was recorded from the hand areas of the somatosensory cortex of monkeys trained to perform a haptic delayed matching to sample task with objects of identical dimensions but different surface features. During the memory retention period of the task (delay), many units showed sustained firing frequency change, either excitation or inhibition. In some cases, firing during that period was significantly higher after one sample object than after another. These observations indicate the participation of somatosensory neurons not only in the perception but in the short-term memory of tactile stimuli. Neurons most directly implicated in tactile memory are (i) those with object-selective delay activity, (ii) those with nondifferential delay activity but without activity related to preparation for movement, and (iii) those with delay activity in the haptic-haptic delayed matching task but no such activity in a control visuo-haptic delayed matching task. The results indicate that cells in early stages of cortical somatosensory processing participate in haptic short-term memory. PMID:8927629

  10. Effects of changing illuminance on somatosensory function.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Fujita, Mizuho; Tanaka, Yuji L; Nemoto, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Artificial sources of illumination can be easily used, regardless of the time and place, to improve visibility at night and in dark places. Illuminance and color temperature are particularly important factors since they are known to elicit physiological effects. However, the relationship between changes in illuminance and somatosensory function has not been sufficiently clarified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct a laboratorial model to examine the effects of lowering or raising illuminance on somatosensory function. Three illuminance levels (200 lx, 50 lx, and 0 lx), which were changed using all combinations, and an artificial sensory stimulus maintained at a constant intensity were presented to the subjects of this study. Objective sensory function in response to the sensory stimulus was investigated by somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), and subjective sensory evaluation in response to the stimulus was investigated using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by interview. In many cases, the SEP amplitude and VAS value tended to decrease when illuminance was lowered and tended to increase when illuminance was raised. However, in a few cases, SEP amplitude and VAS value tended to increase in spite of the low illuminance. The occurrence of attention responses and unpleasant emotional responses caused by lowering the illuminance seems to be related to this study finding.

  11. Spatial segregation of somato-sensory and pain activations in the human operculo-insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Laure; Faillenot, Isabelle; Barral, Fabrice-Guy; Mauguière, François; Peyron, Roland

    2012-03-01

    The role of operculo-insular region in the processing of somato-sensory inputs, painful or not, is now well established. However, available maps from previous literature show a substantial overlap of cortical areas activated by these stimuli, and the region referred to as the "secondary somatosensory area (SII)" is widely distributed in the parietal operculum. Differentiating SII from posterior insula cortex, which is anatomically contiguous, is not easy, explaining why the "operculo-insular" label has been introduced to describe activations by somatosensory stimuli in this cortical region. Based on the recent cyto-architectural parcellation of the human insular/SII cortices (Eickhoff et al., 2006, Kurth et al., 2010), the present study investigates with functional MRI (fMRI), whether these structural subdivisions could subserve distinct aspects of discriminative somato-sensory functions, including pain. Responses to five types of stimuli applied on the left hand of 25 healthy volunteers were considered: i) tactile stimuli; ii) passive movements; iii) innocuous cold stimuli; iv) non-noxious warm and v) heat pain. Our results show different patterns of activation depending on the type of somato-sensory stimulation. The posterior part of SII (OP1 area), contralateral to stimuli, was the only sub-region activated by all type of stimuli and might therefore be considered as a common cortical target for different types of somato-sensory inputs. Proprioceptive stimulation by passive finger movements activated the posterior part of SII (OP1 sub-region) bilaterally and the contralateral median part of insula (PreCG and MSG). Innocuous cooling activated the contralateral posterior part of SII (OP1) and the dorsal posterior and median part of insula (OP2, PostCG). Pain stimuli induced the most widespread and intense activation that was bilateral in SII (OP1, OP4) and distributed to all sub-regions of contralateral insula (except OP2) and to the anterior part of the

  12. Somatosensory Pulsatile Tinnitus Syndrome: Somatic Testing Identifies a Pulsatile Tinnitus Subtype That Implicates the Somatosensory System

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert Aaron; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Melcher, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A new tinnitus syndrome is described: high-pitched, cardiac-synchronous tinnitus, whose pulsations are suppressed by strong contractions or compressions of the neck and jaw muscles (somatic testing). 14 cases, 6 non-lateralized and 8 unilateral, are reported. In the non-lateralized cases, onset was bilateral. In the one intermittent case, while her tinnitus was absent her pulsatile tinnitus could be induced by somatic testing. No etiology was found from physical examination, imaging, or ancillary testing. Because these cases of pulsatile tinnitus can be both induced and suppressed by activation of the somatosensory system of the head or upper lateral neck, we propose that this syndrome is occurring from (a) cardiac synchronous somatosensory activation of the central auditory pathway or (b) failure of the somatosensory-auditory central nervous system interactions to suppress cardiac somatosounds. PMID:18632767

  13. Vestibular-somatosensory convergence in head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight.

    PubMed

    Mulavara, A P; Ruttley, T; Cohen, H S; Peters, B T; Miller, C; Brady, R; Merkle, L; Bloomberg, J J

    2012-01-01

    Space flight causes astronauts to be exposed to adaptation in both the vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems. The goal of these studies was to examine the contributions of vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory influences on vestibular mediated head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Subjects walked on a motor driven treadmill while performing a gaze stabilization task. Data were collected from three independent subject groups that included bilateral labyrinthine deficient (LD) patients, normal subjects before and after 30 minutes of 40% bodyweight unloaded treadmill walking, and astronauts before and after long-duration space flight. Motion data from the head and trunk segments were used to calculate the amplitude of angular head pitch and trunk vertical translation movement while subjects performed a gaze stabilization task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in head pitch movements. Exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in head pitch movements in normal subjects, whereas the head pitch movements of LD patients were significantly decreased. This is the first evidence of adaptation of vestibular mediated head movement responses to unloaded treadmill walking. Astronaut subjects showed a heterogeneous response of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of head pitch movement. We infer that body load-sensing somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify vestibularly mediated head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause central adaptation of the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems leading to alterations in head movement control.

  14. Input-increase and input-decrease types of cortical reorganization after upper extremity amputation in humans.

    PubMed

    Elbert, T; Sterr, A; Flor, H; Rockstroh, B; Knecht, S; Pantev, C; Wienbruch, C; Taub, E

    1997-10-01

    A plastic remodeling of regions in somatosensory cortex has previously been observed to occur in separate experimental paradigms in response to loss of somatosensory input and to increase in input. In this study, both types of cortical reorganization have been observed to occur concurrently in the same adult human nervous system as a result of a single intervention. Following upper extremity amputation, magnetic source imaging revealed that tactile stimulation of the lip evoked responses not only in the area of the somatosensory cortex corresponding to the face, but also within the cortical region that would normally correspond to the now absent hand. This "invasion" of the cortical amputation zone was accompanied by a significant increase in the size of the representation of the digits of the intact hand, presumably as a result of an increased importance of sensory stimulation consequent to increased dependence on that hand imposed by the loss of the contralateral extremity.

  15. Reconciling Homeostatic and Use-Dependent Plasticity in the Context of Somatosensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Orczyk, John J.; Garraghty, Preston E.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of homeostatic plasticity postulates that neurons maintain relatively stable rates of firing despite changing inputs. Homeostatic and use-dependent plasticity mechanisms operate concurrently, although they have different requirements for induction. Depriving central somatosensory neurons of their primary activating inputs reduces activity and results in compensatory changes that favor excitation. Both a reduction of GABAergic inhibition and increase in glutamatergic excitatory transmission are observed in input-deprived cortex. Topographic reorganization of the adult somatosensory cortex is likely driven by both homeostatic and use-dependent mechanisms. Plasticity is induced by changes in the strengths of synaptic inputs, as well as changes in temporal correlation of neuronal activity. However, there is less certainty regarding the in vivo contribution of homeostatic mechanisms as in vitro experiments rely on manipulations that create states that do not normally occur in the living nervous system. Homeostatic plasticity seems to occur, but more in vivo research is needed to determine mechanisms. In vitro research is also needed but should better conform to conditions that might occur naturally in vivo. PMID:25866682

  16. Identification and characterization of somatosensory off responses.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Lynne; Boyd, Stewart; Towell, Tony

    2006-10-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recorded in response to the offset of sensory stimulation in both the auditory and visual modalities. The present experiment employed vibratory stimulation to characterize somatosensory ERPs in response to different duration stimuli. In two separate experiments, we recorded attended and unattended somatosensory ERPs to 70 Hz, sine wave stimuli using the following durations: 20 ms, 50 ms, 70 ms, 150 ms, 170 ms, 250 ms and 1000 ms. An oscillating coil delivered stimuli through a 'T-bar' to digits 2 and 3 of the right hand. The amplitude and latency measurements of P50, P100 and a later negative component (No1) were analyzed using MANOVA. There was no significant difference in the latency values of the P50 and P100, but as the duration increased, there was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the latency of No1. No1 appeared 130 ms +/- 9 ms following the offset of the stimulus. Amplitude values of the P50 and P100 components decreased as the stimulus duration increased and this effect became significant (P < 0.05) as the duration difference increased. Stimuli of 150 ms or greater evoked a negative baseline shift that persisted for the duration of the stimulus and area measurements in 7 out of the 10 subjects showed a significant increase in amplitude when the stimulus was attended. An intracranial case study supported these findings. The characteristics of the No1 component indicate it is a somatosensory off response, and it, in conjunction with the P50 and sustained potential, may reflect activity of a neural system that is responsive to changes in the tactile environment. PMID:16952337

  17. [Age changes in early somatosensory evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1986-06-01

    There are characteristic age-related changes in the cervical and early cortical somatosensory potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of the median nerve. At an age of 40 to 50 years the latencies of the potential components and the transit times start increasing progressively. Moreover, there is an attenuation of the cervical and an enhancement of the cortical components with age. Considering the presumed neuronal basis of the bioelectric phenomena the changes are discussed in connection with aging processes of the spinal ganglion cells, cortical pyramidal cells and the locus coeruleus. PMID:3017682

  18. Asymmetric Multisensory Interactions of Visual and Somatosensory Responses in a Region of the Rat Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, Michael T.; Takagaki, Kentaroh

    2013-01-01

    Perception greatly benefits from integrating multiple sensory cues into a unified percept. To study the neural mechanisms of sensory integration, model systems are required that allow the simultaneous assessment of activity and the use of techniques to affect individual neural processes in behaving animals. While rodents qualify for these requirements, little is known about multisensory integration and areas involved for this purpose in the rodent. Using optical imaging combined with laminar electrophysiological recordings, the rat parietal cortex was identified as an area where visual and somatosensory inputs converge and interact. Our results reveal similar response patterns to visual and somatosensory stimuli at the level of current source density (CSD) responses and multi-unit responses within a strip in parietal cortex. Surprisingly, a selective asymmetry was observed in multisensory interactions: when the somatosensory response preceded the visual response, supra-linear summation of CSD was observed, but the reverse stimulus order resulted in sub-linear effects in the CSD. This asymmetry was not present in multi-unit activity however, which showed consistently sub-linear interactions. These interactions were restricted to a specific temporal window, and pharmacological tests revealed significant local intra-cortical contributions to this phenomenon. Our results highlight the rodent parietal cortex as a system to model the neural underpinnings of multisensory processing in behaving animals and at the cellular level. PMID:23667650

  19. Behavioral demonstration of a somatosensory neuroprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Berg, J A; Dammann, J F; Tenore, F V; Tabot, G A; Boback, J L; Manfredi, L R; Peterson, M L; Katyal, K D; Johannes, M S; Makhlin, A; Wilcox, R; Franklin, R K; Vogelstein, R J; Hatsopoulos, N G; Bensmaia, S J

    2013-05-01

    Tactile sensation is critical for effective object manipulation, but current prosthetic upper limbs make no provision for delivering somesthetic feedback to the user. For individuals who require use of prosthetic limbs, this lack of feedback transforms a mundane task into one that requires extreme concentration and effort. Although vibrotactile motors and sensory substitution devices can be used to convey gross sensations, a direct neural interface is required to provide detailed and intuitive sensory feedback. In light of this, we describe the implementation of a somatosensory prosthesis with which we elicit, through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), percepts whose magnitude is graded according to the force exerted on the prosthetic finger. Specifically, the prosthesis consists of a sensorized finger, the force output of which is converted into a regime of ICMS delivered to primary somatosensory cortex through chronically implanted multi-electrode arrays. We show that the performance of animals (Rhesus macaques) on a tactile task is equivalent whether stimuli are delivered to the native finger or to the prosthetic finger. PMID:23475375

  20. Fine-grained nociceptive maps in primary somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Flavia; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Longo, Matthew R.; Sereno, Martin I.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic maps of the receptive surface are a fundamental feature of neural organization in many sensory systems. While touch is finely mapped in the cerebral cortex, it remains controversial how precise any cortical nociceptive map may be. Given that nociceptive innervation density is relatively low on distal skin regions such as the digits, one might conclude that the nociceptive system lacks fine representation of these regions. Indeed, only gross spatial organization of nociceptive maps has been reported so far. However, here we reveal the existence of fine-grained somatotopy for nociceptive inputs to the digits in human primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Using painful nociceptive-selective laser stimuli to the hand, and phase-encoded fMRI analysis methods, we observed somatotopic maps of the digits in contralateral SI. These nociceptive maps were highly aligned with maps of non-painful tactile stimuli, suggesting comparable cortical representations for, and possible interactions between, mechanoreceptive and nociceptive signals. Our findings may also be valuable for future studies tracking the timecourse and the spatial pattern of plastic changes in cortical organization involved in chronic pain. PMID:23197708

  1. Visual Responsiveness of Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Area and its Surrounding Parietal Operculum Regions in Awake Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hihara, Sayaka; Taoka, Miki; Tanaka, Michio; Iriki, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have shown that the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) is essentially engaged in the processing of somatosensory information and no other sensory input has been reported. In contrast, recent human brain-imaging studies have revealed the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on SII activity, which suggest multisensory integration in the human SII. To determine whether multisensory responses of the SII also exist in nonhuman primates, we recorded single-unit activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli from the SII and surrounding regions in 8 hemispheres from 6 awake monkeys. Among 1157 recorded neurons, 306 neurons responded to visual stimuli. These visual neurons usually responded to rather complex stimuli, such as stimulation of the peripersonal space (40.5%), observation of human action (29.1%), and moving-object stimulation outside the monkey's reach (23.9%). We occasionally applied auditory stimuli to visual neurons and found 10 auditory-responsive neurons that exhibited somatosensory responses. The visual neurons were distributed continuously along the lateral sulcus covering the entire SII, along with other somatosensory neurons. These results highlight the need to investigate novel functional roles—other than somesthetic sensory processing—of the SII. PMID:25962920

  2. Visual Responsiveness of Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Area and its Surrounding Parietal Operculum Regions in Awake Macaque Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hihara, Sayaka; Taoka, Miki; Tanaka, Michio; Iriki, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have shown that the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) is essentially engaged in the processing of somatosensory information and no other sensory input has been reported. In contrast, recent human brain-imaging studies have revealed the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on SII activity, which suggest multisensory integration in the human SII. To determine whether multisensory responses of the SII also exist in nonhuman primates, we recorded single-unit activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli from the SII and surrounding regions in 8 hemispheres from 6 awake monkeys. Among 1157 recorded neurons, 306 neurons responded to visual stimuli. These visual neurons usually responded to rather complex stimuli, such as stimulation of the peripersonal space (40.5%), observation of human action (29.1%), and moving-object stimulation outside the monkey's reach (23.9%). We occasionally applied auditory stimuli to visual neurons and found 10 auditory-responsive neurons that exhibited somatosensory responses. The visual neurons were distributed continuously along the lateral sulcus covering the entire SII, along with other somatosensory neurons. These results highlight the need to investigate novel functional roles-other than somesthetic sensory processing-of the SII.

  3. Congruency of body-related information induces somatosensory reorganization.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Flavia; Longo, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain and impaired tactile sensitivity are frequently associated with "blurred" representations in the somatosensory cortex. The factors that produce such somatosensory blurring, however, remain poorly understood. We manipulated visuo-tactile congruence to investigate its role in promoting somatosensory reorganization. To this aim we used the mirror box illusion that produced in participants the subjective feeling of looking directly at their left hand, though they were seeing the reflection of their right hand. Simultaneous touches were applied to the middle or ring finger of each hand. In one session, the same fingers were touched (for example both middle fingers), producing a congruent percept; in the other session different fingers were touched, producing an incongruent percept. In the somatosensory system, suppressive interactions between adjacent stimuli are an index of intracortical inhibitory function. After each congruent and incongruent session, we recorded somatosensory evoked potential (SEPs) elicited by electrocutaneous stimulation of the left ring and middle fingers, either individually or simultaneously. A somatosensory suppression index (SSI) was calculated as the difference in amplitude between the sum of potentials evoked by the two individually stimulated fingers and the potentials evoked by simultaneous stimulation of both fingers. This SSI can be taken as an index of the strength of inhibitory interactions and consequently can provide a measure of how distinct the representations of the two fingers are. Results showed stronger SSI in the P100 component after congruent than incongruent stimulation, suggesting the key role of congruent sensory information about the body in inducing somatosensory reorganization. PMID:26902158

  4. Clinical application of somatosensory amplification in psychosomatic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Barsky, Arthur J

    2007-01-01

    Many patients with somatoform disorders are frequently encountered in psychosomatic clinics as well as in primary care clinics. To assess such patients objectively, the concept of somatosensory amplification may be useful. Somatosensory amplification refers to the tendency to experience a somatic sensation as intense, noxious, and disturbing. It may have a role in a variety of medical conditions characterized by somatic symptoms that are disproportionate to demonstrable organ pathology. It may also explain some of the variability in somatic symptomatology found among different patients with the same serious medical disorder. It has been assessed with a self-report questionnaire, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. This instrument was developed in a clinical setting in the U.S., and the reliability and validity of the Japanese and Turkish versions have been confirmed as well. Many studies have attempted to clarify the specific role of somatosensory amplification as a pathogenic mechanism in somatization. It has been reported that somatosensory amplification does not correlate with heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and that emotional reactivity exerts its influence on somatization via a negatively biased reporting style. According to our recent electroencephalographic study, somatosensory amplification appears to reflect some aspects of long-latency cognitive processing rather than short-latency interoceptive sensitivity. The concept of somatosensory amplification can be useful as an indicator of somatization in the therapy of a broad range of disorders, from impaired self-awareness to various psychiatric disorders. It also provides useful information for choosing appropriate pharmacological or psychological therapy. While somatosensory amplification has a role in the presentation of somatic symptoms, it is closely associated with other factors, namely, anxiety, depression, and alexithymia that may also influence the same. The specific role of

  5. [The repeat reliability of somatosensory evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1989-09-01

    The test-immediate-retest reliability of latency and amplitude values of cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) to median nerve stimulation was assessed in 86 normal subjects aged 15 to 71 years. In addition to the stability of data between repeat trials within one test session the standard errors of measurement and the interpretable differences for SEP measures were calculated according to measurement theory. The study revealed retest correlations rtt greater than 0.80 for all latency measures of the cervical and cortical SEPs and all cortical amplitude parameters. The highest stability was found for the latency measures of the cervical components P10, N11, N13, the cortical components P16 and N20 and for the amplitude N20/P25. PMID:2507277

  6. [Somatosensory evoked potentials in moderate hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1991-09-01

    The effects of moderate whole-body hyperthermia on the cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were studied in healthy male subjects, aged 22-32 years. They were immersed in hot water and heated to a median rectal temperature of 39.0 degrees C. Serial SEPs to median nerve stimulation were recorded during cooling at intervals of 0.1 degrees C. The general wave form and the amplitudes did not systematically change. For a 1 degrees C drop there was a median latency increase of 2.6-3.7% in cervical and 1.5-7.4% in cortical SEP components. In individual cases significant latency delays of cervical N13 and cortical N20 could already be observed at differences of 0.2 degrees and 0.5 degrees respectively. All other components showed significant latency changes at temperature intervals of 0.6 to 0.8 degrees C. PMID:1765026

  7. Somatosensory responses in a human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Shaikhouni, Ammar; Donoghue, John P; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2013-04-01

    Somatic sensory signals provide a major source of feedback to motor cortex. Changes in somatosensory systems after stroke or injury could profoundly influence brain computer interfaces (BCI) being developed to create new output signals from motor cortex activity patterns. We had the unique opportunity to study the responses of hand/arm area neurons in primary motor cortex to passive joint manipulation in a person with a long-standing brain stem stroke but intact sensory pathways. Neurons responded to passive manipulation of the contralateral shoulder, elbow, or wrist as predicted from prior studies of intact primates. Thus fundamental properties and organization were preserved despite arm/hand paralysis and damage to cortical outputs. The same neurons were engaged by attempted arm actions. These results indicate that intact sensory pathways retain the potential to influence primary motor cortex firing rates years after cortical outputs are interrupted and may contribute to online decoding of motor intentions for BCI applications.

  8. Somatosensory responses in a human motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2013-01-01

    Somatic sensory signals provide a major source of feedback to motor cortex. Changes in somatosensory systems after stroke or injury could profoundly influence brain computer interfaces (BCI) being developed to create new output signals from motor cortex activity patterns. We had the unique opportunity to study the responses of hand/arm area neurons in primary motor cortex to passive joint manipulation in a person with a long-standing brain stem stroke but intact sensory pathways. Neurons responded to passive manipulation of the contralateral shoulder, elbow, or wrist as predicted from prior studies of intact primates. Thus fundamental properties and organization were preserved despite arm/hand paralysis and damage to cortical outputs. The same neurons were engaged by attempted arm actions. These results indicate that intact sensory pathways retain the potential to influence primary motor cortex firing rates years after cortical outputs are interrupted and may contribute to online decoding of motor intentions for BCI applications. PMID:23343902

  9. Oral structure representation in human somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yohei; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Shintani, Masuro; Kaneko, Yuzuru; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2008-10-15

    To clarify the topography of the areas representing whole intraoral structures and elucidate bilateral neuronal projection to those areas in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex, we recorded somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEFs), which reflect the earliest cortical responses to pure tactile stimulation, using magnetoencephalography and a piezo-driven tactile stimulation device. Subjects consisted of 10 healthy male adults. Following tactile stimulation of 6 sites on the oral mucosa (inferior/superior buccal mucosa, posterior/anterior tongue mucosa, and upper/lower lip mucosa), SEFs with a peak latency of 15 ms (1M) were identified bilaterally. In contrast, SEFs with a peak latency of 30 ms following right index finger tactile stimulation were identified only in the contralateral hemisphere. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) generating 15 ms components were found along the posterior wall of the central sulcus, bilaterally. The ECD locations for oral mucosa-representing areas were located inferiorly to those for the index finger, with the following pattern of organization from top to bottom along the central sulcus: index finger, upper or lower lip, anterior or posterior tongue and superior or inferior buccal mucosa, with a wide distribution, covering 30% of the S1 cortex. Source strength for 1M in the ipsilateral hemisphere was weaker than that in the contralateral hemisphere. These results clearly indicate that sensory afferents innervating the intraoral region project to both the contralateral and ipsilateral 3b areas via the trigeminothalamic tract, where contralateral projection is predominant. The results clarify the intraoral structure-representing areas in the S1 cortex, adding those areas to the classical "sensory homunculus". PMID:18672075

  10. Dynamical activities of primary somatosensory cortices studied by magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Kuniharu

    2009-11-01

    A blind identification method of transfer functions in feedback systems is introduced for examination of dynamical activities of cortices by magnetoencephalography study. Somatosensory activities are examined in 5 Hz periodical median nerve stimulus. In the present paper, we will try two careful preprocessing procedures for the identification method to obtain impulse responses between primary somatosensory cortices. Time series data of the somatosensory evoked field are obtained by using a blind source separation of the T/k type (fractional) decorrelation method. Time series data of current dipoles of primary somatosensory cortices are transformed from the time series data of the somatosensory evoked field by the inverse problem. Fluctuations of current dipoles of them are obtained after elimination of deterministic periodical evoked waveforms. An identification method based on feedback system theory is used for estimation of transfer functions in a feedback model from obtained fluctuations of currents dipoles of primary somatosensory cortices. Dynamical activities between them are presented by Bode diagrams of transfer functions and their impulse responses: the time delay of about 30 ms via corpus callosum is found in the impulse response of identified transfer function.

  11. Molecular and cellular limits to somatosensory specificity

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Carlos; Viana, Félix

    2008-01-01

    Animals detect environmental changes through sensory neural mechanisms that enable them to differentiate the quality, intensity and temporal characteristics of stimuli. The 'doctrine of specific nervous energies' postulates that the different sensory modalities experienced by humans result of the activation of specific nervous pathways. Identification of functional classes of sensory receptors provided scientific support to the concept that somatosensory modalities (touch, pain, temperature, kinesthesis) are subserved by separate populations of sensory receptor neurons specialized in detecting innocuous and injurious stimuli of different quality (mechanical forces, temperature, chemical compounds). The identification of receptor proteins activated by different physicochemical stimuli, in particular ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) superfamily, has put forward the concept that specificity of peripheral sensory receptor neurons is determined by their expression of a particular "molecular sensor" that confers to each functional type its selectivity to respond with a discharge of nerve impulses to stimuli of a given quality. Nonetheless, recent experimental data suggest that the various molecular sensors proposed as specific transducer molecules for stimuli of different quality are not as neatly associated with the distinct functional types of sensory receptors as originally proposed. First, many ion channel molecules initially associated to the transduction of only one particular form of energy are also activated by stimuli of different quality, implying a limited degree of specificity in their transducing capacities. Second, molecular sensors associated with a stimulus quality and hence to a sensory receptor type and ultimately to a sensory modality may be concomitantly expressed in sensory receptor neurons functionally defined as specific for another stimulus quality. Finally, activation of voltage gated channels involved primarily in nerve

  12. Relationship between somatosensory deficit and brain somatosensory system after early brain lesion: A morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Perivier, Maximilien; Delion, Matthieu; Chinier, Eva; Loustau, Sebastien; Nguyen, Sylvie; Ter Minassian, Aram; Richard, Isabelle; Dinomais, Mickael

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive damage to the developing brain. Poor tactile discrimination is common in children with unilateral CP. Previous findings suggest the crucial role of structural integrity of the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory areas located in the ipsilesional hemisphere for somatosensory function processing. However, no focus on the relationship between structural characteristics of ipsilesional S1 and S2 and tactile discrimination function in paretic hands has been proposed. Using structural MRI and a two-point discrimination assessment (2 PD), we explore this potential link in a group of 21 children (mean age 13 years and 7 months) with unilateral CP secondary to a periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) or middle cerebral artery infarct (MCA). For our whole sample there was a significant negative correlation between the 2 PD and the gray matter volume in the ipsilesional S2 (rho = -0.50 95% confidence interval [-0.76, -0.08], one-tailed p-value = 0.0109) and in the ipsilesional S1 (rho = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [-0.81, -0.19], one-tailed p-value = 0.0032). When studying these relationships with regard to the lesion types, we found these correlations were non-significant in the patients with PWMI but stronger in patients with MCA. According to our results, the degree of sensory impairment is related to the spared gray matter volume in ipsilesional S1 and S2 and is marked after an MCA stroke. Our work contributes to a better understanding of why some patients with CP have variable somatosensory deficit following an early brain lesion. PMID:26831357

  13. Sensorimotor and cognitive involvement of the beta-gamma oscillation in the frontal N30 component of somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Cebolla, A M; Cheron, G

    2015-12-01

    The most consistent negative cortical component of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), namely the frontal N30, can be considered more multidimensional than a strict item of standard somatosensory investigation, dedicated to tracking the afferent volley from the peripheral sensory nerve potentials to the primary somatosensory cortex. In this review, we revisited its classical sensorimotor implication within the framework of the recent oscillatory model of ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms. Recently, the N30 component was demonstrated to be related to an increase in the power of beta-gamma EEG oscillation and a phase reorganization of the ongoing EEG oscillations (phase locking) in this frequency band. Thanks to high density EEG recordings and the inverse modeling method (swLORETA), it was shown that different overlapping areas of the motor and premotor cortex are specifically involved in generating the N30 in the form of a beta gamma oscillatory phase locking and power increase. This oscillatory approach has allowed a re-investigation of the movement gating behavior of the N30. It was demonstrated that the concomitant execution of finger movements by a stimulated hand impinges the temporal concentration of the ongoing beta/gamma EEG oscillations and abolished the N30 component. It was hypothesized that the involvement of neuronal populations in both the sensorimotor cortex and other related areas were unable to respond to the phasic sensory activation so could not phase-lock their oscillatory signals to the external sensory input during the movement. In this case, the actual movement has primacy over the artificial somatosensory input. The contribution of the ongoing oscillatory activity in the N30 emergence calls for a reappraisal of fundamental and clinical interpretations of the frontal N30 component. An absent or reduced amplitude of the N30 can now be viewed not only as a deficit in the activation of the somatosensory synaptic network in response

  14. Sensorimotor and cognitive involvement of the beta-gamma oscillation in the frontal N30 component of somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Cebolla, A M; Cheron, G

    2015-12-01

    The most consistent negative cortical component of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), namely the frontal N30, can be considered more multidimensional than a strict item of standard somatosensory investigation, dedicated to tracking the afferent volley from the peripheral sensory nerve potentials to the primary somatosensory cortex. In this review, we revisited its classical sensorimotor implication within the framework of the recent oscillatory model of ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms. Recently, the N30 component was demonstrated to be related to an increase in the power of beta-gamma EEG oscillation and a phase reorganization of the ongoing EEG oscillations (phase locking) in this frequency band. Thanks to high density EEG recordings and the inverse modeling method (swLORETA), it was shown that different overlapping areas of the motor and premotor cortex are specifically involved in generating the N30 in the form of a beta gamma oscillatory phase locking and power increase. This oscillatory approach has allowed a re-investigation of the movement gating behavior of the N30. It was demonstrated that the concomitant execution of finger movements by a stimulated hand impinges the temporal concentration of the ongoing beta/gamma EEG oscillations and abolished the N30 component. It was hypothesized that the involvement of neuronal populations in both the sensorimotor cortex and other related areas were unable to respond to the phasic sensory activation so could not phase-lock their oscillatory signals to the external sensory input during the movement. In this case, the actual movement has primacy over the artificial somatosensory input. The contribution of the ongoing oscillatory activity in the N30 emergence calls for a reappraisal of fundamental and clinical interpretations of the frontal N30 component. An absent or reduced amplitude of the N30 can now be viewed not only as a deficit in the activation of the somatosensory synaptic network in response

  15. Validity of Clinically Derived Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index for the lower limbs and evaluate its construct validity for discriminating relevant groups and predictive validity for predicting global postural control over time. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based cohort. Participants InCHIANTI (“Invecchiare in Chianti” or aging in the Chianti area) study participants (N=960; age, 21–91y, 51.8% women). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was derived from baseline performance on clinical tests of pressure sensitivity, vibration sensitivity, proprioception, and graphesthesia. Global postural control was assessed using Frailty and Injuries Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test, time to complete 5 repeated chair stands, and fast walking speed, at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Results In participants without neurologic conditions (n=799), the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly different in age groups classified by decades (P<.001). Compared with participants without prevalent conditions, the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly higher in persons with diabetes (P=.017), peripheral arterial disease (P=.006), and a history of stroke (P<.001). In the overall population (N=960), in the fully adjusted multiple regression models, the Cumulative Somato-sensory Impairment Index independently predicted deterioration in FICSIT scores (P=.002), time for 5 repeated chair stands (P<.001), and fast gait speed (P=.003) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index is a valid measure that detects relevant group differences in lower limb somatosensory impairment and is an independent predictor of decline in postural control over 3 years. PMID:20159126

  16. Nociceptive stimuli induce changes in somatosensory responses of rat dorsal column nuclei neurons.

    PubMed

    Costa-García, Miguel; Nuñez, Angel

    2004-10-29

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the dorsal column nuclei (DCN) neurons play a role in nociception. To evaluate DCN neuronal responses to nociceptive stimuli, unit recordings were performed in urethane-anesthesized rats. Neurons selected for this analysis displayed a low spontaneous firing rate and some of them were antidromically activated by electrical stimulation of the ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus. Formalin injections into receptive fields (RFs) of DCN cells, or applications of short-lasting and long-lasting thermal nociceptive stimuli were used. DCN neurons displayed smaller responses when long-lasting nociceptive thermal stimuli were applied to their RFs in comparison with values obtained from the innocuous cutaneous stimulation (5.2+/-1.0 and 4.0+/-0.6 spikes/stimuli, respectively; p=0.02). Formalin also decreased the responses to innocuous cutaneous stimuli when these stimuli were applied to the formalin injection site (2.6+/-0.3 spikes/stimuli in control conditions and 1.8+/-0.3 spikes/stimuli 20 min after formalin; p=0.002). In contrast, responses to sensory stimuli applied at the periphery of the RF after formalin injection increased (2.2+/-0.2 to 2.8+/-0.3 spikes/stimuli; p=0.005). In some cases, DCN neurons expanded their RF. Fiber input to the DCN did not modify their somatosensory responses when nociceptive stimuli were applied. Results demonstrate that thermal and formalin nociceptive stimuli modify the somatosensory responses of DCN neurons. Thus, decreasing somatosensory responses at the pain induction site or the generation of allodynia may be due to the activity of DCN neurons.

  17. Amplified somatosensory and visual cortical projections to a core auditory area, the anterior auditory field, following early- and late-onset deafness.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carmen; Chabot, Nicole; Kok, Melanie A; Lomber, Stephen G

    2015-09-01

    Cross-modal reorganization following the loss of input from a sensory modality can recruit sensory-deprived cortical areas to process information from the remaining senses. Specifically, in early-deaf cats, the anterior auditory field (AAF) is unresponsive to auditory stimuli but can be activated by somatosensory and visual stimuli. Similarly, AAF neurons respond to tactile input in adult-deafened animals. To examine anatomical changes that may underlie this functional adaptation following early or late deafness, afferent projections to AAF were examined in hearing cats, and cats with early- or adult-onset deafness. Unilateral deposits of biotinylated dextran amine were made in AAF to retrogradely label cortical and thalamic afferents to AAF. In early-deaf cats, ipsilateral neuronal labeling in visual and somatosensory cortices increased by 329% and 101%, respectively. The largest increases arose from the anterior ectosylvian visual area and the anterolateral lateral suprasylvian visual area, as well as somatosensory areas S2 and S4. Consequently, labeling in auditory areas was reduced by 36%. The age of deafness onset appeared to influence afferent connectivity, with less marked differences observed in late-deaf cats. Profound changes to visual and somatosensory afferent connectivity following deafness may reflect corticocortical rewiring affording acoustically deprived AAF with cross-modal functionality.

  18. Corticocortical connections of cat primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schwark, H D; Esteky, H; Jones, E G

    1992-01-01

    The organization of corticocortical connections in the representation of the forepaw in cat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) was studied following injections of various tracers into different cortical cytoarchitectonic areas. Small injections of horseradish peroxidase, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated HRP, Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin, or fast blue were placed into the representation of the forepaw in areas 3b, 1, or 2. The positions of labeled neurons in SI and the surrounding cortical areas were plotted on flattened surface reconstructions to determine the organization of the corticocortical connections within SI. A strong, reciprocal projection linked the two forepaw representations which have been described in area 3b and the part of area 2 which lies in the anterior bank of the lateral ansate sulcus (see Iwamura and Tanaka 1978a, b). Dense projections also linked these areas with SII, as previously reported (Burton and Kopf 1984a). Additional projections to area 3b arose primarily from areas 3a and 1. Projections to area 2 were more widespread than those to area 3b, and arose from all other areas of SI as well as from areas 4 and 5a. All injections into SI tended to label groups of neurons which lay in mediolateral strips. Corticocortical projection neurons which were most heavily labeled by SI injections were pyramidal cells in layer III. Additional projections from area 2 to 3b, area 5a to 2, and SII to areas 2 and 3b arose from layer VI as well. Although neurons of layers III and VI were always the most densely labeled, large injections into SI labeled neurons in layers II and V as well. PMID:1282890

  19. Interhemispheric Plasticity Protects the Deafferented Somatosensory Cortex from Functional Takeover After Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Koretsky, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Functional changes across brain hemispheres have been reported after unilateral cortical or peripheral nerve injury. Interhemispheric callosal connections usually underlie this cortico-cortical plasticity. However, the effect of the altered callosal inputs on local cortical plasticity in the adult brain is not well studied. Ipsilateral functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation has been reliably detected in the deafferented barrel cortex (BC) at 2 weeks after unilateral infraorbital denervation (IO) in adult rats. The ipsilateral fMRI signal relies on callosal-mediated interhemispheric plasticity. This form of interhemispheric plasticity provides a good chronic model to study the interaction between callosal inputs and local cortical plasticity. The receptive field of forepaw in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), which is adjacent to the BC, was mapped with fMRI. The S1 receptive field expanded to take over a portion of the BC in 2 weeks after both ascending inputs and callosal inputs were removed in IO rats with ablated contralateral BC (IO+ablation). This expansion, estimated specifically by fMRI mapping, is significantly larger than what has been observed in the IO rats with intact callosal connectivity, as well as in the rats with sham surgery. This work indicates that altered callosal inputs prevent the functional takeover of the deafferented BC from adjacent cortices and may help preserve the functional identity of the BC. PMID:25117691

  20. Alignment of multimodal sensory input in the superior colliculus through a gradient-matching mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Phan, An; Yamada, Jena; Feldheim, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure that integrates visual, somatosensory and auditory inputs to direct head and eye movements. Each of these modalities is topographically mapped and aligned with the others to ensure precise behavioral responses to multimodal stimuli. While it is clear that neural activity is instructive for topographic alignment of inputs from the visual cortex (V1) and auditory system with retinal axons in the SC, there is also evidence that activity-independent mechanisms are used to establish topographic alignment between modalities. Here, we show that the topography of the projection from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to the SC is established during the first postnatal week. Unlike V1-SC projections, the S1-SC projection does not bifurcate when confronted with a duplicated retinocollicular map, showing that retinal input in the SC does not influence the topography of the S1-SC projection. However, S1-SC topography is disrupted in mice lacking ephrins-As, which we find are expressed in graded patterns along with their binding partners, the EphA4 and EphA7, in both S1 and the somatosensory recipient layer of the SC. Taken together, these data support a model in which somatosensory inputs into the SC map topographically and establish alignment with visual inputs in the SC using a gradient-matching mechanism. PMID:22496572

  1. Roll-Tilt Perception Using a Somatosensory Bar Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Wade, S. W.; Arshi, A.

    1999-01-01

    Visual estimates of roll-tilt perception during static roll-tilt are confounded by an offset due to the ocular counterroll that simultaneously occurs. An alternative, non-visual ('somatosensory') measure of roll-tilt perception was developed which is not contaminated by this offset. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) inter-subject variability of somatosensory settings across test session in normal subjects and patients with unilateral or bilateral vestibular loss and 2) intra-subject variability of settings across test session in normal subjects.

  2. Cortical Connections to Single Digit Representations in Area 3b of Somatosensory Cortex in Squirrel Monkeys and Prosimian Galagos

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Gharbawie, Omar A.; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral posterior nucleus of thalamus sends highly segregated inputs into each digit representation in area 3b of primary somatosensory cortex. However, the spatial organization of the connections that link digit representations of areas 3b with other somatosensory areas is less understood. Here we examined the cortical inputs to individual digit representations of area 3b in four squirrel monkeys and one prosimian galago. Retrograde tracers were injected into neurophysiologically defined representations of individual digits of area 3b. Cortical tissues were cut parallel to the surface in some cases and showed that feedback projections to individual digits overlapped extensively in the hand representations of areas 3b, 1, and parietal ventral (PV) and second somatosensory (S2) areas. Other regions with overlapping populations of labeled cells included area 3a and primary motor cortex (M1). The results were confirmed in other cases in which the cortical tissues were cut in the coronal plane. The same cases also showed that cells were primarily labeled in the infragranular and supragranular layers. Thus, feedback projections to individual digit representations in area 3b mainly originate from multiple digits and other portions of hand representations of areas 3b, 1, PV, and S2. This organization is in stark contrast to the segregated thalamocortical inputs, which originate in single digit representations and terminate in the matching digit representation in the cortex. The organization of feedback connections could provide a substrate for the integration of information across the representations of adjacent digits in area 3b. PMID:23749740

  3. Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Maclin, E L; Rose, D F; Knight, J E; Orrison, W W; Davis, L E

    1994-12-01

    We used magnetoencephalography to evaluate areas of sensory cortex in patients with ischemic strokes involving the somatomotor system. We measured somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using a 7-channel neuromagnetometer and estimated the location of cortical responses to median nerve stimulation in 5 patients with cortical or subcortical strokes involving the somatomotor system. All patients underwent quantitative neurological examinations and a high resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. The estimated current dipoles were localized onto the patient's own MRI scan in all patients with measurable responses. The location of the estimated dipole was always in non-infarcted tissue in the anatomical region of the somatosensory cortex. In 1 patient the somatosensory dipole localized to a peninsula of cortex flanked by infarcted tissue. Single photon emission computed tomography found the localized area of cortex to have significant blood flow. The estimated current dipole strengths of somatosensory evoked fields from median nerve stimulation correlated significantly (r = 0.95, P < 0.02) with the patient's ability to recognize numbers written on the involved palm (graphesthesia). The combination of evoked magnetic field recording and magnetic resonance imaging is a promising non-invasive technology for studying brain function in patients with cerebrovascular disease.

  4. An embedded four-channel receive-only RF coil array for fMRI experiments of the somatosensory pathway in conscious awake marmosets.

    PubMed

    Papoti, Daniel; Yen, Cecil Chern-Chyi; Mackel, Julie B; Merkle, Hellmut; Silva, Afonso C

    2013-11-01

    fMRI has established itself as the main research tool in neuroscience and brain cognitive research. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a non-human primate model of increasing interest in biomedical research. However, commercial MRI coils for marmosets are not generally available. The present work describes the design and construction of a four-channel receive-only surface RF coil array with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) specifically optimized for fMRI experiments in awake marmosets in response to somatosensory stimulation. The array was designed as part of a helmet-based head restraint system used to prevent motion during the scans. High SNR was obtained by building the coil array using a thin and flexible substrate glued to the inner surface of the restraint helmet, so as to minimize the distance between the array elements and the somatosensory cortex. Decoupling between coil elements was achieved by partial geometrical overlapping and by connecting them to home-built low-input-impedance preamplifiers. In vivo images show excellent coverage of the brain cortical surface with high sensitivity near the somatosensory cortex. Embedding the coil elements within the restraint helmet allowed fMRI data in response to somatosensory stimulation to be collected with high sensitivity and reproducibility in conscious, awake marmosets.

  5. Low-level Taekwondo practitioners have better somatosensory organisation in standing balance than sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Leong, Hio-Teng; Fu, Siu N; Ng, Gabriel Y F; Tsang, William W N

    2011-08-01

    Sports training, especially for those requiring fast and skilled movements have been reported to improve one's postural control, but the underlying sensory integration mechanism is unknown. The purpose is to explore the sensory organisation strategies for maintaining standing balance in Taekwondo practitioners, and to examine the quasi-static and dynamic balance performance in subjects with and without TKD training. Case-control study was used as a study design. Eleven subjects with low level of Taekwondo training for 1-3 years, and eleven sedentary healthy subjects were assessed with the sensory organisation tests (SOT) under six visual and somatosensory input conditions and their balance upon landing from self- or operator-triggered drop test with the eyes closed condition. The SOT measured the equilibrium scores, whereas the drop test assessed the time to stabilisation (TTS), normalised peak force and distance of antero-posterior and medial-lateral centre of pressure on landing. Results for the SOT test revealed that Taekwondo subjects performed better during stance with eyes closed on a fixed support than the untrained group (p = 0.011). For the drop tests, the untrained group was slower in postural correction as revealed by the longer TTS than the Taekwondo group after the operator-triggered drops (p = 0.018). All subjects had a larger normalised peak force in operator-triggered than self-triggered drops. In conclusion, we observed that people with low-level Taekwondo training have better balance performance than untrained subjects as shown in the SOT results and shorter TTS with the drop test. They may rely more on the somatosensory and vestibular inputs for maintaining balance. People with balance problems may benefit from Taekwondo training.

  6. Thalamocortical control of feed-forward inhibition in awake somatosensory 'barrel' cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Swadlow, Harvey A

    2002-01-01

    Intracortical inhibition plays a role in shaping sensory cortical receptive fields and is mediated by both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms. Feed-forward inhibition is the faster of the two processes, being generated by inhibitory interneurons driven by monosynaptic thalamocortical (TC) input. In principle, feed-forward inhibition can prevent targeted cortical neurons from ever reaching threshold when TC input is weak. To do so, however, inhibitory interneurons must respond to TC input at low thresholds and generate spikes very quickly. A powerful feed-forward inhibition would sharpen the tuning characteristics of targeted cortical neurons, and interneurons with sensitive and broadly tuned receptive fields could mediate this process. Suspected inhibitory interneurons (SINs) with precisely these properties are found in layer 4 of the somatosensory (S1) 'barrel' cortex of rodents and rabbits. These interneurons lack the directional selectivity seen in most cortical spiny neurons and in ventrobasal TC afferents, but are much more sensitive than cortical spiny neurons to low-amplitude whisker displacements. This paper is concerned with the activation of S1 SINs by TC impulses, and with the consequences of this activation. Multiple TC neurons and multiple S1 SINs were simultaneously studied in awake rabbits, and cross-correlation methods were used to examine functional connectivity. The results demonstrate a potent, temporally precise, dynamic and highly convergent/divergent functional input from ventrobasal TC neurons to SINs of the topographically aligned S1 barrel. Whereas the extensive pooling of convergent TC inputs onto SINs generates sensitive and broadly tuned inhibitory receptive fields, the potent TC divergence onto many SINs generates sharply synchronous activity among these elements. This TC feed-forward inhibitory network is well suited to provide a fast, potent, sensitive and broadly tuned inhibition of targeted spiny neurons that will suppress spike

  7. Adaptation in human somatosensory cortex as a model of sensory memory construction: a study using high-density EEG.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Claire; Joyce, Niamh; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation in sensory cortices has been seen as a mechanism allowing the creation of transient memory representations. Here we tested the adapting properties of early responses in human somatosensory areas SI and SII by analysing somatosensory-evoked potentials over the very first repetitions of a stimulus. SI and SII generators were identified by well-defined scalp potentials and source localisation from high-density 128-channel EEG. Earliest responses (~20 ms) from area 3b in the depth of the post-central gyrus did not show significant adaptation to stimuli repeated at 300 ms intervals. In contrast, responses around 45 ms from the crown of the gyrus (areas 1 and 2) rapidly lessened to a plateau and abated at the 20th stimulation, and activities from SII in the parietal operculum at ~100 ms displayed strong adaptation with a steady amplitude decrease from the first repetition. Although responses in both SI (1-2) and SII areas showed adapting properties and hence sensory memory capacities, evidence of sensory mismatch detection has been demonstrated only for responses reflecting SII activation. This may index the passage from an early form of sensory storage in SI to more operational memory codes in SII, allowing the prediction of forthcoming input and the triggering of a specific signal when such input differs from the previous sequence. This is consistent with a model whereby the length of temporal receptive windows increases with progression in the cortical hierarchy, in parallel with the complexity and abstraction of neural representations.

  8. Diagnosis and management of somatosensory tinnitus: review article

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Rocha, Carina Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an acoustic external stimulus. It affects 10–17% of the world's population and it a complex symptom with multiple causes, which is influenced by pathways other than the auditory one. Recently, it has been observed that tinnitus may be provoked or modulated by stimulation arising from the somatosensorial system, as well as from the somatomotor and visual–motor systems. This specific subgroup – somatosensory tinnitus – is present in 65% of cases, even though it tends to be underdiagnosed. As a consequence, it is necessary to establish evaluation protocols and specific treatments focusing on both the auditory pathway and the musculoskeletal system. PMID:21808880

  9. A somatosensory circuit for cooling perception in mice.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, Nevena; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Walcher, Jan; Albert, Tobias; Siemens, Jan; Lewin, Gary R; Poulet, James F A

    2014-11-01

    The temperature of an object provides important somatosensory information for animals performing tactile tasks. Humans can perceive skin cooling of less than one degree, but the sensory afferents and central circuits that they engage to enable the perception of surface temperature are poorly understood. To address these questions, we examined the perception of glabrous skin cooling in mice. We found that mice were also capable of perceiving small amplitude skin cooling and that primary somatosensory (S1) cortical neurons were required for cooling perception. Moreover, the absence of the menthol-gated transient receptor potential melastatin 8 ion channel in sensory afferent fibers eliminated the ability to perceive cold and the corresponding activation of S1 neurons. Our results identify parts of a neural circuit underlying cold perception in mice and provide a new model system for the analysis of thermal processing and perception and multimodal integration.

  10. Reweighting of Sensory Inputs to Control Quiet Standing in Children from 7 to 11 and in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cuisinier, Rémy; Olivier, Isabelle; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Nougier, Vincent; Assaiante, Christine

    2011-01-01

    How sensory organization for postural control matures in children is not clear at this time. The present study examined, in children aged 7 to 11 and in adults, the postural control modifications in quiet standing when somatosensory inputs from the ankle were disturbed. Since the reweighting of sensory inputs is not mature before 10, we hypothesized that postural stability was more affected in children than in adults when somatosensory inputs were altered and that this postural instability decreased as age increased during childhood. 37 children aged 7 to 11 years and 9 adults participated in the experiments. The postural task was a semi-tandem position with the right foot in front of the left one. Postural performance was measured by means of a force platform. Two experimental conditions were presented to the participants to maintain quiet standing: With or without altered somatosensory inputs (i.e., with or without ankles vibration). Results showed that postural stability -and thus how the reweighting process of the visual/somatosensory inputs matured- increased non-monotonically between 7 years of age and adult age: There was a linear improvement of postural stability from 7 to 10, followed by a more steady behaviour between 10 and 11 and then postural stability increased to reach the adults' level of performance. PMID:21573028

  11. Evolution of somatosensory and motor cortex in primates.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Jon H

    2004-11-01

    Inferences about how the complex somatosensory systems of anthropoid primates evolved are based on comparative studies of such systems in extant mammals. Experimental studies of members of the major clades of extant mammals suggest that somatosensory cortex of early mammals consisted of only a few areas, including a primary area, S1, bordered by strip-like rostral and caudal somatosensory fields, SR and SC. In addition, the second somatosensory area, S2, and the parietal ventral area, PV, were probably present. S1, S2, and PV were activated independently via parallel projections from the ventroposterior nucleus, VP. Little posterior parietal cortex existed, and it was unlikely that a separate primary motor area, M1, existed until placental mammals evolved. Early primates retained this basic organization and also had a larger posterior parietal region that mediated sensorimotor functions via connections with motor and premotor areas. The frontal cortex included M1, dorsal and ventral premotor areas, supplementary motor area, and cingulate motor fields. Ventroposterior superior and ventroposterior inferior nuclei were distinct from the ventroposterior nucleus in the thalamus. In early anthropoid primates, areas S1, SR, and SC had differentiated into the fields now recognized as areas 3b, 3a, and 1. Areas 3b and 1 contained parallel mirror-image representations of cutaneous receptors and a parallel representation in area 2 was probable. Serial processing became dominant, so that neurons in areas 1, S2, and PV became dependent on area 3b for activation. Posterior parietal cortex expanded into more areas that related to frontal cortex. Less is known about changes that might have occurred with the emergence of apes and humans, but their brains were larger and posed scaling problems most likely solved by increasing the number of cortical areas and reducing the proportion of long connections.

  12. Enhanced Somatosensory Feedback Reduces Prefrontal Cortical Activity During Walking in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Evangelos A.; Ring, Sarah A.; Williamson, John B.; Doty, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Background. The coordination of steady state walking is relatively automatic in healthy humans, such that active attention to the details of task execution and performance (controlled processing) is low. Somatosensation is a crucial input to the spinal and brainstem circuits that facilitate this automaticity. Impaired somatosensation in older adults may reduce automaticity and increase controlled processing, thereby contributing to deficits in walking function. The primary objective of this study was to determine if enhancing somatosensory feedback can reduce controlled processing during walking, as assessed by prefrontal cortical activation. Methods. Fourteen older adults (age 77.1±5.56 years) with mild mobility deficits and mild somatosensory deficits participated in this study. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to quantify metabolic activity (tissue oxygenation index, TOI) in the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal activity and gait spatiotemporal data were measured during treadmill walking and overground walking while participants wore normal shoes and under two conditions of enhanced somatosensation: wearing textured insoles and no shoes. Results. Relative to walking with normal shoes, textured insoles yielded a bilateral reduction of prefrontal cortical activity for treadmill walking (ΔTOI = −0.85 and −1.19 for left and right hemispheres, respectively) and for overground walking (ΔTOI = −0.51 and −0.66 for left and right hemispheres, respectively). Relative to walking with normal shoes, no shoes yielded lower prefrontal cortical activity for treadmill walking (ΔTOI = −0.69 and −1.13 for left and right hemispheres, respectively), but not overground walking. Conclusions. Enhanced somatosensation reduces prefrontal activity during walking in older adults. This suggests a less intensive utilization of controlled processing during walking. PMID:25112494

  13. The reactivation of somatosensory cortex and behavioral recovery after sensory loss in mature primates

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Kaas, Jon H.; Reed, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    In our experiments, we removed a major source of activation of somatosensory cortex in mature monkeys by unilaterally sectioning the sensory afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord at a high cervical level. At this level, the ascending branches of tactile afferents from the hand are cut, while other branches of these afferents remain intact to terminate on neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Immediately after such a lesion, the monkeys seem relatively unimpaired in locomotion and often use the forelimb, but further inspection reveals that they prefer to use the unaffected hand in reaching for food. In addition, systematic testing indicates that they make more errors in retrieving pieces of food, and start using visual inspection of the rotated hand to confirm the success of the grasping of the food. Such difficulties are not surprising as a complete dorsal column lesion totally deactivates the contralateral hand representation in primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b). However, hand use rapidly improves over the first post-lesion weeks, and much of the hand representational territory in contralateral area 3b is reactivated by inputs from the hand in roughly a normal somatotopic pattern. Quantitative measures of single neuron response properties reveal that reactivated neurons respond to tactile stimulation on the hand with high firing rates and only slightly longer latencies. We conclude that preserved dorsal column afferents after nearly complete lesions contribute to the reactivation of cortex and the recovery of the behavior, but second-order sensory pathways in the spinal cord may also play an important role. Our microelectrode recordings indicate that these preserved first-order, and second-order pathways are initially weak and largely ineffective in activating cortex, but they are potentiated during the recovery process. Therapies that would promote this potentiation could usefully enhance recovery after spinal cord injury. PMID:24860443

  14. Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot.

  15. Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong

    PubMed Central

    Suthers, Roderick A.; Goller, Franz; Wild, J. Martin

    2002-01-01

    Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central motor programs operating independently from immediate sensory feedback. Nothing is known, however, about the possible role of mechanoreceptive or other somatosensory feedback in the motor control of birdsong. Even in the case of human speech, the question of “how and when sensory information is used in normal speaking conditions… remains unanswered” and controversial [Smith, A. (1992) Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 3, 233–267]. We report here evidence for somatosensory modulation of ongoing song motor patterns. These patterns include the respiratory muscles that, in both birdsong and speech, provide the power for vocalization. Perturbing respiratory pressure by a brief, irregularly timed injection of air into the cranial thoracic air sac during song elicited a compensatory reduction in the electrical activity of the abdominal expiratory muscles, both in hearing and deafened adult northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). This muscle response was absent or reduced during quiet respiration, suggesting it is specifically linked to phonation. Our findings indicate that somatosensory feedback to expiratory muscles elicits compensatory adjustments that help stabilize, in real time, the subsyringeal pressure against fluctuations caused by changes in posture or physical activity. PMID:11943843

  16. Representation of tactile curvature in macaque somatosensory area 2

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Charles E.; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Tactile shape information is elaborated in a cortical hierarchy spanning primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII). Indeed, SI neurons in areas 3b and 1 encode simple contour features such as small oriented bars and edges, whereas higher order SII neurons represent large curved contour features such as angles and arcs. However, neural coding of these contour features has not been systematically characterized in area 2, the most caudal SI subdivision in the postcentral gyrus. In the present study, we analyzed area 2 neural responses to embossed oriented bars and curved contour fragments to establish whether curvature representations are generated in the postcentral gyrus. We found that many area 2 neurons (26 of 112) exhibit clear curvature tuning, preferring contours pointing in a particular direction. Fewer area 2 neurons (15 of 112) show preferences for oriented bars. Because area 2 response patterns closely resembled SII patterns, we also compared area 2 and SII response time courses to characterize the temporal dynamics of curvature synthesis in the somatosensory system. We found that curvature representations develop and peak concurrently in area 2 and SII. These results reveal that transitions from orientation tuning to curvature selectivity in the somatosensory cortical hierarchy occur within SI rather than between SI and SII. PMID:23536717

  17. Four-dimensional maps of the human somatosensory system

    PubMed Central

    Avanzini, Pietro; Abdollahi, Rouhollah O.; Sartori, Ivana; Caruana, Fausto; Pelliccia, Veronica; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Mai, Roberto; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Orban, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    A fine-grained description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human brain activity is a major goal of neuroscientific research. Limitations in spatial and temporal resolution of available noninvasive recording and imaging techniques have hindered so far the acquisition of precise, comprehensive four-dimensional maps of human neural activity. The present study combines anatomical and functional data from intracerebral recordings of nearly 100 patients, to generate highly resolved four-dimensional maps of human cortical processing of nonpainful somatosensory stimuli. These maps indicate that the human somatosensory system devoted to the hand encompasses a widespread network covering more than 10% of the cortical surface of both hemispheres. This network includes phasic components, centered on primary somatosensory cortex and neighboring motor, premotor, and inferior parietal regions, and tonic components, centered on opercular and insular areas, and involving human parietal rostroventral area and ventral medial-superior-temporal area. The technique described opens new avenues for investigating the neural basis of all levels of cortical processing in humans. PMID:26976579

  18. Four-dimensional maps of the human somatosensory system.

    PubMed

    Avanzini, Pietro; Abdollahi, Rouhollah O; Sartori, Ivana; Caruana, Fausto; Pelliccia, Veronica; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Mai, Roberto; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Orban, Guy A

    2016-03-29

    A fine-grained description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human brain activity is a major goal of neuroscientific research. Limitations in spatial and temporal resolution of available noninvasive recording and imaging techniques have hindered so far the acquisition of precise, comprehensive four-dimensional maps of human neural activity. The present study combines anatomical and functional data from intracerebral recordings of nearly 100 patients, to generate highly resolved four-dimensional maps of human cortical processing of nonpainful somatosensory stimuli. These maps indicate that the human somatosensory system devoted to the hand encompasses a widespread network covering more than 10% of the cortical surface of both hemispheres. This network includes phasic components, centered on primary somatosensory cortex and neighboring motor, premotor, and inferior parietal regions, and tonic components, centered on opercular and insular areas, and involving human parietal rostroventral area and ventral medial-superior-temporal area. The technique described opens new avenues for investigating the neural basis of all levels of cortical processing in humans. PMID:26976579

  19. Effects of intrathecal anandamide on somatosensory evoked responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Bir, Levent Sinan; Ercan, Sevim

    2006-02-01

    Anandamide, endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors produces similar effects of cannabinoids via CB1 receptors in the central nervous system. Its effect on ascending pathways of somatosensory conduction and somatosensory cortex is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of anandamide on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). In this study, 24 Wistar male rats were used. The rats were divided into 4 groups. At the beginning, sciatic nerve stimulated scalp SEP traces were obtained from all of the rats. Later, 0.02 cm(3) anhydrous ethanol, 100 microg/kg, 200 microg/kg and 400 microg/kg anandamide dissolved in anhydrous ethanol were injected intrathecally to the first (control), second, third and fourth groups, respectively. Five minutes later, second SEP traces were started. In every SEP trace, two negative waves (N1, N2) following positive deflections were obtained. The latency and amplitudes of these waves assessed were compared in each group. In control and second groups, the parameters of these waves before and after the injections were not significantly different. However, in the third and fourth groups, latencies of N1 and N2 after injections were found significantly longer. This effect was dose dependent. In any of the groups, no significant changes were detected in the amplitudes after injections. In conclusion, anandamide, when injected intrathecally in pharmacological doses caused an induction of moderate conduction delay in SEP systems. PMID:16289169

  20. Representation of tactile curvature in macaque somatosensory area 2.

    PubMed

    Yau, Jeffrey M; Connor, Charles E; Hsiao, Steven S

    2013-06-01

    Tactile shape information is elaborated in a cortical hierarchy spanning primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII). Indeed, SI neurons in areas 3b and 1 encode simple contour features such as small oriented bars and edges, whereas higher order SII neurons represent large curved contour features such as angles and arcs. However, neural coding of these contour features has not been systematically characterized in area 2, the most caudal SI subdivision in the postcentral gyrus. In the present study, we analyzed area 2 neural responses to embossed oriented bars and curved contour fragments to establish whether curvature representations are generated in the postcentral gyrus. We found that many area 2 neurons (26 of 112) exhibit clear curvature tuning, preferring contours pointing in a particular direction. Fewer area 2 neurons (15 of 112) show preferences for oriented bars. Because area 2 response patterns closely resembled SII patterns, we also compared area 2 and SII response time courses to characterize the temporal dynamics of curvature synthesis in the somatosensory system. We found that curvature representations develop and peak concurrently in area 2 and SII. These results reveal that transitions from orientation tuning to curvature selectivity in the somatosensory cortical hierarchy occur within SI rather than between SI and SII.

  1. A case of thalamic syndrome: somatosensory influences on visual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Anastasopoulos, D; Bronstein, A

    1999-01-01

    The ability to set a straight line to the perceived gravitational vertical (subjective visual vertical, SVV) was investigated in a 21 year old woman with long standing left hemihypaesthesia due to a posterior thalamic infarct. The putative structures involved were the somatosensory and vestibular thalamus (VPL, VPM) and associative (pulvinar) thalamus. The SVV was normal when seated upright. When lying on her right side, line settings deviated about 17° to the right, which is the normal A-effect. When lying on the hypaesthetic side the mean SVV remained close to true vertical—that is, the A-effect was absent, and there was a large increase in variability of the SVV settings. The findings support the view that the body tilt-induced bias of the SVV (A-effect) is largely mediated by somatosensory afferents. The finding that the A-effect was absent only when lying on the hypaesthetic side suggests that, during body tilt, the somatosensory system participates in visuogravitational orientation.

 PMID:10449566

  2. Multilevel somatosensory system disinhibition in children with migraine.

    PubMed

    Valeriani, Massimiliano; Rinalduzzi, Steno; Vigevano, Federico

    2005-11-01

    Although migraine is characterised by an abnormal cortical excitability level, whether the central nervous system is hyper- or hypo-excitable in migraine still remains an unsolved problem. The aim of our study was to compare the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recovery cycle, a marker of the somatosensory system's excitability, in a group of 15 children suffering from migraine without aura (MO) (mean age 11.7+/-1.6 years, five males, 10 females) and 10 control age-matched subjects (CS) (mean age 10.9+/-2.1 years, six males, four females). We calculated the SEP's latency and amplitude modifications after paired electrical stimuli at 5, 20 and 40 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs), comparing it with a single stimulus condition assumed as the baseline. In MO patients, the amplitudes of the cervical N13 and of the cortical N20, P24 and N30 responses at 20 and 40 ms ISIs showed a higher recovery than in CS (two-way ANOVA, P<0.05). Since, the SEP recovery cycle depends on the inhibitory interneuron function, our findings suggest that a somatosensory system disinhibition takes place in migraine. This is a generalized phenomenon, not limited to the cerebral cortex, but concerning also the cervical grey matter. The SEP recovery cycle reflects the intracellular concentration of Na(+), therefore, the shortened recovery cycle in our MO patients suggests a high level of intracellular Na(+) and a consequent depolarized resting membrane potential, possibly due to an impaired Na(+) -K(+) ATPase function in migraine. PMID:16213092

  3. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold is increased in patients with cerebellar atrophy.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Fiore; Dubbioso, Raffaele; Pisciotta, Chiara; Antenora, Antonella; Nolano, Maria; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Berardelli, Alfredo; Santoro, Lucio

    2013-08-01

    Processing of time in the millisecond range seems to depend on cerebellar function and it can be assessed by using the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold testing. No studies have yet investigated this temporal discrimination task in patients with cerebellar atrophy. Eleven patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia and 11 controls underwent somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold evaluation. The degree of cerebellar dysfunction was measured by the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold was higher in patients compared to controls for each stimulated site (hand, neck, and eye). Age, disease duration, and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale scores were not correlated to somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold is abnormal in patients with cerebellar atrophy. These findings suggest that the cerebellum plays a role in modulating the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold and confirm the role of cerebellum in the processing of time in the millisecond range.

  4. Somatosensory evoked potentials in carotid artery stenting: Effectiveness in ascertaining cerebral ischemic events.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Rupendra Bahadur; Takeda, Masaaki; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Morishige, Mizuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Takahito; Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) have been used in various endovascular procedures and carotid endarterectomy, but to our knowledge no literature deals exclusively with the utility of SSEP in carotid artery stenting (CAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SSEP in detecting cerebral ischemic events during CAS. We conducted a prospective study in 35 CAS procedures in 31 patients during an 18month period. Thirty-three patients without near occlusion underwent stenting using dual protection (simultaneous flow reversal and distal filter) combined with blood aspiration, while two patients with near occlusion underwent stenting without dual protection. All 35 patients underwent SSEP monitoring. SSEP were generated by stimulating median and/or tibial nerves and recorded by scalp electrodes. During the aspiration phase post-dilation, seven patients (20%) exhibited SSEP changes with a mean duration of 11.3±8.5minutes (range: 3-25minutes), three of whom later developed minor stroke/transient ischemic attack. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed new lesions in 10 patients (28.6%). Change in SSEP exhibited mean sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval, 0.29-1.0) and specificity of 88% (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.96) in predicting clinical stroke post-CAS. Intra-procedural SSEP change was predictive of post-procedural complications (p=0.005, Fisher's exact test). Longer span of SSEP change was positively correlated with complications (p=0.032, Mann-Whitney test). Intra-procedural SSEP changes are highly sensitive in predicting neurological outcome following CAS. Chances of complications are increased with prolongation of such changes. SSEP allows for prompt intra-procedural ischemia prevention measures and stratification to pursue an aggressive peri-procedural protocol for high risk patients to mitigate neurological deficits. PMID:27291465

  5. Prism adaptation contrasts perceptual habituation for repetitive somatosensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Torta, D M; Tatu, M K; Cotroneo, D; Alamia, A; Folegatti, A; Trojan, J

    2016-03-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is a non-invasive procedure that requires performing a visuo-motor pointing task while wearing prism goggles inducing a visual displacement of the pointed target. This procedure involves a reorganization of sensorimotor coordination, and induces long-lasting effects on numerous higher-order cognitive functions in healthy volunteers and neglect patients. Prismatic displacement (PD) of the visual field can be induced when prisms are worn but no sensorimotor task is required. In this case, it is unlikely that any subsequent reorganization takes place. The effects of PD are short-lived in the sense that they last as long as prisms are worn. In this study we aimed, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, at investigating whether PA and PD induce changes in the perception of intensity of nociceptive and non- nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. We induced, in healthy volunteers, PD (experiment 1), or PA (experiment 2) and asked participants to rate the intensity of the stimuli applied to the hand undergoing the visuo-proprioceptive conflict (experiment 1) or adaptation (experiment 2). Our results indicate that: 1) the visuo-proprioceptive conflict induced by PD does not reduce the perceived intensity of the stimuli, 2) PA prevents perceptual habituation for both nociceptive and non-nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. Moreover, to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effects of PA we conducted a third experiment in which stimuli were applied both at the adapted and the non-adapted hand. In line with the results of experiment 2, we found that perceptual habituation was prevented for stimuli applied onto the adapted hand. Moreover, we observed the same finding for stimuli applied onto the non-adapted hand. This result suggests that the detention of habituation is not merely driven by changes in spatial attention allocation. Taken together, these data indicate that prisms can affect the perceived intensity of somatosensory stimuli

  6. Coupling of fingertip somatosensory information to head and body sway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Schoner, G.; Dijkstra, T.; Ribeiro, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Light touch contact of a fingertip with a stationary surface can provide orientation information that enhances control of upright stance. Slight changes in contact force at the fingertip provide sensory cues about the direction of body sway, allowing attenuation of sway. In the present study, we asked to which extent somatosensory cues are part of the postural control system, that is, which sensory signal supports this coupling? We investigated postural control not only when the contact surface was stationary, but also when it was moving rhythmically (from 0.1 to 0.5 Hz). In doing so, we brought somatosensory cues from the hand into conflict with other parts of the postural control system. Our focus was the temporal relationship between body sway and the contact surface. Postural sway was highly coherent with contact surface motion. Head and body sway assumed the frequency of the moving contact surface at all test frequencies. To account for these results, a simple model was formulated by approximating the postural control system as a second-order linear dynamical system. The influence of the touch stimulus was captured as the difference between the velocity of the contact surface and the velocity of body sway, multiplied by a coupling constant. Comparison of empirical results (relative phase, coherence, and gain) with model predictions supports the hypothesis of coupling between body sway and touch cues through the velocity of the somatosensory stimulus at the fingertip. One subject, who perceived movement of the touch surface, demonstrated weaker coupling than other subjects, suggesting that cognitive mechanisms introduce flexibility into the postural control scheme.

  7. Multilevel Cortical Processing of Somatosensory Novelty: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, Gilles; Vaulet, Thibaut; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), this study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of the multilevel cortical processing of somatosensory change detection. Neuromagnetic signals of 16 healthy adult subjects (7 females and 9 males, mean age 29 ± 3 years) were recorded using whole-scalp-covering MEG while they underwent an oddball paradigm based on simple standard (right index fingertip tactile stimulation) and deviant (simultaneous right index fingertip and middle phalanx tactile stimulation) stimuli gathered into sequences to create and then deviate from stimulus patterns at multiple (local vs. global) levels of complexity. Five healthy adult subjects (3 females and 2 males, mean age 31, 6 ± 2 years) also underwent a similar oddball paradigm in which standard and deviant stimuli were flipped. Local deviations led to a somatosensory mismatch response peaking at 55–130 ms post-stimulus onset with a cortical generator located at the contralateral secondary somatosensory (cSII) cortex. The mismatch response was independent of the deviant stimuli physical characteristics. Global deviants led to a P300 response with cortical sources located bilaterally at temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and supplementary motor area (SMA). The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the SMA were found to generate a contingent magnetic variation (CMV) attributed to top-down expectations. Amplitude of mismatch responses were modulated by top-down expectations and correlated with both the magnitude of the CMV and the P300 amplitude at the right TPJ. These results provide novel empirical evidence for a unified sensory novelty detection system in the human brain by linking detection of salient sensory stimuli in personal and extra-personal spaces to a common framework of multilevel cortical processing. PMID:27313523

  8. The modulation of somatosensory resonance by psychopathic traits and empathy

    PubMed Central

    Marcoux, Louis-Alexandre; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Voisin, Julien I. A.; Lemelin, Sophie; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of neuroimaging studies have shown neural overlaps between first-hand experiences of pain and the perception of pain in others. This shared neural representation of vicarious pain is thought to involve both affective and sensorimotor systems. A number of individual factors are thought to modulate the cerebral response to other's pain. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of psychopathic traits on the relation between sensorimotor resonance to other's pain and self-reported empathy. Our group has previously shown that a steady-state response to non-painful stimulation is modulated by the observation of other people's bodily pain. This change in somatosensory response was interpreted as a form of somatosensory gating (SG). Here, using the same technique, SG was compared between two groups of 15 young adult males: one scoring very high on a self-reported measure of psychopathic traits [60.8 ± 4.98; Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP)] and one scoring very low (42.7 ± 2.94). The results showed a significantly greater reduction of SG to pain observation for the high psychopathic traits group compared to the low psychopathic traits group. SG to pain observation was positively correlated with affective and interpersonal facet of psychopathy in the whole sample. The high psychopathic traits group also reported lower empathic concern (EC) scores than the low psychopathic traits group. Importantly, primary psychopathy, as assessed by the LSRP, mediated the relation between EC and SG to pain observation. Together, these results suggest that increase somatosensory resonance to other's pain is not exclusively explained by trait empathy and may be linked to other personality dimensions, such as psychopathic traits. PMID:23801950

  9. Age-dependent changes in central somatosensory conduction time.

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Hedderich, J

    1982-01-01

    Cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials(SEPs) were recorded in 45 normal subjects. Absolute peak latencies and latency differences between the components P7, N9, N11, N13, P17 and N20 were measured. Subjects aged 40-60 years had significantly longer latencies of N13 and N20 than subjects aged 15-39 years. Moreover, statistical analysis revealed a significant prolongation of N9-N13, N11-N13 and N13-N20 transit times in older subjects. Possible connections with known morphological age-related findings are discussed. PMID:6288387

  10. Somatosensory temporal discrimination in essential tremor and isolated head and voice tremors.

    PubMed

    Conte, Antonella; Ferrazzano, Gina; Manzo, Nicoletta; Leodori, Giorgio; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Fasano, Alfonso; Tinazzi, Michele; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold in patients with essential tremor (sporadic and familial) and to evaluate whether somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values differ depending on the body parts involved by tremor. We also investigated the somatosensory temporal discrimination in patients with isolated voice tremor. We enrolled 61 patients with tremor: 48 patients with essential tremor (31 patients with upper limb tremor alone, nine patients with head tremor alone, and eight patients with upper limb plus head tremor; 22 patients with familial vs. 26 sporadic essential tremor), 13 patients with isolated voice tremor, and 45 healthy subjects. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were normal in patients with familial essential tremor, whereas they were higher in patients with sporadic essential tremor. When we classified patients according to tremor distribution, somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were normal in patients with upper limb tremor and abnormal only in patients with isolated head tremor. Temporal discrimination threshold values were also abnormal in patients with isolated voice tremor. Somatosensory temporal discrimination processing is normal in patients with familial as well as in patients with sporadic essential tremor involving the upper limbs. By contrast, somatosensory temporal discrimination is altered in patients with isolated head tremor and voice tremor. This study with somatosensory temporal discrimination suggests that isolated head and voice tremors might possibly be considered as separate clinical entities from essential tremor.

  11. Somatosensory symptoms in unmedicated de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schindlbeck, Katharina A; Mehl, Arne; Geffe, Sarah; Benik, Steffen; Tütüncü, Serdar; Klostermann, Fabian; Marzinzik, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition presenting with motor and non-motor symptoms including somatosensory disturbances. As neuropathic syndromes in advanced PD patients are supposed to be due to antiparkinsonian medication, we studied the presence of somatosensory symptoms and peripheral nerve function in drug naïve patients with PD as well as age-matched healthy controls. Somatosensory symptoms and signs were investigated in 39 de novo PD patients and 32 age-matched healthy controls using the modified Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scale. To elucidate potential underlying mechanisms, peripheral nerve function was analyzed with sensory and motor neurography. About two thirds of de novo diagnosed levodopa naïve PD patients (66.7 %) reported somatosensory symptoms in comparison to one third of the control group (31.2 %) (p = 0.003). The presence of PD (p = 0.017) was a predictive factor for the occurrence of somatosensory symptoms among all participants. In contrast to the significantly higher frequency of somatosensory symptoms in patients with PD compared to controls, neurographically based peripheral nerve function did not differ between the groups. Our results indicate that somatosensory symptoms are a PD feature, which can be found when diagnosed first and independently of dopaminergic treatment. As the electrophysiologically determined peripheral nerve function was not different from that obtained in the control group, somatosensory symptoms are inherent in early PD and may be, at least partially, of central origin. PMID:26392189

  12. Connectivity of Somatosensory Cortical Area 1 Forms an Anatomical Substrate for the Emergence of Multifinger Receptive Fields and Complex Feature Selectivity in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

    PubMed Central

    Ashaber, Mária; Pálfi, Emese; Friedman, Robert M; Palmer, Cory; Jákli, Balázs; Chen, Li Min; Kántor, Orsolya; Roe, Anna W; Négyessy, Laszló

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence shows that interaction of digit-specific input, which is required to form global tactile percepts, begins as early as area 3b in the primary somatosensory cortex with the involvement of intrinsic lateral connections. How tactile processing is further elaborated in area 1, the next stage of the somatosensory cortical hierarchy, is less understood. This question was investigated by studying the tangential distribution of intrinsic and interareal connections of finger representations of area 1. Retrogradely labeled cell densities and anterogradely labeled fibers and terminal patches were plotted and quantified with respect to the hand representation by combining tract tracing with electrophysiological mapping and intrinsic signal optical imaging in somatosensory areas. Intrinsic connections of distal finger pad representations of area 1 spanned the representation of multiple digits indicating strong cross-digit connectivity. Area 1 distal finger pad regions also established high-density connections with homotopic regions of areas 3b and 2. Although similar to area 3b, connections of area 1 distributed more widely and covered a larger somatotopic representation including more proximal parts of the finger representations. The lateral connectivity pattern of area 1 is a suitable anatomical substrate of the emergence of multifinger receptive fields, complex feature selectivity, and invariant stimulus properties of the neurons. PMID:24214200

  13. Somatosensory Profiles but Not Numbers of Somatosensory Abnormalities of Neuropathic Pain Patients Correspond with Neuropathic Pain Grading

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as ‘definite’, ‘probable’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of abnormalities would be present in patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of somatosensory abnormalities by means of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain and correlated the number of sensory abnormalities and sensory profiles to the different grades. Of patients who were clinically diagnosed with neuropathic pain, only 60% were graded as ‘definite’ or ‘probable’, while 40% were graded as ‘possible’ or ‘unlikely’ neuropathic pain. Apparently, there is a mismatch between a clinical neuropathic pain diagnosis and neuropathic pain grading. Contrary to the expectation, patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades did not have a greater number of abnormalities. Instead, similar numbers of somatosensory abnormalities were identified for each grade. The profiles of sensory signs in ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ neuropathic pain were not significantly different, but different from the ‘unlikely’ grade. This latter difference could be attributed to differences in the prevalence of patients with a mixture of sensory gain and loss and with sensory loss only. The grading system allows a separation of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain based on profiles but not on the total number of sensory abnormalities. Our findings indicate that patient selection based on grading of neuropathic pain may provide advantages in selecting homogenous groups for clinical research. PMID:22927981

  14. The structure of somatosensory information for human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Ribeiro, P.; Oie, K.; Lackner, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the properties of the somatosensory stimulus that alter its temporal coupling to body sway. Six standing subjects were tested while touching a metal plate positioned either directly in front of or lateral to the subject. In each condition, the plate moved 4 mm at 0.2 Hz in either the medial-lateral (ML) or anterior-posterior direction (AP). The results showed that coupling between body sway and touch plate movement was strongest when the touch plate moved in a direction along the longitudinal axis of the arm. Coupling strength was weaker when the touch plate moved perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The results consistently show that a radial expansion stimulus was more effective than a lamellar-type stimulus at the fingertip. Moreover, somatosensory information from a surface is interpreted in terms of the orientation of the contact limb and the potential degrees of freedom available through its movement.

  15. Alteration of somatosensory response in adulthood by early life stress.

    PubMed

    Takatsuru, Yusuke; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is well-known as a critical risk factor for mental and cognitive disorders in adulthood. Such disorders are accompanied by altered neuro- (synapto-) genesis and gene expression. Because psychosomatic disorders induced by early life stress (e.g., physical and/or sexual abuse, and neglect) have become a socio-economic problem, it is very important to clarify the mechanisms underlying these changes. However, despite of intensive clinical and animal studies, such mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Although the disturbance of glucocorticoid and glutamate homeostasis by stress has been well-documented, it has not yet been clarified whether such disturbance by early life stress persists for life. Furthermore, since previous studies have focused on the detection of changes in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, it has not been clarified whether early life stress induced changes in the sensory/motor system. Thus, in this review, we introduce recent studies on functional/structural changes in the somatosensory cortex induced by early life stress. We believe that this review provides new insights into the functional alteration of the somatosensory system induced by early life stress. Such information may have clinical relevance in terms of providing effective therapeutic interventions to early life stressed individuals. PMID:26041988

  16. Auditory-somatosensory integration and cortical plasticity in musical training.

    PubMed

    Pantev, Christo; Lappe, Claudia; Herholz, Sibylle C; Trainor, Laurel

    2009-07-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument requires complex multimodal skills involving simultaneous perception of several sensory modalities: auditory, visual, and somatosensory as well as the motor system. Musical training thus provides an adequate neuroscientific model to study multimodal integration and plasticity in musical training. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of short-term uni- and multimodal musical training on auditory-somatosensory integration and plasticity. Two groups of nonmusicians were musically trained. The first group (sensorimotor-auditory group, SA) learned to play a musical sequence on the piano, whereas the second one (auditory group, A) actively listened to and made judgments about the correctness of the music. The training-induced cortical plasticity effect was assessed by recording musically elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements before and after training. The SA group showed significant enlargement of MMN after training compared to the A group, reflecting greater enhancement of musical representations in auditory cortex after sensorimotor-auditory training compared to mere auditory training. This study demonstrates that the sensorimotor and auditory systems integrate and that this multimodal training causes cortical reorganizational changes in the auditory cortex over and above the changes introduced by auditory training alone.

  17. Objective response detection in an electroencephalogram during somatosensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D M; Tierra-Criollo, C J; Leite, R T; Zayen, E J; Infantosi, A F

    2000-06-01

    Techniques for objective response detection aim to identify the presence of evoked potentials based purely on statistical principles. They have been shown to be potentially more sensitive than the conventional approach of subjective evaluation by experienced clinicians and could be of great clinical use. Three such techniques to detect changes in an electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronous with the stimuli, namely, magnitude-squared coherence (MSC), the phase-synchrony measure (PSM) and the spectral F test (SFT) were applied to EEG signals of 12 normal subjects under conventional somatosensory pulse stimulation to the tibial nerve. The SFT, which uses only the power spectrum, showed the poorest performance, while the PSM, based only on the phase spectrum, gave results almost as good as those of the MSC, which uses both phase and power spectra. With the latter two techniques, stimulus responses were evident in the frequency range of 20-80 Hz in all subjects after 200 stimuli (5 Hz stimulus frequency), whereas for visual recognition at least 500 stimuli are usually applied. Based on these results and on simulations, the phase-based techniques appear promising for the automated detection and monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials.

  18. Decoding Visual Object Categories in Early Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fraser W.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons, even in the earliest sensory areas of cortex, are subject to a great deal of contextual influence from both within and across modality connections. In the present work, we investigated whether the earliest regions of somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2) would contain content-specific information about visual object categories. We reasoned that this might be possible due to the associations formed through experience that link different sensory aspects of a given object. Participants were presented with visual images of different object categories in 2 fMRI experiments. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed reliable decoding of familiar visual object category in bilateral S1 (i.e., postcentral gyri) and right S2. We further show that this decoding is observed for familiar but not unfamiliar visual objects in S1. In addition, whole-brain searchlight decoding analyses revealed several areas in the parietal lobe that could mediate the observed context effects between vision and somatosensation. These results demonstrate that even the first cortical stages of somatosensory processing carry information about the category of visually presented familiar objects. PMID:24122136

  19. Induction of transcription factors in somatosensory cortex after tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mack, K J; Mack, P A

    1992-01-01

    Immediate early response genes have been shown to be inducible in the central nervous system after a variety of stimuli. Induction of these transcription factors in cerebral cortex by a physiological stimulus had not previously been demonstrated. In this study, tactile stimuli induced multiple transcription factors in the somatosensory cortex. Adult male rats were lightly anesthetized with urethane. Tactile stimuli was delivered by a paint brush gently stroking an animals whiskers on one side of its face for a 15 min period. Two h later, the animals were sacrificed. Cortex contralateral to the stimulation was compared with ipsilateral cortex using antibodies raised against immediate early response gene products NGFI-A, NGFI-B, and c-fos. The different transcription factors showed slightly different patterns of response to the tactile stimulus. However, the induction of immunohistochemical staining was most prominent in layer 4 with all antibodies under study. This increase in the number of cell bodies stained was less robust than that seen in the somatosensory cortex after a seizure, and showed more of a predominance in layer 4 cells. These data demonstrate that physiologic stimulation can induce immediate early response genes in cortical cells, and that multiple immediate early response genes react to a stimulus. PMID:1312199

  20. Focal dystonia in musicians: linking motor symptoms to somatosensory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Konczak, Jürgen; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a neurological motor disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles involved in the play of a musical instrument. It is task-specific and initially only impairs the voluntary control of highly practiced musical motor skills. MD can lead to a severe decrement in a musician's ability to perform. While the etiology and the neurological pathomechanism of the disease remain unknown, it is known that MD like others forms of focal dystonia is associated with somatosensory deficits, specifically a decreased precision of tactile and proprioceptive perception. The sensory component of the disease becomes also evident by the patients' use of "sensory tricks" such as touching dystonic muscles to alleviate motor symptoms. The central premise of this paper is that the motor symptoms of MD have a somatosensory origin and are not fully explained as a problem of motor execution. We outline how altered proprioceptive feedback ultimately leads to a loss of voluntary motor control and propose two scenarios that explain why sensory tricks are effective. They are effective, because the sensorimotor system either recruits neural resources normally involved in tactile-proprioceptive (sensory) integration, or utilizes a fully functioning motor efference copy mechanism to align experienced with expected sensory feedback. We argue that an enhanced understanding of how a primary sensory deficit interacts with mechanisms of sensorimotor integration in MD provides helpful insights for the design of more effective behavioral therapies. PMID:23805090

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Primary and Secondary Somatosensory Cortices Transiently Improves Tactile Spatial Discrimination in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Otaka, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Nakayama, Takeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Ragert, Patrick; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In healthy subjects, dual hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortices (S2) has been found to transiently enhance tactile performance. However, the effect of dual hemisphere tDCS on tactile performance in stroke patients with sensory deficits remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dual hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 could enhance tactile discrimination in stroke patients. We employed a double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experimental design. Eight chronic stroke patients with sensory deficits participated in this study. We used a grating orientation task (GOT) to measure the tactile discriminative threshold of the affected and non-affected index fingers before, during, and 10 min after four tDCS conditions. For both the S1 and S2 conditions, we placed an anodal electrode over the lesioned hemisphere and a cathodal electrode over the opposite hemisphere. We applied tDCS at an intensity of 2 mA for 15 min in both S1 and S2 conditions. We included two sham conditions in which the positions of the electrodes and the current intensity were identical to that in the S1 and S2 conditions except that current was delivered for the initial 15 s only. We found that GOT thresholds for the affected index finger during and 10 min after the S1 and S2 conditions were significantly lower compared with each sham condition. GOT thresholds were not significantly different between the S1 and S2 conditions at any time point. We concluded that dual-hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 can transiently enhance tactile discriminative task performance in chronic stroke patients with sensory dysfunction. PMID:27064531

  2. Test-retest reliability of concurrently recorded steady-state and somatosensory evoked potentials in somatosensory sustained spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheuk Yee; Mueller, Matthias M

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the test-retest reliability of sustained spatial attention modulation of steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs) and the N140 component of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Participants attended to one or both hands to perform a target detection task while concurrent mechanical vibrations were presented for 4500ms to both hands in two recording sessions. Results revealed that the amplitude and the attentional modulation of SSSEPs had high test-retest reliability, while the test-retest reliability for the N140 component was low. SSSEPs for stimuli with focused and divided attention had about the same amplitude. For the N140 component only the stimuli with focused attention were significantly enhanced. We found greater habituation effects for the N140 compared to SSSEP amplitudes but attentional modulation was unaffected in both signals. Given the great test-retest reliability of SSSEP amplitude modulation with attention, SSSEPs serve as an excellent tool for studying sustained spatial attention in somatosensation.

  3. Glutamate receptor blockade at cortical synapses disrupts development of thalamocortical and columnar organization in somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K; Schlaggar, B L; Glazewski, S; O'Leary, D D

    1996-01-01

    The segregation of thalamocortical inputs into eye-specific stripes in the developing cat or monkey visual cortex is prevented by manipulations that perturb or abolish neural activity in the visual pathway. Such findings show that proper development of the functional organization of visual cortex is dependent on normal patterns of neural activity. The generalisation of this conclusion to other sensory cortices has been questioned by findings that the segregation of thalamocortical afferents into a somatotopic barrel pattern in developing rodent primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is not prevented by activity blockade. We show that a temporary block of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors in rat S1 during the critical period for barrel development disrupts the topographic refinement of thalamocortical connectivity and columnar organization. These effects are evident well after the blockade is ineffective and thus may be permanent. Our findings show that neural activity and specifically the activation of postsynaptic cortical neurons has a prominent role in establishing the primary sensory map in S1, as well as the topographic organization of higher order synaptic connections. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643619

  4. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind Braille readers

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J.; Lisak, Joy A.; Vargas, Maria G.; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at about 100-ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50-ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25-ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared to 100-micron reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker: 50-Hz, 50-micron; target-masker delays ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged, but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers. PMID:20980584

  5. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind braille readers.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J; Lisak, Joy A; Vargas, Maria G; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-10-27

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at ∼100 ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50 ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25 ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared with 100 μm reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker, 50 Hz, 50 μm; target-masker delays, ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers.

  6. Altered Onset Response Dynamics in Somatosensory Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sheraz; Hashmi, Javeria A; Mamashli, Fahimeh; Bharadwaj, Hari M; Ganesan, Santosh; Michmizos, Konstantinos P; Kitzbichler, Manfred G; Zetino, Manuel; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kenet, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical connectivity and evoked responses have been extensively documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, specific signatures of these cortical abnormalities remain elusive, with data pointing toward abnormal patterns of both increased and reduced response amplitudes and functional connectivity. We have previously proposed, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, that apparent inconsistencies in prior studies could be reconciled if functional connectivity in ASD was reduced in the feedback (top-down) direction, but increased in the feedforward (bottom-up) direction. Here, we continue this line of investigation by assessing abnormalities restricted to the onset, feedforward inputs driven, component of the response to vibrotactile stimuli in somatosensory cortex in ASD. Using a novel method that measures the spatio-temporal divergence of cortical activation, we found that relative to typically developing participants, the ASD group was characterized by an increase in the initial onset component of the cortical response, and a faster spread of local activity. Given the early time window, the results could be interpreted as increased thalamocortical feedforward connectivity in ASD, and offer a plausible mechanism for the previously observed increased response variability in ASD, as well as for the commonly observed behaviorally measured tactile processing abnormalities associated with the disorder.

  7. The effects of localized inactivation of somatosensory cortex, area 3a, on area 2 in cats.

    PubMed

    Porter, L L; Izraeli, R

    1993-01-01

    In cats and primates, area 3a of the somatosensory cortex is the primary recipient of proprioceptive input (Phillips et al., 1971). Neurons in area 3a project to area 2 (Pons and Kaas, 1986; Porter, 1991), where somatic input relayed from the cortex and the thalamus may be integrated (Iwamura and Tanaka, 1978a,c). The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of area 3a input on neuronal activity in area 2 of cats. Extracellular recording techniques were used to identify neurons in area 2 that responded to deep stimulation of the contralateral forepaw. Neurons in area 3a that responded to the same receptive field modality and location as those in area 2 were also isolated. Single-unit or multiunit responses and evoked potentials to electrical stimulation of the shared peripheral receptive field and spontaneous activity were recorded from areas 2 and 3a. Lidocaine, a local anesthetic, was injected at the area 3a recording site to block neuronal activity. Spontaneous activity and receptive fields were abolished and evoked potentials were considerably diminished at the injection site, immediately after lidocaine was administered. Changes in unit responses, spontaneous activity, and evoked potentials in area 2 were monitored following inactivation of the somatotopically "matched" site in area 3a. Unit activity was recorded at 15 matched sites. In area 2, changes in unit responses to the peripheral stimulation and/or in spontaneous activity were observed at most of the recording sites following inactivation of area 3a. Spontaneous activity rates changed at 63% of the sites (mean change = 85%). Unit responses to the peripheral stimulation changed at 57% of the recording sites (mean change = 47%). The remaining sites in area 2 did not show lidocaine-induced changes. These sites may not have been connected with the matched sites in area 3a. Spontaneous activity and unit responses were not always similarly altered at a given site; sometimes one increased while

  8. Distinct vestibular effects on early and late somatosensory cortical processing in humans.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christian; van Elk, Michiel; Bernasconi, Fosco; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-01-15

    In non-human primates several brain areas contain neurons that respond to both vestibular and somatosensory stimulation. In humans, vestibular stimulation activates several somatosensory brain regions and improves tactile perception. However, less is known about the spatio-temporal dynamics of such vestibular-somatosensory interactions in the human brain. To address this issue, we recorded high-density electroencephalography during left median nerve electrical stimulation to obtain Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs). We analyzed SEPs during vestibular activation following sudden decelerations from constant-velocity (90°/s and 60°/s) earth-vertical axis yaw rotations and SEPs during a non-vestibular control period. SEP analysis revealed two distinct temporal effects of vestibular activation: An early effect (28-32ms post-stimulus) characterized by vestibular suppression of SEP response strength that depended on rotation velocity and a later effect (97-112ms post-stimulus) characterized by vestibular modulation of SEP topographical pattern that was rotation velocity-independent. Source estimation localized these vestibular effects, during both time periods, to activation differences in a distributed cortical network including the right postcentral gyrus, right insula, left precuneus, and bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex. These results suggest that vestibular-somatosensory interactions in humans depend on processing in specific time periods in somatosensory and vestibular cortical regions.

  9. Distinct vestibular effects on early and late somatosensory cortical processing in humans.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christian; van Elk, Michiel; Bernasconi, Fosco; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-01-15

    In non-human primates several brain areas contain neurons that respond to both vestibular and somatosensory stimulation. In humans, vestibular stimulation activates several somatosensory brain regions and improves tactile perception. However, less is known about the spatio-temporal dynamics of such vestibular-somatosensory interactions in the human brain. To address this issue, we recorded high-density electroencephalography during left median nerve electrical stimulation to obtain Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs). We analyzed SEPs during vestibular activation following sudden decelerations from constant-velocity (90°/s and 60°/s) earth-vertical axis yaw rotations and SEPs during a non-vestibular control period. SEP analysis revealed two distinct temporal effects of vestibular activation: An early effect (28-32ms post-stimulus) characterized by vestibular suppression of SEP response strength that depended on rotation velocity and a later effect (97-112ms post-stimulus) characterized by vestibular modulation of SEP topographical pattern that was rotation velocity-independent. Source estimation localized these vestibular effects, during both time periods, to activation differences in a distributed cortical network including the right postcentral gyrus, right insula, left precuneus, and bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex. These results suggest that vestibular-somatosensory interactions in humans depend on processing in specific time periods in somatosensory and vestibular cortical regions. PMID:26466979

  10. Vestibular and Somatosensory Covergence in Postural Equilibrium Control: Insights from Spaceflight and Bed Rest Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    resulting from prolonged bed-rest impacts functional performance particularly for tests with a greater requirement for postural equilibrium control. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrement in tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. These data also support the concept that space flight may cause central adaptation of converging body-load somatosensory and vestibular input during gravitational transitions.

  11. Dual function conducting polymer diodes

    DOEpatents

    Heeger, Alan J.; Yu, Gang

    1996-01-01

    Dual function diodes based on conjugated organic polymer active layers are disclosed. When positively biased the diodes function as light emitters. When negatively biased they are highly efficient photodiodes. Methods of preparation and use of these diodes in displays and input/output devices are also disclosed.

  12. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S.; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  13. Predicting spike occurrence and neuronal responsiveness from LFPs in primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Storchi, Riccardo; Zippo, Antonio G; Caramenti, Gian Carlo; Valente, Maurizio; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2012-01-01

    Local Field Potentials (LFPs) integrate multiple neuronal events like synaptic inputs and intracellular potentials. LFP spatiotemporal features are particularly relevant in view of their applications both in research (e.g. for understanding brain rhythms, inter-areal neural communication and neuronal coding) and in the clinics (e.g. for improving invasive Brain-Machine Interface devices). However the relation between LFPs and spikes is complex and not fully understood. As spikes represent the fundamental currency of neuronal communication this gap in knowledge strongly limits our comprehension of neuronal phenomena underlying LFPs. We investigated the LFP-spike relation during tactile stimulation in primary somatosensory (S-I) cortex in the rat. First we quantified how reliably LFPs and spikes code for a stimulus occurrence. Then we used the information obtained from our analyses to design a predictive model for spike occurrence based on LFP inputs. The model was endowed with a flexible meta-structure whose exact form, both in parameters and structure, was estimated by using a multi-objective optimization strategy. Our method provided a set of nonlinear simple equations that maximized the match between models and true neurons in terms of spike timings and Peri Stimulus Time Histograms. We found that both LFPs and spikes can code for stimulus occurrence with millisecond precision, showing, however, high variability. Spike patterns were predicted significantly above chance for 75% of the neurons analysed. Crucially, the level of prediction accuracy depended on the reliability in coding for the stimulus occurrence. The best predictions were obtained when both spikes and LFPs were highly responsive to the stimuli. Spike reliability is known to depend on neuron intrinsic properties (i.e. on channel noise) and on spontaneous local network fluctuations. Our results suggest that the latter, measured through the LFP response variability, play a dominant role. PMID:22586452

  14. Microglia contact induces synapse formation in developing somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Akiko; Wake, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Ayako Wendy; Eto, Kei; Shibata, Keisuke; Murakoshi, Hideji; Koizumi, Schuichi; Moorhouse, Andrew J.; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Nabekura, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system that play important roles in brain pathologies. Microglia also help shape neuronal circuits during development, via phagocytosing weak synapses and regulating neurogenesis. Using in vivo multiphoton imaging of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the developing somatosensory cortex, we demonstrate here that microglial contact with dendrites directly induces filopodia formation. This filopodia formation occurs only around postnatal day 8–10, a period of intense synaptogenesis and when microglia have an activated phenotype. Filopodia formation is preceded by contact-induced Ca2+ transients and actin accumulation. Inhibition of microglia by genetic ablation decreases subsequent spine density, functional excitatory synapses and reduces the relative connectivity from layer 4 neurons. Our data provide the direct demonstration of microglial-induced spine formation and provide further insights into immune system regulation of neuronal circuit development, with potential implications for developmental disorders of immune and brain dysfunction. PMID:27558646

  15. Perceiving Invisible Light through a Somatosensory Cortical Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Eric E.; Carra, Rafael; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory neuroprostheses show great potential for alleviating major sensory deficits. It is not known, however, whether such devices can augment the subject’s normal perceptual range. Here we show that adult rats can learn to perceive otherwise invisible infrared (IR) light through a neuroprosthesis that couples the output of a head-mounted IR sensor to their somatosensory cortex (S1) via intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). Rats readily learn to use this new information source, and generate active exploratory strategies to discriminate among IR sources in their environment. S1 neurons in these IR-perceiving rats respond to both whisker deflection and ICMS, suggesting that the IR representation does not displace the original tactile representation. Hence, sensory cortical prostheses, in addition to restoring normal neurological functions, may serve to expand natural perceptual capabilities in mammals. PMID:23403583

  16. Somatosensory and hypothalamic inhibitions of baroreflex vagal bradycardia in rats.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, S; Nakase, N; Murata, K

    1989-04-01

    Somatosensory and forebrain mechanisms inhibiting arterial baroreflexes were investigated in chloralose-urethane anesthetized and artificially ventilated rats. Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (ScN) and the hypothalamic pressor area (HP) suppressed baroreflex vagal bradycardia (BVB) and hypotension provoked by electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN). Suppression of BVB was more marked, but inhibitory potencies of ScN and HP were not different. These two inhibitions were considered to have a functional implication in common, since both were accompanied by increase in hindlimb vascular conductance. A variety of experiments were conducted to localize the target site of ScN and HP inhibitions of BVB. Either ScN or HP stimulations was without effect on antidromic compound spike potentials along ADN evoked by microstimulation of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), precluding the possibility of these inhibitions being presynaptic. Both ScN and HP stimulation suppressed ADN-induced field potentials in the NA region which provoked vagal bradycardia upon microstimulation, but failed to affect ADN-induced responses, either field or unitary, in the NTS region. Antidromic unitary responses in the NA region to vagus cardiac branch stimulation were suppressed by ScN and HP stimulations in NTS-lesioned rats. Intracisternal bicuculline, a GABA antagonist, was found to abolish both ScN and HP inhibitions of BVB, while intracisternal muscimol, a GABA agonist, eliminated bradycardia. These findings suggest that somatosensory and forebrain inhibition of BVB occur principally at the preganglionic cell level and are probably mediated by a GABAergic mechanism. PMID:2726429

  17. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenmuller, Florence; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Walitza, Susanne; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20) high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the first study investigating SEPs in a population at risk for developing psychoses. Median nerve SEPs were investigated using multichannel EEG in individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorders (n = 25), individuals with high-risk status (n = 59) and ultra-high-risk status for schizophrenia (n = 73) and a gender and age-matched control group (n = 45). Strengths and latencies of low- and high-frequency components as estimated by dipole source analysis were compared between groups. Low- and high-frequency source activity was reduced in both groups at risk for schizophrenia, in comparison to the group at risk for bipolar disorders. HFO amplitudes were also significant reduced in subjects with high-risk status for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. These differences were accentuated among cannabis non-users. Reduced N20 source strengths were related to higher positive symptom load. These results suggest that the risk for schizophrenia, in contrast to bipolar disorders, may involve an impairment of early cerebral somatosensory processing. Neurophysiologic alterations in schizophrenia precede the onset of initial psychotic episode and may serve as indicator of vulnerability for developing schizophrenia. PMID:25309363

  18. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses.

    PubMed

    Hagenmuller, Florence; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Walitza, Susanne; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20) high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the first study investigating SEPs in a population at risk for developing psychoses. Median nerve SEPs were investigated using multichannel EEG in individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorders (n = 25), individuals with high-risk status (n = 59) and ultra-high-risk status for schizophrenia (n = 73) and a gender and age-matched control group (n = 45). Strengths and latencies of low- and high-frequency components as estimated by dipole source analysis were compared between groups. Low- and high-frequency source activity was reduced in both groups at risk for schizophrenia, in comparison to the group at risk for bipolar disorders. HFO amplitudes were also significant reduced in subjects with high-risk status for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. These differences were accentuated among cannabis non-users. Reduced N20 source strengths were related to higher positive symptom load. These results suggest that the risk for schizophrenia, in contrast to bipolar disorders, may involve an impairment of early cerebral somatosensory processing. Neurophysiologic alterations in schizophrenia precede the onset of initial psychotic episode and may serve as indicator of vulnerability for developing schizophrenia. PMID:25309363

  19. Atypical visual and somatosensory adaptation in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, G N; Butler, J S; Peters, G A; Molholm, S; Foxe, J J

    2016-01-01

    Neurophysiological investigations in patients with schizophrenia consistently show early sensory processing deficits in the visual system. Importantly, comparable sensory deficits have also been established in healthy first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia and in first-episode drug-naive patients. The clear implication is that these measures are endophenotypic, related to the underlying genetic liability for schizophrenia. However, there is significant overlap between patient response distributions and those of healthy individuals without affected first-degree relatives. Here we sought to develop more sensitive measures of sensory dysfunction in this population, with an eye to establishing endophenotypic markers with better predictive capabilities. We used a sensory adaptation paradigm in which electrophysiological responses to basic visual and somatosensory stimuli presented at different rates (ranging from 250 to 2550 ms interstimulus intervals, in blocked presentations) were compared. Our main hypothesis was that adaptation would be substantially diminished in schizophrenia, and that this would be especially prevalent in the visual system. High-density event-related potential recordings showed amplitude reductions in sensory adaptation in patients with schizophrenia (N=15 Experiment 1, N=12 Experiment 2) compared with age-matched healthy controls (N=15 Experiment 1, N=12 Experiment 2), and this was seen for both sensory modalities. At the individual participant level, reduced adaptation was more robust for visual compared with somatosensory stimulation. These results point to significant impairments in short-term sensory plasticity across sensory modalities in schizophrenia. These simple-to-execute measures may prove valuable as candidate endophenotypes and will bear follow-up in future work. PMID:27163205

  20. Representation of Afferent Signals from Forearm Muscle and Cutaneous Nerves in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of the Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Yaguchi, Hiroaki; Tomatsu, Saeka; Takei, Tomohiko; Oya, Tomomichi

    2016-01-01

    Proprioception is one’s overall sense of the relative positions and movements of the various parts of one’s body. The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is involved in generating the proprioception by receiving peripheral sensory inputs from both cutaneous and muscle afferents. In particular, area 3a receives input from muscle afferents and areas 3b and 1 from cutaneous afferents. However, segregation of two sensory inputs to these cortical areas has not been evaluated quantitatively because of methodological difficulties in distinguishing the incoming signals. To overcome this, we applied electrical stimulation separately to two forearm nerves innervating muscle (deep radial nerve) and skin (superficial radial nerve), and examined the spatiotemporal distribution of sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in SI of anaesthetized macaques. The SEPs arising from the deep radial nerve were observed exclusively at the bottom of central sulcus (CS), which was identified as area 3a using histological reconstruction. In contrast, SEPs evoked by stimulation of the superficial radial nerve were observed in the superficial part of SI, identified as areas 3b and 1. In addition to these earlier, larger potentials, we also found small and slightly delayed SEPs evoked by cutaneous nerve stimulation in area 3a. Coexistence of the SEPs from both deep and superficial radial nerves suggests that area 3a could integrate muscle and cutaneous signals to shape proprioception. PMID:27701434

  1. Aggregate input-output models of neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shreya; Schieber, Marc H; Thakor, Nitish V; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2012-07-01

    An extraordinary amount of electrophysiological data has been collected from various brain nuclei to help us understand how neural activity in one region influences another region. In this paper, we exploit the point process modeling (PPM) framework and describe a method for constructing aggregate input-output (IO) stochastic models that predict spiking activity of a population of neurons in the "output" region as a function of the spiking activity of a population of neurons in the "input" region. We first build PPMs of each output neuron as a function of all input neurons, and then cluster the output neurons using the model parameters. Output neurons that lie within the same cluster have the same functional dependence on the input neurons. We first applied our method to simulated data, and successfully uncovered the predetermined relationship between the two regions. We then applied our method to experimental data to understand the input-output relationship between motor cortical neurons and 1) somatosensory and 2) premotor cortical neurons during a behavioral task. Our aggregate IO models highlighted interesting physiological dependences including relative effects of inhibition/excitation from input neurons and extrinsic factors on output neurons.

  2. Somatosensory Representations Link the Perception of Emotional Expressions and Sensory Experience123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies of human emotion perception have linked a distributed set of brain regions to the recognition of emotion in facial, vocal, and body expressions. In particular, lesions to somatosensory cortex in the right hemisphere have been shown to impair recognition of facial and vocal expressions of emotion. Although these findings suggest that somatosensory cortex represents body states associated with distinct emotions, such as a furrowed brow or gaping jaw, functional evidence directly linking somatosensory activity and subjective experience during emotion perception is critically lacking. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate decoding techniques, we show that perceiving vocal and facial expressions of emotion yields hemodynamic activity in right somatosensory cortex that discriminates among emotion categories, exhibits somatotopic organization, and tracks self-reported sensory experience. The findings both support embodied accounts of emotion and provide mechanistic insight into how emotional expressions are capable of biasing subjective experience in those who perceive them. PMID:27280154

  3. Native Piezo2 Interactomics Identifies Pericentrin as a Novel Regulator of Piezo2 in Somatosensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Pratibha; Sondermann, Julia; Rouwette, Tom; Karaca, Samir; Urlaub, Henning; Mitkovski, Mišo; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2016-08-01

    The ability of somatosensory neurons to perceive mechanical stimuli relies on specialized mechanotransducing proteins and their molecular environment. Only recently has the identity of a major transducer of mechanical forces in vertebrates been revealed by the discovery of Piezo2. Further work has established its pivotal role for innocuous touch in mice. Therefore, Piezo2 offers a unique platform for the molecular investigation of somatosensory mechanosensation. We performed a mass spectrometry-based interactomics screen on native Piezo2 in somatosensory neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Stringent and quantitative data analysis yielded the identity of 36 novel binding partners of Piezo2. The biological significance of this data set is reflected by functional experiments demonstrating a role for Pericentrin in modulating Piezo2 activity and membrane expression in somatosensory neurons. Collectively, our findings provide a framework for understanding Piezo2 physiology and serve as a rich resource for the molecular dissection of mouse somatosensation. PMID:27345391

  4. Native Piezo2 Interactomics Identifies Pericentrin as a Novel Regulator of Piezo2 in Somatosensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Pratibha; Sondermann, Julia; Rouwette, Tom; Karaca, Samir; Urlaub, Henning; Mitkovski, Mišo; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2016-08-01

    The ability of somatosensory neurons to perceive mechanical stimuli relies on specialized mechanotransducing proteins and their molecular environment. Only recently has the identity of a major transducer of mechanical forces in vertebrates been revealed by the discovery of Piezo2. Further work has established its pivotal role for innocuous touch in mice. Therefore, Piezo2 offers a unique platform for the molecular investigation of somatosensory mechanosensation. We performed a mass spectrometry-based interactomics screen on native Piezo2 in somatosensory neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Stringent and quantitative data analysis yielded the identity of 36 novel binding partners of Piezo2. The biological significance of this data set is reflected by functional experiments demonstrating a role for Pericentrin in modulating Piezo2 activity and membrane expression in somatosensory neurons. Collectively, our findings provide a framework for understanding Piezo2 physiology and serve as a rich resource for the molecular dissection of mouse somatosensation.

  5. Subjective Somatosensory Experiences Disclosed by Focused Attention: Cortical-Hippocampal-Insular and Amygdala Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Clemens C. C.; Barrios, Fernando A.; Díaz, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the neurobiological foundations of qualitative subjective experiences, the present study was designed to correlate objective third-person brain fMRI measures with subjective first-person identification and scaling of local, subtle, and specific somatosensory sensations, obtained directly after the imaging procedure. Thus, thirty-four volunteers were instructed to focus and sustain their attention to either provoked or spontaneous sensations of each thumb during the fMRI procedure. By means of a Likert scale applied immediately afterwards, the participants recalled and evaluated the intensity of their attention and identified specific somatosensory sensations (e.g. pulsation, vibration, heat). Using the subject's subjective scores as covariates to model both attention intensity and general somatosensory experiences regressors, the whole-brain random effect analyses revealed activations in the frontopolar prefrontal cortex (BA10), primary somatosensory cortex (BA1), premotor cortex (BA 6), precuneus (BA 7), temporopolar cortex (BA 38), inferior parietal lobe (BA 39), hippocampus, insula and amygdala. Furthermore, BA10 showed differential activity, with ventral BA10 correlating exclusively with attention (r(32) = 0.54, p = 0.0013) and dorsal BA10 correlating exclusively with somatosensory sensation (r(32) = 0.46, p = 0.007). All other reported brain areas showed significant positive correlations solely with subjective somatosensory experiences reports. These results provide evidence that the frontopolar prefrontal cortex has dissociable functions depending on specific cognitive demands; i.e. the dorsal portion of the frontopolar prefrontal cortex in conjunction with primary somatosensory cortex, temporopolar cortex, inferior parietal lobe, hippocampus, insula and amygdala are involved in the processing of spontaneous general subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused and sustained attention. PMID:25166875

  6. Somatosensory Experiences with Action Modulate Alpha and Beta Power during Subsequent Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.; Bouquet, Cedric A.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    How does prior experience with action change how we perceive a similar action performed by someone else? Previous research has examined the role of sensorimotor and visual experiences in action mirroring during subsequent observation, but the contribution of somatosensory experiences to this effect has not been adequately examined. The current study tests whether prior somatosensory stimulation experienced during action production modulates brain activity during observation of similar actions being performed by others. Specifically, changes in alpha- and beta-range oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during observation of reaching actions were examined in relation to the observer’s own prior experience of somatosensory stimulation while carrying out similar actions. Analyses revealed that alpha power over central electrodes was significantly decreased during observation of an action expected to result in somatosensory stimulation. Conversely, beta power was increased when an observed action was expected to result in somatosensory stimulation. These results suggest that somatosensory experiences may uniquely contribute to the way in which we process others people’s actions. PMID:23994217

  7. Somatosensory assessment and conditioned pain modulation in temporomandibular disorders pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Simple Futarmal; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Oono, Yuka; Svensson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The pathophysiology and underlying pain mechanisms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are poorly understood. The aims were to assess somatosensory function at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and to examine whether conditioned pain modulation (CPM) differs between TMD pain patients (n = 34) and healthy controls (n = 34). Quantitative sensory testing was used to assess the somatosensory function. Z-scores were calculated for patients based on reference data. Conditioned pain modulation was tested by comparing pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) before, during, and after the application of painful and nonpainful cold stimuli. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at the most painful TMJ and thenar muscle (control). Data were analyzed with analyses of variance. Most (85.3%) of the patients exhibited at least 1 or more somatosensory abnormalities at the most painful TMJ with somatosensory gain with regard to PPT and punctate mechanical pain stimuli, and somatosensory loss with regard to mechanical detection and vibration detection stimuli as the most frequent abnormalities. There was a significant CPM effect (increased PPT) at both test sites during painful cold application in healthy controls and patients (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the relative CPM effect during painful cold application between groups (P = 0.227). In conclusion, somatosensory abnormalities were commonly detected in TMD pain patients and CPM effects were similar in TMD pain patients and healthy controls. PMID:26307861

  8. Somatosensory assessment and conditioned pain modulation in temporomandibular disorders pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Simple Futarmal; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Oono, Yuka; Svensson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The pathophysiology and underlying pain mechanisms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are poorly understood. The aims were to assess somatosensory function at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and to examine whether conditioned pain modulation (CPM) differs between TMD pain patients (n = 34) and healthy controls (n = 34). Quantitative sensory testing was used to assess the somatosensory function. Z-scores were calculated for patients based on reference data. Conditioned pain modulation was tested by comparing pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) before, during, and after the application of painful and nonpainful cold stimuli. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at the most painful TMJ and thenar muscle (control). Data were analyzed with analyses of variance. Most (85.3%) of the patients exhibited at least 1 or more somatosensory abnormalities at the most painful TMJ with somatosensory gain with regard to PPT and punctate mechanical pain stimuli, and somatosensory loss with regard to mechanical detection and vibration detection stimuli as the most frequent abnormalities. There was a significant CPM effect (increased PPT) at both test sites during painful cold application in healthy controls and patients (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the relative CPM effect during painful cold application between groups (P = 0.227). In conclusion, somatosensory abnormalities were commonly detected in TMD pain patients and CPM effects were similar in TMD pain patients and healthy controls.

  9. Reduction of Pain Sensitivity After Somatosensory Therapy in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Zamorano, Anna; Montoya, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pain and deficits in somatosensory processing seem to play a relevant role in cerebral palsy (CP). Rehabilitation techniques based on neuroplasticity mechanisms may induce powerful changes in the organization of the primary somatosensory cortex and have been proved to reduce levels of pain and discomfort in neurological pathologies. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions for pain sensitivity in CP individuals. Methods: Adults with CP participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 17) or the control group (n = 20). The intervention group received a somatosensory therapy including four types of exercises (touch, proprioception, vibration, and stereognosis). All participants were asked to continue their standardized motor therapy during the study period. Several somatosensory (pain and touch thresholds, stereognosis, proprioception, texture recognition) and motor parameters (fine motor skills) were assessed before, immediately after and 3 months after the therapy (follow-up). Results: Participants of the intervention group showed a significant reduction on pain sensitivity after treatment and at follow-up after 3 months, whereas participants in the control group displayed increasing pain sensitivity over time. No improvements were found on touch sensitivity, proprioception, texture recognition, or fine motor skills. Conclusion: Data suggest the possibility that somatosensory therapy was effective in eliciting changes in central somatosensory processing. This hypothesis may have implications for future neuromodulatory treatment of pain complaints in children and adults with CP. PMID:23805086

  10. Granger causal time-dependent source connectivity in the somatosensory network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lin; Sommerlade, Linda; Coffman, Brian; Zhang, Tongsheng; Stephen, Julia M.; Li, Dichen; Wang, Jue; Grebogi, Celso; Schelter, Bjoern

    2015-05-01

    Exploration of transient Granger causal interactions in neural sources of electrophysiological activities provides deeper insights into brain information processing mechanisms. However, the underlying neural patterns are confounded by time-dependent dynamics, non-stationarity and observational noise contamination. Here we investigate transient Granger causal interactions using source time-series of somatosensory evoked magnetoencephalographic (MEG) elicited by air puff stimulation of right index finger and recorded using 306-channel MEG from 21 healthy subjects. A new time-varying connectivity approach, combining renormalised partial directed coherence with state space modelling, is employed to estimate fast changing information flow among the sources. Source analysis confirmed that somatosensory evoked MEG was mainly generated from the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and bilateral secondary somatosensory cortices (SII). Transient Granger causality shows a serial processing of somatosensory information, 1) from contralateral SI to contralateral SII, 2) from contralateral SI to ipsilateral SII, 3) from contralateral SII to contralateral SI, and 4) from contralateral SII to ipsilateral SII. These results are consistent with established anatomical connectivity between somatosensory regions and previous source modeling results, thereby providing empirical validation of the time-varying connectivity analysis. We argue that the suggested approach provides novel information regarding transient cortical dynamic connectivity, which previous approaches could not assess.

  11. Development of Human Somatosensory Cortical Functions - What have We Learned from Magnetoencephalography: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Päivi; Lauronen, Leena; Pihko, Elina

    2014-01-01

    The mysteries of early development of cortical processing in humans have started to unravel with the help of new non-invasive brain research tools like multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this review, we evaluate, within a wider neuroscientific and clinical context, the value of MEG in studying normal and disturbed functional development of the human somatosensory system. The combination of excellent temporal resolution and good localization accuracy provided by MEG has, in the case of somatosensory studies, enabled the differentiation of activation patterns from the newborn's primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) areas. Furthermore, MEG has shown that the functioning of both SI and SII in newborns has particular immature features in comparison with adults. In extremely preterm infants, the neonatal MEG response from SII also seems to potentially predict developmental outcome: those lacking SII responses at term show worse motor performance at age 2 years than those with normal SII responses at term. In older children with unilateral early brain lesions, bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical activation detected in MEG imply that the impact of a localized insult may have an unexpectedly wide effect on cortical somatosensory networks. The achievements over the last decade show that MEG provides a unique approach for studying the development of the somatosensory system and its disturbances in childhood. MEG well complements other neuroimaging methods in studies of cortical processes in the developing brain.

  12. Granger causal time-dependent source connectivity in the somatosensory network.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Sommerlade, Linda; Coffman, Brian; Zhang, Tongsheng; Stephen, Julia M; Li, Dichen; Wang, Jue; Grebogi, Celso; Schelter, Bjoern

    2015-05-21

    Exploration of transient Granger causal interactions in neural sources of electrophysiological activities provides deeper insights into brain information processing mechanisms. However, the underlying neural patterns are confounded by time-dependent dynamics, non-stationarity and observational noise contamination. Here we investigate transient Granger causal interactions using source time-series of somatosensory evoked magnetoencephalographic (MEG) elicited by air puff stimulation of right index finger and recorded using 306-channel MEG from 21 healthy subjects. A new time-varying connectivity approach, combining renormalised partial directed coherence with state space modelling, is employed to estimate fast changing information flow among the sources. Source analysis confirmed that somatosensory evoked MEG was mainly generated from the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and bilateral secondary somatosensory cortices (SII). Transient Granger causality shows a serial processing of somatosensory information, 1) from contralateral SI to contralateral SII, 2) from contralateral SI to ipsilateral SII, 3) from contralateral SII to contralateral SI, and 4) from contralateral SII to ipsilateral SII. These results are consistent with established anatomical connectivity between somatosensory regions and previous source modeling results, thereby providing empirical validation of the time-varying connectivity analysis. We argue that the suggested approach provides novel information regarding transient cortical dynamic connectivity, which previous approaches could not assess.

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques to study the somatosensory system: research applications.

    PubMed

    Staines, W Richard; Bolton, David A E

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of brain stimulation research techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has greatly advanced the understanding of the somatosensory system in humans. Over the last several years, several studies have focused on applying TMS in a variety of contexts to alter transiently the excitability of the somatosensory cortex or regions that project to it and exert some control over its activity in specific behavioral contexts. Specific foci that are discussed in this chapter are methods of repetitive TMS, including theta-burst protocols, delivered to the primary somatosensory cortex that have been shown to affect behavioral indices of somatic sensation such as tactile perception. Similar stimulation techniques can also be applied to distant areas that interact with and modulate activity in somatosensory cortex (i.e., attentional or motor networks). For example, suppression of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modifies the attention-modulation of somatosensory information in modality-specific cortices. Overall this chapter is focused on understanding the interaction of activity in systems that function with the somatosensory system in behavioral contexts. These include systems such as those that control attention, whether sustained or selective between sensory modalities, or those that control movement based on targets present in other sensory systems. PMID:24112932

  14. Distinct Excitation to Pulpal Stimuli between Somatosensory and Insular Cortices.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Shirakawa, T; Koshikawa, N; Kobayashi, M

    2016-02-01

    Somatosensory information from the dental pulp is processed in the primary (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and in the insular oral region (IOR). Stimulation of maxillary incisor and molar initially induces excitation in S2/IOR, rostrodorsal to the mandibular incisor and molar pulp-responding regions. Although S1 and S2/IOR play their own roles in nociceptive information processing, the anatomical and physiological differences in the temporal activation kinetics, dependency on stimulation intensity, and additive or summative effects of simultaneous pulpal stimulation are still unknown. This information contributes not only to understanding topographical organization but also to speculating about the roles of S1 and S2/IOR in clinical aspects of pain regulation. In vivo optical imaging enables investigation of the spatiotemporal profiles of cortical excitation with high resolution. We determined the distinct features of optical responses to nociceptive stimulation of dental pulps between S1 and S2/IOR. In comparison to S1, optical signals in S2/IOR showed a larger amplitude with a shorter rise time and a longer decay time responding to maxillary molar pulp stimulation. The latency of excitation in S2/IOR was shorter than in S1. S2/IOR exhibited a lower threshold to evoke optical responses than S1, and the peak amplitude was larger in S2/IOR than in S1. Unexpectedly, the topography of S1 that responded to maxillary and mandibular incisor and molar pulps overlapped with the most ventral sites in S1 that was densely stained with cytochrome oxidase. An additive effect was observed in both S1 and S2/IOR after simultaneous stimulation of bilateral maxillary molar pulps but not after contralateral maxillary and mandibular molar pulp stimulation. These findings suggest that S2/IOR is more sensitive for detecting dental pulp sensation and codes stimulation intensity more precisely than S1. In addition, contra- and ipsilateral dental pulp nociception converges

  15. Control of Somatosensory Cortical Processing by Thalamic Posterior Medial Nucleus: A New Role of Thalamus in Cortical Function.

    PubMed

    Castejon, Carlos; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge of thalamocortical interaction comes mainly from studying lemniscal thalamic systems. Less is known about paralemniscal thalamic nuclei function. In the vibrissae system, the posterior medial nucleus (POm) is the corresponding paralemniscal nucleus. POm neurons project to L1 and L5A of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in the rat brain. It is known that L1 modifies sensory-evoked responses through control of intracortical excitability suggesting that L1 exerts an influence on whisker responses. Therefore, thalamocortical pathways targeting L1 could modulate cortical firing. Here, using a combination of electrophysiology and pharmacology in vivo, we have sought to determine how POm influences cortical processing. In our experiments, single unit recordings performed in urethane-anesthetized rats showed that POm imposes precise control on the magnitude and duration of supra- and infragranular barrel cortex whisker responses. Our findings demonstrated that L1 inputs from POm imposed a time and intensity dependent regulation on cortical sensory processing. Moreover, we found that blocking L1 GABAergic inhibition or blocking P/Q-type Ca2+ channels in L1 prevents POm adjustment of whisker responses in the barrel cortex. Additionally, we found that POm was also controlling the sensory processing in S2 and this regulation was modulated by corticofugal activity from L5 in S1. Taken together, our data demonstrate the determinant role exerted by the POm in the adjustment of somatosensory cortical processing and in the regulation of cortical processing between S1 and S2. We propose that this adjustment could be a thalamocortical gain regulation mechanism also present in the processing of information between cortical areas.

  16. Control of Somatosensory Cortical Processing by Thalamic Posterior Medial Nucleus: A New Role of Thalamus in Cortical Function

    PubMed Central

    Castejon, Carlos; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge of thalamocortical interaction comes mainly from studying lemniscal thalamic systems. Less is known about paralemniscal thalamic nuclei function. In the vibrissae system, the posterior medial nucleus (POm) is the corresponding paralemniscal nucleus. POm neurons project to L1 and L5A of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in the rat brain. It is known that L1 modifies sensory-evoked responses through control of intracortical excitability suggesting that L1 exerts an influence on whisker responses. Therefore, thalamocortical pathways targeting L1 could modulate cortical firing. Here, using a combination of electrophysiology and pharmacology in vivo, we have sought to determine how POm influences cortical processing. In our experiments, single unit recordings performed in urethane-anesthetized rats showed that POm imposes precise control on the magnitude and duration of supra- and infragranular barrel cortex whisker responses. Our findings demonstrated that L1 inputs from POm imposed a time and intensity dependent regulation on cortical sensory processing. Moreover, we found that blocking L1 GABAergic inhibition or blocking P/Q-type Ca2+ channels in L1 prevents POm adjustment of whisker responses in the barrel cortex. Additionally, we found that POm was also controlling the sensory processing in S2 and this regulation was modulated by corticofugal activity from L5 in S1. Taken together, our data demonstrate the determinant role exerted by the POm in the adjustment of somatosensory cortical processing and in the regulation of cortical processing between S1 and S2. We propose that this adjustment could be a thalamocortical gain regulation mechanism also present in the processing of information between cortical areas. PMID:26820514

  17. Altered expression of neuropeptides in the primary somatosensory cortex of the Down syndrome model Ts65Dn.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Samuel; Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nácher, Juan; Varea, Emilio

    2012-02-01

    Down syndrome is the most common genetic disorder associated with mental retardation. Subjects and mice models for Down syndrome (such as Ts65Dn) show defects in the formation of neuronal networks in both the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. The principal neurons display alterations in the morphology, density and distribution of dendritic spines in the cortex as well as in the hippocampus. Several evidences point to the possibility that the atrophy observed in principal neurons could be mediated by changes in their inhibitory inputs and, in fact, an imbalance between excitation and inhibition has been observed in Ts65Dn mice in these regions, which are crucial for learning and information processing. These animals have an increased density of interneurons in the primary somatosensory cortex, especially of those expressing calretinin and calbindin D-28k. Here, we have analysed the expression and distribution of several neuropeptides in the primary somatosensory cortex of Ts65Dn mice in order to investigate whether these subpopulations of interneurons are affected. We have observed an increase in the total density of somatostatin expressing interneurons and of those expressing VIP in layer IV in Ts65Dn mice. The typology of the somatostatin and VIP interneurons was unaltered as attested by the pattern of co-expression with other markers. Somatostatin immunoreactive neurons co-express mainly D-28k calbindin and VIP expressing interneurons maintain its pattern of co-expression with calcium binding proteins. These alterations, in case they were also present in subjects with Down syndrome, could be related to their impairment in cognitive profile and could be involved in the neurological defects observed in this disorder.

  18. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan J; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Castro, Isabel; Alley, Maurice R; Birkhead, Tim R; Parsons, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes), Apterygidae (kiwi), and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills) have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles) within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae) and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae), non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae). We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae). Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid bill

  19. Control of Somatosensory Cortical Processing by Thalamic Posterior Medial Nucleus: A New Role of Thalamus in Cortical Function.

    PubMed

    Castejon, Carlos; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge of thalamocortical interaction comes mainly from studying lemniscal thalamic systems. Less is known about paralemniscal thalamic nuclei function. In the vibrissae system, the posterior medial nucleus (POm) is the corresponding paralemniscal nucleus. POm neurons project to L1 and L5A of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in the rat brain. It is known that L1 modifies sensory-evoked responses through control of intracortical excitability suggesting that L1 exerts an influence on whisker responses. Therefore, thalamocortical pathways targeting L1 could modulate cortical firing. Here, using a combination of electrophysiology and pharmacology in vivo, we have sought to determine how POm influences cortical processing. In our experiments, single unit recordings performed in urethane-anesthetized rats showed that POm imposes precise control on the magnitude and duration of supra- and infragranular barrel cortex whisker responses. Our findings demonstrated that L1 inputs from POm imposed a time and intensity dependent regulation on cortical sensory processing. Moreover, we found that blocking L1 GABAergic inhibition or blocking P/Q-type Ca2+ channels in L1 prevents POm adjustment of whisker responses in the barrel cortex. Additionally, we found that POm was also controlling the sensory processing in S2 and this regulation was modulated by corticofugal activity from L5 in S1. Taken together, our data demonstrate the determinant role exerted by the POm in the adjustment of somatosensory cortical processing and in the regulation of cortical processing between S1 and S2. We propose that this adjustment could be a thalamocortical gain regulation mechanism also present in the processing of information between cortical areas. PMID:26820514

  20. The Anatomy of the bill Tip of Kiwi and Associated Somatosensory Regions of the Brain: Comparisons with Shorebirds

    PubMed Central

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Castro, Isabel; Alley, Maurice R.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Parsons, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes), Apterygidae (kiwi), and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills) have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles) within pits in the bill-tip. These ‘bill-tip organs’ allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae) and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae), non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae). We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae). Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid bill

  1. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Vigars, Mark L.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  2. Precision mapping of the vibrissa representation within murine primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Per M; Mateo, Celine; Kleinfeld, David

    2016-10-01

    The ability to form an accurate map of sensory input to the brain is an essential aspect of interpreting functional brain signals. Here, we consider the somatotopic map of vibrissa-based touch in the primary somatosensory (vS1) cortex of mice. The vibrissae are represented by a Manhattan-like grid of columnar structures that are separated by inter-digitating septa. The development, dynamics and plasticity of this organization is widely used as a model system. Yet, the exact anatomical position of this organization within the vS1 cortex varies between individual mice. Targeting of a particular column in vivo therefore requires prior mapping of the activated cortical region, for instance by imaging the evoked intrinsic optical signal (eIOS) during vibrissa stimulation. Here, we describe a procedure for constructing a complete somatotopic map of the vibrissa representation in the vS1 cortex using eIOS. This enables precise targeting of individual cortical columns. We found, using C57BL/6 mice, that although the precise location of the columnar field varies between animals, the relative spatial arrangement of the columns is highly preserved. This finding enables us to construct a canonical somatotopic map of the vibrissae in the vS1 cortex. In particular, the position of any column, in absolute anatomical coordinates, can be established with near certainty when the functional representations in the vS1 cortex for as few as two vibrissae have been mapped with eIOS.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574305

  3. Precision mapping of the vibrissa representation within murine primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Per M; Mateo, Celine; Kleinfeld, David

    2016-10-01

    The ability to form an accurate map of sensory input to the brain is an essential aspect of interpreting functional brain signals. Here, we consider the somatotopic map of vibrissa-based touch in the primary somatosensory (vS1) cortex of mice. The vibrissae are represented by a Manhattan-like grid of columnar structures that are separated by inter-digitating septa. The development, dynamics and plasticity of this organization is widely used as a model system. Yet, the exact anatomical position of this organization within the vS1 cortex varies between individual mice. Targeting of a particular column in vivo therefore requires prior mapping of the activated cortical region, for instance by imaging the evoked intrinsic optical signal (eIOS) during vibrissa stimulation. Here, we describe a procedure for constructing a complete somatotopic map of the vibrissa representation in the vS1 cortex using eIOS. This enables precise targeting of individual cortical columns. We found, using C57BL/6 mice, that although the precise location of the columnar field varies between animals, the relative spatial arrangement of the columns is highly preserved. This finding enables us to construct a canonical somatotopic map of the vibrissae in the vS1 cortex. In particular, the position of any column, in absolute anatomical coordinates, can be established with near certainty when the functional representations in the vS1 cortex for as few as two vibrissae have been mapped with eIOS.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  4. A New Measure for Monitoring Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Choi, Young Doo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To propose a new measure for effective monitoring of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and to validate the feasibility of this measure for evoked potentials (EP) and single trials with a retrospective data analysis study. Methods The proposed new measure (hereafter, a slope-measure) was defined as the relative slope of the amplitude and latency at each EP peak compared to the baseline value, which is sensitive to the change in the amplitude and latency simultaneously. We used the slope-measure for EP and single trials and compared the significant change detection time with that of the conventional peak-to-peak method. When applied to single trials, each single trial signal was processed with optimal filters before using the slope-measure. In this retrospective data analysis, 7 patients who underwent cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery for unruptured aneurysm middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation were included. Results We found that this simple slope-measure has a detection time that is as early or earlier than that of the conventional method; furthermore, using the slope-measure in optimally filtered single trials provides warning signs earlier than that of the conventional method during MCA clipping surgery. Conclusion Our results have confirmed the feasibility of the slope-measure for intraoperative SEP monitoring. This is a novel study that provides a useful measure for either EP or single trials in intraoperative SEP monitoring. PMID:25628803

  5. Widespread somatosensory sensitivity in naturally occurring canine model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Knazovicky, David; Helgeson, Erika S.; Case, Beth; Gruen, Margaret E.; Maixner, William; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain is a leading cause of disability. Central sensitization (CS), as a result of OA, is recognized as an important facet of human patients' chronic pain and has been measured in people using quantitative sensory testing (QST) testing. The spontaneous canine OA model has been suggested as a good translational model, but CS has not been explored in this model. In this study, QST was performed on dogs with and without spontaneous hip or stifle OA to determine whether OA is associated with CS in this model. Mechanical (von Frey and blunt pressure) and thermal (hot and cold) sensory thresholds obtained in dogs with chronic OA-associated pain (n = 31) were compared with those of normal dogs (n = 23). Dogs were phenotyped and joint-pain scored, and testing was performed at the OA-affected joint, cranial tibial muscle, and dorsal metatarsal region. QST summary data were evaluated using mixed-effect models to understand the influence of OA status and covariates, and dogs with OA and control dogs were compared. The presence of OA was strongly associated with hyperalgesia across all QST modalities at the index joint, cranial tibial muscle, and metatarsal site. Mechanical QST scores were significantly moderately negatively correlated with total joint-pain scores. The spontaneous canine OA model is associated with somatosensory sensitivity, likely indicative of CS. These data further validate the canine spontaneous OA model as an appropriate model of the human OA pain condition. PMID:26901805

  6. Quantitative methods for somatosensory evaluation in atypical odontalgia.

    PubMed

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify reliable somatosensory evaluation methods for atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The computerized search included the main databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library). The studies included used the following quantitative sensory testing (QST) methods: mechanical detection threshold (MDT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT) (pinprick), pressure pain threshold (PPT), dynamic mechanical allodynia with a cotton swab (DMA1) or a brush (DMA2), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold detection threshold (CDT), heat pain threshold (HPT), cold pain detection (CPT), and/or wind-up ratio (WUR). The publications meeting the inclusion criteria revealed that only mechanical allodynia tests (DMA1, DMA2, and WUR) were significantly higher and pain threshold tests to heat stimulation (HPT) were significantly lower in the affected side, compared with the contralateral side, in AO patients; however, for MDT, MPT, PPT, CDT, and WDT, the results were not significant. These data support the presence of central sensitization features, such as allodynia and temporal summation. In contrast, considerable inconsistencies between studies were found when AO patients were compared with healthy subjects. In clinical settings, the most reliable evaluation method for AO in patients with persistent idiopathic facial pain would be intraindividual assessments using HPT or mechanical allodynia tests. PMID:25627886

  7. Tongue weakness and somatosensory disturbance following oral endotracheal extubation.

    PubMed

    Su, Han; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Ku, Shih-Chi; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Huang, Guan-Hua; Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui

    2015-04-01

    The tongue plays important roles in mastication, swallowing, and speech, but its sensorimotor function might be affected by endotracheal intubation. The objective of this pilot study was to describe disturbances in the sensorimotor functions of the tongue over 14 days following oral endotracheal extubation. We examined 30 post-extubated patients who had prolonged (≥48 h) oral endotracheal intubation from six medical intensive care units. Another 36 patients were recruited and examined from dental and geriatric outpatient clinics served as a comparison group. Tongue strength was measured by the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Sensory disturbance of the tongue was measured by evaluating light touch sensation, oral stereognosis, and two-point discrimination with standardized protocols. Measurements were taken at three time points (within 48 h, and 7 and 14 days post-extubation) for patients with oral intubation but only once for the comparison group. The results show that independent of age, gender, tobacco used, and comorbidities, tongue strength was lower and its sensory functions were more impaired in patients who had oral intubation than in the comparison group. Sensory disturbances of the tongue gradually recovered, taking 14 days to be comparable with the comparison group, while weakness of the tongue persisted. In conclusion, patients with oral endotracheal intubation had weakness and somatosensory disturbances of the tongue lasting at least 14 days from extubation but whether is caused by intubation and whether is contributed to postextubation dysphagia should be further investigated.

  8. Multivariate analysis of somatosensory evoked potential parameters in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Gundel, A

    1983-01-01

    Cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) to median nerve stimulation were recorded in 65 normal subjects. Absolute peak latencies and amplitudes of cervical components N9, P10, N11, N13, P17, and cortical components P16, N20, P25, and N35 were measured. By means of partial correlations the interdependency of SEP-features could be verified in addition to the well-known dependence on arm length and age. In certain respects our results replicate other studies finding significant correlations between age and latency of early SEP-components as well as inverse relations between age and cervical amplitudes. Further analysis disclosed high inter-correlations between the latencies and between the amplitudes of the cervical and cortical components also revealing a certain exceptional position of the positive wave P17. In contrast to an inverse relation of amplitude and latency of the cervical components there were positive correlations between the respective features in the cortical evoked response. The findings are discussed with regard to the current knowledge about the origins of the SEP-components. PMID:6667105

  9. Spine loss in primary somatosensory cortex during trace eyeblink conditioning.

    PubMed

    Joachimsthaler, Bettina; Brugger, Dominik; Skodras, Angelos; Schwarz, Cornelius

    2015-03-01

    Classical conditioning that involves mnemonic processing, that is, a "trace" period between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus, requires awareness of the association to be formed and is considered a simple model paradigm for declarative learning. Barrel cortex, the whisker representation of primary somatosensory cortex, is required for the learning of a tactile variant of trace eyeblink conditioning (TTEBC) and undergoes distinct map plasticity during learning. To investigate the cellular mechanism underpinning TTEBC and concurrent map plasticity, we used two-photon imaging of dendritic spines in barrel cortex of awake mice while being conditioned. Monitoring layer 5 neurons' apical dendrites in layer 1, we show that one cellular expression of barrel cortex plasticity is a substantial spine count reduction of ∼15% of the dendritic spines present before learning. The number of eliminated spines and their time of elimination are tightly related to the learning success. Moreover, spine plasticity is highly specific for the principal barrel column receiving the main signals from the stimulated vibrissa. Spines located in other columns, even those directly adjacent to the principal column, are unaffected. Because layer 1 spines integrate signals from associative thalamocortical circuits, their column-specific elimination suggests that this spine plasticity may be the result of an association of top-down signals relevant for declarative learning and spatially precise ascending tactile signals.

  10. [Normative aspects of somatosensory evoked P300 components].

    PubMed

    Louzã Neto, M R; Maurer, K; Neuhauser, B

    1989-06-01

    Using a somatosensory version of the oddball-paradigma the influence of age and gender on the P300-component and the comparison of the potential after stimulation of the right and left median nerve was studied in 30 healthy right handed volunteers (age: 20-35 years). Latency, amplitude, area and duration of the P300-potential were analysed. No relationship between age, gender and the P300-parameters were observed. The amplitude and the area of the potential obtained from the F3 electrode were greater after stimulation of the right median nerve compared to the potential after stimulation of the left median nerve. All other results were not significantly different. Strong positive correlations between the results after stimulation of the right and left median nerve were observed. These results showed that by a young group of volunteers age and gender did not influence the P300-component. Although the P300-Parameters had a between-subject variability, their mean remained constant over the study, their correlation coefficients were strong positive and the side of stimulation did not influence them (except for the electrode F3). PMID:2547577

  11. Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

  12. [Normative aspects of somatosensory evoked P300 components].

    PubMed

    Louzã Neto, M R; Maurer, K; Neuhauser, B

    1989-06-01

    Using a somatosensory version of the oddball-paradigma the influence of age and gender on the P300-component and the comparison of the potential after stimulation of the right and left median nerve was studied in 30 healthy right handed volunteers (age: 20-35 years). Latency, amplitude, area and duration of the P300-potential were analysed. No relationship between age, gender and the P300-parameters were observed. The amplitude and the area of the potential obtained from the F3 electrode were greater after stimulation of the right median nerve compared to the potential after stimulation of the left median nerve. All other results were not significantly different. Strong positive correlations between the results after stimulation of the right and left median nerve were observed. These results showed that by a young group of volunteers age and gender did not influence the P300-component. Although the P300-Parameters had a between-subject variability, their mean remained constant over the study, their correlation coefficients were strong positive and the side of stimulation did not influence them (except for the electrode F3).

  13. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  14. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  15. fMRI investigation of unexpected somatosensory feedback perturbation during speech

    PubMed Central

    Golfinopoulos, Elisa; Tourville, Jason A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Guenther, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    Somatosensory feedback plays a critical role in the coordination of articulator movements for speech production. In response to unexpected resistance to lip or jaw movements during speech, fluent speakers can use the difference between the somatosensory expectations of a speech sound and the actual somatosensory feedback to adjust the trajectories of functionally relevant but unimpeded articulators. In an effort to investigate the neural substrates underlying the somatosensory feedback control of speech, we used an event-related sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm and a novel pneumatic device that unpredictably blocked subjects’ jaw movements. In comparison to speech, perturbed speech, in which jaw perturbation prompted the generation of compensatory speech motor commands, demonstrated increased effects in bilateral ventral motor cortex, right-lateralized anterior supramarginal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and ventral premotor cortex, and bilateral inferior posterior cerebellum (lobule VIII). Structural equation modeling revealed a significant increased influence from left anterior supramarginal gyrus to right anterior supramarginal gyrus and from left anterior supramarginal gyrus to right ventral premotor cortex as well as a significant increased reciprocal influence between right ventral premotor cortex and right ventral motor cortex and right anterior supramarginal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis for perturbed speech relative to speech. These results suggest that bilateral anterior supramarginal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, right ventral premotor and motor cortices are functionally coupled and influence speech motor output when somatosensory feedback is unexpectedly perturbed during speech production. PMID:21195191

  16. Illusory and veridical mapping of tactile objects in the primary somatosensory and posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bufalari, Ilaria; Di Russo, Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-07-01

    While several behavioral and neuroscience studies have explored visual, auditory, and cross-modal illusions, information about the phenomenology and neural correlates of somatosensory illusions is meager. By combining psychophysics and somatosensory evoked potentials, we explored in healthy humans the neural correlates of 2 compelling tactuo-proprioceptive illusions, namely Aristotle (1 object touching the contact area between 2 crossed fingers is perceived as 2 lateral objects) and Reverse illusions (2 lateral objects are perceived as 1 between crossed-fingers object). These illusions likely occur because of the tactuo-proprioceptive conflict induced by fingers being crossed in a non-natural posture. We found that different regions in the somatosensory stream exhibit different proneness to the illusions. Early electroencephalographic somatosensory activity (at 20 ms) originating in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) reflects the phenomenal rather than the physical properties of the stimuli. Notably, later activity (around 200 ms) originating in the posterior parietal cortex is higher when subjects resist the illusions. Thus, while S1 activity is related to illusory perception, PPC acts as a conflict resolver that recodes tactile events from somatotopic to spatiotopic frames of reference and ultimately enables veridical perception. PMID:23438449

  17. Architectonic mapping of somatosensory areas involved in skilled forelimb movements and tool use.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrei; Nascimento-Silva, Márcio L; Keher, Natalia B; Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben Ernesto; Gattass, Ricardo; Franca, João G

    2016-05-01

    Cebus monkeys stand out from other New World monkeys by their ability to perform fine hand movements, and by their spontaneous use of tools in the wild. Those behaviors rely on the integration of somatosensory information, which occurs in different areas of the parietal cortex. Although a few studies have examined and parceled the somatosensory areas of the cebus monkey, mainly using electrophysiological criteria, very little is known about its anatomical organization. In this study we used SMI-32 immunohistochemistry, myelin, and Nissl stains to characterize the architecture of the parietal cortical areas of cebus monkeys. Seven cortical areas were identified between the precentral gyrus and the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus. Except for areas 3a and 3b, distinction between different somatosensory areas was more evident in myelin-stained sections and SMI-32 immunohistochemistry than in Nissl stain, especially for area 2 and subdivisions of area 5. Our results show that cebus monkeys have a relatively complex somatosensory cortex, similar to that of macaques and humans. This suggests that, during primate evolution, the emergence of new somatosensory areas underpinned complex manual behaviors in most Old World simians and in the New World cebus monkey. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1399-1423, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effective behavioral treatment of focal hand dystonia in musicians alters somatosensory cortical organization.

    PubMed

    Candia, Victor; Wienbruch, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Ray, William

    2003-06-24

    New perspectives in neurorehabilitation suggest that behavioral treatments of movement disorders may modify the functional organization of central somatosensory neural networks. On the basis of the assumption that use-dependent reorganization in these networks contributes to the fundamental abnormalities seen in focal dystonia, we treated 10 affected musicians and measured the concomitant somatosensory changes by using whole-head magnetoencephalography. We found that effective treatment, using the method of sensory motor retuning, leads to alterations in the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, before treatment, somatosensory relationships of the individual fingers differ between the affected and unaffected hands, whereas after treatment, finger representations contralateral to the dystonic side become more similar to the less-affected side. Further, somatosensory finger representations are ordered more according to homuncular principles after treatment. In addition, the observed physiologic changes correlated with behavioral data. These results confirm that plastic changes in parallel with emergent neurological dysfunction may be reversed by context-specific, intensive training-based remediation.

  19. Integrated approach for studying adaptation mechanisms in the human somatosensory cortical network.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Popescu, Mihai; Popescu, Anda

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoencephalography and independent component analysis (ICA) was utilized to study and characterize neural adaptation in the somatosensory cortical network. Repetitive punctate tactile stimuli were applied unilaterally to the dominant hand and face using a custom-built pneumatic stimulator called the TAC-Cell. ICA-based source estimation from the evoked neuromagnetic responses indicated cortical activity in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) for face stimulation, while hand stimulation resulted in robust contralateral SI and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) activation. Activity was also observed in the secondary somatosensory cortical area (SII) with reduced amplitude and higher variability across subjects. There was a significant difference in adaptation rate between SI and higher-order somatosensory cortices for hand stimulation. Adaptation was significantly dependent on stimulus frequency and pulse index within the stimulus train for both hand and face stimulation. The peak latency of the activity was significantly dependent on stimulation site (hand vs. face) and cortical area (SI vs. PPC). The difference in the peak latency of activity in SI and PPC is presumed to reflect a hierarchical serial-processing mechanism in the somatosensory cortex.

  20. Illusory and veridical mapping of tactile objects in the primary somatosensory and posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bufalari, Ilaria; Di Russo, Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-07-01

    While several behavioral and neuroscience studies have explored visual, auditory, and cross-modal illusions, information about the phenomenology and neural correlates of somatosensory illusions is meager. By combining psychophysics and somatosensory evoked potentials, we explored in healthy humans the neural correlates of 2 compelling tactuo-proprioceptive illusions, namely Aristotle (1 object touching the contact area between 2 crossed fingers is perceived as 2 lateral objects) and Reverse illusions (2 lateral objects are perceived as 1 between crossed-fingers object). These illusions likely occur because of the tactuo-proprioceptive conflict induced by fingers being crossed in a non-natural posture. We found that different regions in the somatosensory stream exhibit different proneness to the illusions. Early electroencephalographic somatosensory activity (at 20 ms) originating in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) reflects the phenomenal rather than the physical properties of the stimuli. Notably, later activity (around 200 ms) originating in the posterior parietal cortex is higher when subjects resist the illusions. Thus, while S1 activity is related to illusory perception, PPC acts as a conflict resolver that recodes tactile events from somatotopic to spatiotopic frames of reference and ultimately enables veridical perception.

  1. Effective behavioral treatment of focal hand dystonia in musicians alters somatosensory cortical organization

    PubMed Central

    Candia, Victor; Wienbruch, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Ray, William

    2003-01-01

    New perspectives in neurorehabilitation suggest that behavioral treatments of movement disorders may modify the functional organization of central somatosensory neural networks. On the basis of the assumption that use-dependent reorganization in these networks contributes to the fundamental abnormalities seen in focal dystonia, we treated 10 affected musicians and measured the concomitant somatosensory changes by using whole-head magnetoencephalography. We found that effective treatment, using the method of sensory motor retuning, leads to alterations in the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, before treatment, somatosensory relationships of the individual fingers differ between the affected and unaffected hands, whereas after treatment, finger representations contralateral to the dystonic side become more similar to the less-affected side. Further, somatosensory finger representations are ordered more according to homuncular principles after treatment. In addition, the observed physiologic changes correlated with behavioral data. These results confirm that plastic changes in parallel with emergent neurological dysfunction may be reversed by context-specific, intensive training-based remediation. PMID:12771383

  2. Reliability of Visual and Somatosensory Feedback in Skilled Movement: The Role of the Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Mizelle, J C; Oparah, Alexis; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2016-01-01

    The integration of vision and somatosensation is required to allow for accurate motor behavior. While both sensory systems contribute to an understanding of the state of the body through continuous updating and estimation, how the brain processes unreliable sensory information remains to be fully understood in the context of complex action. Using functional brain imaging, we sought to understand the role of the cerebellum in weighting visual and somatosensory feedback by selectively reducing the reliability of each sense individually during a tool use task. We broadly hypothesized upregulated activation of the sensorimotor and cerebellar areas during movement with reduced visual reliability, and upregulated activation of occipital brain areas during movement with reduced somatosensory reliability. As specifically compared to reduced somatosensory reliability, we expected greater activations of ipsilateral sensorimotor cerebellum for intact visual and somatosensory reliability. Further, we expected that ipsilateral posterior cognitive cerebellum would be affected with reduced visual reliability. We observed that reduced visual reliability results in a trend towards the relative consolidation of sensorimotor activation and an expansion of cerebellar activation. In contrast, reduced somatosensory reliability was characterized by the absence of cerebellar activations and a trend towards the increase of right frontal, left parietofrontal activation, and temporo-occipital areas. Our findings highlight the role of the cerebellum for specific aspects of skillful motor performance. This has relevance to understanding basic aspects of brain functions underlying sensorimotor integration, and provides a greater understanding of cerebellar function in tool use motor control.

  3. Interhemispheric connections of the somatosensory cortex in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, M S; Whitworth, R H; Gould, H J

    1987-04-01

    Corpus callosal connections of somatosensory cortex were studied in rabbits by combining anatomical tracing and electrophysiological mapping in the same animals. The results show that callosal connections are unevenly distributed in SI and SII. In SI, the representations of all body surfaces caudal to the neck and midline structures of the head have dense callosal connections. Conversely, connections are sparse to absent within representations of laterally positioned surfaces of the head, such as the sinus hairs, vibrissae, and nonmidline portions of the lips. Almost all of SII has dense callosal connections; only the representations of the vibrissae and sinus hairs have moderate callosal connections. The laminar distribution of callosal connections in rabbit SI and SII is similar to that observed in other mammals. Callosal terminations extend from the inner portion of layer I to the outer portion of layer VI, are moderately denser in the supragranular layers, and are sparse in layer IV. Callosally projecting cells are found predominantly in layers II, III, and V and are sparse in layers IV and VI. These data further emphasize the direct correspondence between the pattern of callosal connections in SI and the functional importance of particular body surfaces. Hence, representations of body surfaces important in the exploration of the environment are relatively free of callosal connections, whereas representations of midline and more lateral surfaces, less significant in tactile exploration, receive dense callosal connections. Callosal connections in rabbits are distributed extensively throughout responsive koniocortical regions rather than being relegated to distinct, specialized regions of "unresponsive" dysgranular cortex as in rodents.

  4. [Clinical application of the central somatosensory conduction time (CCT)].

    PubMed

    Ueda, M; Matsumae, M; Sato, O; Suzuki, Y; Murase, H; Sakurai, I

    1987-09-01

    We tried to prove the usefulness of CCT as an index of cerebral functions. CCT, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CT scan findings were studied in 213 neurological patients with CVD (66 cases), cerebral tumors (66 cases) and head traumas (81 cases). The technique of CCT recording was modified from that of Jones (1977) using CADWELL 5200 system. CCT was defined as the difference of the peak latency between N13 recorded at the C-7 vertebral electrode and N20 recorded at the somatosensory cortex. The control CCT in normal volunteers (N = 20) was 5.7 +/- 0.4 msec. RCBF was measured with 133 Xe intra carotid injection method of Lassen & Ingvar using gammacamera (DEC GAMM 11/34). CCT tended significantly to become more prolonged in affected hemisphere than in unaffected hemisphere of patients with three groups (CVD, tumor and trauma) (p less than 0.01). Forty percent reduction of control rCBF caused a prolongation of CCT over 7 msec. The degrees of CCT prolongations appeared to be proportional to the degree of rCBF diminution. Prolongation of CCT was remarkable in the side of low density area on CT scan. The prolongation of CCT were revealed in the patients before they did not manifest their neurological deficits especially in the disease of metastatic tumors and glioma. In the case of patients with trauma who we could follow to measure rCBF, CCT tended to become shorten as rCBF increased till normal range. CCT was not significantly prolonged in congenital hydrocephalus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Using constellation pharmacology to define comprehensively a somatosensory neuronal subclass.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Russell W; Memon, Tosifa; Aman, Joseph W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2014-02-11

    Change is intrinsic to nervous systems; change is required for learning and conditioning and occurs with disease progression, normal development, and aging. To better understand mammalian nervous systems and effectively treat nervous-system disorders, it is essential to track changes in relevant individual neurons. A critical challenge is to identify and characterize the specific cell types involved and the molecular-level changes that occur in each. Using an experimental strategy called constellation pharmacology, we demonstrate that we can define a specific somatosensory neuronal subclass, cold thermosensors, across different species and track changes in these neurons as a function of development. Cold thermosensors are uniformly responsive to menthol and innocuous cool temperature (17 °C), indicating that they express TRPM8 channels. A subset of cold thermosensors expressed α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) but not other nAChR subtypes. Differences in temperature threshold of cold thermosensors correlated with functional expression of voltage-gated K channels Kv1.1/1.2: Relatively higher expression of KV1.1/1.2 channels resulted in a higher threshold response to cold temperature. Other signaling components varied during development and between species. In cold thermosensors of neonatal mice and rats, ATP receptors were functionally expressed, but the expression disappeared with development. This developmental change occurred earlier in low-threshold than high-threshold cold thermosensors. Most rat cold thermosensors expressed TRPA1 channels, whereas mouse cold thermosensors did not. The broad implications of this study are that it is now feasible to track changes in receptor and ion-channel expression in individual neuronal subclasses as a function of development, learning, disease, or aging.

  6. Sensitivity to microstimulation of somatosensory cortex distributed over multiple electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungshin; Callier, Thierri; Tabot, Gregg A; Tenore, Francesco V; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-01-01

    Meaningful and repeatable tactile sensations can be evoked by electrically stimulating primary somatosensory cortex. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) may thus be a viable approach to restore the sense of touch in individuals who have lost it, for example tetraplegic patients. One of the potential limitations of this approach, however, is that high levels of current can damage the neuronal tissue if the resulting current densities are too high. The limited range of safe ICMS amplitudes thus limits the dynamic range of ICMS-evoked sensations. One way to get around this limitation would be to distribute the ICMS over multiple electrodes in the hopes of intensifying the resulting percept without increasing the current density experienced by the neuronal tissue. Here, we test whether stimulating through multiple electrodes is a viable solution to increase the dynamic range of ICMS-elicited sensations without increasing the peak current density. To this end, we compare the ability of non-human primates to detect ICMS delivered through one vs. multiple electrodes. We also compare their ability to discriminate pulse trains differing in amplitude when these are delivered through one or more electrodes. We find that increasing the number of electrodes through which ICMS is delivered only has a marginal effect on detectability or discriminability despite the fact that 2-4 times more current is delivered overall. Furthermore, the impact of multielectrode stimulation (or lack thereof) is found whether pulses are delivered synchronously or asynchronously, whether the leading phase of the pulses is cathodic or anodic, and regardless of the spatial configuration of the electrode groups. PMID:25914630

  7. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    PubMed Central

    Sarko, Diana K.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment. PMID:24302898

  8. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with "whisker barrels" in rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Vos, P; Kaufmann, D; Hand, P J; Wolfe, B B

    1990-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-Adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with "whisker barrels" in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array. Images PMID:2164222

  9. Evaluation of somatosensory cortical differences between flutter and vibration tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Woo; Chung, Yoon Gi; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with advances in haptic-based mobile computing systems, understanding of the neural processing of vibrotactile information becomes of great importance. In the human nervous system, two types of vibrotactile information, flutter and vibration, are delivered from mechanoreceptors to the somatosensory cortex through segregated neural afferents. To investigate how the somatosensory cortex differentiates flutter and vibration, we analyzed the cortical responses to vibrotactile stimuli with a wide range of frequencies. Specifically, we examined whether cortical activity changed most around 50 Hz, which is known as a boundary between flutter and vibration. We explored various measures to evaluate separability of cortical activity across frequency and found that the hypothesis margin method resulted in the greatest separability between flutter and vibration. This result suggests that flutter and vibration information may be processed by different neural processes in the somatosensory cortex.

  10. COMMUNICATION Designing a somatosensory neural prosthesis: percepts evoked by different patterns of thalamic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heming, Ethan; Sanden, Andrew; Kiss, Zelma H. T.

    2010-12-01

    Although major advances have been made in the development of motor prostheses, fine motor control requires intuitive somatosensory feedback. Here we explored whether a thalamic site for a somatosensory neural prosthetic could provide natural somatic sensation to humans. Different patterns of electrical stimulation (obtained from thalamic spike trains) were applied in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery. Changes in pattern produced different sensations, while preserving somatotopic representation. While most percepts were reported as 'unnatural', some stimulations produced more 'natural' sensations than others. However, the additional patterns did not elicit more 'natural' percepts than high-frequency (333 Hz) electrical stimulation. These features suggest that despite some limitations, the thalamus may be a feasible site for a somatosensory neural prosthesis and different stimulation patterns may be useful in its development.

  11. [Tactile agnosia and dysfunction of the primary somatosensory area. Data of the study by somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with deficits of tactile object recognition].

    PubMed

    Mauguière, F; Isnard, J

    1995-01-01

    The question as to whether a failure of recognition unrelated to impaired sensory processing or to disorder of naming can occur in the somato-sensory modality has been eagerly debated in the french neurology. Taking as an argument the fact that he had never observed a tactile agnosia in the absence of subtle sensory deficits Dejerine denied the localizing value of tactile agnosia (or asterognosis). Conversely Delay, 20 years later, identified tactile performances such as discrimination of texture and shapes, which he considered as a specific neocortical function, that were lost in parietal syndromes with astereognosis and preserved elementary sensations. He also coined the term "tactile asymbolia" to qualify the patients with astereognosis in whom these performances are preserved. When referring to the definition of agnosias only "tactile asymbolia" should be considered as a "true" tactile agnosia. The recording of early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) now offers the possibility of assessing non invasively the function of the primary somatosensory cortex (in particular area 3b). We have recorded SEPs to median nerve or finger stimulation in 309 subjects with a focal hemispheric lesion presenting with a somatosensory deficit of any type. We could confirm that asterognosis referable to impaired discrimination of textures and/or shapes in the absence of impaired elementary sensation is quite rare since it was observed in only 12 of our patients (3.9%). Moreover early cortical SEPs reflecting the activity of the primary somatosensory area (N20 or/and P27) were clearly abnormal in all of them. A single patient of this group of 12 could be considered as a case of tactile asymbolia but his early cortical SEPs were abnormal. The only condition combining a failure of tactile recognition of objects with normal early SEPs is represented by the "tactile anomia" observed in callosal dysconnexions. Thus, in our patients unable to identify objects by palpation in spite of

  12. Short-Latency Median-Nerve Somatosensory-Evoked Potentials and Induced Gamma-Oscillations in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Miho; Nishida, Masaaki; Juhasz, Csaba; Muzik, Otto; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T.; Asano, Eishi

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cortical gamma-oscillations are tightly linked with various forms of physiological activity. In the present study, the dynamic changes of intracranially recorded median-nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and somatosensory-induced gamma-oscillations were animated on a three-dimensional MR image, and the…

  13. Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Sacchet, Matthew D; Lazar, Sara W; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2013-01-01

    Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness's somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information in the brain. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI). The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness "de-biases" alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness's somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (including working memory) rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with "mindfulness of the body." Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness' top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an important early stage of mindfulness training that leads to enhanced cognitive regulation and metacognition.

  14. Cortical and medullary somatosensory projections to the cochlear nuclear complex in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Wolff, A; Künzle, H

    1997-01-17

    Various tracer substances were injected into the spinal cord, the dorsal column nuclei, the trigeminal nuclear complex and the somatosensory cortex in Madagascan hedgehog tenrecs. With the exception of the cases injected exclusively into the spinal cord all injections gave rise to sparse, but distinct anterograde projections to the cochlear nuclear complex, particularly the granular cell domain within and outside of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Among these cochlear afferents the projection from the primary somatosensory cortex is the most remarkable because the hedgehog tenrec has one of the lowest encephalisation indices among mammals and a similar cortico-cochlear connection has not been demonstrated so far in other species.

  15. Role of somatosensory and vestibular cues in attenuating visually induced human postural sway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Benolken, Martha S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the contribution of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory cues to the maintenance of stance in humans. Postural sway was induced by full field, sinusoidal visual surround rotations about an axis at the level of the ankle joints. The influences of vestibular and somatosensory cues were characterized by comparing postural sway in normal and bilateral vestibular absent subjects in conditions that provided either accurate or inaccurate somatosensory orientation information. In normal subjects, the amplitude of visually induced sway reached a saturation level as stimulus amplitude increased. The saturation amplitude decreased with increasing stimulus frequency. No saturation phenomena was observed in subjects with vestibular loss, implying that vestibular cues were responsible for the saturation phenomenon. For visually induced sways below the saturation level, the stimulus-response curves for both normal and vestibular loss subjects were nearly identical implying that (1) normal subjects were not using vestibular information to attenuate their visually induced sway, possibly because sway was below a vestibular-related threshold level, and (2) vestibular loss subjects did not utilize visual cues to a greater extent than normal subjects; that is, a fundamental change in visual system 'gain' was not used to compensate for a vestibular deficit. An unexpected finding was that the amplitude of body sway induced by visual surround motion could be almost three times greater than the amplitude of the visual stimulus in normals and vestibular loss subjects. This occurred in conditions where somatosensory cues were inaccurate and at low stimulus amplitudes. A control system model of visually induced postural sway was developed to explain this finding. For both subject groups, the amplitude of visually induced sway was smaller by a factor of about four in tests where somatosensory cues provided accurate versus inaccurate orientation information. This

  16. Input Decimated Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Oza, Nikunj C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using an ensemble of classifiers instead of a single classifier has been shown to improve generalization performance in many pattern recognition problems. However, the extent of such improvement depends greatly on the amount of correlation among the errors of the base classifiers. Therefore, reducing those correlations while keeping the classifiers' performance levels high is an important area of research. In this article, we explore input decimation (ID), a method which selects feature subsets for their ability to discriminate among the classes and uses them to decouple the base classifiers. We provide a summary of the theoretical benefits of correlation reduction, along with results of our method on two underwater sonar data sets, three benchmarks from the Probenl/UCI repositories, and two synthetic data sets. The results indicate that input decimated ensembles (IDEs) outperform ensembles whose base classifiers use all the input features; randomly selected subsets of features; and features created using principal components analysis, on a wide range of domains.

  17. Facilitation of cutaneous inputs during the planning phase of gait initiation.

    PubMed

    Mouchnino, Laurence; Fontan, Aurélie; Tandonnet, Christophe; Perrier, Joy; Saradjian, Anahid H; Saradjian, Anahid; Blouin, Jean; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that during the planning of a voluntary movement the transmission of cutaneous afferent inputs to the somatosensory cortex is attenuated shortly before the motor output as well as during movement execution. However, it is not known whether the sensory suppression observed during the planning phase (i.e., before any movement execution) is a systemic phenomenon or whether it is dependent on movement context. For example, movements such as step initiation are controlled based on information received from cutaneous receptors in the feet. Because afferent information emerging from these receptors is critical for movement initiation, we hypothesized that suppression of these inputs may not occur during the planning phase prior to gait initiation. To examine this hypothesis we measured the cortical response to somatosensory stimulation during the planning phase of step initiation and during movement execution. Sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation was assessed by measuring the amplitude of the cortical somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP, over the Cz electrode) following electrical stimulations of the plantar sole of one foot. Two stimulations were provided during the planning phase of a step movement and two stimulations during movement execution. It was found that the P50-N80 SEP was facilitated in the early planning phase (-700 ms before motor execution) compared with when participants remained still (control standing task). This mechanism might contribute to an enhanced perception of cutaneous input leading to a more accurate setting of the forces to be exerted onto the ground to shift the body's weight toward the supporting side prior to foot-off. PMID:25925329

  18. Facilitation of cutaneous inputs during the planning phase of gait initiation

    PubMed Central

    Fontan, Aurélie; Tandonnet, Christophe; Perrier, Joy; Saradjian, Anahid H.; Blouin, Jean; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that during the planning of a voluntary movement the transmission of cutaneous afferent inputs to the somatosensory cortex is attenuated shortly before the motor output as well as during movement execution. However, it is not known whether the sensory suppression observed during the planning phase (i.e., before any movement execution) is a systemic phenomenon or whether it is dependent on movement context. For example, movements such as step initiation are controlled based on information received from cutaneous receptors in the feet. Because afferent information emerging from these receptors is critical for movement initiation, we hypothesized that suppression of these inputs may not occur during the planning phase prior to gait initiation. To examine this hypothesis we measured the cortical response to somatosensory stimulation during the planning phase of step initiation and during movement execution. Sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation was assessed by measuring the amplitude of the cortical somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP, over the Cz electrode) following electrical stimulations of the plantar sole of one foot. Two stimulations were provided during the planning phase of a step movement and two stimulations during movement execution. It was found that the P50-N80 SEP was facilitated in the early planning phase (−700 ms before motor execution) compared with when participants remained still (control standing task). This mechanism might contribute to an enhanced perception of cutaneous input leading to a more accurate setting of the forces to be exerted onto the ground to shift the body's weight toward the supporting side prior to foot-off. PMID:25925329

  19. Aberrant synchrony in the somatosensory cortices predicts motor performance errors in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Arpin, David J; Becker, Katherine M; Wilson, Tony W

    2014-02-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a perinatal brain injury that often results in sensory impairments and greater errors in motor performance. Although these impairments have been well catalogued, the relationship between sensory processing networks and errors in motor performance has not been well explored. Children with CP and typically developing age-matched controls participated in this investigation. We used high-density magnetoencephalography to measure event-related oscillatory changes in the somatosensory cortices following tactile stimulation to the bottom of the foot. In addition, we quantified the amount of variability or errors in the isometric ankle joint torques as these children attempted to match a target. Our results showed that neural populations in the somatosensory cortices of children with CP were desynchronized by the tactile stimulus, whereas those of typically developing children were clearly synchronized. Such desynchronization suggests that children with CP were unable to fully integrate the external stimulus into ongoing sensorimotor computations. Our results also indicated that children with CP had a greater amount of errors in their motor output when they attempted to match the target force, and this amount of error was negatively correlated with the degree of synchronization present in the somatosensory cortices. These results are the first to show that the motor performance errors of children with CP are linked with neural synchronization within the somatosensory cortices.

  20. The Role of Attention in Somatosensory Processing: A Multi-Trait, Multi-Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodka, Ericka L.; Puts, Nicolaas A. J.; Mahone, E. Mark; Edden, Richard A. E.; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities in autism have largely been described by parent report. This study used a multi-method (parent-report and measurement), multi-trait (tactile sensitivity and attention) design to evaluate somatosensory processing in ASD. Results showed multiple significant within-method (e.g., parent report of different…

  1. Left Lateralized Enhancement of Orofacial Somatosensory Processing Due to Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Takayuki; Johns, Alexis R.; Ostry, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Somatosensory information associated with speech articulatory movements affects the perception of speech sounds and vice versa, suggesting an intimate linkage between speech production and perception systems. However, it is unclear which cortical processes are involved in the interaction between speech sounds and orofacial somatosensory…

  2. Electrophysiological Evidence for a Sensory Recruitment Model of Somatosensory Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Katus, Tobias; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Sensory recruitment models of working memory assume that information storage is mediated by the same cortical areas that are responsible for the perceptual processing of sensory signals. To test this assumption, we measured somatosensory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during a tactile delayed match-to-sample task. Participants memorized a tactile sample set at one task-relevant hand to compare it with a subsequent test set on the same hand. During the retention period, a sustained negativity (tactile contralateral delay activity, tCDA) was elicited over primary somatosensory cortex contralateral to the relevant hand. The amplitude of this component increased with memory load and was sensitive to individual limitations in memory capacity, suggesting that the tCDA reflects the maintenance of tactile information in somatosensory working memory. The tCDA was preceded by a transient negativity (N2cc component) with a similar contralateral scalp distribution, which is likely to reflect selection of task-relevant tactile stimuli at the encoding stage. The temporal sequence of N2cc and tCDA components mirrors previous observations from ERP studies of working memory in vision. The finding that the sustained somatosensory delay period activity varies as a function of memory load supports a sensory recruitment model for spatial working memory in touch.

  3. Detection of Optogenetic Stimulation in Somatosensory Cortex by Non-Human Primates - Towards Artificial Tactile Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest. PMID:25541938

  4. Somatosensory effects of action inhibition: a study with the stop-signal paradigm.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Eamonn; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    When a weak shock is delivered to the finger immediately before a voluntary movement, or during a delay interval where subjects are prepared to make the movement, shock detection rates worsen progressively as the movement approaches. Further, we previously showed that shock detection improves again if a NoGo signal produces inhibition of a prepared response. Here, we used a somatosensory version of the stop-signal paradigm to investigate inhibitory processing during the 'horserace' period when motor excitation and inhibition processes may be simultaneously active. When subjects made a rapid keypress response to a go-signal, shock detection deteriorated in a time-dependent manner, replicating sensory suppression. However, when go-signals were followed by adaptively delayed stop-signals so that subjects could not inhibit the prepared movement, and made errors of commission, we found a paradoxical brief increase in shock detection performance just after the stop-signal, as if in a NoGo trial. During this brief window, the somatosensory system showed a pattern consistent with motor inhibition, even though the motor system itself was too far advanced in movement execution for action to be inhibited. Most models of stop-signal processing propose a two-horse race between excitation and inhibition, with a winner-takes-all solution. We show that there may be distinct motor and somatosensory races. Moreover, inhibitory processes may lead in the somatosensory race, at least briefly, even when excitatory processes win the motor race.

  5. Spinal pathways mediating somatosensory evoked potentials from cutaneous and muscle nerves in the cat.

    PubMed

    Ducati, A; Schieppati, M

    1980-01-01

    The Authors give evidence on the function of a pathway mediating somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from muscle nerves, other than the dorsal columns: physiological and anatomical data prove its location to be in the spinothalamic tract. Previous contrasting results on the topic are discussed.

  6. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  7. Psychophysical methods for the measurement of somatosensory dysfunction of laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Cabe, P A

    1982-01-01

    Somatosensory dysfunction is a widely reported clinical consequence of chemical exposure. Assessment of such dysfunction should be an important component of agent safety testing, necessarily implying evaluation of psychophysical functions in laboratory animals. The logic of testing agent-induced sensory dysfunction, conceptual and practical factors affecting such tests, and the categories of experimental methods available are reviewed. PMID:7044779

  8. Functional assays of local connectivity in the somatosensory cortex of individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Mehmet Akif; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Sheth, Bhavin R

    2013-06-01

    Emerging evidence for differences between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurotypical (NT) individuals in somatic processing and brain response to touch suggests somatosensory cortex as a promising substrate for elucidating differences in functional brain connectivity between individuals with and without autism. Signals from adjacent digits project to neighboring locations or representations in somatosensory cortex. When a digit is stimulated, i.e. touched, its representation in cortex is directly activated; local intracortical connections indirectly activate nonprimary cortical representations corresponding to adjacent digits. The response of the nonprimary cortical representations is thus a proxy for connection strength. Local overconnectivity in autism implies that the nonprimary/primary response ratios of the ASD group will be higher than those of the NT group. D1 and D2 of the dominant hand of the participant were individually stimulated while we recorded neural responses using magnetoencephalography. The cortical representations of D1 and D2 (somatosensory-evoked fields) were computed from the ensemble-averaged data using (a) dipole model fits and (b) singular value decomposition. Individual adjacent/primary response ratios were measured, and group response ratio data were fitted with straight lines. Local overconnectivity in autism implies steeper ASD vs. NT group slopes. Our findings did not support local overconnectivity. Slopes were found to be significantly shallower for the ASD group than the NT group. Our findings support the idea of local underconnectivity in the somatosensory cortex of the brains of individuals with ASD. PMID:23427110

  9. A Somatosensory Latency between the Thalamus and Cortex also Correlates with Level of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. Edward; Jensen, Arthur R.

    1993-01-01

    Results for sensory thalamocortical latency (3 somatosensory evoked potentials) for 205 college students agree with data that correlate a more extensive visual evoked potential latency with intelligence quotient. Findings suggest that the correlation occurs because the latency indexes cortical nerve conduction velocity. (SLD)

  10. Enhancement of median nerve regeneration by mesenchymal stem cells engraftment in an absorbable conduit: improvement of peripheral nerve morphology with enlargement of somatosensory cortical representation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julia T; Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben Ernesto; de Almeida, Fernanda M; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Franca, João G

    2014-01-01

    We studied the morphology and the cortical representation of the median nerve (MN), 10 weeks after a transection immediately followed by treatment with tubulization using a polycaprolactone (PCL) conduit with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplant. In order to characterize the cutaneous representation of MN inputs in primary somatosensory cortex (S1), electrophysiological cortical mapping of the somatosensory representation of the forepaw and adjacent body parts was performed after acute lesion of all brachial plexus nerves, except for the MN. This was performed in ten adult male Wistar rats randomly assigned in three groups: MN Intact (n = 4), PCL-Only (n = 3), and PCL+MSC (n = 3). Ten weeks before mapping procedures in animals from PCL-Only and PCL+MSC groups, animal were subjected to MN transection with removal of a 4-mm-long segment, immediately followed by suturing a PCL conduit to the nerve stumps with (PCL+MSC group) or without (PCL-Only group) injection of MSC into the conduit. After mapping the representation of the MN in S1, animals had a segment of the regenerated nerve processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. For histomorphometric analysis of the nerve segment, sample size was increased to five animals per experimental group. The PCL+MSC group presented a higher number of myelinated fibers and a larger cortical representation of MN inputs in S1 (3,383 ± 390 fibers; 2.3 mm(2), respectively) than the PCL-Only group (2,226 ± 575 fibers; 1.6 mm(2)). In conclusion, MSC-based therapy associated with PCL conduits can improve MN regeneration. This treatment seems to rescue the nerve representation in S1, thus minimizing the stabilization of new representations of adjacent body parts in regions previously responsive to the MN.

  11. Enhancement of median nerve regeneration by mesenchymal stem cells engraftment in an absorbable conduit: improvement of peripheral nerve morphology with enlargement of somatosensory cortical representation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julia T.; Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben Ernesto; de Almeida, Fernanda M.; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Martinez, Ana Maria B.; Franca, João G.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the morphology and the cortical representation of the median nerve (MN), 10 weeks after a transection immediately followed by treatment with tubulization using a polycaprolactone (PCL) conduit with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplant. In order to characterize the cutaneous representation of MN inputs in primary somatosensory cortex (S1), electrophysiological cortical mapping of the somatosensory representation of the forepaw and adjacent body parts was performed after acute lesion of all brachial plexus nerves, except for the MN. This was performed in ten adult male Wistar rats randomly assigned in three groups: MN Intact (n = 4), PCL-Only (n = 3), and PCL+MSC (n = 3). Ten weeks before mapping procedures in animals from PCL-Only and PCL+MSC groups, animal were subjected to MN transection with removal of a 4-mm-long segment, immediately followed by suturing a PCL conduit to the nerve stumps with (PCL+MSC group) or without (PCL-Only group) injection of MSC into the conduit. After mapping the representation of the MN in S1, animals had a segment of the regenerated nerve processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. For histomorphometric analysis of the nerve segment, sample size was increased to five animals per experimental group. The PCL+MSC group presented a higher number of myelinated fibers and a larger cortical representation of MN inputs in S1 (3,383 ± 390 fibers; 2.3 mm2, respectively) than the PCL-Only group (2,226 ± 575 fibers; 1.6 mm2). In conclusion, MSC-based therapy associated with PCL conduits can improve MN regeneration. This treatment seems to rescue the nerve representation in S1, thus minimizing the stabilization of new representations of adjacent body parts in regions previously responsive to the MN. PMID:25360086

  12. Differences in somatosensory processing due to dominant hemispheric motor impairment in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cerebral palsy (CP) is usually defined as a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain, recent research has shown that CP individuals are also characterized by altered somatosensory perception, increased pain and abnormal activation of cortical somatosensory areas. The present study was aimed to examine hemispheric differences on somatosensory brain processing in individuals with bilateral CP and lateralized motor impairments compared with healthy controls. Nine CP individuals with left-dominant motor impairments (LMI) (age range 5–28 yrs), nine CP individuals with right-dominant motor impairments (RMI) (age range 7–29 yrs), and 12 healthy controls (age range 5–30 yrs) participated in the study. Proprioception, touch and pain thresholds, as well as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by tactile stimulation of right and left lips and thumbs were compared. Results Pain sensitivity was higher, and lip stimulation elicited greater beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with CP than in healthy controls. In addition, although there was no significant differences between individuals with RMI and LMI on pain or touch sensitivity, lip and thumb stimulation elicited smaller beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with LMI than with RMI. Conclusions Our data revealed that brain processing of somatosensory stimulation was abnormal in CP individuals. Moreover, this processing was different depending if they presented right- or left-dominant motor impairments, suggesting that different mechanisms of sensorimotor reorganization should be involved in CP depending on dominant side of motor impairment. PMID:24410983

  13. Changes in somatosensory-evoked potentials and high-frequency oscillations after paired-associative stimulation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takenobu; Sakuma, Kenji; Nomura, Takashi; Uemura, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Isao; Nakashima, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Paired-associative stimulation (PAS), combining electrical median nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a variable delay, causes long-term potentiation or depression (LTP/LTD)-like cortical plasticity. In the present study, we examined how PAS over the motor cortex affected a distant site, the somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, the influences of PAS on high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) were investigated to clarify the origin of HFOs. Interstimulus intervals between median nerve stimulation and TMS were 25 ms (PAS(25)) and 10 ms (PAS(10)). PAS was performed over the motor and somatosensory cortices. SEPs following median nerve stimulation were recorded before and after PAS. HFOs were isolated by 400-800 Hz band-pass filtering. PAS(25) over the motor cortex increased the N20-P25 and P25-N33 amplitudes and the HFOs significantly. The enhancement of the P25-N33 amplitude and the late HFOs lasted more than 60 min. After PAS(10) over the motor cortex, the N20-P25 and P25-N33 amplitudes decreased for 40 min, and the HFOs decreased for 60 min. Frontal SEPs were not affected after PAS over the motor cortex. PAS(25/10) over the somatosensory cortex did not affect SEPs and HFOs. PAS(25/10) over the motor cortex caused the LTP/LTD-like phenomena in a distant site, the somatosensory cortex. The PAS paradigms over the motor cortex can modify both the neural generators of SEPs and HFOs. HFOs may reflect the activation of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons regulating pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex. PMID:17724581

  14. Dual control active superconductive devices

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1993-07-20

    A superconducting active device has dual control inputs and is constructed such that the output of the device is effectively a linear mix of the two input signals. The device is formed of a film of superconducting material on a substrate and has two main conduction channels, each of which includes a weak link region. A first control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the first channel and a second control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the second channel. The current flowing from the first channel flows through an internal control line which is also adjacent to the weak link region of the second channel. The weak link regions comprise small links of superconductor, separated by voids, through which the current flows in each channel. Current passed through the control lines causes magnetic flux vortices which propagate across the weak link regions and control the resistance of these regions. The output of the device taken across the input to the main channels and the output of the second main channel and the internal control line will constitute essentially a linear mix of the two input signals imposed on the two control lines. The device is especially suited to microwave applications since it has very low input capacitance, and is well suited to being formed of high temperature superconducting materials since all of the structures may be formed coplanar with one another on a substrate.

  15. Intracortical and Thalamocortical Connections of the Hand and Face Representations in Somatosensory Area 3b of Macaque Monkeys and Effects of Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Chand, Prem; Jain, Neeraj

    2015-09-30

    Brains of adult monkeys with chronic lesions of dorsal columns of spinal cord at cervical levels undergo large-scale reorganization. Reorganization results in expansion of intact chin inputs, which reactivate neurons in the deafferented hand representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b), ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus and cuneate nucleus of the brainstem. A likely contributing mechanism for this large-scale plasticity is sprouting of axons across the hand-face border. Here we determined whether such sprouting takes place in area 3b. We first determined the extent of intrinsic corticocortical connectivity between the hand and the face representations in normal area 3b. Small amounts of neuroanatomical tracers were injected in these representations close to the electrophysiologically determined hand-face border. Locations of the labeled neurons were mapped with respect to the detailed electrophysiological somatotopic maps and histologically determined hand-face border revealed in sections of the flattened cortex stained for myelin. Results show that intracortical projections across the hand-face border are few. In monkeys with chronic unilateral lesions of the dorsal columns and expanded chin representation, connections across the hand-face border were not different compared with normal monkeys. Thalamocortical connections from the hand and face representations in the ventroposterior nucleus to area 3b also remained unaltered after injury. The results show that sprouting of intrinsic connections in area 3b or the thalamocortical inputs does not contribute to large-scale cortical plasticity. Significance statement: Long-term injuries to dorsal spinal cord in adult primates result in large-scale somatotopic reorganization due to which chin inputs expand into the deafferented hand region. Reorganization takes place in multiple cortical areas, and thalamic and medullary nuclei. To what extent this brain reorganization due to dorsal column injuries

  16. Intracortical and Thalamocortical Connections of the Hand and Face Representations in Somatosensory Area 3b of Macaque Monkeys and Effects of Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Chand, Prem; Jain, Neeraj

    2015-09-30

    Brains of adult monkeys with chronic lesions of dorsal columns of spinal cord at cervical levels undergo large-scale reorganization. Reorganization results in expansion of intact chin inputs, which reactivate neurons in the deafferented hand representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b), ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus and cuneate nucleus of the brainstem. A likely contributing mechanism for this large-scale plasticity is sprouting of axons across the hand-face border. Here we determined whether such sprouting takes place in area 3b. We first determined the extent of intrinsic corticocortical connectivity between the hand and the face representations in normal area 3b. Small amounts of neuroanatomical tracers were injected in these representations close to the electrophysiologically determined hand-face border. Locations of the labeled neurons were mapped with respect to the detailed electrophysiological somatotopic maps and histologically determined hand-face border revealed in sections of the flattened cortex stained for myelin. Results show that intracortical projections across the hand-face border are few. In monkeys with chronic unilateral lesions of the dorsal columns and expanded chin representation, connections across the hand-face border were not different compared with normal monkeys. Thalamocortical connections from the hand and face representations in the ventroposterior nucleus to area 3b also remained unaltered after injury. The results show that sprouting of intrinsic connections in area 3b or the thalamocortical inputs does not contribute to large-scale cortical plasticity. Significance statement: Long-term injuries to dorsal spinal cord in adult primates result in large-scale somatotopic reorganization due to which chin inputs expand into the deafferented hand region. Reorganization takes place in multiple cortical areas, and thalamic and medullary nuclei. To what extent this brain reorganization due to dorsal column injuries

  17. Arctic science input wanted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Arctic Research and Policy Act (Eos, June 26, 1984, p. 412) was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan this past July. One of its objectives is to develop a 5-year research plan for the Arctic. A request for input to this plan is being issued this week to nearly 500 people in science, engineering, and industry.To promote Arctic research and to recommend research policy in the Arctic, the new law establishes a five-member Arctic Research Commission, to be appointed by the President, and establishes an Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, to be composed of representatives from nearly a dozen agencies having interests in the region. The commission will make policy recommendations, and the interagency committee will implement those recommendations. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has been designated as the lead agency of the interagency committee.

  18. Neonatal Restriction of Tactile Inputs Leads to Long-Lasting Impairments of Cross-Modal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Brigitte; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal behavior relies on the combination of inputs from multiple senses through complex interactions within neocortical networks. The ontogeny of this multisensory interplay is still unknown. Here, we identify critical factors that control the development of visual-tactile processing by combining in vivo electrophysiology with anatomical/functional assessment of cortico-cortical communication and behavioral investigation of pigmented rats. We demonstrate that the transient reduction of unimodal (tactile) inputs during a short period of neonatal development prior to the first cross-modal experience affects feed-forward subcortico-cortical interactions by attenuating the cross-modal enhancement of evoked responses in the adult primary somatosensory cortex. Moreover, the neonatal manipulation alters cortico-cortical interactions by decreasing the cross-modal synchrony and directionality in line with the sparsification of direct projections between primary somatosensory and visual cortices. At the behavioral level, these functional and structural deficits resulted in lower cross-modal matching abilities. Thus, neonatal unimodal experience during defined developmental stages is necessary for setting up the neuronal networks of multisensory processing. PMID:26600123

  19. Somatosensory evoked potentials following proprioceptive stimulation of finger in man.

    PubMed

    Mima, T; Terada, K; Maekawa, M; Nagamine, T; Ikeda, A; Shibasaki, H

    1996-09-01

    Brisk passive flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger, produced by using a newly devised instrument, elicited evoked potentials on the scalp. The present study carefully excluded the possible contribution of sensory modalities other than proprioception. The initial part of cortical response was a positive deflexion at the contralateral central area (P1 at 34.6 ms after the stimulus). This was followed by a midfrontal negative wave (N1 at 44.8 ms) and a clear positivity at the contralateral centroparietal area (P2 at 48.0 ms). The evoked responses persisted in spite of the abolition of cutaneous and joint afferents of the finger caused by ischemic anesthesia, but they were lost by ischemic anesthesia of the forearm. Thus, the cortical evoked responses obtained in this study most probably reflect muscle afferent inputs. The scalp distribution of P1 suggested that its cortical generator source was different from that of the N20-P20 components of evoked potentials to electrical median nerve stimulation. Brodmann areas 2 and 3a of human brain, which are known to receive deep receptor inputs, are the most plausible generator sites for the early components of the proprioception-related evoked responses. The amplitude of P2 was related to the velocity but not to the magnitude of movement. In conclusion, the present study established a method for recording the evoked responses to the brisk passive movement of the finger joint, which mainly reflect the dynamic aspects of proprioception mediated through muscle afferent. PMID:8891653

  20. The interaction between felt touch and tactile consequences of observed actions: an action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm.

    PubMed

    Deschrijver, Eliane; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Action observation leads to a representation of both the motor aspect of an observed action (motor simulation) and its somatosensory consequences (action-based somatosensory simulation) in the observer's brain. In the current electroencephalography-study, we investigated the neuronal interplay of action-based somatosensory simulation and felt touch. We presented index or middle finger tapping movements of a human or a wooden hand, while simultaneously presenting 'tap-like' tactile sensations to either the corresponding or non-corresponding fingertip of the participant. We focused on an early stage of somatosensory processing [P50, N100 and N140 sensory evoked potentials (SEPs)] and on a later stage of higher-order processing (P3-complex). The results revealed an interaction effect of animacy and congruency in the early P50 SEP and an animacy effect in the N100/N140 SEPs. In the P3-complex, we found an interaction effect indicating that the influence of congruency was larger in the human than in the wooden hand. We argue that the P3-complex may reflect higher-order self-other distinction by signaling simulated action-based touch that does not match own tactile information. As such, the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm might help understand higher-order social processes from a somatosensory point of view.

  1. Phantom acupuncture: dissociating somatosensory and cognitive/affective components of acupuncture stimulation with a novel form of placebo acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeungchan; Napadow, Vitaly; Kim, Jieun; Lee, Seunggi; Choi, Woojin; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Park, Kyungmo

    2014-01-01

    In a clinical setting, acupuncture treatment consists of multiple components including somatosensory stimulation, treatment context, and attention to needle-based procedures. In order to dissociate somatosensory versus contextual and attentional aspects of acupuncture, we devised a novel form of placebo acupuncture, a visual manipulation dubbed phantom acupuncture, which reproduces the acupuncture needling ritual without somatosensory tactile stimulation. Subjects (N = 20) received both real (REAL) and phantom (PHNT) acupuncture. Subjects were retrospectively classified into two groups based on PHNT credibility (PHNTc, who found phantom acupuncture credible; and PHNTnc, who did not). Autonomic and psychophysical responses were monitored. We found that PHNT can be delivered in a credible manner. Acupuncture needling, a complex, ritualistic somatosensory intervention, induces sympathetic activation (phasic skin conductance [SC] response), which may be specific to the somatosensory component of acupuncture. In contrast, contextual effects, such as needling credibility, are instead associated with a shift toward relative cardiovagal activation (decreased heart rate) during needling and sympathetic inhibition (decreased SC) and parasympathetic activation (decreased pupil size) following acupuncture needling. Visual stimulation characterizing the needling ritual is an important factor for phasic autonomic responses to acupuncture and may undelie the needling orienting response. Our study suggests that phantom acupuncture can be a viable sham control for acupuncture as it completely excludes the somatosensory component of real needling while maintaining the credibility of the acupuncture treatment context in many subjects.

  2. The interaction between felt touch and tactile consequences of observed actions: an action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm.

    PubMed

    Deschrijver, Eliane; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Action observation leads to a representation of both the motor aspect of an observed action (motor simulation) and its somatosensory consequences (action-based somatosensory simulation) in the observer's brain. In the current electroencephalography-study, we investigated the neuronal interplay of action-based somatosensory simulation and felt touch. We presented index or middle finger tapping movements of a human or a wooden hand, while simultaneously presenting 'tap-like' tactile sensations to either the corresponding or non-corresponding fingertip of the participant. We focused on an early stage of somatosensory processing [P50, N100 and N140 sensory evoked potentials (SEPs)] and on a later stage of higher-order processing (P3-complex). The results revealed an interaction effect of animacy and congruency in the early P50 SEP and an animacy effect in the N100/N140 SEPs. In the P3-complex, we found an interaction effect indicating that the influence of congruency was larger in the human than in the wooden hand. We argue that the P3-complex may reflect higher-order self-other distinction by signaling simulated action-based touch that does not match own tactile information. As such, the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm might help understand higher-order social processes from a somatosensory point of view. PMID:26152577

  3. Quantifying the effect of isoflurane and nitrous oxide on somatosensory-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Devadoss, Usha; Babu, S; Cherian, Vt

    2010-01-01

    Anaesthetic techniques may have a significant effect on intraoperative-evoked potentials (EP). The present study is designed to compare Propofol anaesthesia with Isoflurane (with or without nitrous oxide) during intraoperative somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring in 15 ASA Grade I and II patients undergoing surgery for intracranial tumours. SSEPs in response to median and posterior tibial nerve stimulation were recorded under four different anaesthetic conditions: 1) Propofol infusion and ventilation with air-oxygen, 2) Isoflurane, 1.0 MAC and ventilation with air-oxygen, 3) Isoflurane 1.0 MAC and ventilation with nitrous oxide-oxygen, and 4) Return to Isoflurane, 1.0 MAC and ventilation with air-oxygen. Intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials is best recordable using Propofol. The morphology of the EP is reproducible with Isoflurane. This effect is exaggerated when it is advisable to avoid nitrous oxide. PMID:20532071

  4. Valid cues for auditory or somatosensory targets affect their perception: a signal detection approach.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Lore; Van Damme, Stefaan; Crombez, Geert

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of focusing attention towards auditory or somatosensory stimuli on perceptual sensitivity and response bias using a signal detection task. Participants (N = 44) performed an unspeeded detection task in which weak (individually calibrated) somatosensory or auditory stimuli were delivered. The focus of attention was manipulated by the presentation of a visual cue at the start of each trial. The visual cue consisted of the word "warmth" or the word "tone". This word cue was predictive of the corresponding target on two-thirds of the trials. As hypothesised, the results showed that cueing attention to a specific sensory modality resulted in a higher perceptual sensitivity for validly cued targets than for invalidly cued targets, as well as in a more liberal response criterion for reporting stimuli in the valid modality than in the invalid modality. The value of this experimental paradigm for investigating excessive attentional focus or hypervigilance in various non-clinical and clinical populations is discussed.

  5. Modality-Based Organization of Ascending Somatosensory Axons in the Direct Dorsal Column Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jingwen; Ding, Long; Li, Jian J.; Kim, Hyukmin; Liu, Jiakun; Li, Haipeng; Moberly, Andrew; Badea, Tudor C.; Duncan, Ian D.; Son, Young-Jin; Scherer, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing doctrine regarding the functional organization of the direct dorsal column (DDC) pathway is the “somatotopic map” model, which suggests that somatosensory afferents are primarily organized by receptive field instead of modality. Using modality-specific genetic tracing, here we show that ascending mechanosensory and proprioceptive axons, two main types of the DDC afferents, are largely segregated into a medial–lateral pattern in the mouse dorsal column and medulla. In addition, we found that this modality-based organization is likely to be conserved in other mammalian species, including human. Furthermore, we identified key morphological differences between these two types of afferents, which explains how modality segregation is formed and why a rough “somatotopic map” was previously detected. Collectively, our results establish a new functional organization model for the mammalian direct dorsal column pathway and provide insight into how somatotopic and modality-based organization coexist in the central somatosensory pathway. PMID:24198362

  6. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  7. Glutamate-Mediated Primary Somatosensory Cortex Excitability Correlated with Circulating Copper and Ceruloplasmin

    PubMed Central

    Tecchio, Franca; Assenza, Giovanni; Zappasodi, Filippo; Mariani, Stefania; Salustri, Carlo; Squitti, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To verify whether markers of metal homeostasis are related to a magnetoencephalographic index representative of glutamate-mediated excitability of the primary somatosensory cortex. The index is identified as the source strength of the earliest component (M20) of the somatosensory magnetic fields (SEFs) evoked by right median nerve stimulation at wrist. Method. Thirty healthy right-handed subjects (51 ± 22 years) were enrolled in the study. A source reconstruction algorithm was applied to assess the amount of synchronously activated neurons subtending the M20 and the following SEF component (M30), which is generated by two independent contributions of gabaergic and glutamatergic transmission. Serum copper, ceruloplasmin, iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, and zinc levels were measured. Results. Total copper and ceruloplasmin negatively correlated with the M20 source strength. Conclusion. This pilot study suggests that higher level of body copper reserve, as marked by ceruloplasmin variations, parallels lower cortical glutamatergic responsiveness. PMID:22145081

  8. Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the “dual-use dilemma”. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

  9. Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the 'dual-use dilemma'. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

  10. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Akatsuka, Kosuke; Nakata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4) in 12 baseball players (baseball group) and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group). The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs) were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT). Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes.

  11. Disordered plasticity in the primary somatosensory cortex in focal hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yohei; Ueki, Yoshino; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Mima, Tatsuya; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Hallett, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Interventional paired associative stimulation (PAS) can induce plasticity in the cortex, and this plasticity was previously shown to be disordered in the primary motor cortex in focal hand dystonia (FHD). This study aimed to test whether associative plasticity is abnormal in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in FHD and whether PAS modulates excitatory or inhibitory interneurons within the cortex. Ten FHD patients and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. We investigated the changes in single- and double-pulse somatosensory-evoked potentials before and after PAS, which consisted of peripheral electrical nerve stimulation and subsequent transcranial magnetic stimulation over S1. Four sessions of somatosensory-evoked potentials recordings were performed: before PAS, and immediately, 15 and 30 min after PAS. We compared the time course of the somatosensory-evoked potentials between the FHD and healthy groups. In the single-pulse condition, the P27 amplitudes were significantly higher in FHD immediately after PAS than before PAS, while no changes were observed in healthy subjects. In the double-pulse condition, significant differences in the suppression ratio of P27 were found immediately after and 15 min after PAS, while there were no significant differences in healthy subjects. The P27 suppression tended to normalize toward the level of the healthy volunteer group. In FHD, PAS transiently induced an abnormal increase in excitability in S1. In addition, intracortical inhibition in S1 was found to increase as well. This abnormal plasticity of the intracortical neurons in S1 may contribute to the pathophysiology of dystonia. PMID:19151081

  12. Enhancement of the amplitude of somatosensory evoked potentials following magnetic pulse stimulation of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Seyal, M; Browne, J K; Masuoka, L K; Gabor, A J

    1993-01-01

    In this study we have demonstrated an enhancement of cortically generated wave forms of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) following magnetic pulse stimulation of the human brain. Subcortically generated activity was unaltered. The enhancement of SEP amplitude was greatest when the median nerve was stimulated 30-70 msec following magnetic pulse stimulation over the contralateral parietal scalp. We posit that the enhancement of the SEP is the result of synchronization of pyramidal cells in the sensorimotor cortex resulting from the magnetic pulse.

  13. Children with cerebral palsy have uncharacteristic somatosensory cortical oscillations after stimulation of the hand mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Kurz, M J; Becker, K M; Heinrichs-Graham, E; Wilson, T W

    2015-10-01

    Numerous clinical investigations have reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) have tactile discrimination deficits that likely limit their ability to plan and manipulate objects. Despite this clinical awareness, we still have a substantial knowledge gap in our understanding of the neurological basis for these tactile discrimination deficits. Previously, we have shown that children with CP have aberrant theta-alpha (4-14 Hz) oscillations in the somatosensory cortices following tactile stimulation of the foot. In this investigation, we evaluated if these aberrant theta-alpha oscillations also extend to the hand. Magnetoencephalography was used to evaluate event-related changes in the theta-alpha and beta (18-34 Hz) somatosensory cortical oscillations in groups of children with CP and typically developing (TD) children following tactile stimulation of their hands. Our results showed that the somatosensory theta-alpha oscillations were relatively intact in children with CP, which is in contrast to our previous results for foot tactile stimulations. We suspect that these inter-study differences may be related to the higher probability that the neural tracts serving the lower extremities are damaged in children with CP, compared to those serving the upper extremities. This inference is plausible since the participating children with CP had Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels between I and II. In contrast to the theta-alpha results, children with CP did exhibit a sharp increase in beta activity during the same time period, which was not observed in TD children. This suggests that children with CP still have deficits in the computational aspect of somatosensory processing.

  14. Cross-sectional imaging of functional activation in the rat somatosensory cortex with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, A. D.; Chen, Y.; Ruvinskaya, L.; Devor, A.; Boas, D. A.; Fujimoto, J. G.

    2005-08-01

    Simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT) and video microscopy were performed on the rat somatosensory cortex through a thinned skull during forepaw stimulation. Fractional change measurements in OCT images reveal a functional signal timecourse similar to well understood hemodynamic signal timecourses measured with video microscopy. The precise etiology of the observed OCT functional signal is still under investigation, but these results suggest that OCT can provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of functional neuro-vascular activation.

  15. [The cervical somatosensory evoked potential in lesions of the cortical efferents].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1990-03-01

    Cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation were analysed in 20 patients with unilateral central paresis of the arm. Neither the configuration nor the latency and amplitude measures of the neck potential did reveal any association with pathological alterations of cortical efferents or with abnormal cortically evoked responses. Thus, also in this population the evaluation of cervical potentials can be done according to the known criteria. PMID:2110891

  16. Cortical localization of phase and amplitude dynamics predicting access to somatosensory awareness.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Jonni; Palva, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Neural dynamics leading to conscious sensory perception have remained enigmatic in despite of large interest. Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed that a co-activation of sensory and frontoparietal areas is crucial for conscious sensory perception in the several second time-scale of BOLD signal fluctuations. Electrophysiological recordings with magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG and EEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) have shown that event related responses (ERs), phase-locking of neuronal activity, and oscillation amplitude modulations in sub-second timescales are greater for consciously perceived than for unperceived stimuli. The cortical sources of ER and oscillation dynamics predicting the conscious perception have, however, remained unclear because these prior studies have utilized MEG/EEG sensor-level analyses or iEEG with limited neuroanatomical coverage. We used a somatosensory detection task, magnetoencephalography (MEG), and cortically constrained source reconstruction to identify the cortical areas where ERs, local poststimulus amplitudes and phase-locking of neuronal activity are predictive of the conscious access of somatosensory information. We show here that strengthened ERs, phase-locking to stimulus onset (SL), and induced oscillations amplitude modulations all predicted conscious somatosensory perception, but the most robust and widespread of these was SL that was sustained in low-alpha (6-10 Hz) band. The strength of SL and to a lesser extent that of ER predicted conscious perception in the somatosensory, lateral and medial frontal, posterior parietal, and in the cingulate cortex. These data suggest that a rapid phase-reorganization and concurrent oscillation amplitude modulations in these areas play an instrumental role in the emergence of a conscious percept.

  17. The importance of the negative blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response in the somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Klingner, Carsten M; Brodoehl, Stefan; Witte, Otto W

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, multiple studies have shown task-induced negative blood-oxygenation-level-dependent responses (NBRs) in multiple brain regions in humans and animals. Converging evidence suggests that task-induced NBRs can be interpreted in terms of decreased neuronal activity. However, the vascular and metabolic dynamics and functional importance of the NBR are highly debated. Here, we review studies investigating the origin and functional importance of the NBR, with special attention to the somatosensory cortex. PMID:26057216

  18. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Akatsuka, Kosuke; Nakata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4) in 12 baseball players (baseball group) and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group). The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs) were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT). Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes. PMID:26600391

  19. Children with cerebral palsy have uncharacteristic somatosensory cortical oscillations after stimulation of the hand mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Kurz, M J; Becker, K M; Heinrichs-Graham, E; Wilson, T W

    2015-10-01

    Numerous clinical investigations have reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) have tactile discrimination deficits that likely limit their ability to plan and manipulate objects. Despite this clinical awareness, we still have a substantial knowledge gap in our understanding of the neurological basis for these tactile discrimination deficits. Previously, we have shown that children with CP have aberrant theta-alpha (4-14 Hz) oscillations in the somatosensory cortices following tactile stimulation of the foot. In this investigation, we evaluated if these aberrant theta-alpha oscillations also extend to the hand. Magnetoencephalography was used to evaluate event-related changes in the theta-alpha and beta (18-34 Hz) somatosensory cortical oscillations in groups of children with CP and typically developing (TD) children following tactile stimulation of their hands. Our results showed that the somatosensory theta-alpha oscillations were relatively intact in children with CP, which is in contrast to our previous results for foot tactile stimulations. We suspect that these inter-study differences may be related to the higher probability that the neural tracts serving the lower extremities are damaged in children with CP, compared to those serving the upper extremities. This inference is plausible since the participating children with CP had Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels between I and II. In contrast to the theta-alpha results, children with CP did exhibit a sharp increase in beta activity during the same time period, which was not observed in TD children. This suggests that children with CP still have deficits in the computational aspect of somatosensory processing. PMID:26235434

  20. Modeling and generating input processes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  1. Somatosensory brainstem, thalamus, and cortex of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva K; Turner, Emily C; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-06-15

    Pinnipeds (sea lions, seals, and walruses) are notable for many reasons, including their ape-sized brains, their adaptation to a coastal niche that combines mastery of the sea with strong ties to land, and the remarkable abilities of their trigeminal whisker system. However, little is known about the central nervous system of pinnipeds. Here we report on the somatosensory areas of the nervous system of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Using stains for Nissl, cytochrome oxidase, and vesicular glutamate transporters, we investigated the primary somatosensory areas in the brainstem, thalamus, and cortex in one sea lion pup and the external anatomy of the brain in a second pup. We find that the sea lion's impressive array of whiskers is matched by a large trigeminal representation in the brainstem with well-defined parcellation that resembles the barrelettes found in rodents but scaled upward in size. The dorsal column nuclei are large and distinct. The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus has divisions, with a large area for the presumptive head representation. Primary somatosensory cortex is located in the neocortex just anterior to the main vertical fissure, and precisely locating it as we do here is useful for comparing the highly gyrified pinniped cortex with that of other carnivores. To our knowledge this work is the first comprehensive report on the central nervous system areas for any sensory system in a pinniped. The results may be useful both in the veterinary setting and for comparative studies related to brain evolution. PMID:26878587

  2. Seeing Is Not Feeling: Posterior Parietal But Not Somatosensory Cortex Engagement During Touch Observation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Observing touch has been reported to elicit activation in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and is suggested to underlie our ability to interpret other's behavior and potentially empathy. However, despite these reports, there are a large number of inconsistencies in terms of the precise topography of activation, the extent of hemispheric lateralization, and what aspects of the stimulus are necessary to drive responses. To address these issues, we investigated the localization and functional properties of regions responsive to observed touch in a large group of participants (n = 40). Surprisingly, even with a lenient contrast of hand brushing versus brushing alone, we did not find any selective activation for observed touch in the hand regions of somatosensory cortex but rather in superior and inferior portions of neighboring posterior parietal cortex, predominantly in the left hemisphere. These regions in the posterior parietal cortex required the presence of both brush and hand to elicit strong responses and showed some selectivity for the form of the object or agent of touch. Furthermore, the inferior parietal region showed nonspecific tactile and motor responses, suggesting some similarity to area PFG in the monkey. Collectively, our findings challenge the automatic engagement of somatosensory cortex when observing touch, suggest mislocalization in previous studies, and instead highlight the role of posterior parietal cortex. PMID:25632124

  3. Spatio-temporal regulation of the formation of the somatosensory system.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The somatosensory system in the brain has been widely used for investigating the mechanisms underlying neural circuit formation and developmental neural plasticity. In the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of rodents, there are discrete cytoarchitectonic units called barrels. Reverse genetic analyses using knockout mice have revealed molecules that control spatial pattern formation of barrels in S1. Glutamatergic receptors such as the NMDA receptor and mGluR5, and molecules related to serotonin such as serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A are essential for the formation of barrels. In addition to the mechanisms of spatial pattern formation, those regulating the timing of developmental processes were uncovered recently. Barrels are formed soon after the birth of newborn mouse pups from their mothers, and it was shown that the timing of barrel formation was determined by the timing of the birth of mouse pups. The mechanisms downstream of birth were also examined. It would be intriguing to examine if the mechanisms found using the somatosensory system are applicable to other brain regions.

  4. Early changes in somatosensory function in spinal pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Anna; Dean, Catherine M; Wrigley, Paul J; Hush, Julia M

    2015-02-01

    Alterations in sensory processing have been demonstrated in chronic low back and neck pain. However, it has not been yet systematically summarized how early these changes occur in spinal pain. This systematic review examines the available literature measuring somatosensory function in acute (<6 weeks) and subacute (6-12 weeks) spinal pain. The protocol for this review has been registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). An electronic search of 4 databases was conducted to retrieve studies assessing somatosensory function by quantitative sensory testing in adults with spinal pain of up to 12 weeks duration. Two reviewers independently screened the studies and assessed the risk of bias. Studies were grouped according to spinal pain condition (whiplash injury, idiopathic neck pain, and nonspecific low back pain), and, where possible, meta-analyses were performed for comparable results. Fifteen studies were included. Sources of bias included lack of assessor blinding, unclear sampling methods, and lack of control for confounders. We found that: (1) there is consistent evidence for thermal and widespread mechanical pain hypersensitivity in the acute stage of whiplash, (2) there is no evidence for pain hypersensitivity in the acute and subacute stage of idiopathic neck pain, although the body of evidence is small, and (3) hyperalgesia and spinal cord hyperexcitability have been detected in early stages of nonspecific low back pain, although evidence about widespread effects are conflicting. Future longitudinal research using multiple sensory modalities and standardized testing may reveal the involvement of somatosensory changes in the development and maintenance of chronic pain.

  5. The impact of eye closure on somatosensory perception in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten; Stieglitz, Katharina; Witte, Otto W

    2015-10-15

    Visual dominance over other senses is a well-known phenomenon. Closing the eyes, even in complete darkness, can improve somatosensory perception by switching off various aspects of visual dominance. How and if this mechanism is affected by aging remains unknown. We performed detailed neurophysiological and functional MR-imaging on healthy young and elderly participants under the conditions of opened and closed eyes. We found an improved perception threshold in both groups when the eyes were closed, but the improvement was significantly less pronounced in the elderly. fMRI data revealed increased resting activity in the somatosensory cortex with closed eyes, and the stimulus-induced activity of the secondary somatosensory cortex decreased in the young but not in the elderly. This study demonstrates that a switch towards unisensory processing via eye closure is preserved but significantly reduced in the aging brain. We suggest that the decreased ability for unisensory processing is a general phenomenon in the aging brain resulting in a shift toward multisensory integration.

  6. The separation of overlapping neuromagnetic sources in first and second somatosensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Elbert, T; Junghöfer, M; Scholz, B; Schneider, S

    1995-01-01

    In response to a somatosensory stimulus, two cortical centers in each hemisphere produce neural mass activity large enough to be detected with electric (EEG) or magnetic (MEG) measurements. Both the primary somatosensory cortex (S-I), located in the postcentral sulcus and in the depths of the central sulcus, as well as the secondary somatic sensory cortex (S-II), lying in the upper bank of the Sylvian fissure, respond within the first 100 ms such that the two activities overlap in time. We demonstrate that this overlap can be disentangled using a MUSIC-type approach, as suggested by Oppelt and Scholz. It needs no a priori information about the sources. As the results show, there are several instances in time in which only one of the two centers (SI, SII) is active. It is only for these time segments that a single moving dipole yields meaningful results. Such time intervals occur during the upstroke of the late component around 60 ms (only SI activity) and during the down-stroke around 120 ms (only SII activity). In these time intervals the activity of one of the somatosensory areas is still large enough, while the other center is not yet or is no longer active.

  7. Development of somatosensory perception in children: a longitudinal QST-study.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris; Kraemer, Nicole; Hechler, Tanja; Aksu, Fuat; Krumova, Elena; Maier, Christoph; Magerl, Walter; Blankenburg, Markus

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional studies on somatosensory perception in children demonstrate lower pain thresholds for children compared with adolescents. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to replicate these age-related differences in a longitudinal design. Total 38 children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years (two girls and two boys within each year) participated in this study. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) according to the protocol of the German research network on neuropathic pain (DFNS) was assessed twice with an interval of 15.8 ± 3.0 months. Bland-Altman analyses describe the short-term reliability of the measurements. Intraindividual sensory development was measured using paired t-test and quantified by effect sizes Cohen's d between the two measurements. QST parameters showed good short-term reliability. Over a period of 1 year, children became less sensitive to painful stimuli, especially to cold pain, pressure pain, and mechanical pain. No systematic developmental changes were observed in response to the other somatosensory stimuli. QST is reliable over short retest intervals. In line with previous results from cross-sectional studies, we find a decrease in pain sensitivity with increasing age but no differences in nonnociceptive somatosensory processing over a period of 1 year in children between 6 and 16 years of age. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of a reference-based interpretation of the individual QST data.

  8. Image-Guided Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Stimulates Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonhye; Kim, Hyungmin; Jung, Yujin; Song, In-Uk; Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2015-03-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has recently been investigated as a new mode of non-invasive brain stimulation, which offers exquisite spatial resolution and depth control. We report on the elicitation of explicit somatosensory sensations as well as accompanying evoked electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials induced by FUS stimulation of the human somatosensory cortex. As guided by individual-specific neuroimage data, FUS was transcranially delivered to the hand somatosensory cortex among healthy volunteers. The sonication elicited transient tactile sensations on the hand area contralateral to the sonicated hemisphere, with anatomical specificity of up to a finger, while EEG recordings revealed the elicitation of sonication-specific evoked potentials. Retrospective numerical simulation of the acoustic propagation through the skull showed that a threshold of acoustic intensity may exist for successful cortical stimulation. The neurological and neuroradiological assessment before and after the sonication, along with strict safety considerations through the individual-specific estimation of effective acoustic intensity in situ and thermal effects, showed promising initial safety profile; however, equal/more rigorous precautionary procedures are advised for future studies. The transient and localized stimulation of the brain using image-guided transcranial FUS may serve as a novel tool for the non-invasive assessment and modification of region-specific brain function.

  9. Image-Guided Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Stimulates Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonhye; Kim, Hyungmin; Jung, Yujin; Song, In-Uk; Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has recently been investigated as a new mode of non-invasive brain stimulation, which offers exquisite spatial resolution and depth control. We report on the elicitation of explicit somatosensory sensations as well as accompanying evoked electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials induced by FUS stimulation of the human somatosensory cortex. As guided by individual-specific neuroimage data, FUS was transcranially delivered to the hand somatosensory cortex among healthy volunteers. The sonication elicited transient tactile sensations on the hand area contralateral to the sonicated hemisphere, with anatomical specificity of up to a finger, while EEG recordings revealed the elicitation of sonication-specific evoked potentials. Retrospective numerical simulation of the acoustic propagation through the skull showed that a threshold of acoustic intensity may exist for successful cortical stimulation. The neurological and neuroradiological assessment before and after the sonication, along with strict safety considerations through the individual-specific estimation of effective acoustic intensity in situ and thermal effects, showed promising initial safety profile; however, equal/more rigorous precautionary procedures are advised for future studies. The transient and localized stimulation of the brain using image-guided transcranial FUS may serve as a novel tool for the non-invasive assessment and modification of region-specific brain function. PMID:25735418

  10. Amplitude and timing of somatosensory cortex activity in Task Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Dolberg, Rebecca; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Honma, Susanne; Zhu, Zhao; Findlay, Anne M.; Byl, Nancy N.; Nagarjan, Srikantan S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Task-specific focal hand dystonia (tspFHD) is a movement disorder diagnosed in individuals performing repetitive hand behaviors. The extent to which processing anomalies in primary sensory cortex extend to other regions or across the two hemispheres is presently unclear. Methods In response to low/high rate and novel tactile stimuli on the affected and unaffected hands, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to elaborate activity timing and amplitude in the primary somatosensory (S1) and secondary somatosensory/parietal ventral (S2/PV) cortices. MEG and clinical performance measures were collected from thirteen patients and matched controls. Results Compared to controls, subjects with tspFHD had increased response amplitude in S2/PV bilaterally in response to high rate and novel stimuli. Subjects with tspFHD also showed increased response latency (low rate, novel) of the affected digits in contralateral S1. For high rate, subjects with tspFHD showed increased response latency in ipsilateral S1 and S2/PV bilaterally. Activation differences correlated with functional sensory deficits (predicting a latency shift in S1), motor speed and muscle strength. Conclusions There are objective differences in the amplitude and timing of activity for both hands across contralateral and ipsilateral somatosensory cortex in patients with tspFHD. Significance Knowledge of cortical processing abnormalities across S1 and S2/PV in dystonia should be applied towards the development of learning based sensorimotor interventions. PMID:21802357

  11. Somatosensory profiling of intra-oral capsaicin and menthol in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyi; Baad-Hansen, Lene; List, Thomas; Zhang, Zhenting; Svensson, Peter

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of surrogate orofacial pain models on the quantitative sensory testing (QST) profile in healthy participants. Capsaicin, menthol, or saline (control) were applied topically onto the gingiva of 15 healthy subjects for 15 min. During application, the subjects rated pain intensity on a score of 0-10, on an electronic visual analog scale (VAS). A standardized intra-oral QST protocol was performed before and immediately after application. Data obtained before and after application were compared using rank-sum tests, and QST profiles were made after Z-transformation. Application of capsaicin caused moderate levels of pain (VAS(peak)  = 6.0 ± 0.7), and application of menthol produced mild levels of pain (VAS(peak)  = 1.8 ± 0.6). Capsaicin induced hypersensitivity to warmth, heat pain and cold pain and hyposensitivity to mechanical stimuli. Menthol induced hypersensitivity to cold and warmth. Saline caused hypersensitivity to heat pain and hyposensitivity to mechanical stimuli. However, somatosensory profiles from Z-scores demonstrated sensory gains regarding warmth detection and heat pain only after application of capsaicin. In conclusion, a standardized battery of QST showed somatosensory changes after application of capsaicin, menthol and saline to the gingiva. However, the Z-score-based profiles may only reflect the most prominent somatosensory changes and thus represent a conservative approach for evaluation of data. PMID:23331421

  12. Skill-specific changes in somatosensory-evoked potentials and reaction times in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Takuya; Horiuchi, Yoko; Nakazawa, Sho; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2013-03-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in short-latency somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). The aim of this study is to clarify whether specific training in athletes affects the long-latency SEPs related to information processing of stimulation. The long-latency SEPs P100 and N140 were recorded at midline cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, and Pz) in response to stimulation of the index finger of the dominant hand in fifteen baseball players (baseball group) and in fifteen athletes in sports such as swimming, track and field events, and soccer (sports group) that do not require fine somatosensory discrimination or motor control of the hand. The long-latency SEPs were measured under a passive condition (no response required) and a reaction time (RT) condition in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The peak P100 and peak N140 latencies and RT were significantly shorter in the baseball group than the sports group. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between RT and both the peak P100 and the peak N140 latencies. Specific athletic training regimens that involve the hand may induce neuroplastic alterations in the cortical hand representation areas playing a vital role in rapid sensory processing and initiation of motor responses.

  13. Somatosensory brainstem, thalamus, and cortex of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva K; Turner, Emily C; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-06-15

    Pinnipeds (sea lions, seals, and walruses) are notable for many reasons, including their ape-sized brains, their adaptation to a coastal niche that combines mastery of the sea with strong ties to land, and the remarkable abilities of their trigeminal whisker system. However, little is known about the central nervous system of pinnipeds. Here we report on the somatosensory areas of the nervous system of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Using stains for Nissl, cytochrome oxidase, and vesicular glutamate transporters, we investigated the primary somatosensory areas in the brainstem, thalamus, and cortex in one sea lion pup and the external anatomy of the brain in a second pup. We find that the sea lion's impressive array of whiskers is matched by a large trigeminal representation in the brainstem with well-defined parcellation that resembles the barrelettes found in rodents but scaled upward in size. The dorsal column nuclei are large and distinct. The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus has divisions, with a large area for the presumptive head representation. Primary somatosensory cortex is located in the neocortex just anterior to the main vertical fissure, and precisely locating it as we do here is useful for comparing the highly gyrified pinniped cortex with that of other carnivores. To our knowledge this work is the first comprehensive report on the central nervous system areas for any sensory system in a pinniped. The results may be useful both in the veterinary setting and for comparative studies related to brain evolution.

  14. Input in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Madden, Carolyn G., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "When Does Teacher Talk Work as Input?"; "Cultural Input in Second Language Learning"; "Skilled Variation in a Kindergarten Teacher's Use of Foreigner Talk"; "Teacher-Pupil Interaction in Second Language Development"; "Foreigner Talk in the University Classroom"; "Input and Interaction in the…

  15. Intensive Input in Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimino, Andy; Ferguson, Nancy

    This paper discusses the role of input as one of the universals in second language acquisition theory. Considerations include how language instructors can best organize and present input and when certain kinds of input are more important. A self-administered program evaluation exercise using relevant theoretical and methodological contributions…

  16. Self-organisation in the human visual system--visuo-motor processing with congenitally abnormal V1 input.

    PubMed

    Wolynski, Barbara; Kanowski, Martin; Meltendorf, Synke; Behrens-Baumann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2010-11-01

    Due to an abnormal projection of the temporal retina the albinotic primary visual cortex receives substantial input from the ipsilateral visual field. To test whether representation abnormalities are also evident in higher tier visual, and in motor and somatosensory cortices, brain activity was measured with fMRI in 14 subjects with albinism performing a visuo-motor task. During central fixation, a blue or red target embedded in a distractor array was presented for 250 ms in the left or right visual hemifield. After a delay, the subjects were prompted to indicate with left or right thumb button presses the target presence in the upper or lower hemifield. The fMRI responses were evaluated for different regions of interest concerned with visual, motor and somatosensory processing and compared to previously acquired data from 14 controls. The following results were obtained: (1) in albinism the hit rates in the visuo-motor task were indistinguishable from normal. (2) In area MT and the intraparietal sulcus there was an indication of abnormal lateralisation patterns. (3) Largely normal lateralisation patterns were evident in motor and somatosensory cortices. It is concluded that in human albinism, the abnormal visual field representation is made available for visuo-motor processing with a motor cortex that comprises an essentially normal lateralisation. Consequently, specific adaptations of the mechanisms mediating visuo-motor integration are required in albinism. PMID:20863844

  17. The State-of-the-Science on Somatosensory Function and Its Impact on Daily Life in Adults and Older Adults, and Following Stroke: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Carey, Leeanne M; Lamp, Gemma; Turville, Megan

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to identify and synthesize research evidence about how adults and older adults process somatosensory information in daily activities, and the interventions available to regain somatosensory function following stroke. We developed two interacting concept maps to address the research questions. The scoping review was conducted from 2005 to 2015 across Web of Science, AMED, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo databases. Search terms included somatosensory, perception, performance, participation, older adult, stroke, intervention, discrimination, learning, and neuroplasticity. Contributions from 103 articles for Concept 1 and 14 articles for Concept 2 are reported. Measures of somatosensory processing, performance, and participation used are identified. Interventions available to treat somatosensory loss are summarized in relation to approach, outcome measures, and theory/mechanisms underlying. A gap exists in the current understanding of how somatosensory function affects the daily lives of adults. A multidisciplinary approach that includes performance and participation outcomes is recommended to advance the field.

  18. The State-of-the-Science on Somatosensory Function and Its Impact on Daily Life in Adults and Older Adults, and Following Stroke: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Carey, Leeanne M; Lamp, Gemma; Turville, Megan

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to identify and synthesize research evidence about how adults and older adults process somatosensory information in daily activities, and the interventions available to regain somatosensory function following stroke. We developed two interacting concept maps to address the research questions. The scoping review was conducted from 2005 to 2015 across Web of Science, AMED, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo databases. Search terms included somatosensory, perception, performance, participation, older adult, stroke, intervention, discrimination, learning, and neuroplasticity. Contributions from 103 articles for Concept 1 and 14 articles for Concept 2 are reported. Measures of somatosensory processing, performance, and participation used are identified. Interventions available to treat somatosensory loss are summarized in relation to approach, outcome measures, and theory/mechanisms underlying. A gap exists in the current understanding of how somatosensory function affects the daily lives of adults. A multidisciplinary approach that includes performance and participation outcomes is recommended to advance the field. PMID:27504989

  19. Identifying local and descending inputs for primary sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Shengli; Rodriguez, Erica; Takatoh, Jun; Han, Bao-Xia; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Primary pain and touch sensory neurons not only detect internal and external sensory stimuli, but also receive inputs from other neurons. However, the neuronal derived inputs for primary neurons have not been systematically identified. Using a monosynaptic rabies viruses–based transneuronal tracing method combined with sensory-specific Cre-drivers, we found that sensory neurons receive intraganglion, intraspinal, and supraspinal inputs, the latter of which are mainly derived from the rostroventral medulla (RVM). The viral-traced central neurons were largely inhibitory but also consisted of some glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord and serotonergic neurons in the RVM. The majority of RVM-derived descending inputs were dual GABAergic and enkephalinergic (opioidergic). These inputs projected through the dorsolateral funiculus and primarily innervated layers I, II, and V of the dorsal horn, where pain-sensory afferents terminate. Silencing or activation of the dual GABA/enkephalinergic RVM neurons in adult animals substantially increased or decreased behavioral sensitivity, respectively, to heat and mechanical stimuli. These results are consistent with the fact that both GABA and enkephalin can exert presynaptic inhibition of the sensory afferents. Taken together, this work provides a systematic view of and a set of tools for examining peri- and extrasynaptic regulations of pain-afferent transmission. PMID:26426077

  20. Individual differences in cortical connections of somatosensory cortex are associated with parental rearing style in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Seelke, Adele M H; Perkeybile, Allison M; Grunewald, Rebecca; Bales, Karen L; Krubitzer, Leah A

    2016-02-15

    Early-life sensory experiences have a profound effect on brain organization, connectivity, and subsequent behavior. In most mammals, the earliest sensory inputs are delivered to the developing brain through tactile contact with the parents, especially the mother. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous and, like humans, are biparental. Within the normal prairie vole population, both the type and the amount of interactions, particularly tactile contact, that parents have with their offspring vary. The question is whether these early and pervasive differences in tactile stimulation and social experience between parent and offspring are manifest in differences in cortical organization and connectivity. To address this question, we examined the cortical and callosal connections of the primary somatosensory area (S1) in high-contact (HC) and low-contact (LC) offspring using neuroanatomical tracing techniques. Injection sites within S1 were matched so that direct comparisons between these two groups could be made. We observed several important differences between these groups. The first was that HC offspring had a greater density of intrinsic connections within S1 compared with LC offspring. Additionally, HC offspring had a more restricted pattern of ipsilateral connections, whereas LC offspring had dense connections with areas of parietal and frontal cortex that were more widespread. Finally, LC offspring had a broader distribution of callosal connections than HC offspring and a significantly higher percentage of labeled callosal neurons. This study is the first to examine individual differences in cortical connections and suggests that individual differences in cortical connections may be related to natural differences in parental rearing styles associated with tactile contact.

  1. Individual differences in cortical connections of somatosensory cortex are associated with parental rearing style in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Seelke, Adele M H; Perkeybile, Allison M; Grunewald, Rebecca; Bales, Karen L; Krubitzer, Leah A

    2016-02-15

    Early-life sensory experiences have a profound effect on brain organization, connectivity, and subsequent behavior. In most mammals, the earliest sensory inputs are delivered to the developing brain through tactile contact with the parents, especially the mother. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous and, like humans, are biparental. Within the normal prairie vole population, both the type and the amount of interactions, particularly tactile contact, that parents have with their offspring vary. The question is whether these early and pervasive differences in tactile stimulation and social experience between parent and offspring are manifest in differences in cortical organization and connectivity. To address this question, we examined the cortical and callosal connections of the primary somatosensory area (S1) in high-contact (HC) and low-contact (LC) offspring using neuroanatomical tracing techniques. Injection sites within S1 were matched so that direct comparisons between these two groups could be made. We observed several important differences between these groups. The first was that HC offspring had a greater density of intrinsic connections within S1 compared with LC offspring. Additionally, HC offspring had a more restricted pattern of ipsilateral connections, whereas LC offspring had dense connections with areas of parietal and frontal cortex that were more widespread. Finally, LC offspring had a broader distribution of callosal connections than HC offspring and a significantly higher percentage of labeled callosal neurons. This study is the first to examine individual differences in cortical connections and suggests that individual differences in cortical connections may be related to natural differences in parental rearing styles associated with tactile contact. PMID:26101098

  2. Individual differences in cortical connections of somatosensory cortex are associated with parental rearing style in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Seelke, Adele M. H.; Perkeybile, Allison M.; Grunewald, Rebecca; Bales, Karen L.; Krubitzer, Leah A.

    2015-01-01

    Early life sensory experiences have a profound effect on brain organization, connectivity and subsequent behavior. In most mammals, the earliest sensory inputs are delivered to the developing brain through tactile contact with the parents, especially the mother. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous and, like humans, are biparental. Within the normal prairie vole population, both the type and amount of interactions, particularly tactile contact, that parents have with their offspring varies. The question is whether these early and pervasive differences in tactile stimulation and social experience between parent and offspring are manifest in differences in cortical organization and connectivity. To address this question we examined the cortical and callosal connections of the primary somatosensory area (S1) in high contact (HC) and low contact (LC) offspring using neuroanatomical tracing techniques. Injection sites within S1 were matched so that direct comparisons between these two groups could be made. We observed several important differences between these groups. The first was that HC offspring had a greater density of intrinsic connections within S1 compared to LC offspring. The HC offspring had a more restricted pattern of ipsilateral connections while LC offspring had dense connections with areas of parietal and frontal cortex that were more widespread. Finally, LC offspring had a broader distribution of callosal connections than HC offspring and a significantly higher percentage of callosal labeled neurons. To date, this is the first study that examines individual differences in cortical connections and suggests that they may be related to natural differences in parental rearing styles associated with tactile contact. PMID:26101098

  3. Influences of sensory input from the limbs on feline corticospinal neurons during postural responses

    PubMed Central

    Karayannidou, A; Deliagina, T G; Tamarova, Z A; Sirota, M G; Zelenin, P V; Orlovsky, G N; Beloozerova, I N

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal-side-up body posture of standing quadrupeds is maintained by coordinated activity of all limbs. Somatosensory input from the limbs evokes postural responses when the supporting surface is perturbed. The aim of this study was to reveal the contribution of sensory inputs from individual limbs to the posture-related modulation of pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) arising in the primary motor cortex. We recorded the activity of PTNs from the limb representation of motor cortex in the cat maintaining balance on a platform periodically tilted in the frontal plane. Each PTN was recorded during standing on four limbs, and when two or three limbs were lifted from the platform and thus did not signal its displacement to motor cortex. By comparing PTN responses to tilts in different tests we found that the amplitude and the phase of the response in the majority of them were determined primarily by the sensory input from the corresponding contralateral limb. In a portion of PTNs, this input originated from afferents of the peripheral receptive field. Sensory input from the ipsilateral limb, as well as input from limbs of the other girdle made a much smaller contribution to the PTN modulation. These results show that, during postural activity, a key role of PTNs is the feedback control of the corresponding contralateral limb and, to a lesser extent, the coordination of posture within a girdle and between the two girdles. PMID:17974591

  4. Attention and visual interference stimulation affect somatosensory processing: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Lam, K; Kakigi, R; Mukai, T; Yamasaki, H

    2001-01-01

    In our previous study, continuous visual (cartoon and random dot motion) and auditory (music) stimulation changed the somatosensory evoked magnetic fields following electrical stimulation of the median nerve in human subjects. They enhanced the middle-latency components (3M and 4M) generated in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, and reduced the MI component generated in the ipsilateral secondary somatosensory cortex. We speculated that such interference effects were caused by activation of polymodal neurons in areas 5 and/or 7 of the parietal lobe as well as in the medial superior temporal region and superior temporal sulcus. However, we could not exclude the effect of attention on such interference effects. In the present study, to know the effect of attention on visual and auditory interference in these changes, we stimulated the bilateral median nerves unilaterally in a random order, and asked subjects to count the number of times the left median nerve was stimulated while visual or auditory interference was applied. Five components (1M-5M) were identified in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulated nerve and only one component (MI) was found in the ipsilateral hemisphere. The 3M and 4M components (33-75 ms in latency) were enhanced by both attention and visual interference stimulation but not by auditory stimulation. The 5M component (70-115 ms) and MI component (70-133 ms) were enhanced by attention, but were not changed by attention together with visual or auditory interference. Summarizing the results of our previous study and the present study, (1) visual interference alone enhanced the 3M and 4M but reduced the MI, and (2) attention alone also enhanced the 3M and 4M, and enhanced the 5M and MI. As a result, (3) visual interference with attention enhanced the 3M and 4M more, and showed no significant change of the 5M and MI. This was compatible with a summation of the effects caused by visual interference alone and attention alone, but

  5. Functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome reflect reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Norman; Holden, Jameson; Lee, Jeungchan; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Im, Jaehyun; Libby, Alexandra; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Park, Kyungmo; Audette, Joseph; Tommerdahl, Mark; Napadow, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, a median nerve entrapment neuropathy, is characterized by sensorimotor deficits. Recent reports have shown that this syndrome is also characterized by functional and structural neuroplasticity in the primary somatosensory cortex of the brain. However, the linkage between this neuroplasticity and the functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome is unknown. Sixty-three subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome aged 20–60 years and 28 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T while vibrotactile stimulation was delivered to median nerve innervated (second and third) and ulnar nerve innervated (fifth) digits. For each subject, the interdigit cortical separation distance for each digit’s contralateral primary somatosensory cortex representation was assessed. We also evaluated fine motor skill performance using a previously validated psychomotor performance test (maximum voluntary contraction and visuomotor pinch/release testing) and tactile discrimination capacity using a four-finger forced choice response test. These biobehavioural and clinical metrics were evaluated and correlated with the second/third interdigit cortical separation distance. Compared with healthy control subjects, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced second/third interdigit cortical separation distance (P < 0.05) in contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, corroborating our previous preliminary multi-modal neuroimaging findings. For psychomotor performance testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced maximum voluntary contraction pinch strength (P < 0.01) and a reduced number of pinch/release cycles per second (P < 0.05). Additionally, for four-finger forced-choice testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated greater response time (P < 0.05), and reduced sensory discrimination accuracy (P < 0.001) for median nerve, but not ulnar nerve

  6. Differences in somatosensory hand organization in a healthy flutist and a flutist with focal hand dystonia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Byl, N N; McKenzie, A; Nagarajan, S S

    2000-01-01

    Focal hand dystonia is a disabling, involuntary disorder of movement that can disrupt a successful musician's career. This problem is difficult to treat, to some extent because we do not fully understand its origin. Somatosensory degradation has been proposed as one etiology. The purpose of this case study was to compare the differences in the somatosensory hand representation of two female flutists, one with focal dystonia of the left hand (digits 4 and 5) and one a healthy subject (the control). Noninvasive magnetic source imaging was performed on both subjects. The somatosensory evoked potentials of controlled taps to the fingers were measured with a 37-channel biomagnetometer and reported in terms of the neuronal organization, latency, amplitude, density, location, and spread of the digits on each axis (x, y, and z). The somatosensory representation of the involved hand of the flutist with dystonia differed from that of the healthy flutist. The magnetic fields evoked from the primary somatosensory cortex had a disorganized pattern of firing, with a short latency and excessive amplitude in the involved digits of the affected hand, as well as inconsistency (decreased density). In addition, the patterns of firing were different in terms of the location of the digits on the x, y, and z axes and sequential organization of the digits. This study confirms that somatosensory evoked magnetic fields can be used to describe the representation of the hand on the somatosensory cortex in area 3b. Degradation in the hand representation of the flutist with focal hand dystonia was evident, compared with the hand representation of the healthy flutist. It is not clear whether the sensory degradation was the cause or the consequence of the dystonia. The questions are whether re-differentiation of the representation could be achieved with aggressive sensory retraining and whether improvement in structure would be correlated with improvement in function.

  7. Dual Wavelength Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual wavelength lasers are discussed, covering fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics of these systems. Results on Tm:Ho:Er:YAG dual wavelength laser action (Ho at 2.1 m and Er at 2.9 m) as well as Nd:YAG (1.06 and 1.3 m) are presented as examples of such dual wavelength systems. Dual wavelength lasers are not common, but there are criteria that govern their behavior. Based on experimental studies demonstrating simultaneous dual wavelength lasing, some general conclusions regarding the successful operation of multi-wavelength lasers can be made.

  8. Dual relationships in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S

    1991-01-01

    A dual relationship in psychotherapy occurs when the therapist engages in another, significantly different relationship with the patient. The two relationships may be concurrent or sequential. For both sexual and nonsexual dual relationships, men are typically the perpetrators and women are typically the victims. This article presents examples of dual relationships, notes the attention that licensing boards and other agencies devote to this topic, reviews the meager research concerning nonsexual dual relationships, and discusses common strategies that promote both sexual and nonsexual dual relationships. PMID:11649348

  9. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  10. SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  11. SDR input power estimation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones, J. C.; Nappier, J. M.

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  12. Somatosensory processing and schizophrenia liability: proprioception, exteroceptive sensitivity, and graphesthesia performance in the biological relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bernard P; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2005-02-01

    In the present study, the authors examined somatosensory processing in 30 biological relatives of persons with schizophrenia (hereafter called "schizophrenia relatives"), 30 biological relatives of persons with bipolar affective disorder (psychiatric family control subjects), and 30 healthy control subjects with no family history of psychopathology. All 3 groups completed a weight discrimination task, a 2-point discrimination task, and a complex cognitive somatosensory task (i.e., graphesthesia). The schizophrenia relatives performed significantly worse on all 3 somatosensory tasks compared with both the healthy control subjects and the bipolar relatives. The healthy control subjects and psychiatric family control subjects showed no significant differences on any of the somatosensory tasks. Within the weight discrimination and 2-point discrimination tasks, schizophrenia relatives showed group differences on the d' index, the measure of sensitivity, whereas all 3 groups did not differ on lnbeta, the measure of response bias, suggesting a genuine difference in weight and touch sensitivity. The d' value of the weight discrimination task was significantly associated with both the cognitive-perceptual factor and negative symptom factor of the clinical questionnaire (e.g., Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire; SPQ), whereas the 2-point discrimination d' value and graphesthesia scores were significantly associated only with the cognitive-perceptual factor of the SPQ. Implications for the possible relation between somatosensory task performance and schizophrenia liability are discussed.

  13. Detection of a weak somatosensory stimulus: role of the prestimulus mu rhythm and its top-down modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ding, Mingzhou

    2010-02-01

    The ongoing neural activity in human primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is characterized by field potential oscillations in the 7-13 Hz range known as the mu rhythm. Recent work has shown that the magnitude of the mu oscillation immediately preceding the onset of a weak stimulus has a significant impact on its detection. The neural mechanisms mediating this impact remain not well understood. In particular, whether and how somatosensory mu rhythm is modulated by executive areas prior to stimulus onset for improved behavioral performance has not been investigated. We addressed these issues by recording 128-channel scalp electroencephalogram from normal volunteers performing a somatosensory perception experiment in which they reported the detection of a near-threshold electrical stimulus ( approximately 50% detection rate) delivered to the right index finger. Three results were found. First, consistent with numerous previous reports, the N1 component ( approximately 140 msec) of the somatosensory-evoked potential was significantly enhanced for perceived stimulus compared to unperceived stimulus. Second, the prestimulus mu power and the evoked N1 amplitude exhibited an inverted-U relationship, suggesting that an intermediate level of prestimulus mu oscillatory activity is conducive to stimulus processing and perception. Third, a Granger causality analysis revealed that the prestimulus causal influence in the mu band from prefrontal cortex to SI was significantly higher for perceived stimulus than for unperceived stimulus, indicating that frontal executive structures, via ongoing mu oscillations, exert cognitive control over posterior sensory cortices to facilitate somatosensory processing.

  14. Thalamic amplification of sensory input in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Oliver J; Evans, Mathew H; Cooper, Garth J S; Petersen, Rasmus S; Gardiner, Natalie J

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a common, and often debilitating, secondary complication of diabetes mellitus. As pain, hypersensitivity and paraesthesias present in a distal-proximal distribution, symptoms are generally believed to originate from damaged afferents within the peripheral nervous system. Increasing evidence suggests altered processing within the central nervous system in diabetic neuropathy contributes towards somatosensory dysfunction, but whether the accurate coding and relay of peripherally encoded information through the central nervous system is altered in diabetes is not understood. Here, we applied the strengths of the rodent whisker-barrel system to study primary afferent-thalamic processing in diabetic neuropathy. We found that neurons in the thalamic ventral posteromedial nucleus from rats with experimental diabetic neuropathy showed increased firing to precisely graded, multidirectional whisker deflection compared to non-diabetic rats. This thalamic hyperactivity occurred without any overt primary afferent dysfunction, as recordings from the trigeminal ganglion showed these primary afferents to be unaffected by diabetes. These findings suggest that central amplification can substantially transform ascending sensory input in diabetes, even in the absence of a barrage of ectopic primary afferent activity. PMID:27152754

  15. Optogenetic activation of zebrafish somatosensory neurons using ChEF-tdTomato.

    PubMed

    Palanca, Ana Marie S; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish are emerging as a model for describing the development and function of simple neural circuits. Due to their external fertilization, rapid development, and translucency, zebrafish are particularly well suited for optogenetic approaches to investigate neural circuit function. In this approach, light-sensitive ion channels are expressed in specific neurons, enabling the experimenter to activate or inhibit them at will and thus assess their contribution to specific behaviors. Applying these methods in larval zebrafish is conceptually simple but requires the optimization of technical details. Here we demonstrate a procedure for expressing a channelrhodopsin variant in larval zebrafish somatosensory neurons, photo-activating single cells, and recording the resulting behaviors. By introducing a few modifications to previously established methods, this approach could be used to elicit behavioral responses from single neurons activated up to at least 4 days post-fertilization (dpf). Specifically, we created a transgene using a somatosensory neuron enhancer, CREST3, to drive the expression of the tagged channelrhodopsin variant, ChEF-tdTomato. Injecting this transgene into 1-cell stage embryos results in mosaic expression in somatosensory neurons, which can be imaged with confocal microscopy. Illuminating identified cells in these animals with light from a 473 nm DPSS laser, guided through a fiber optic cable, elicits behaviors that can be recorded with a high-speed video camera and analyzed quantitatively. This technique could be adapted to study behaviors elicited by activating any zebrafish neuron. Combining this approach with genetic or pharmacological perturbations will be a powerful way to investigate circuit formation and function. PMID:23407374

  16. Functional Reorganization of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of a Phantom Limb Pain Patient.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Guo, Xiaoli; Xia, Xiaolei; Peng, Weiwei; Wang, Wuchao; Li, Shulin; Zhang, Ya; Hu, Li

    2016-07-01

    Functional reorganization of the somatosensory system was widely observed in phantom limb pain patients. Whereas some studies demonstrated that the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of the amputated limb was engaged with the regions around it, others showed that phantom limb pain was associated with preserved structure and functional organization in the former brain region. However, according to the law of use and disuse, the sensitivity of S1 of the amputated limb to pain-related context should be enhanced due to the adaptation to the long-lasting phantom limb pain experience. Here, we collected neurophysiological data from a patient with 21-year phantom limb pain using electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques. EEG data showed that both laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and tactile-evoked potentials (TEPs) were clearly presented only when radiant-heat laser pulses and electrical pulses were delivered to the shoulder of the healthy limb, but not of the amputated limb. This observation suggested the functional deficit of somatosensory pathways at the amputated side. FMRI data showed that significant larger brain activations by painful rather than non-painful stimuli in video clips were observed not only at visual-related brain areas and anterior/mid-cingulate cortex, but also at S1 contralateral to the amputated limb. This observation suggested the increased sensitivity of S1 of the amputated limb to the pain-related context. In addition, such increase of sensitivity was significantly larger if the context was associated with the amputated limb of the patient. In summary, our findings provided novel evidence for a possible neuroplasticity of S1 of the amputated limb: in an amputee with long-lasting phantom limb pain, the sensitivity of S1 to pain-related and amputated-limb-related context was greatly enhanced. PMID:27389122

  17. The influence of visual perspective on the somatosensory steady-state response during pain observation

    PubMed Central

    Canizales, Dora L.; Voisin, Julien I. A.; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    The observation and evaluation of other’s pain activate part of the neuronal network involved in the actual experience of pain, including those regions subserving the sensori-discriminative dimension of pain. This was largely interpreted as evidence showing that part of the painful experience can be shared vicariously. Here, we investigated the effect of the visual perspective from which other people’s pain is seen on the cortical response to continuous 25 Hz non-painful somatosensory stimulation (somatosensory steady-state response: SSSR). Based on the shared representation framework, we expected first-person visual perspective (1PP) to yield more changes in cortical activity than third-person visual perspective (3PP) during pain observation. Twenty healthy adults were instructed to rate a series of pseudo-dynamic pictures depicting hands in either painful or non-painful scenarios, presented either in 1PP (0–45° angle) or 3PP (180° angle), while changes in brain activity was measured with a 128-electode EEG system. The ratings demonstrated that the same scenarios were rated on average as more painful when observed from the 1PP than from the 3PP. As expected from previous works, the SSSR response was decreased after stimulus onset over the left caudal part of the parieto-central cortex, contralateral to the stimulation side. Moreover, the difference between the SSSR was of greater amplitude when the painful situations were presented from the 1PP compared to the 3PP. Together, these results suggest that a visuospatial congruence between the viewer and the observed scenarios is associated with both a higher subjective evaluation of pain and an increased modulation in the somatosensory representation of observed pain. These findings are discussed with regards to the potential role of visual perspective in pain communication and empathy. PMID:24367323

  18. Ethnic differences in oro-facial somatosensory profiles-quantitative sensory testing in Chinese and Danes.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Luo, Y; Baad-Hansen, L; Wang, K; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Xie, Q-F; Svensson, P

    2013-11-01

    Ethnic differences in pain experiences have been widely assessed in various pathological and experimental conditions. However, limited sensory modalities have been described in previous research, and the affective-motivational factors have so far been estimated to be the main mediator for the ethnic differences. This study aimed to detect the ethnic differences of oro-facial somatosensory profiles related to the sensory-discriminative dimension in healthy volunteers. The standardised quantitative sensory testing battery developed by the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain was performed bilaterally in the infraorbital and mental regions on age- and gender-matched healthy Chinese and Danes, 29 participants each group. The influences of ethnicity, gender and test site on the somatosensory profile were evaluated by three-way anova. The ethnic disparities were also presented by Z-scores. Compared to Danes, Chinese were more sensitive to thermal detection, thermal pain, mechanical deep pain and mechanical pain rating parameters (P < 0·002) related to small fibre functions. However, the inverse results were observed for mechanical tactile modality related to large fibre function (P < 0·001) and wind-up ratio (P = 0·006). Women presented higher sensitivity compared to men. The mean Z-scores of all the parameters from Chinese group were in the normal zone created by Danish Caucasians' means and SDs. The ethnic disparities in somatosensory profile illustrated the necessity of establishing the reference data for different ethnic groups and possibly individual pain management strategies for the different ethnic groups.

  19. The functional and anatomical dissection of somatosensory subpopulations using mouse genetics

    PubMed Central

    Le Pichon, Claire E.; Chesler, Alexander T.

    2014-01-01

    The word somatosensation comes from joining the Greek word for body (soma) with a word for perception (sensation). Somatosensory neurons comprise the largest sensory system in mammals and have nerve endings coursing throughout the skin, viscera, muscle, and bone. Their cell bodies reside in a chain of ganglia adjacent to the dorsal spinal cord (the dorsal root ganglia) and at the base of the skull (the trigeminal ganglia). While the neuronal cell bodies are intermingled within the ganglia, the somatosensory system is in reality composed of numerous sub-systems, each specialized to detect distinct stimuli, such as temperature and touch. Historically, somatosensory neurons have been classified using a diverse host of anatomical and physiological parameters, such as the size of the cell body, degree of myelination, histological labeling with markers, specialization of the nerve endings, projection patterns in the spinal cord and brainstem, receptive tuning, and conduction velocity of their action potentials. While useful, the picture that emerged was one of heterogeneity, with many markers at least partially overlapping. More recently, by capitalizing on advances in molecular techniques, researchers have identified specific ion channels and sensory receptors expressed in subsets of sensory neurons. These studies have proved invaluable as they allow genetic access to small subsets of neurons for further molecular dissection. Data being generated from transgenic mice favor a model whereby an array of dedicated neurons is responsible for selectively encoding different modalities. Here we review the current knowledge of the different sensory neuron subtypes in the mouse, the markers used to study them, and the neurogenetic strategies used to define their anatomical projections and functional roles. PMID:24795573

  20. Somatosensory phenotype is associated with thalamic metabolites and pain intensity after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Widerström-Noga, Eva; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Pattany, Pradip M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most difficult consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI). The clinical correlates of the underlying mechanisms responsible for neuropathic pain are not well understood, although methods such as quantitative somatosensory testing (QST) or brain imaging have been used to further a mechanism-based understanding of pain. Our previous SCI study demonstrated a significantly lower glutamate-glutamine/myo-inositol ratio (Glx/Ins) in the anterior cingulate cortex in persons with severe neuropathic pain compared with those with less severe neuropathic pain or pain-free, able-bodied controls, suggesting that a combination of decreased glutamatergic metabolism and glial activation may contribute to the development of severe neuropathic pain after SCI. The present study aimed to determine the relationships between somatosensory function below the level of injury and low thalamic Glx/Ins in persons with intense neuropathic pain after SCI. Participants underwent QST and a 3 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A cluster analysis including SCI participants resulted in 1 group (n = 19) with significantly (P < 0.001) greater pain intensity (6.43 ± 1.63; high neuropathic pain [HNP], and lower Glx/Ins [1.22 ± 0.16]) and another group (n = 35) with lower pain intensity ratings (1.59 ± 1.52, low neuropathic pain [LNP], and higher Glx/Ins [1.47 ± 0.26]). After correcting for age, QST indicated significantly greater somatosensory function in the HNP group compared with the LNP group. Our results are consistent with research suggesting that damage to, but not abolition of, the spinothalamic tract contributes to development of neuropathic pain after SCI and that secondary inflammatory processes may amplify residual spinothalamic tract signals by facilitation, disinhibition, or sensitization. PMID:25599312

  1. Somatosensory phenotype is associated with thalamic metabolites and pain intensity after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Widerström-Noga, Eva; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Felix, Elizabeth R; Pattany, Pradip M

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most difficult consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI). The clinical correlates of the underlying mechanisms responsible for neuropathic pain are not well understood, although methods such as quantitative somatosensory testing (QST) or brain imaging have been used to further a mechanism-based understanding of pain. Our previous SCI study demonstrated a significantly lower glutamate-glutamine/myo-inositol ratio (Glx/Ins) in the anterior cingulate cortex in persons with severe neuropathic pain compared with those with less severe neuropathic pain or pain-free, able-bodied controls, suggesting that a combination of decreased glutamatergic metabolism and glial activation may contribute to the development of severe neuropathic pain after SCI. The present study aimed to determine the relationships between somatosensory function below the level of injury and low thalamic Glx/Ins in persons with intense neuropathic pain after SCI. Participants underwent QST and a 3 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A cluster analysis including SCI participants resulted in 1 group (n = 19) with significantly (P < 0.001) greater pain intensity (6.43 ± 1.63; high neuropathic pain [HNP], and lower Glx/Ins [1.22 ± 0.16]) and another group (n = 35) with lower pain intensity ratings (1.59 ± 1.52, low neuropathic pain [LNP], and higher Glx/Ins [1.47 ± 0.26]). After correcting for age, QST indicated significantly greater somatosensory function in the HNP group compared with the LNP group. Our results are consistent with research suggesting that damage to, but not abolition of, the spinothalamic tract contributes to development of neuropathic pain after SCI and that secondary inflammatory processes may amplify residual spinothalamic tract signals by facilitation, disinhibition, or sensitization.

  2. Altered somatosensory barrel cortex refinement in the developing brain of Mecp2-null mice.

    PubMed

    Moroto, M; Nishimura, A; Morimoto, M; Isoda, K; Morita, T; Yoshida, M; Morioka, S; Tozawa, T; Hasegawa, T; Chiyonobu, T; Yoshimoto, K; Hosoi, H

    2013-11-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. In previous studies, monoaminergic dysfunctions have been detected in patients with RTT and in a murine model of RTT, the Mecp2-null mouse. Therefore, the pathogenesis of RTT is thought to involve impairments in the monoaminergic systems. However, there have been limited data showing that the impairment of monoamines leads to early symptoms during development. We used histochemistry to study the somatosensory barrel cortex in the B6.129P2(C)-Mecp2(tm1.1Bird) mouse model of RTT. The barrel cortex is widely used to investigate neuronal development and its regulation by various neurotransmitters including 5-HT. 5-HT levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC/EC), and serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1B receptor mRNAs were measured in the somatosensory cortex, thalamus and striatum on postnatal days (P) 10, P20 and P40. Mecp2-null mice (Mecp2-/y) had significantly smaller barrel fields than age-matched wild-type controls (Mecp2+/y) on P10 and P40, but the topographic map was accurately formed. Levels of 5-HT, and SERT and 5-HT1B receptor mRNA expression in the somatosensory cortex did not differ significantly between the Mecp2-null and wild-type mice on P10. However, thalamic 5-HT was reduced in Mecp2-null mice. Our data indicate that a lack of MeCP2 may disturb the refinement of the barrel cortex in the early postnatal period. Our findings suggest that a decrease in thalamic 5-HT might be involved in this phenomenon.

  3. The functional and anatomical dissection of somatosensory subpopulations using mouse genetics.

    PubMed

    Le Pichon, Claire E; Chesler, Alexander T

    2014-01-01

    The word somatosensation comes from joining the Greek word for body (soma) with a word for perception (sensation). Somatosensory neurons comprise the largest sensory system in mammals and have nerve endings coursing throughout the skin, viscera, muscle, and bone. Their cell bodies reside in a chain of ganglia adjacent to the dorsal spinal cord (the dorsal root ganglia) and at the base of the skull (the trigeminal ganglia). While the neuronal cell bodies are intermingled within the ganglia, the somatosensory system is in reality composed of numerous sub-systems, each specialized to detect distinct stimuli, such as temperature and touch. Historically, somatosensory neurons have been classified using a diverse host of anatomical and physiological parameters, such as the size of the cell body, degree of myelination, histological labeling with markers, specialization of the nerve endings, projection patterns in the spinal cord and brainstem, receptive tuning, and conduction velocity of their action potentials. While useful, the picture that emerged was one of heterogeneity, with many markers at least partially overlapping. More recently, by capitalizing on advances in molecular techniques, researchers have identified specific ion channels and sensory receptors expressed in subsets of sensory neurons. These studies have proved invaluable as they allow genetic access to small subsets of neurons for further molecular dissection. Data being generated from transgenic mice favor a model whereby an array of dedicated neurons is responsible for selectively encoding different modalities. Here we review the current knowledge of the different sensory neuron subtypes in the mouse, the markers used to study them, and the neurogenetic strategies used to define their anatomical projections and functional roles. PMID:24795573

  4. Differential changes in gingival somatosensory sensitivity after painful electrical tooth stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Lu, Shengyi; Kemppainen, Pentti; List, Thomas; Zhang, Zhenting; Svensson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of painful tooth stimulation on gingival somatosensory sensitivity of healthy volunteers in a randomized, controlled design. Thirteen healthy volunteers (six women, seven men; 28.4 ± 5.0 years) were included for two experimental sessions of electrical tooth stimulation: painful tooth stimulation and tooth stimulation below the sensory threshold (control). Eight of the human subjects participated in a third session without tooth stimulation. In all sessions, the somatosensory sensitivity of the gingiva adjacent to the stimulated tooth was evaluated with a standardized battery of quantitative sensory tests (QST) before, immediately after and 30 min after tooth stimulation. Painful tooth stimulation evoked significant decreases in warmth and heat pain thresholds (P < 0.001) as well as pressure pain thresholds (increased sensitivity) (P = 0.024) and increases in mechanical detection thresholds (decreased sensitivity) (P < 0.050). Similar thermal threshold changes (P < 0.019) but no mechanical changes were found after tooth stimulation below the sensory threshold (P > 0.086). No QST changes were detected in the session without tooth stimulation (P > 0.060). In conclusion, modest increased gingival sensitivity to warmth, painful heat and pressure stimuli as well as desensitization to non-painful mechanical stimulation were demonstrated after tooth stimulation. This suggests involvement of competing heterotopic facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Furthermore, stimulation below the sensory threshold induced similar thermal sensitization suggesting the possibility of activation of axon-reflex-like mechanisms even at intensities below the perception threshold. These findings may have implications for interpretation of somatosensory results in patients with chronic intraoral pain. PMID:25567087

  5. Differential changes in gingival somatosensory sensitivity after painful electrical tooth stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Lu, Shengyi; Kemppainen, Pentti; List, Thomas; Zhang, Zhenting; Svensson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of painful tooth stimulation on gingival somatosensory sensitivity of healthy volunteers in a randomized, controlled design. Thirteen healthy volunteers (six women, seven men; 28.4 ± 5.0 years) were included for two experimental sessions of electrical tooth stimulation: painful tooth stimulation and tooth stimulation below the sensory threshold (control). Eight of the human subjects participated in a third session without tooth stimulation. In all sessions, the somatosensory sensitivity of the gingiva adjacent to the stimulated tooth was evaluated with a standardized battery of quantitative sensory tests (QST) before, immediately after and 30 min after tooth stimulation. Painful tooth stimulation evoked significant decreases in warmth and heat pain thresholds (P < 0.001) as well as pressure pain thresholds (increased sensitivity) (P = 0.024) and increases in mechanical detection thresholds (decreased sensitivity) (P < 0.050). Similar thermal threshold changes (P < 0.019) but no mechanical changes were found after tooth stimulation below the sensory threshold (P > 0.086). No QST changes were detected in the session without tooth stimulation (P > 0.060). In conclusion, modest increased gingival sensitivity to warmth, painful heat and pressure stimuli as well as desensitization to non-painful mechanical stimulation were demonstrated after tooth stimulation. This suggests involvement of competing heterotopic facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Furthermore, stimulation below the sensory threshold induced similar thermal sensitization suggesting the possibility of activation of axon-reflex-like mechanisms even at intensities below the perception threshold. These findings may have implications for interpretation of somatosensory results in patients with chronic intraoral pain.

  6. Increased excitability of somatosensory cortex in aged humans is associated with impaired tactile acuity.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Melanie; Tegenthoff, Martin; Kohlhaas, Karsten; Stude, Philipp; Höffken, Oliver; Gatica Tossi, Mario A; Kalisch, Tobias; Kowalewski, Rebecca; Dinse, Hubert R

    2012-02-01

    Aging affects all levels of neural processing, including changes of intracortical inhibition and cortical excitability. Paired-pulse stimulation, the application of two stimuli in close succession, is a useful tool to investigate cortical excitability in humans. The paired-pulse behavior is characterized by the second response being significantly suppressed at short stimulus onset asynchronies. While in rat somatosensory cortex, intracortical inhibition has been demonstrated to decline with increasing age, data from human motor cortex of elderly subjects are controversial and there are no data for the human somatosensory cortex (SI). Moreover, behavioral implications of age-related changes of cortical excitability remain elusive. We therefore assessed SI excitability by combining paired-pulse median nerve stimulation with recording somatosensory evoked potentials in 138 healthy subjects aged 17-86 years. We found that paired-pulse suppression was characterized by substantial interindividual variability, but declined significantly with age, confirming reduced intracortical inhibition in elderly subjects. To link the age-related increase of cortical excitability to perceptual changes, we measured tactile two-point discrimination in a subsample of 26 aged participants who showed either low or high paired-pulse suppression. We found that tactile performance was particularly impaired in subjects showing markedly enhanced cortical excitability. Our data demonstrate that paired-pulse suppression of human SI is significantly reduced in older adults, and that age-related enhancement of cortical excitability correlates with degradation of tactile perception. These findings indicate that cortical excitability constitutes an important mechanism that links age-related neurophysiological changes to behavioral alterations in humans.

  7. Somatosensory evoked potentials aid prediction after hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kane, Nick; Oware, Agyepong

    2015-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, basic life support and early defibrillation are leading to more survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest reaching hospital. Once stabilised on an intensive care unit, it can be difficult to predict the neurological outcome using clinical criteria alone, particularly with modern management using sedation, neuromuscular blockade and hypothermia. If we are to prevent ongoing futile life support, it is important to try to identify the majority of patients who, despite best efforts, will not make a meaningful recovery. Somatosensory evoked potentials are widely available electrophysiological tests that can provide an objective biomarker of a poor neurological outcome and assist in predicting the prognosis.

  8. Alteration of digital representations in somatosensory cortex in focal hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Elbert, T; Candia, V; Altenmüller, E; Rau, H; Sterr, A; Rockstroh, B; Pantev, C; Taub, E

    1998-11-16

    Focal hand dystonia involves a loss of motor control of one or more digits; it is associated with the repetitive, synchronous movements of the digits made by musicians over periods of many years. Magnetic source imaging revealed that there is a smaller distance (fusion) between the representations of the digits in somatosensory cortex for the affected hand of dystonic musicians than for the hands of non-musician control subjects. The data suggest that use-dependent susceptibility to digital representation fusion in cortex may be involved in the etiology of focal dystonia. A successful therapy for the condition has been developed based on this consideration.

  9. Early development of a somatosensory fovea: a head start in the cortical space race?

    PubMed

    Catania, K C

    2001-04-01

    Star-nosed moles have 11 mechanosensory appendages surrounding each nostril, and primary afferents from a single appendage-the tactile fovea-are greatly over-represented in somatosensory cortex. It was found that the foveal appendage led development in the periphery, had the greatest innervated surface area in embryos, and developed mature nerve terminals and epidermal sensory organs first; also, in developing cortex, markers for metabolic activity (cytochrome oxidase) appeared first in the fovea representation. This developmental sequence may provide the fovea with an advantage in a competition for cortical space, and account for the much larger areas of cortex devoted to foveal afferents. PMID:11276222

  10. Functional response of cerebral blood flow induced by somatosensory stimulation in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiguo; Huang, Qin; Liu, Peng; Li, Pengcheng; Ma, Lianting; Lu, Jinling

    2015-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often accompanied by cerebral vasospasm (CVS), which is the phenomenon of narrowing of large cerebral arteries, and then can produce delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) such as lateralized sensory dysfunction. CVS was regarded as a major contributor to DIND in patients with SAH. However, therapy for preventing vasospasm after SAH to improve the outcomes may not work all the time. It is important to find answers to the relationship between CVS and DIND after SAH. How local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated during functional activation after SAH still remains poorly understood, whereas, the regulation of CBF may play an important role in weakening the impact of CVS on cortex function. Therefore, it is worthwhile to evaluate the functional response of CBF in the activated cortex in an SAH animal model. Most evaluation of the effect of SAH is presently carried out by neurological behavioral scales. The functional imaging of cortical activation during sensory stimulation may help to reflect the function of the somatosensory cortex more locally than the behavioral scales do. We investigated the functional response of CBF in the somatosensory cortex induced by an electrical stimulation to contralateral forepaw via laser speckle imaging in a rat SAH model. Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats from two groups (control group, n=10 and SAH group, n=9) were studied. SAH was induced in rats by double injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna after CSF aspiration. The same surgical procedure was applied in the control group without CSF aspiration or blood injection. Significant CVS was found in the SAH group. Meanwhile, we observed a delayed peak of CBF response in rats with SAH compared with those in the control group, whereas no significant difference was found in magnitude, duration, and areas under curve of relative CBF changes between the two groups. The results suggest that the regulation function of local CBF during

  11. Early development of a somatosensory fovea: a head start in the cortical space race?

    PubMed

    Catania, K C

    2001-04-01

    Star-nosed moles have 11 mechanosensory appendages surrounding each nostril, and primary afferents from a single appendage-the tactile fovea-are greatly over-represented in somatosensory cortex. It was found that the foveal appendage led development in the periphery, had the greatest innervated surface area in embryos, and developed mature nerve terminals and epidermal sensory organs first; also, in developing cortex, markers for metabolic activity (cytochrome oxidase) appeared first in the fovea representation. This developmental sequence may provide the fovea with an advantage in a competition for cortical space, and account for the much larger areas of cortex devoted to foveal afferents.

  12. Analysis of pain-related somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm for magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Y; Kitamura, Y; Yamamoto, S; Okamoto, M; Oka, H; Yamada, N; Kuroda, S

    2001-06-13

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm by analysing pain-related somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) by 148-channel whole-head-type magnetoencephalography. MUSIC peaks of middle latency components were located around the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), contralateral to the stimulated finger. Long latency components were located around the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortices (SII) and cingulate gyri. Peaks at the SII and cingulate gyri were more prominent on very painful and moderately painful stimulation than on weak stimulation. The results were in very good agreement with results from single dipole estimation. These findings suggest that the MUSIC algorithm could be a useful tool for analysis of pain-related SEFs.

  13. [The dynamics of somatosensory and visual evoked potentials as a correlate of reversible states of altered consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gordeev, S A; Baziian, B Kh; Liubimov, N N

    1992-11-01

    Somatosensory and visual evoked potentials (EPs) of the brain of 17 sensitive subjects (extrasenses) and 12 ordinary healthy subjects were studied. It was found that during extrasensory activity (direct impact, meditation) in comparison to rest values, the amplitude of intermediate and late components of visual and somatosensory EPs of both hemispheres and early components of somatosensory EPs of ipsilateral in relation to stimulation hemisphere diminished 2-4--fold. There was a recovery of these components after discontinuation of extrasensory activity. It is shown that ordinary subjects could not change their EPs when they tried their best to decrease EPs. It is shown that ordinary subjects could not change their EPs when they tried their best to decrease EPs. It is suggested that the ability of extrasenses for reversible changes of their mind by direct adjustment of the activity of the ascending nonspecific systems of the brain and by alterations of interhemispheric relations forms the basis of extrasensory activity.

  14. Ultra-low-noise EEG/MEG systems enable bimodal non-invasive detection of spike-like human somatosensory evoked responses at 1 kHz.

    PubMed

    Fedele, T; Scheer, H J; Burghoff, M; Curio, G; Körber, R

    2015-02-01

    Non-invasive EEG detection of very high frequency somatosensory evoked potentials featuring frequencies up to and above 1 kHz has been recently reported. Here, we establish the detectability of such components by combined low-noise EEG/MEG. We recorded SEP/SEF simultaneously using median nerve stimulation in five healthy human subjects inside an electromagnetically shielded room, combining a low-noise EEG custom-made amplifier (4.7 nV/√Hz) and a custom-made single-channel low-noise MEG (0.5 fT/√Hz @ 1 kHz). Both, low-noise EEG and MEG revealed three spectrally distinct and temporally overlapping evoked components: N20 (<100 Hz), sigma-burst (450-750 Hz), and kappa-burst (850-1200 Hz). The two recording modalities showed similar relative scaling of signal amplitude in all three frequencies domains (EEG [10 nV] ≅ MEG [1 fT]). Pronounced waveform (peak-by-peak) overlap of EEG and MEG signals is observed in the sigma band, whereas in the kappa band overlap was only partial. A decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR; calculated for n = 12.000 averages) from sigma to kappa components characterizes both, electric and magnetic field recordings: Sigma-band SNR was 12.9  ±  5.5/19.8  ±  12.6 for EEG/MEG, and kappa-band SNR at 3.77  ±  0.8/4.5  ±  2.9. High-frequency performance of a tailor-made MEG matches closely with simultaneously recorded low-noise EEG for the non-invasive detection of somatosensory evoked activity at and above 1 kHz. Thus, future multi-channel dual-mode low-noise technology could offer complementary views for source reconstruction of the neural generators underlying such high-frequency responses, and render neural high-frequency processes related to multi-unit spike discharges accessible in non-invasive recordings.

  15. Chronic stress and peripheral pain: Evidence for distinct, region-specific changes in visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-11-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3 days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. PMID:26408049

  16. Chronic Stress and Peripheral Pain: Evidence for Distinct, Region-specific Changes in Visceral and Somatosensory Pain Regulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control L4-L5 DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3 days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. PMID:26408049

  17. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chelsea N.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59–80 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA), thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function. PMID:26321949

  18. Human high frequency somatosensory evoked potential components are refractory to circadian modulations of tonic alertness.

    PubMed

    Gobbelé, René; Waberski, Till D; Thyerlei, Dinah; Thissen, Melanie; Fimm, Bruno; Klostermann, Fabian; Curio, Gabriel; Buchner, Helmut

    2007-02-01

    The impact of vigilance states, such as sleep or arousal changes, on the high-frequency (600 Hz) components (HFOs) of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) is known. The present study sought to characterize the effects of circadian fluctuations of tonic alertness on HFOs in awake humans. Median nerve SEPs were recorded at four times during a 24-hour waking period. In parallel to the SEP recordings, a reaction-time (RT) task was performed to assess tonic alertness. Additionally, the spontaneous EEG was monitored. The low-frequency SEP component N20 and the early and late HFO parts did not change across the measurement sessions. In contrast, RTs were clearly prolonged at night and on the second morning. EEG also showed increased delta power at night. HFOs are sensitive to pronounced vigilance changes, such as sleep, but are refractory to fluctuations of tonic alertness. Tonic alertness is regarded to be the top-down cognitive control mechanism of wakefulness, whereas sleep is mediated by overwhelming bottom-up regulation, which seems apparently more relevant for, at least in part, subcortically triggered high-frequency burst generation in the ascending somatosensory system. PMID:17277574

  19. A Neural Field Model of the Somatosensory Cortex: Formation, Maintenance and Reorganization of Ordered Topographic Maps

    PubMed Central

    Detorakis, Georgios Is.; Rougier, Nicolas P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the formation and maintenance of ordered topographic maps in the primary somatosensory cortex as well as the reorganization of representations after sensory deprivation or cortical lesion. We consider both the critical period (postnatal) where representations are shaped and the post-critical period where representations are maintained and possibly reorganized. We hypothesize that feed-forward thalamocortical connections are an adequate site of plasticity while cortico-cortical connections are believed to drive a competitive mechanism that is critical for learning. We model a small skin patch located on the distal phalangeal surface of a digit as a set of 256 Merkel ending complexes (MEC) that feed a computational model of the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b). This model is a two-dimensional neural field where spatially localized solutions (a.k.a. bumps) drive cortical plasticity through a Hebbian-like learning rule. Simulations explain the initial formation of ordered representations following repetitive and random stimulations of the skin patch. Skin lesions as well as cortical lesions are also studied and results confirm the possibility to reorganize representations using the same learning rule and depending on the type of the lesion. For severe lesions, the model suggests that cortico-cortical connections may play an important role in complete recovery. PMID:22808127

  20. Somatosensory organ topography across the star of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata).

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying somatosensory receptor distribution in glabrous skin is usually difficult because of the diversity of skin receptor subtypes and their location within the dermis and epidermis. However, the glabrous noses of moles are an exception. In most species of moles, the skin on the nose is covered with domed mechanosensory units known as an Eimer's organs. Eimer's organs contain a stereotyped array of different mechanosensory neurons, meaning that the distribution of mechanosensitive nerve endings can be inferred by visual inspection of the skin surface. Here we detail the distribution of Eimer's organs on the highly derived somatosensory star on the rostrum of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). The star consists of 22 fleshy appendages, or rays, that are covered in Eimer's organs. We find that the density of Eimer's organs increases from proximal to distal locations along the length of the star's rays with a ratio of 1:2.3:3.1 from the surface nearest to the nostril, to the middle part of ray, to the ray tip, respectively. This ratio is comparable to the increase in receptor unit density reported for the human hand, from the palm, to the middle of the digits, to the distal fingertips. We also note that the tactile fovea of the star-nosed mole, located on the medial ventral ray, does not have increased sensory organ density, and we describe these findings in comparison with other sensory fovea.

  1. The role of self-touch in somatosensory and body representation disorders after stroke

    PubMed Central

    van Stralen, H. E.; van Zandvoort, M. J. E.; Dijkerman, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Somatosensory impairments occur in about half of the cases of stroke. These impairments range from primary deficits in tactile detection and the perception of features, to higher order impairments in haptic object recognition and bodily experience. In this paper, we review the influence of active- and self-touch on somatosensory impairments after stroke. Studies have shown that self-touch improves tactile detection in patients with primary tactile deficits. A small number of studies concerned with the effect of self-touch on bodily experience in healthy individuals have demonstrated that self-touch influences the structural representation of one's own body. In order to better understand the effect of self-touch on body representations, we present an informal study of a stroke patient with somatoparaphrenia and misoplegia. The role of self-touch on body ownership was investigated by asking the patient to stroke the impaired left hand and foreign hands. The patient reported ownership and a change in affect over all presented hands through self-touch. The time it took to accomplish ownership varied, based on the resemblance of the foreign hand to the patient's own hand. Our findings suggest that self-touch can modulate impairments in body ownership and affect, perhaps by helping to reinstate the representation of the body. PMID:21969696

  2. Resting BOLD fluctuations in the primary somatosensory cortex correlate with tactile acuity.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lauren M; Heba, Stefanie; Lenz, Melanie; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Höffken, Oliver; Kalisch, Tobias; Puts, Nicholaas A; Edden, Richard A E; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Sensory perception, including 2-point discrimination (2 ptD), is tightly linked to cortical processing of tactile stimuli in primary somatosensory cortices. While the role of cortical activity in response to a tactile stimulus has been widely investigated, the role of baseline cortical activity is largely unknown. Using resting state fMRI we investigated the relationship between local BOLD fluctuations in the primary somatosensory cortex (the representational field of the hand) and 2 ptD of the corresponding index finger (right and left). Cortical activity was measured using fractional amplitudes of the low frequency BOLD fluctuations (fALFF) and synchronicity using regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the S1 hand region during rest. 2 ptD correlated with higher ReHo values in the representational areas of the contralateral S1 cortex (left hand: p = .028; right hand: p = .049). 2 ptD additionally correlated with higher fALFF in the representational area of the left hand (p = .007) and showed a trend for a significant correlation in the representational area of the right hand (p = .051). Thus, higher BOLD amplitudes and synchronicity at rest, as measures of cortical activity and synchronicity, respectively, are related to better tactile discrimination abilities of the contralateral hand. Our findings extend the relationship seen between spontaneous BOLD fluctuations and sensory perception.

  3. Pathway-specific reorganization of projection neurons in somatosensory cortex during learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jerry L; Margolis, David J; Stankov, Atanas; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Schneider, Bernard L; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2015-08-01

    In the mammalian brain, sensory cortices exhibit plasticity during task learning, but how this alters information transferred between connected cortical areas remains unknown. We found that divergent subpopulations of cortico-cortical neurons in mouse whisker primary somatosensory cortex (S1) undergo functional changes reflecting learned behavior. We chronically imaged activity of S1 neurons projecting to secondary somatosensory (S2) or primary motor (M1) cortex in mice learning a texture discrimination task. Mice adopted an active whisking strategy that enhanced texture-related whisker kinematics, correlating with task performance. M1-projecting neurons reliably encoded basic kinematics features, and an additional subset of touch-related neurons was recruited that persisted past training. The number of S2-projecting touch neurons remained constant, but improved their discrimination of trial types through reorganization while developing activity patterns capable of discriminating the animal's decision. We propose that learning-related changes in S1 enhance sensory representations in a pathway-specific manner, providing downstream areas with task-relevant information for behavior.

  4. Diagnostic classification of intrinsic functional connectivity highlights somatosensory, default mode, and visual regions in autism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Colleen P; Keown, Christopher L; Jahedi, Afrooz; Nair, Aarti; Pflieger, Mark E; Bailey, Barbara A; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2015-01-01

    Despite consensus on the neurological nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), brain biomarkers remain unknown and diagnosis continues to be based on behavioral criteria. Growing evidence suggests that brain abnormalities in ASD occur at the level of interconnected networks; however, previous attempts using functional connectivity data for diagnostic classification have reached only moderate accuracy. We selected 252 low-motion resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) including typically developing (TD) and ASD participants (n = 126 each), matched for age, non-verbal IQ, and head motion. A matrix of functional connectivities between 220 functionally defined regions of interest was used for diagnostic classification, implementing several machine learning tools. While support vector machines in combination with particle swarm optimization and recursive feature elimination performed modestly (with accuracies for validation datasets <70%), diagnostic classification reached a high accuracy of 91% with random forest (RF), a nonparametric ensemble learning method. Among the 100 most informative features (connectivities), for which this peak accuracy was achieved, participation of somatosensory, default mode, visual, and subcortical regions stood out. Whereas some of these findings were expected, given previous findings of default mode abnormalities and atypical visual functioning in ASD, the prominent role of somatosensory regions was remarkable. The finding of peak accuracy for 100 interregional functional connectivities further suggests that brain biomarkers of ASD may be regionally complex and distributed, rather than localized. PMID:26106547

  5. The Cortical Signature of Central Poststroke Pain: Gray Matter Decreases in Somatosensory, Insular, and Prefrontal Cortices.

    PubMed

    Krause, T; Asseyer, S; Taskin, B; Flöel, A; Witte, A V; Mueller, K; Fiebach, J B; Villringer, K; Villringer, A; Jungehulsing, G J

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that cortical structural plasticity plays a crucial role in the emergence and maintenance of chronic pain. Various distinct pain syndromes have accordingly been linked to specific patterns of decreases in regional gray matter volume (GMV). However, it is not known whether central poststroke pain (CPSP) is also associated with cortical structural plasticity. To determine this, we employed T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T and voxel-based morphometry in 45 patients suffering from chronic subcortical sensory stroke with (n = 23) and without CPSP (n = 22), and healthy matched controls (n = 31). CPSP patients showed decreases in GMV in comparison to healthy controls, involving secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), anterior as well as posterior insular cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Comparing CPSP patients to nonpain patients revealed a similar but more restricted pattern of atrophy comprising S2, ventrolateral prefrontal and temporal cortex. Additionally, GMV in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex negatively correlated to pain intensity ratings. This shows for the first time that CPSP is accompanied by a unique pattern of widespread structural plasticity, which involves the sensory-discriminative areas of insular/somatosensory cortex, but also expands into prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, where emotional aspects of pain are processed.

  6. Nociception-related somatosensory evoked potentials in awake dogs recorded after intra epidermal electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    van Oostrom, Hugo; Stienen, Peter J; Doornenbal, Arie; Hellebrekers, Ludo J

    2009-02-01

    At present, the specific neurophysiologic methodology of recording pain-related evoked potentials is considered a most promising approach to objectively quantify pain in man. This study was designed to characterise and evaluate the use of somatosensory evoked potentials to study nociception in a canine model. To this aim, somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked by intra-epidermal electrical stimulation and recorded from the scalp in 8 beagle dogs. Characteristics determined were: (1) the conduction velocities of the peripheral nerve fibres involved, (2) the stimulus intensity response characteristics and (3) the evaluation of possible disturbance of the signals by muscular activity from the hind paw withdrawal reflex (EMG artefact). The results showed (1) the conduction velocities to be in the A-delta fibre range (i.e. fibres involved in nociception), (2) an increase in amplitude and a decrease in latency of the evoked potential following increasing stimulus intensities and (3) the absence of EMG artefact in the signals. These data indicate that the evoked potentials recorded, are related to nociception and thus are suited to quantitatively characterise the perception of noxious stimuli making this model useful for pain- and analgesia-related research.

  7. Neuronal mechanisms mediating the variability of somatosensory evoked potentials during sleep oscillations in cats

    PubMed Central

    Rosanova, Mario; Timofeev, Igor

    2005-01-01

    The slow oscillation (SO) generated within the corticothalamic system is composed of active and silent states. The studies of response variability during active versus silent network states within thalamocortical system of human and animals provided inconsistent results. To investigate this inconsistency, we used electrophysiological recordings from the main structures of the somatosensory system in anaesthetized cats. Stimulation of the median nerve (MN) elicited cortical responses during all phases of SO. Cortical responses to stimulation of the medial lemniscus (ML) were virtually absent during silent periods. At the ventral-posterior lateral (VPL) level, ML stimuli elicited either EPSPs in isolation or EPSPs crowned by spikes, as a function of membrane potential. Response to MN stimuli elicited compound synaptic responses and spiked at any physiological level of membrane potential. The responses of dorsal column nuclei neurones to MN stimuli were of similar latency, but the latencies of antidromic responses to ML stimuli were variable. Thus, the variable conductance velocity of ascending prethalamic axons was the most likely cause of the barrages of synaptic events in VPL neurones mediating their firing at different level of the membrane potential. We conclude that the preserved ability of the somatosensory system to transmit the peripheral stimuli to the cerebral cortex during all the phases of sleep slow oscillation is based on the functional properties of the medial lemniscus and on the intrinsic properties of the thalamocortical cells. However the reduced firing ability of the cortical neurones during the silent state may contribute to impair sensory processing during sleep. PMID:15528249

  8. Single-unit Analysis of Somatosensory Processing in Core Auditory Cortex of Hearing Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, M. Alex; Allman, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    The recent findings in several species that primary auditory cortex processes non-auditory information have largely overlooked the possibility for somatosensory effects. Therefore, the present investigation examined the core auditory cortices (anterior – AAF, and primary auditory-- A1, fields) for tactile responsivity. Multiple single-unit recordings from anesthetized ferret cortex yielded histologically verified neurons (n=311) tested with electronically controlled auditory, visual and tactile stimuli and their combinations. Of the auditory neurons tested, a small proportion (17%) was influenced by visual cues, but a somewhat larger number (23%) was affected by tactile stimulation. Tactile effects rarely occurred alone and spiking responses were observed in bimodal auditory-tactile neurons. However, the broadest tactile effect that was observed, which occurred in all neuron types, was that of suppression of the response to a concurrent auditory cue. The presence of tactile effects in core auditory cortices was supported by a substantial anatomical projection from the rostral suprasylvian sulcal somatosensory area. Collectively, these results demonstrate that crossmodal effects in auditory cortex are not exclusively visual and that somatosensation plays a significant role in modulation of acoustic processing and indicate that crossmodal plasticity following deafness may unmask these existing non-auditory functions. PMID:25728185

  9. Understanding the link between somatosensory temporal discrimination and movement execution in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Conte, Antonella; Belvisi, Daniele; Manzo, Nicoletta; Bologna, Matteo; Barone, Francesca; Tartaglia, Matteo; Upadhyay, Neeraj; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is the shortest interval at which an individual recognizes paired stimuli as separate in time. We investigated whether and how voluntary movement modulates STDT in healthy subjects. In 17 healthy participants, we tested STDT during voluntary index-finger abductions at several time-points after movement onset and during motor preparation. We then tested whether voluntary movement-induced STDT changes were specific for the body segment moved, depended on movement kinematics, on the type of movement or on the intensity for delivering paired electrical stimuli for STDT To understand the mechanisms underlying STDT modulation, we also tested STDT during motor imagery and after delivering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit excitability changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). When tested on the moving hand at movement onset and up to 200 msec thereafter, STDT values increased from baseline, but during motor preparation remained unchanged. STDT values changed significantly during fast and slow index-finger movements and also, though less, during passive index-finger abductions, whereas during tonic index-finger abductions they remained unchanged. STDT also remained unchanged when tested in body parts other than those engaged in movement and during imagined movement. Nor did testing STDT at increased intensity influence movement-induced STDT changes. The cTBS-induced S1 cortical changes left movement-induced STDT changes unaffected. Our findings suggest that movement execution in healthy subjects may alter STDT processing. PMID:27650249

  10. The assessment of somatosensory cortex plasticity during sleep deprivation by paired associative stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferlazzo, Fabio; D'Atri, Aurora; Lauri, Giulia; Ferrara, Michele; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Many animal studies suggest that during sleep deprivation (SD) synaptic strength should progressively increase, leading to the saturation of the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Nevertheless, direct evidences about the effects of sustained wakefulness on cortical plasticity in humans are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in the ability to induce LTP-like mechanism in humans during a period of SD by means of a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol, which combines median nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the contralateral somatosensory cortex. During a 41-h SD protocol, 16 healthy subjects, defined as responders to the PAS protocol after a pre-selection session, were involved in 4 experimental sessions (11.00 a.m. and 11.00 p.m. of first and second day) with: a) pre-PAS somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recordings; b) PAS protocol; c) post-PAS SEPs recordings. The effect of PAS on SEPs early components (N20-P25 complex) was assessed. During the first experimental session (without SD) no significant PAS effects on SEPs components amplitude have been found, and large intra- and inter-individual variability have been observed. A lack of significant changes has been observed also in the subsequent sessions. Our results index a low intra- and inter-individual reliability of the PAS protocol, suggesting particular caution when longitudinally evaluating the effect of this technique on cortical plasticity. PMID:26742665

  11. Hypnotically induced somatosensory alterations: Toward a neurophysiological understanding of hypnotic anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zeev-Wolf, Maor; Goldstein, Abraham; Bonne, Omer; Abramowitz, Eitan G

    2016-07-01

    Whereas numerous studies have investigated hypnotic analgesia, few have investigated hypnotic anaesthesia. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) we investigated and localized brain responses (event-related fields and oscillatory activity) during sensory processing under hypnotic anaesthesia. Nineteen right handed neurotypical individuals with moderate-to-high hypnotizability received 100 vibrotactile stimuli to right and left index fingers in a random sequence. Thereafter a hypnotic state was induced, in which anaesthetic suggestion was applied to the left hand only. Once anaesthetic suggestion was achieved, a second, identical, session of vibrotactile stimuli was commenced. We found greater brain activity in response to the stimuli delivered to the left (attenuated) hand before hypnotic anaesthesia, than under hypnotic anaesthesia, in both the beta and alpha bands. In the beta band, the reduction of activity under hypnotic anaesthesia was found around 214-413ms post-stimuli and was located mainly in the right insula. In the alpha band, it was found around 253-500ms post-stimuli and was located mainly in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In a second experiment, attention modulation per se was ruled out as the underlying cause of the effects found. These findings may suggest that the brain mechanism underlying hypnotic anaesthesia involves top-down somatosensory inhibition and, therefore, a reduction of somatosensory awareness. The result of this mechanism is a mental state in which individuals lose bodily sensation. PMID:27212058

  12. Task-relevant modulation of primary somatosensory cortex suggests a prefrontal-cortical sensory gating system.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that somatosensory information is modulated cortically for task-specific sensory inflow: Several studies report short-term adaptation of representational maps in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) due to attention or induced by task-related motor activity such as handwriting. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the frontal or prefrontal cortex may modulate SI. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the functional organization of SI while subjects performed the Tower of Hanoi task. This task is known to be related to activation of frontal or prefrontal areas. The functional organization of SI while performing the Tower of Hanoi task was compared to the organization of SI during performing the same movements but without the Tower of Hanoi task and with rest. Topography of SI was assessed using neuromagnetic source imaging based on tactile stimulation of the first (D1) and fifth digits (D5). Performing the Tower of Hanoi task was accompanied by plastic changes in SI as indicated by significant shifts in the cortical representations of D1 and D5: They moved further apart during the Tower of Hanoi task compared to the control task containing the same movements but without the cognitive characteristic. Thus, we conclude that SI maps undergo dynamic modulation depending on motor tasks with different cognitive demands. The results suggest that this short-term plasticity may be regulated by a prefrontal-cortical sensory gating system. PMID:15886021

  13. Transcriptional profiling at whole population and single cell levels reveals somatosensory neuron molecular diversity

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Isaac M; Barrett, Lee B; Williams, Erika K; Strochlic, David E; Lee, Seungkyu; Weyer, Andy D; Lou, Shan; Bryman, Gregory S; Roberson, David P; Ghasemlou, Nader; Piccoli, Cara; Ahat, Ezgi; Wang, Victor; Cobos, Enrique J; Stucky, Cheryl L; Ma, Qiufu; Liberles, Stephen D; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The somatosensory nervous system is critical for the organism's ability to respond to mechanical, thermal, and nociceptive stimuli. Somatosensory neurons are functionally and anatomically diverse but their molecular profiles are not well-defined. Here, we used transcriptional profiling to analyze the detailed molecular signatures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We used two mouse reporter lines and surface IB4 labeling to purify three major non-overlapping classes of neurons: 1) IB4+SNS-Cre/TdTomato+, 2) IB4−SNS-Cre/TdTomato+, and 3) Parv-Cre/TdTomato+ cells, encompassing the majority of nociceptive, pruriceptive, and proprioceptive neurons. These neurons displayed distinct expression patterns of ion channels, transcription factors, and GPCRs. Highly parallel qRT-PCR analysis of 334 single neurons selected by membership of the three populations demonstrated further diversity, with unbiased clustering analysis identifying six distinct subgroups. These data significantly increase our knowledge of the molecular identities of known DRG populations and uncover potentially novel subsets, revealing the complexity and diversity of those neurons underlying somatosensation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04660.001 PMID:25525749

  14. Cortical EEG alpha rhythms reflect task-specific somatosensory and motor interactions in humans.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Soricelli, Andrea; Romani, Gian Luca; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Capotosto, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Anticipating sensorimotor events allows adaptive reactions to environment with crucial implications for self-protection and survival. Here we review several studies of our group that aimed to test the hypothesis that the cortical processes preparing the elaboration of sensorimotor interaction is reflected by the reduction of anticipatory electroencephalographic alpha power (about 8-12Hz; event-related desynchronization, ERD), as an index that regulate task-specific sensorimotor processes, accounted by high-alpha sub-band (10-12Hz), rather than a general tonic alertness, accounted by low-alpha sub-band (8-10Hz). In this line, we propose a model for human cortical processes anticipating warned sensorimotor interactions. Overall, we reported a stronger high-alpha ERD before painful than non-painful somatosensory stimuli that is also predictive of the subjective evaluation of pain intensity. Furthermore, we showed that anticipatory high-alpha ERD increased before sensorimotor interactions between non-painful or painful stimuli and motor demands involving opposite hands. In contrast, sensorimotor interactions between painful somatosensory and sensorimotor demands involving the same hand decreased anticipatory high-alpha ERD, due to a sort of sensorimotor "gating" effect. In conclusion, we suggest that anticipatory cortical high-alpha rhythms reflect the central interference and/or integration of ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) signals relative to one or two hands before non-painful and painful sensorimotor interactions. PMID:24929901

  15. The Dual Career Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  16. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  17. Input impedance of microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Using Richmond's reaction integral equation, an expression is derived for the input impedance of microstrip patch antennas excited by either a microstrip line or a coaxial probe. The effects of the finite substrate thickness, a dielectric protective cover, and associated surface waves are properly included by the use of the exact dyadic Green's function. Using the present formulation the input impedance of a rectangular microstrip antenna is determined and compared with experimental and earlier calculated results.

  18. Nonlinear input-output systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  19. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C; Mennicken, Françoise; O'Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Woodbury, C Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I; MacDermott, Amy B; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-03-19

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  20. Top-down cortical input during NREM sleep consolidates perceptual memory.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, D; Hirai, D; Fung, C C A; Inutsuka, A; Odagawa, M; Suzuki, T; Boehringer, R; Adaikkan, C; Matsubara, C; Matsuki, N; Fukai, T; McHugh, T J; Yamanaka, A; Murayama, M

    2016-06-10

    During tactile perception, long-range intracortical top-down axonal projections are essential for processing sensory information. Whether these projections regulate sleep-dependent long-term memory consolidation is unknown. We altered top-down inputs from higher-order cortex to sensory cortex during sleep and examined the consolidation of memories acquired earlier during awake texture perception. Mice learned novel textures and consolidated them during sleep. Within the first hour of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, optogenetic inhibition of top-down projecting axons from secondary motor cortex (M2) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) impaired sleep-dependent reactivation of S1 neurons and memory consolidation. In NREM sleep and sleep-deprivation states, closed-loop asynchronous or synchronous M2-S1 coactivation, respectively, reduced or prolonged memory retention. Top-down cortical information flow in NREM sleep is thus required for perceptual memory consolidation. PMID:27229145

  1. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

    PubMed Central

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A.; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C.; Mennicken, Françoise; O’Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Woodbury, C. Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I.; MacDermott, Amy B.; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  2. Spatiotemporal Changes of Neuronal Responses in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Noxious Tail Stimulation in Awake and Pentobarbital-Anesthetized Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lee, Jye-Chang; Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2015-10-31

    Primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is a key area in the processing of nociceptor inputs to our consciousness. To clarify the columnar and laminar organization of SI for pain processing, we compared spatiotemporal changes in neuronal activities of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) of the rat in response to noxious laser heat stimulation applied to the mid-tail. Longitudinal and vertical array microelectrodes were chronically implanted in the cerebral cortex. Evoked neuronal activities, including intracortical local field potentials (LFP) and ensemble single-unit activity (SU) around SmI were simultaneously recorded. The effect of pentobarbital on the neuronal responses was evaluated in comparison with the neuronal responses in conscious animals to explore the potential substrate of nociceptive processing in the conscious state. The results from the experiment with longitudinal microelectrode arrays indicated that noxious stimulation induced a neuronal response which was spread widely around the SmI of the conscious rat, and the range of neuronal responses was limited to the tail region of the SmI under anesthesia. The results from the experiment with vertical microelectrode arrays showed the universal neuronal responses through all cortical layers of the SmI in conscious rats, and sodium pentobarbital suppressed these neuronal responses in the supragranular layers significantly relative to the deeper layers and basal activity. These results imply that a wider range of cortical activation, both in the horizontal or vertical dimension, might be important for nociceptive processing in the conscious state. PMID:26387657

  3. Detection of optogenetic stimulation in somatosensory cortex by non-human primates--towards artificial tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    May, Travis; Ozden, Ilker; Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest.

  4. Effects of Improvement on Selective Attention: Developing Appropriate Somatosensory Video Game Interventions for Institutional-Dwelling Elderly with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shang-Ti; Chiang, I-Tsun; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chang, Maiga

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop appropriate somatosensory video game interventions on enhancing selective attention of institutional-dwelling elderly with disabilities. Fifty-eight participants aged 65[approximately]92 were recruited and divided into four groups, 4-week and 8-week experimental and two control groups, for evaluating the…

  5. Calmodulin Methyltransferase Is Required for Growth, Muscle Strength, Somatosensory Development and Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Haziza, Sitvanit; Magnani, Roberta; Lan, Dima; Keinan, Omer; Saada, Ann; Hershkovitz, Eli; Yanay, Nurit; Cohen, Yoram; Nevo, Yoram; Houtz, Robert L; Sheffield, Val C; Golan, Hava; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-08-01

    Calmodulin lysine methyl transferase (CaM KMT) is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved from plants to vertebrates. CaM is frequently trimethylated at Lys-115, however, the role of CaM methylation in vertebrates has not been studied. CaM KMT was found to be homozygously deleted in the 2P21 deletion syndrome that includes 4 genes. These patients present with cystinuria, severe intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, mitochondrial disease and facial dysmorphism. Two siblings with deletion of three of the genes included in the 2P21 deletion syndrome presented with cystinuria, hypotonia, a mild/moderate mental retardation and a respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. To be able to attribute the functional significance of the methylation of CaM in the mouse and the contribution of CaM KMT to the clinical presentation of the 2p21deletion patients, we produced a mouse model lacking only CaM KMT with deletion borders as in the human 2p21deletion syndrome. No compensatory activity for CaM methylation was found. Impairment of complexes I and IV, and less significantly III, of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was more pronounced in the brain than in muscle. CaM KMT is essential for normal body growth and somatosensory development, as well as for the proper functioning of the adult mouse brain. Developmental delay was demonstrated for somatosensory function and for complex behavior, which involved both basal motor function and motivation. The mutant mice also had deficits in motor learning, complex coordination and learning of aversive stimuli. The mouse model contributes to the evaluation of the role of methylated CaM. CaM methylation appears to have a role in growth, muscle strength, somatosensory development and brain function. The current study has clinical implications for human patients. Patients presenting slow growth and muscle weakness that could result from a mitochondrial impairment and mental retardation should be considered for sequence analysis of the Ca

  6. Co-occurrence of Pain Symptoms and Somatosensory Sensitivity in Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moisset, Xavier; Calbacho, Valentina; Torres, Pilar; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle; Dallel, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic and spontaneous oral pain with burning quality in the tongue or other oral mucosa without any identifiable oral lesion or laboratory finding. Pathogenesis and etiology of BMS are still unknown. However, BMS has been associated with other chronic pain syndromes including other idiopathic orofacial pain, the dynias group and the family of central sensitivity syndromes. This would imply that BMS shares common mechanisms with other cephalic and/or extracephalic chronic pains. The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine whether BMS is actually associated with other pain syndromes, and to analyze cephalic and extracephalic somatosensory sensitivity in these patients. Methods This report followed the PRISMA Statement. An electronic search was performed until January 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane library, Wiley and ScienceDirect. Searched terms included “burning mouth syndrome OR stomatodynia OR glossodynia OR burning tongue OR oral burning”. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria (report of an association between BMS and other pain(s) symptoms or of cutaneous cephalic and/or extracephalic quantitative sensory testing in BMS patients), and a descriptive analysis conducted. Results The search retrieved 1512 reports. Out of these, twelve articles met criteria for co-occurring pain symptoms and nine studies for quantitative sensory testing (QST) in BMS patients. The analysis reveals that in BMS patients co-occurring pain symptoms are rare, assessed by only 0.8% (12 of 1512) of the retrieved studies. BMS was associated with headaches, TMD, atypical facial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic facial pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, joint pain, abdominal pain, rectal pain or vulvodynia. However, the prevalence of pain symptoms in BMS patients is not different from that in the age-matched general population. QST studies reveal no or inconsistent evidence of abnormal cutaneous cephalic

  7. Calmodulin Methyltransferase Is Required for Growth, Muscle Strength, Somatosensory Development and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Haziza, Sitvanit; Magnani, Roberta; Lan, Dima; Keinan, Omer; Saada, Ann; Hershkovitz, Eli; Yanay, Nurit; Cohen, Yoram; Nevo, Yoram; Houtz, Robert L.; Sheffield, Val C.; Golan, Hava; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-01-01

    Calmodulin lysine methyl transferase (CaM KMT) is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved from plants to vertebrates. CaM is frequently trimethylated at Lys-115, however, the role of CaM methylation in vertebrates has not been studied. CaM KMT was found to be homozygously deleted in the 2P21 deletion syndrome that includes 4 genes. These patients present with cystinuria, severe intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, mitochondrial disease and facial dysmorphism. Two siblings with deletion of three of the genes included in the 2P21 deletion syndrome presented with cystinuria, hypotonia, a mild/moderate mental retardation and a respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. To be able to attribute the functional significance of the methylation of CaM in the mouse and the contribution of CaM KMT to the clinical presentation of the 2p21deletion patients, we produced a mouse model lacking only CaM KMT with deletion borders as in the human 2p21deletion syndrome. No compensatory activity for CaM methylation was found. Impairment of complexes I and IV, and less significantly III, of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was more pronounced in the brain than in muscle. CaM KMT is essential for normal body growth and somatosensory development, as well as for the proper functioning of the adult mouse brain. Developmental delay was demonstrated for somatosensory function and for complex behavior, which involved both basal motor function and motivation. The mutant mice also had deficits in motor learning, complex coordination and learning of aversive stimuli. The mouse model contributes to the evaluation of the role of methylated CaM. CaM methylation appears to have a role in growth, muscle strength, somatosensory development and brain function. The current study has clinical implications for human patients. Patients presenting slow growth and muscle weakness that could result from a mitochondrial impairment and mental retardation should be considered for sequence analysis of the Ca

  8. Somatosensory Amplification, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients With Hepatitis B: Impact on Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ahmet; Ucmak, Feyzullah; Dönmezdil, Süleyman; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Tekin, Recep; Günes, Mehmet; Arslan, Necmi; Bulut, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, we aimed to determine the differences in body image along with anxiety and depression levels, and also to evaluate their impact on disability parameters in patients with hepatitis B. Our study comprised 77 patients with hepatitis B (n = 41, chronic active patients; n = 36, patients with inactive hepatitis B) and 53 healthy individuals (control group). Enrolled patients responded to several questionnaires, including a sociodemographic form, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Patients with chronic active hepatitis B (CAHB) had higher levels of somatosensory perception than patients with inactive hepatitis B (IHB) and control group (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively). Patients with CAHB had high scores on all the 3 domains of SDS (work/school, P < 0.001; social life, P < 0.001; and family life, P < 0.001). Also, patients with CAHB had a significantly higher HADS total score, HADS anxiety score, and HADS depression score than control group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). No significant difference was noted between patients with CAHB and patients with IHB with regard to HADS depression score; however, HADS anxiety and HADS total scores were significantly higher in the CAHB group (NS, P = 0.027, P = 0.035, respectively). Moreover, the IHB group exhibited higher scores for the work/school and social life domains of SDS than those of the control group (P = 0.008, P = 0.047). Although patients with CAHB may present with somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression, patients with IHB do not exhibit such symptoms. However, functionality is affected in both carrier and active patient groups. We believe that routine health checks of patients with hepatitis B should include psychiatric evaluation, psychiatric examination, and follow-up. PMID:27227947

  9. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  10. [The cerebral control of the somatosensory and auditory afferent projections to the cerebral cortex in man and animals].

    PubMed

    Liubimov, N N; Orlova, T V; Liubimov, S N

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper was consisted in studying of topology (spreading) of the somatosensory and auditory projections in cortex of both brain hemispheres in humans under different functional states conditions: during quiet walking state and during realization of the meditative programme. At the same time for the purpose of verification these steering mechanisms a number of experiments were realized in animals with neurosurgical cutting of brainstem ascending projections, which control the transfer of somatosensory and auditory sensibility. Experimental study was realized with two groups of subjects--8 subjects (age from 25 to 35 years old) and 25 (age from 25 to 40 years old) subjects practicing technique of Transcendental Meditation (TM). In addition to the mentioned above group some groups of animals were used in the experiments. Among them there were used the groups of monkeys (8 macaque rhesus and macaque nemestrina) and cats (10 animals) in conditions of acute experiment, under tiopenthal anesthesia. Two experimental methods were used in the study: electrophysiological for subjects and neurosurgical, additionally for animals. For evaluation of the brain reactivity in subjects registration of the somatosensory, to median nerve stimulation, and auditory, to bilateral application of auditory clicks, evoked potentials (EPs) in the symmetrical cortical structures of the brain was used. Registration of the somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials in animals was realized not only from the cortex, but from the brainstem somatosensory and auditory structures. SSEP in subjects-meditators were registered before and during meditation programme. In animals SSEP and AEP registration on the corresponding stimuli realized before and after neurosurgical operation--section of the midbrain tegmentum. Specific alterations of the early (up to 80 ms) and late components SSEP and AEP complexes in forms of topology spreading and diminution of registration areas of

  11. Initial research of dual wavelength fibre optic perimeter sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Kondrat, M.; Ciurapinski, W.

    2005-10-01

    The dual wavelength fibre optic perimeter sensor bases on input signals measurements in an arrangement of fibre optic Michelson and Sagnac interferometers with a 3 × 3 coupler and two semiconductor lasers. For 3 km long sensor we obtained 20-50m resolution of determination of disturbance point.

  12. Steady-State Somatosensory Evoked Potential for Brain-Computer Interface—Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sangtae; Kim, Kiwoong; Jun, Sung Chan

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) performance has achieved continued improvement over recent decades, and sensorimotor rhythm-based BCIs that use motor function have been popular subjects of investigation. However, it remains problematic to introduce them to the public market because of their low reliability. As an alternative resolution to this issue, visual-based BCIs that use P300 or steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) seem promising; however, the inherent visual fatigue that occurs with these BCIs may be unavoidable. For these reasons, steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEP) BCIs, which are based on tactile selective attention, have gained increasing attention recently. These may reduce the fatigue induced by visual attention and overcome the low reliability of motor activity. In this literature survey, recent findings on SSSEP and its methodological uses in BCI are reviewed. Further, existing limitations of SSSEP BCI and potential future directions for the technique are discussed. PMID:26834611

  13. Dendritic branching angles of pyramidal cells across layers of the juvenile rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Leguey, Ignacio; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Rojo, Concepción; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The characterization of the structural design of cortical microcircuits is essential for understanding how they contribute to function in both health and disease. Since pyramidal neurons represent the most abundant neuronal type and their dendritic spines constitute the major postsynaptic elements of cortical excitatory synapses, our understanding of the synaptic organization of the neocortex largely depends on the available knowledge regarding the structure of pyramidal cells. Previous studies have identified several apparently common rules in dendritic geometry. We study the dendritic branching angles of pyramidal cells across layers to further shed light on the principles that determine the geometric shapes of these cells. We find that the dendritic branching angles of pyramidal cells from layers II-VI of the juvenile rat somatosensory cortex suggest common design principles, despite the particular morphological and functional features that are characteristic of pyramidal cells in each cortical layer. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2567-2576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effects of halothane on somatosensory and flash visual evoked potentials during operations.

    PubMed

    Wang, A D; Costa e Silva, I; Symon, L; Jewkes, D

    1985-06-01

    Intraoperative use of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP's) to monitor intracranial aneurysm surgery and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP's) for parasellar surgery have been routinely employed in our clinic. We found that both EP modalities are sensitive to the changing concentration of our standard hypotensive agent, halothane. The prolongation of the N14-N20 interpeak latency to median nerve stimulation at the wrist, and prolongation of P100 latency with altered configuration of early VEP components to flash light stimulation, appear to be the results of direct pharmacological effects of the agent and not an effect of secondary hypotension. VEP is found easily abolished by halothane at a concentration of 2.0%, while the SEP is more resistant. Halothane is not ideal however when monitoring intraoperative VEP.

  15. The Role of Attention in Somatosensory Processing: A Multi-trait, Multi-method Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wodka, Ericka L; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Mahone, E Mark; Edden, Richard A E; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-10-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities in autism have largely been described by parent report. This study used a multi-method (parent-report and measurement), multi-trait (tactile sensitivity and attention) design to evaluate somatosensory processing in ASD. Results showed multiple significant within-method (e.g., parent report of different traits)/cross-trait (e.g., attention and tactile sensitivity) correlations, suggesting that parent-reported tactile sensory dysfunction and performance-based tactile sensitivity describe different behavioral phenomena. Additionally, both parent-reported tactile functioning and performance-based tactile sensitivity measures were significantly associated with measures of attention. Findings suggest that sensory (tactile) processing abnormalities in ASD are multifaceted, and may partially reflect a more global deficit in behavioral regulation (including attention). Challenges of relying solely on parent-report to describe sensory difficulties faced by children/families with ASD are also highlighted.

  16. Early somatosensory event-related potentials reveal attentional bias for internal stimuli in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yoshihiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Kubo, Kenta; Sasaki-Aoki, Shoko; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2012-03-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate allocation of attentional resources to internal and external stimuli in individuals with social anxiety. High and low socially anxious individuals were presented with depictions of various facial expressions or household objects, followed by an internal (vibration presented to the finger) or external probe (the letter "E"). Participants were told that the vibration signals physiological changes and were asked to detect both probes. High socially anxious individuals showed larger front-central N140 amplitudes in response to vibratory internal probes as compared to non-anxious controls. ERPs elicited by picture stimuli and external probes and reaction times in response to both probe types did not differ between high and low social anxiety individuals. Early somatosensory ERPs reveal an attentional bias for internal stimuli that does not appear in overt behavior. PMID:22285128

  17. [The cervical somatosensory evoked potential and its relation to F-wave activity].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1989-06-01

    In 6 healthy volunteers aged 18-25 years cervical somatosensory evoked potentials (CEPs) were recorded following stimulation of the right median nerve at the wrist. At the same time the antidromically elicited individual F-waves evoked by any single impulse were recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. By means of selective averaging of the neck responses it could be shown that there was a close relationship between an F-wave-activity of 120-150 microV/stimulus or more during the trial and the appearance or the enhancement of a negative peak occurring 0.5-1.4 ms after the main CEP component N13. An F-wave-activity of more than 224 microV/stimulus regularly resulted in a total change of the CEP configuration. PMID:2503360

  18. [The significance of sex-linked differences for the assessment of somatosensory evoked potentials (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Hedderich, J; Tackmann, W

    1981-09-01

    In 45 healthy volunteers (22 males and 23 females with the same age structure) the peak latencies and inter-peak differences of the cervical and early cortical components of the somatosensory evoked potential were measured. The distribution of the values of the variables and their relationship with arm length were investigated both for the sample as a whole and for each sex separately. Significantly higher average values of the latencies and arm lengths were found in men. The correlations between arm length and latency had consistently higher values for the female sample. On the basis of these results it is concluded that a sufficient assessment of the latencies is only possible with the help of sex-specific normal values. PMID:6795015

  19. Effect of raising body temperature on visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, W B; Read, D J; Pountney, E

    1979-03-01

    The effects of raising body temperature on the visual (VEP) and somatosensory (SEP) evoked potentials were observed in normal subjects and in patients with multiple sclerosis. The amplitude of the VEP was significantly reduced to the same degree after heating in normal subjects and in patients with multiple sclerosis but there was no effect on the latency of the potential. Changes in amplitude could not be related to reduction in acuity. In contrast, the cervical SEP was greatly disorganised after heating in many patients with multiple sclerosis while the only effect in normal subjects was to reduce the latency by increasing peripheral conduction velocity. These results suggest that heat caused conduction block in demyelinated axons in the sensory pathways of the cervical spinal cord.

  20. The Role of Attention in Somatosensory Processing: A Multi-trait, Multi-method Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Puts, Nicolaas A. J.; Mahone, E. Mark; Edden, Richard A. E.; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities in autism have largely been described by parent report. This study used a multi-method (parent-report and measurement), multi-trait (tactile sensitivity and attention) design to evaluate somatosensory processing in ASD. Results showed multiple significant within-method (e.g., parent report of different traits)/cross-trait (e.g., attention and tactile sensitivity) correlations, suggesting that parent-reported tactile sensory dysfunction and performance-based tactile sensitivity describe different behavioral phenomena. Additionally, both parent-reported tactile functioning and performance-based tactile sensitivity measures were significantly associated with measures of attention. Findings suggest that sensory (tactile) processing abnormalities in ASD are multifaceted, and may partially reflect a more global deficit in behavioral regulation (including attention). Challenges of relying solely on parent-report to describe sensory difficulties faced by children/families with ASD are also highlighted. PMID:27448580

  1. Dendritic branching angles of pyramidal cells across layers of the juvenile rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Leguey, Ignacio; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Rojo, Concepción; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The characterization of the structural design of cortical microcircuits is essential for understanding how they contribute to function in both health and disease. Since pyramidal neurons represent the most abundant neuronal type and their dendritic spines constitute the major postsynaptic elements of cortical excitatory synapses, our understanding of the synaptic organization of the neocortex largely depends on the available knowledge regarding the structure of pyramidal cells. Previous studies have identified several apparently common rules in dendritic geometry. We study the dendritic branching angles of pyramidal cells across layers to further shed light on the principles that determine the geometric shapes of these cells. We find that the dendritic branching angles of pyramidal cells from layers II-VI of the juvenile rat somatosensory cortex suggest common design principles, despite the particular morphological and functional features that are characteristic of pyramidal cells in each cortical layer. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2567-2576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26850576

  2. The Role of Attention in Somatosensory Processing: A Multi-trait, Multi-method Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wodka, Ericka L; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Mahone, E Mark; Edden, Richard A E; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-10-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities in autism have largely been described by parent report. This study used a multi-method (parent-report and measurement), multi-trait (tactile sensitivity and attention) design to evaluate somatosensory processing in ASD. Results showed multiple significant within-method (e.g., parent report of different traits)/cross-trait (e.g., attention and tactile sensitivity) correlations, suggesting that parent-reported tactile sensory dysfunction and performance-based tactile sensitivity describe different behavioral phenomena. Additionally, both parent-reported tactile functioning and performance-based tactile sensitivity measures were significantly associated with measures of attention. Findings suggest that sensory (tactile) processing abnormalities in ASD are multifaceted, and may partially reflect a more global deficit in behavioral regulation (including attention). Challenges of relying solely on parent-report to describe sensory difficulties faced by children/families with ASD are also highlighted. PMID:27448580

  3. Adaptation to Coriolis force perturbation of movement trajectory; role of proprioceptive and cutaneous somatosensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Lackner, James R; DiZio, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Subjects exposed to constant velocity rotation in a large fully-enclosed room that rotates initially make large reaching errors in pointing to targets. The paths and endpoints of their reaches are deviated in the direction of the transient lateral Coriolis forces generated by the forward velocity of their reaches. With additional reaches, subjects soon reach in straighter paths and become more accurate at landing on target even in the absence of visual feedback about their movements. Two factors contribute to this adaptation: first, muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ feedback interpreted in relation to efferent commands provide information about movement trajectory, and second, somatosensory stimulation of the fingertip at the completion of a reach provides information about the location of the fingertip relative to the torso.

  4. Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields arising from sources in the human cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Tesche, C D; Karhu, J

    1997-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked neuromagnetic activity of human cerebellum was recorded noninvasively with a 122-channel whole-scalp magnetometer. Cerebellar source areas activated 13-19 ms after unilateral electric stimulation of the median nerve. The first signals preceded those occurring in the primary sensorimotor cortex at around 20 ms and overlapped in time with the activation of thalamic sources. The orientation and location of most prominent cerebellar activation suggest that the detected signals represent synchronized postsynaptic activity of spinocerebellar cortex. These signals are probably elicited by the first afferent sensory volley from peripheral nerve endings and mediated by spinocerebellar (cuneocerebellar) tracts. The results imply strong coherent activation of cerebellar neuronal populations after purely sensory stimulation. Moreover, with presented methods the millisecond-scale temporal resolution of neurophysiological measurements can be more generally applied to the study of neuronal population activity in intact human cerebellum.

  5. Adaptation to Coriolis force perturbation of movement trajectory; role of proprioceptive and cutaneous somatosensory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; DiZio, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Subjects exposed to constant velocity rotation in a large fully-enclosed room that rotates initially make large reaching errors in pointing to targets. The paths and endpoints of their reaches are deviated in the direction of the transient lateral Coriolis forces generated by the forward velocity of their reaches. With additional reaches, subjects soon reach in straighter paths and become more accurate at landing on target even in the absence of visual feedback about their movements. Two factors contribute to this adaptation: first, muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ feedback interpreted in relation to efferent commands provide information about movement trajectory, and second, somatosensory stimulation of the fingertip at the completion of a reach provides information about the location of the fingertip relative to the torso.

  6. Somatotopic source arrangement of 600 Hz oscillatory magnetic fields at the human primary somatosensory hand cortex.

    PubMed

    Curio, G; Mackert, B M; Burghoff, M; Neumann, J; Nolte, G; Scherg, M; Marx, P

    1997-10-01

    Based on low-noise superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) magnetoencephalography allows the non-invasive detection of low-amplitude high-frequency brain responses evoked about 20 ms after electric hand nerve stimulation. The main spectral energy of these brief oscillatory bursts (near 600 Hz) is in the range typical for rapidly repeated action potentials. Here, the magnetic fields of median and ulnar nerve evoked 600 Hz bursts are shown to exhibit a somatotopic arrangement at the primary somatosensory hand cortex closely resembling that of the concomitant postsynaptic primary cortical response (¿N20m'). Two possible burst generators are discussed: (1) repetitive spike volleys conducted along the terminal segments of somatotopically arranged thalamocortical axons, and (2) early intracortical spike activity in nerve-specific subterritories of the 3b hand area.

  7. Cortical Plasticity Induced by Spike-Triggered Microstimulation in Primate Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Song, Weiguo; Kerr, Cliff C.; Lytton, William W.; Francis, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the nervous system for therapeutic purposes, such as deep brain stimulation in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, has been used for decades. Recently, increased attention has focused on using microstimulation to restore functions as diverse as somatosensation and memory. However, how microstimulation changes the neural substrate is still not fully understood. Microstimulation may cause cortical changes that could either compete with or complement natural neural processes, and could result in neuroplastic changes rendering the region dysfunctional or even epileptic. As part of our efforts to produce neuroprosthetic devices and to further study the effects of microstimulation on the cortex, we stimulated and recorded from microelectrode arrays in the hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex (area 1) in two awake macaque monkeys. We applied a simple neuroprosthetic microstimulation protocol to a pair of electrodes in the area 1 array, using either random pulses or pulses time-locked to the recorded spiking activity of a reference neuron. This setup was replicated using a computer model of the thalamocortical system, which consisted of 1980 spiking neurons distributed among six cortical layers and two thalamic nuclei. Experimentally, we found that spike-triggered microstimulation induced cortical plasticity, as shown by increased unit-pair mutual information, while random microstimulation did not. In addition, there was an increased response to touch following spike-triggered microstimulation, along with decreased neural variability. The computer model successfully reproduced both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the experimental findings. The physiological findings of this study suggest that even simple microstimulation protocols can be used to increase somatosensory information flow. PMID:23472086

  8. Computational modeling of direct neuronal recruitment during intracortical microstimulation in somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overstreet, C. K.; Klein, J. D.; Helms Tillery, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation of cortical tissue could be used to deliver sensory information as part of a neuroprosthetic device, but current control of the location, resolution, quality, and intensity of sensations elicited by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) remains inadequate for this purpose. One major obstacle to resolving this problem is the poor understanding of the neural activity induced by ICMS. Even with new imaging methods, quantifying the activity of many individual neurons within cortex is difficult. Approach. We used computational modeling to examine the response of somatosensory cortex to ICMS. We modeled the axonal arbors of eight distinct morphologies of interneurons and seven types of pyramidal neurons found in somatosensory cortex and identified their responses to extracellular stimulation. We then combined these axonal elements to form a multi-layered slab of simulated cortex and investigated the patterns of neural activity directly induced by ICMS. Specifically we estimated the number, location, and variety of neurons directly recruited by stimulation on a single penetrating microelectrode. Main results. The population of neurons activated by ICMS was dependent on both stimulation strength and the depth of the electrode within cortex. Strikingly, stimulation recruited interneurons and pyramidal neurons in very different patterns. Interneurons are primarily recruited within a dense, continuous region around the electrode, while pyramidal neurons were recruited in a sparse fashion both near the electrode and up to several millimeters away. Thus ICMS can lead to an unexpectedly complex spatial distribution of firing neurons. Significance. These results lend new insights to the complexity and range of neural activity that can be induced by ICMS. This work also suggests mechanisms potentially responsible for the inconsistency and unnatural quality of sensations initiated by ICMS. Understanding these mechanisms will aid in the design of

  9. Metaplasticity in human primary somatosensory cortex: effects on physiology and tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina B; Lulic, Tea; Bailey, Aaron Z; Mackenzie, Tanner N; Mi, Yi Qun; Tommerdahl, Mark; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-05-01

    Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over human primary motor cortex evokes plasticity and metaplasticity, the latter contributing to the homeostatic balance of excitation and inhibition. Our knowledge of TBS-induced effects on primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is limited, and it is unknown whether TBS induces metaplasticity within human SI. Sixteen right-handed participants (6 females, mean age 23 yr) received two TBS protocols [continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS)] delivered in six different combinations over SI in separate sessions. TBS protocols were delivered at 30 Hz and were as follows: a single cTBS protocol, a single iTBS protocol, cTBS followed by cTBS, iTBS followed by iTBS, cTBS followed by iTBS, and iTBS followed by cTBS. Measures included the amplitudes of the first and second somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) via median nerve stimulation, their paired-pulse ratio (PPR), and temporal order judgment (TOJ). Dependent measures were obtained before TBS and at 5, 25, 50, and 90 min following stimulation. Results indicate similar effects following cTBS and iTBS; increased amplitudes of the second SEP and PPR without amplitude changes to SEP 1, and impairments in TOJ. Metaplasticity was observed such that TOJ impairments following a single cTBS protocol were abolished following consecutive cTBS protocols. Additionally, consecutive iTBS protocols altered the time course of effects when compared with a single iTBS protocol. In conclusion, 30-Hz cTBS and iTBS protocols delivered in isolation induce effects consistent with a TBS-induced reduction in intracortical inhibition within SI. Furthermore, cTBS- and iTBS-induced metaplasticity appear to follow homeostatic and nonhomeostatic rules, respectively.

  10. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues.

  11. Parkinson's disease accelerates age-related decline in haptic perception by altering somatosensory integration.

    PubMed

    Konczak, Jürgen; Sciutti, Alessandra; Avanzino, Laura; Squeri, Valentina; Gori, Monica; Masia, Lorenzo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Sandini, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated how Parkinson's disease alters haptic perception and the underlying mechanisms of somatosensory and sensorimotor integration. Changes in haptic sensitivity and acuity (the abilities to detect and to discriminate between haptic stimuli) due to Parkinson's disease were systematically quantified and contrasted to the performance of healthy older and young adults. Using a robotic force environment, virtual contours of various curvatures were presented. Participants explored these contours with their hands and indicated verbally whether they could detect or discriminate between two contours. To understand what aspects of sensory or sensorimotor integration are altered by ageing and disease, we manipulated the sensorimotor aspect of the task: the robot either guided the hand along the contour or the participant actively moved the hand. Active exploration relies on multimodal sensory and sensorimotor integration, while passive guidance only requires sensory integration of proprioceptive and tactile information. The main findings of the study are as follows: first, a decline in haptic precision can already be observed in adults before the age of 70 years. Parkinson's disease may lead to an additional decrease in haptic sensitivity well beyond the levels typically seen in middle-aged and older adults. Second, the haptic deficit in Parkinson's disease is general in nature. It becomes manifest as a decrease in sensitivity and acuity (i.e. a smaller perceivable range and a diminished ability to discriminate between two perceivable haptic stimuli). Third, thresholds during both active and passive exploration are elevated, but not significantly different from each other. That is, active exploration did not enhance the haptic deficit when compared to passive hand motion. This implies that Parkinson's disease affects early stages of somatosensory integration that ultimately have an impact on processes of sensorimotor integration. Our results suggest that

  12. Heightened sensitivity to somatosensory stimuli in anorexia nervosa: an exploratory study with the SASTCA scale.

    PubMed

    Calvo Sagardoy, Rosa; Gallego Morales, Luis T; Kassem García, Soledad; Codesal Julián, Rosana; Blanco Fernández, Ascensión; Solórzano Ostolaza, Gloria; Morales Martínez, Carmen

    2014-11-04

    Objetivo: destacar la presencia de una sensibilidad extrema hacia estímulos externos e internos (Amplificación Somatosensorial) en pacientes con Anorexia, similar pero no idéntica, a la descrita en pacientes con unexple somatic symtoms. Método: Se ha elaborado una escala de Amplificación Somatosensorial para Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria, (SASTCA), que mide la intensidad de la respuesta hacia estímulos somatosensoriales específicos. La escala ha sido cumplimentada por un grupo de 48 pacientes anoréxicas y un grupo control de 31 sujetos emparejados en edad, sexo y nivel socioeducativo. Los resultados se han comparado con los obtenidos en la escala SSAS de Barsky. Resultados: La Fiabilidad (Alfa de Cronbach 0,946; dos mitades de Guttman 0,936) y la Validez (ROC, 0,933), son indicativas de elevada sensibilidad y especificidad de la escala SASTCA. El grupo de pacientes presenta una media 58,73 12,38, significativamente superior al grupo control 37,81 7,47, (=0,001). Las pacientes presentan en la escala SSAS una media 31,21 6,68 significativamente superior al grupo control 26,58 5,49 (=0,01), aunque la diferencia es menos extremada. Ambas escalas correlacionan positivamente. 0,634 Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren la presencia en AN. de una sensibilidad extrema hacia estímulos somatosensoriales. ¿Podria esta elevada sensibilidad sensorial ayudarnos a explicar el proceso de formación del auto-concepto distorsionado (“gordo, enfermo, feo”) de estos pacientes? De confirmar su presencia en otras muestras de pacientes con anorexia, en sus familiares y en diferentes pacientes somatomorfos o TCA, esta elevada sensibilidad podría considerarse el endofenotipo somatomorfo del trastorno anoréxico.

  13. Youth at Risk for Obesity Show Greater Activation of Striatal and Somatosensory Regions to Food

    PubMed Central

    Stice, E; Yokum, S; Burger, KS; Epstein, LH; Small, DM

    2011-01-01

    Obese versus normal-weight humans have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake, and weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese versus normal-weight humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. We tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward using fMRI. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues. PMID:21430137

  14. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues. PMID:21430137

  15. Hmx1 is required for the normal development of somatosensory neurons in the geniculate ganglion.

    PubMed

    Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Hsu, Yun-Wei A; Cox, Timothy C; Turner, Eric E

    2012-05-01

    Hmx1 is a variant homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing sensory nervous system, retina, and craniofacial mesenchyme. Recently, mutations at the Hmx1 locus have been linked to craniofacial defects in humans, rats, and mice, but its role in nervous system development is largely unknown. Here we show that Hmx1 is expressed in a subset of sensory neurons in the cranial and dorsal root ganglia which does not correspond to any specific sensory modality. Sensory neurons in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of Hmx1dm/dm mouse embryos have no detectable Hmx1 protein, yet they undergo neurogenesis and express sensory subtype markers normally, demonstrating that Hmx1 is not globally required for the specification of sensory neurons from neural crest precursors. Loss of Hmx1 expression has no obvious effect on the early development of the trigeminal (V), superior (IX/X), or dorsal root ganglia neurons in which it is expressed, but results in marked defects in the geniculate (VII) ganglion. Hmx1dm/dm mouse embryos possess only a vestigial posterior auricular nerve, and general somatosensory neurons in the geniculate ganglion are greatly reduced by mid-gestation. Although Hmx1 is expressed in geniculate neurons prior to cell cycle exit, it does not appear to be required for neurogenesis, and the loss of geniculate neurons is likely to be the result of increased cell death. Fate mapping of neural crest-derived tissues indicates that Hmx1-expressing somatosensory neurons at different axial levels may be derived from either the neural crest or the neurogenic placodes. PMID:22586713

  16. Robot-Assisted Proprioceptive Training with Added Vibro-Tactile Feedback Enhances Somatosensory and Motor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Cuppone, Anna Vera; Squeri, Valentina; Semprini, Marianna; Masia, Lorenzo; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the trainability of the proprioceptive sense and explored the relationship between proprioception and motor learning. With vision blocked, human learners had to perform goal-directed wrist movements relying solely on proprioceptive/haptic cues to reach several haptically specified targets. One group received additional somatosensory movement error feedback in form of vibro-tactile cues applied to the skin of the forearm. We used a haptic robotic device for the wrist and implemented a 3-day training regimen that required learners to make spatially precise goal-directed wrist reaching movements without vision. We assessed whether training improved the acuity of the wrist joint position sense. In addition, we checked if sensory learning generalized to the motor domain and improved spatial precision of wrist tracking movements that were not trained. The main findings of the study are: First, proprioceptive acuity of the wrist joint position sense improved after training for the group that received the combined proprioceptive/haptic and vibro-tactile feedback (VTF). Second, training had no impact on the spatial accuracy of the untrained tracking task. However, learners who had received VTF significantly reduced their reliance on haptic guidance feedback when performing the untrained motor task. That is, concurrent VTF was highly salient movement feedback and obviated the need for haptic feedback. Third, VTF can be also provided by the limb not involved in the task. Learners who received VTF to the contralateral limb equally benefitted. In conclusion, somatosensory training can significantly enhance proprioceptive acuity within days when learning is coupled with vibro-tactile sensory cues that provide feedback about movement errors. The observable sensory improvements in proprioception facilitates motor learning and such learning may generalize to the sensorimotor control of the untrained motor tasks. The implications of these findings for

  17. Inhibitory effect of intensity and interstimulus interval of conditioning stimuli on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2016-08-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of conditioning stimuli with various types of interstimulus intervals (ISIs) or intensities on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) using a 306-ch whole-head MEG system. Twenty-three healthy volunteers participated in this study. Electrical stimuli were applied to the right median nerve at the wrist. Six pulse trains with ISIs of 500 ms were presented in Experiment 1. A paired-pulse paradigm with three kinds of conditioning stimulus (CON) intensities, 500 ms before the test stimulus (TS), was applied in Experiment 2. Finally, three CONs 500 or 1000 ms before TS were presented in Experiment 3. Three main SEF deflections (N20m, P35m, and P60m) were observed, and the source activities of P35m and P60m significantly decreased after the 2nd pulse of a six pulse trains. These source activities also significantly decreased with increasing intensity of CON. In addition, these attenuations of source activities were affected by CON-CON or CON-TS intervals. These results indicated that the source activities were modulated by the intensity and ISIs of CONs. Furthermore, P35m after the stimulation were very sensitive to CONs; however, the attenuation of P60m after the stimulation lasted for a longer period than that of P35m. Our findings suggest that the conditioning stimulation had inhibitory effects on subsequent evoked cortical responses for more than 500 ms. Our results also provide important clues about the nature of short-latency somatosensory responses in human studies. PMID:27319980

  18. Observing another in pain facilitates vicarious experiences and modulates somatosensory experiences

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke, Sophie; Crombez, Geert; Loeys, Tom; Goubert, Liesbet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether individuals reporting vicarious pain in daily life (e.g., the self-reported vicarious pain group) display vicarious experiences during an experimental paradigm, and also show an improved detection of somatosensory stimuli while observing another in pain. Furthermore, this study investigated the stability of these phenomena. Finally, this study explored the putative modulating role of dispositional empathy and hypervigilance for pain. Methods: Vicarious pain responders (i.e., reporting vicarious pain in daily life; N = 16) and controls (N = 19) were selected from a large sample, and viewed videos depicting pain-related (hands being pricked) and non-pain related scenes, whilst occasionally experiencing vibrotactile stimuli themselves on the left, right or both hands. Participants reported the location at which they felt a somatosensory stimulus. We calculated the number of vicarious errors (i.e., the number of trials in which an illusionary sensation was reported while observing pain-related scenes) and detection accuracy. Thirty-three participants (94.29%) took part in the same experiment 5 months later to investigate the temporal stability of the outcomes. Results: The vicarious pain group reported more vicarious errors compared with controls and this effect proved to be stable over time. Detection was facilitated while observing pain-related scenes compared with non-pain related scenes. Observers' characteristics, i.e., dispositional empathy and hypervigilance for pain, did not modulate the effects. Conclusion: Observing pain facilitates the detection of tactile stimuli, both in vicarious pain responders and controls. Interestingly, vicarious pain responders reported more vicarious errors during the experimental paradigm compared to controls and this effect remained stable over time. PMID:25191251

  19. Limb-state information encoded by peripheral and central somatosensory neurons: Implications for an afferent interface

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Douglas J.; London, Brian M.; Hokanson, James A.; Ayers, Christopher A.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Torres, Ricardo R.; Zaaimi, Boubker; Miller, Lee E.

    2013-01-01

    A major issue to be addressed in the development of neural interfaces for prosthetic control is the need for somatosensory feedback. Here, we investigate two possible strategies: electrical stimulation of either dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or primary somatosensory cortex (S1). In each approach, we must determine a model that reflects the representation of limb state in terms of neural discharge. This model can then be used to design stimuli that artificially activate the nervous system to convey information about limb state to the subject. Electrically activating DRG neurons using naturalistic stimulus patterns, modeled on recordings made during passive limb movement, evoked activity in S1 that was similar to that of the original movement. We also found that S1 neural populations could accurately discriminate different patterns of DRG stimulation across a wide range of stimulus pulse-rates. In studying the neural coding of limb-state in S1, we also decoded the kinematics of active limb movement using multi-electrode recordings in the monkey. Neurons having both proprioceptive and cutaneous receptive fields contributed equally to this decoding. Some neurons were most informative of limb state in the recent past, but many others appeared to signal upcoming movements suggesting that they also were modulated by an efference copy signal. Finally, we show that a monkey was able to detect stimulation through a large percentage of electrodes implanted in area 2. We discuss the design of appropriate stimulus paradigms for conveying time-varying limb state information, and the relative merits and limitations of central and peripheral approaches. PMID:21878419

  20. BOLD fMRI of visual and somatosensory-motor stimulations in baboons.

    PubMed

    Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Li, Jinqi; Szabó, C Akos; Fox, Peter T; Leland, M Michelle; Jones, Lisa; Duong, Timothy Q

    2010-10-01

    Baboon, with its large brain size and extensive cortical folding compared to other non-human primates, serves as a good model for neuroscience research. This study reports the implementation of a baboon model for blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI studies (1.5 x 1.5 x 4 mm resolution) on a clinical 3T-MRI scanner. BOLD fMRI responses to hypercapnic (5% CO(2)) challenge, 10 Hz flicker visual, and vibrotactile somatosensory-motor stimulations were investigated in baboons anesthetized sequentially with isoflurane and ketamine. Hypercapnia evoked robust BOLD increases. Paralysis was determined to be necessary to achieve reproducible functional activations within and between subjects under our experimental conditions. With optimized anesthetic doses (0.8-1.0% isoflurane or 6-8 mg/kg/h ketamine) and adequate paralysis (vecuronium, 0.2 mg/kg), robust activations were detected in the visual (V), primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory, primary motor (M cortices), supplementary motor area (SMA), lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and thalamus (Th). Data were tabulated for 11 trials under isoflurane and 10 trials under ketamine on 5 baboons. S1, S2, M, and V activations were detected in essentially all trials (90-100% of the time, except 82% for S2 under isoflurane and 70% for M under ketamine). LGN activations were detected 64-70% of the time under both anesthetics. SMA and Th activations were detected 36-45% of the time under isoflurane and 60% of the time under ketamine. BOLD percent changes among different structures were slightly higher under ketamine than isoflurane (0.75% versus 0.58% averaging all structures), but none was statistically different (P>0.05). This baboon model offers an opportunity to non-invasively image brain functions and dysfunctions in large non-human primates.

  1. Endocannabinoid modulation of hyperaemia evoked by physiologically relevant stimuli in the rat primary somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ho, W-SV; Patel, S; Thompson, JR; Roberts, CJ; Stuhr, KL; Hillard, CJ

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: In vitro studies demonstrate that cannabinoid CB1 receptors subserve activity-dependent suppression of inhibition in the neocortex. To examine this mechanism in vivo, we assessed the effects of local changes in CB1 receptor activity on somatosensory cortex neuronal activation by whisker movement in rats. Experimental approach: Laser Doppler flowmetry and c-Fos immunohistochemistry were used to measure changes in local blood flow and neuronal activation, respectively. All drugs were applied directly to the cranium above the whisker barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex. Key results: The CB1 receptor agonist WIN55212-2 potentiated the hyperaemia induced by whisker movement and this potentiation was occluded by bicuculline. The CB1 receptor antagonists, rimonabant and AM251, inhibited hyperaemic responses to whisker movement; indicating that activation of endogenous CB1 receptors increased during whisker movement. Whisker movement-induced expression of c-Fos protein in neurons of the whisker barrel cortex was inhibited by rimonabant. Movement of the whiskers increased the 2-arachidonoylglycerol content in the contralateral, compared to the ipsilateral, sensory cortex. Conclusions and implications: These results support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signalling is recruited during physiologically relevant activation of the sensory cortex. These data support the hypothesis that the primary effect of CB1 receptor activation within the activated whisker barrel cortex is to inhibit GABA release, resulting in disinhibition of neuronal activation. These studies provide physiological data involving endocannabinoid signalling in activity-dependent regulation of neuronal activation and provide a mechanistic basis for the effects of cannabis use on sensory processing in humans. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x PMID

  2. Muscle- and Skin-Derived Cues Jointly Orchestrate Patterning of Somatosensory Dendrites.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Rahman, Maisha; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Martin Hernandez, Lourdes A; Salzberg, Yehuda; Aguirre-Chen, Cristina; Kaprielian, Zaven; Bülow, Hannes E

    2016-09-12

    Sensory dendrite arbors are patterned through cell-autonomously and non-cell-autonomously functioning factors [1-3]. Yet, only a few non-cell-autonomously acting proteins have been identified, including semaphorins [4, 5], brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs) [6], UNC-6/Netrin [7], and the conserved MNR-1/Menorin-SAX-7/L1CAM cell adhesion complex [8, 9]. This complex acts from the skin to pattern the stereotypic dendritic arbors of PVD and FLP somatosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans through the leucine-rich transmembrane receptor DMA-1/LRR-TM expressed on PVD neurons [8, 9]. Here we describe a role for the diffusible C. elegans protein LECT-2, which is homologous to vertebrate leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2)/Chondromodulin II. LECT2/Chondromodulin II has been implicated in a variety of pathological conditions [10-13], but the developmental functions of LECT2 have remained elusive. We find that LECT-2/Chondromodulin II is required for development of PVD and FLP dendritic arbors and can act as a diffusible cue from a distance to shape dendritic arbors. Expressed in body-wall muscles, LECT-2 decorates neuronal processes and hypodermal cells in a pattern similar to the cell adhesion molecule SAX-7/L1CAM. LECT-2 functions genetically downstream of the MNR-1/Menorin-SAX-7/L1CAM adhesion complex and upstream of the DMA-1 receptor. LECT-2 localization is dependent on SAX-7/L1CAM, but not on MNR-1/Menorin or DMA-1/LRR-TM, suggesting that LECT-2 functions as part of the skin-derived MNR-1/Menorin-SAX-7/L1CAM adhesion complex. Collectively, our findings suggest that LECT-2/Chondromodulin II acts as a muscle-derived, diffusible cofactor together with a skin-derived cell adhesion complex to orchestrate the molecular interactions of three tissues during patterning of somatosensory dendrites. PMID:27451901

  3. Learned control over spinal nociception reduces supraspinal nociception as quantified by late somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Bäumler, Maximilian; Feller, Moritz; Krafft, Stefanie; Sommer, Jens; Straube, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We have recently shown that subjects can learn to use cognitive-emotional strategies to suppress their spinal nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) under visual RIII feedback and proposed that this reflects learned activation of descending pain inhibition. Here, we investigated whether learned RIII suppression also affects supraspinal nociception and whether previous relaxation training increases success. Subjects were trained over 3 sessions to reduce their RIII size by self-selected cognitive-emotional strategies. Two groups received true RIII feedback (with or without previous relaxation training) and a sham group received false feedback (15 subjects per group). RIII reflexes, late somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and F-waves were recorded and pain intensity ratings collected. Both true feedback groups achieved significant (P < 0.01) but similar RIII suppression (to 79% ± 21% and 70% ± 17% of control). Somatosensory evoked potential amplitude (100-150 milliseconds after stimulation) was reduced in parallel with the RIII size (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). In the sham group, neither RIII size nor SEP amplitude was significantly reduced during feedback training. Pain intensity was significantly reduced in all 3 groups and also correlated with RIII reduction (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). F-wave parameters were not affected during RIII suppression. The present results show that learned RIII suppression also affects supraspinal nociception as quantified by SEPs, although effects on pain ratings were less clear. Lower motor neuron excitability as quantified by F-waves was not affected. Previous relaxation training did not significantly improve RIII feedback training success. PMID:26270584

  4. Metaplasticity in human primary somatosensory cortex: effects on physiology and tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina B; Lulic, Tea; Bailey, Aaron Z; Mackenzie, Tanner N; Mi, Yi Qun; Tommerdahl, Mark; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-05-01

    Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over human primary motor cortex evokes plasticity and metaplasticity, the latter contributing to the homeostatic balance of excitation and inhibition. Our knowledge of TBS-induced effects on primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is limited, and it is unknown whether TBS induces metaplasticity within human SI. Sixteen right-handed participants (6 females, mean age 23 yr) received two TBS protocols [continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS)] delivered in six different combinations over SI in separate sessions. TBS protocols were delivered at 30 Hz and were as follows: a single cTBS protocol, a single iTBS protocol, cTBS followed by cTBS, iTBS followed by iTBS, cTBS followed by iTBS, and iTBS followed by cTBS. Measures included the amplitudes of the first and second somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) via median nerve stimulation, their paired-pulse ratio (PPR), and temporal order judgment (TOJ). Dependent measures were obtained before TBS and at 5, 25, 50, and 90 min following stimulation. Results indicate similar effects following cTBS and iTBS; increased amplitudes of the second SEP and PPR without amplitude changes to SEP 1, and impairments in TOJ. Metaplasticity was observed such that TOJ impairments following a single cTBS protocol were abolished following consecutive cTBS protocols. Additionally, consecutive iTBS protocols altered the time course of effects when compared with a single iTBS protocol. In conclusion, 30-Hz cTBS and iTBS protocols delivered in isolation induce effects consistent with a TBS-induced reduction in intracortical inhibition within SI. Furthermore, cTBS- and iTBS-induced metaplasticity appear to follow homeostatic and nonhomeostatic rules, respectively. PMID:26984422

  5. Giant early components of somatosensory evoked potentials to tibial nerve stimulation in cortical myoclonus.

    PubMed

    Anzellotti, Francesca; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura; Saracino, Antonio; Franciotti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Enlarged cortical components of somatosensory evoked potentials (giant SEPs) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) and abnormal somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG) are observed in the majority of patients with cortical myoclonus (CM). Studies on simultaneous recordings of SEPs and SEFs showed that generator mechanism of giant SEPs involves both primary sensory and motor cortices. However the generator sources of giant SEPs have not been fully understood as only one report describes clearly giant SEPs following lower limb stimulation. In our study we performed a combined EEG-MEG recording on responses elicited by electric median and tibial nerve stimulation in a patient who developed consequently to methyl bromide intoxication CM with giant SEPs to median and tibial nerve stimuli. SEPs wave shapes were identified on the basis of polarity-latency components (e.g. P15-N20-P25) as defined by earlier studies and guidelines. At EEG recording, the SEP giant component did not appear in the latency range of the first cortical component for median nerve SEP (N20), but appeared instead in the range of the P37 tibial nerve SEP, which is currently identified as the first cortical component elicited by tibial nerve stimuli. Our MEG and EEG SEPs recordings also showed that components in the latency range of P37 were preceded by other cortical components. These findings suggest that lower limb P37 does not correspond to upper limb N20. MEG results confirmed that giant SEFs are the second component from both tibial (N43m-P43m) and median (N27m-P27m) nerve stimulation. MEG dipolar sources of these giant components were located in the primary sensory and motor area. PMID:27489768

  6. Activity of Somatosensory-Responsive Neurons in High Subdivisions of SI Cortex during Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Favorov, Oleg V.; Nilaweera, Wijitha U.; Miasnikov, Alexandre A.

    2015-01-01

    Responses of neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex during movements are poorly understood, even during such simple tasks as walking on a flat surface. In this study, we analyzed spike discharges of neurons in the rostral bank of the ansate sulcus (areas 1–2) in 2 cats while the cats walked on a flat surface or on a horizontal ladder, a complex task requiring accurate stepping. All neurons (n = 82) that had receptive fields (RFs) on the contralateral forelimb exhibited frequency modulation of their activity that was phase locked to the stride cycle during simple locomotion. Neurons with proximal RFs (upper arm/shoulder) and pyramidal tract-projecting neurons (PTNs) with fast-conducting axons tended to fire at peak rates in the middle of the swing phase, whereas neurons with RFs on the distal limb (wrist/paw) and slow-conducting PTNs typically showed peak firing at the transition between swing and stance phases. Eleven of 12 neurons with tactile RFs on the volar forepaw began firing toward the end of swing, with peak activity occurring at the moment of foot contact with floor, thereby preceding the evoked sensory volley from touch receptors. Requirement to step accurately on the ladder affected 91% of the neurons, suggesting their involvement in control of accuracy of stepping. During both tasks, neurons exhibited a wide variety of spike distributions within the stride cycle, suggesting that, during either simple or ladder locomotion, they represent the cycling somatosensory events in their activity both predictively before and reflectively after these events take place. PMID:25995465

  7. Tactile response adaptation to whisker stimulation in the lemniscal somatosensory pathway of rats.

    PubMed

    Martin-Cortecero, Jesus; Nuñez, Angel

    2014-12-01

    Response adaptation is associated with attenuation of neural responses as the result of different mechanisms. However, the main function of adaptation may be to enhance the flow of relevant information transmission in sensory pathways. To study tactile response adaptation in the somatosensory pathway, unit recordings were performed in the principal trigeminal nucleus, ventro postero-medial thalamic nucleus and barrel cortex by means of tungsten microelectrodes in urethane anesthetized rats. Tactile stimuli consisted in 20 ms duration whisker deflections at different frequencies (0.5-10 Hz). Presumably pyramidal cortical neurons showed response adaptation at frequencies >2 Hz while putative inhibitory cortical neurons did not show response adaptation at 0.5, 5 or 10 Hz. Inhibitory activity was increased by muscimol application into the cortex (8mM, 0.1 µl); in this condition cortical adaptation was not affected, suggesting that adaptation was not due to an increase of inhibitory mechanisms. Adaptation was also observed in subcortical structures although the response attenuation was lesser than in the barrel cortex. Adaptation remained in subcortical structures after reversible cortical inactivation by cooling the barrel cortex. Acetylcholine application (10 μM; 0.1 μl) into the barrel cortex reduced response adaptation through the activation of muscarinic receptors because the effect was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (1mg/kg), suggesting that adaptation may change according to the cortical Ach level. Results indicate that response adaptation increases along the somatosensory pathway probably to alter the sensitivity of neurons in order to encode sensory stimuli more efficiently and to enhance the detectability of rare stimuli.

  8. World Input-Output Network

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  9. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  10. The advanced LIGO input optics.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Chris L; Arain, Muzammil A; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan T; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z; Martin, Rodica M; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H; Tanner, David B; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design. PMID:26827334

  11. Input in an Institutional Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Hartford, Beverly S.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the nature of input available to learners in the institutional setting of the academic advising session. Results indicate that evidence for the realization of speech acts, positive evidence from peers and status unequals, the effect of stereotypes, and limitations of a learner's pragmatic and grammatical competence are influential…

  12. Signal Prediction With Input Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Chen, Ya-Chin

    1999-01-01

    A novel coding technique is presented for signal prediction with applications including speech coding, system identification, and estimation of input excitation. The approach is based on the blind equalization method for speech signal processing in conjunction with the geometric subspace projection theory to formulate the basic prediction equation. The speech-coding problem is often divided into two parts, a linear prediction model and excitation input. The parameter coefficients of the linear predictor and the input excitation are solved simultaneously and recursively by a conventional recursive least-squares algorithm. The excitation input is computed by coding all possible outcomes into a binary codebook. The coefficients of the linear predictor and excitation, and the index of the codebook can then be used to represent the signal. In addition, a variable-frame concept is proposed to block the same excitation signal in sequence in order to reduce the storage size and increase the transmission rate. The results of this work can be easily extended to the problem of disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. Simulations are included to demonstrate the proposed method.

  13. World Input-Output Network.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  14. The advanced LIGO input optics.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Chris L; Arain, Muzammil A; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan T; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z; Martin, Rodica M; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H; Tanner, David B; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  15. Input/output interface module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  16. World Input-Output Network.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  17. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  18. Asynchronous inputs alter excitability, spike timing, and topography in primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Engineer, Navzer D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Vazquez, Jessica; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-05-01

    Correlation-based synaptic plasticity provides a potential cellular mechanism for learning and memory. Studies in the visual and somatosensory systems have shown that behavioral and surgical manipulation of sensory inputs leads to changes in cortical organization that are consistent with the operation of these learning rules. In this study, we examine how the organization of primary auditory cortex (A1) is altered by tones designed to decrease the average input correlation across the frequency map. After one month of separately pairing nucleus basalis stimulation with 2 and 14 kHz tones, a greater proportion of A1 neurons responded to frequencies below 2 kHz and above 14 kHz. Despite the expanded representation of these tones, cortical excitability was specifically reduced in the high and low frequency regions of A1, as evidenced by increased neural thresholds and decreased response strength. In contrast, in the frequency region between the two paired tones, driven rates were unaffected and spontaneous firing rate was increased. Neural response latencies were increased across the frequency map when nucleus basalis stimulation was associated with asynchronous activation of the high and low frequency regions of A1. This set of changes did not occur when pulsed noise bursts were paired with nucleus basalis stimulation. These results are consistent with earlier observations that sensory input statistics can shape cortical map organization and spike timing.

  19. Asynchronous inputs alter excitability, spike timing, and topography in primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Pritesh K.; Moucha, Raluca; Engineer, Navzer D.; Rathbun, Daniel L.; Vazquez, Jessica; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Correlation-based synaptic plasticity provides a potential cellular mechanism for learning and memory. Studies in the visual and somatosensory systems have shown that behavioral and surgical manipulation of sensory inputs leads to changes in cortical organization that are consistent with the operation of these learning rules. In this study, we examine how the organization of primary auditory cortex (A1) is altered by tones designed to decrease the average input correlation across the frequency map. After one month of separately pairing nucleus basalis stimulation with 2 and 14 kHz tones, a greater proportion of A1 neurons responded to frequencies below 2 kHz and above 14 kHz. Despite the expanded representation of these tones, cortical excitability was specifically reduced in the high and low frequency regions of A1, as evidenced by increased neural thresholds and decreased response strength. In contrast, in the frequency region between the two paired tones, driven rates were unaffected and spontaneous firing rate was increased. Neural response latencies were increased across the frequency map when nucleus basalis stimulation was associated with asynchronous activation of the high and low frequency regions of A1. This set of changes did not occur when pulsed noise bursts were paired with nucleus basalis stimulation. These results are consistent with earlier observations that sensory input statistics can shape cortical map organization and spike timing. PMID:15855025

  20. Systems and methods for reconfiguring input devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Jeff (Inventor); De Mers, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes an input device having first and second input members configured to be activated by a user. The input device is configured to generate activation signals associated with activation of the first and second input members, and each of the first and second input members are associated with an input function. A processor is coupled to the input device and configured to receive the activation signals. A memory coupled to the processor, and includes a reconfiguration module configured to store the input functions assigned to the first and second input members and, upon execution of the processor, to reconfigure the input functions assigned to the input members when the first input member is inoperable.

  1. Input states for quantum gates

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, A.; White, A.G.; Munro, W.J.

    2003-04-01

    We examine three possible implementations of nondeterministic linear optical controlled NOT gates with a view to an in-principle demonstration in the near future. To this end we consider demonstrating the gates using currently available sources, such as spontaneous parametric down conversion and coherent states, and current detectors only able to distinguish between zero and many photons. The demonstration is possible in the coincidence basis and the errors introduced by the nonoptimal input states and detectors are analyzed.

  2. Structural response and input identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, G. D.; Callahan, J. C.; Mcelman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Three major goals were delineated: (1) to develop a general method for determining the response of a structure to combined base and acoustic random excitation: (2) to develop parametric relationships to aid in the design of plates which are subjected to random force or random base excitation: (3) to develop a method to identify the individual acoustic and base input to a structure with only a limited number of measurement channels, when both types of excitation act simultaneously.

  3. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052

  4. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  5. Immediate effects of somatosensory stimulation on hand function in patients with poststroke hemiparesis: a randomized cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sun-Mi; Oh, Duck-Won; Chon, Seung-chul

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the immediate effects of somatosensory stimulation on hand function in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. Eleven patients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in this study. Four types (no stimulation, vibration, and light and rough touches) of somatosensory stimulation were performed randomly for 4 days applying only one type of somatosensory stimulation each day. The box and block test (BBT), the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test (JTHFT), hand grip strength (HGS), and movement distance and peak velocity of the wrist joint during a forward-reaching task were measured. The BBT and JTHFT scores for no stimulation [BBT: median (interquartile range), 0.00 (-1.00 to 1.00) and JTHFT: 2.57 (-0.47 to 4.92)] were significantly different from those for vibration [BBT: 3.00 (2.00-5.00) and JTHFT: -16.02 (-23.06 to -4.31)], light touch [BBT: 3.00 (1.00-4.00) and JTHFT: -5.00 (-21.20 to -0.94)], and rough touch [BBT: 2.00 (1.00-4.00) and JTHFT: -6.19 (-18.22 to -3.70)]. The JTHFT score was significantly higher for vibration than that for rough touch (P<0.05). The increase in HGS was significantly greater for light touch than that for no stimulation (P<0.05) and for vibration than that for light touch (P<0.05). There were significant differences for the sagittal and coronal planes in movement distance and for the sagittal and horizontal planes in peak velocity during the forward-reaching task (P<0.05). The findings suggest that somatosensory stimulation may be advantageous to improve the hand function of patients with poststroke hemiparesis, with more favorable effects observed in vibration stimulation.

  6. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level. PMID:25788691

  7. A Trade-Off between Somatosensory and Auditory Related Brain Activity during Object Naming But Not Reading

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Thomas M.H.; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, ‘Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J.

    2015-01-01

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying “1-2-3.” Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying “1-2-3” and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level. PMID:25788691

  8. Intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory-evoked potential in the spinal cord rectification operation by means of wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Du, M. H.; Chan, Francis H. Y.; Lam, F. K.; Luk, D. K.; Hu, Y.; Fung, Kan S. M.; Qiu, W.

    1998-09-01

    Recently there has been a considerable interest in the use of a somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) for monitoring the functional integrity of the spinal cord during surgery such as spinal scoliosis. This paper describes a monitoring system and signal processing algorithms, which consists of 50 Hz mains filtering and a wavelet signal analyzer. Our system allows fast detection of changes in SEP peak latency, amplitude and signal waveform, which are the main parameters of interest during intra-operative procedures.

  9. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  10. Interaction of gustatory and lingual somatosensory perceptions at the cortical level in the human: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cerf-Ducastel, B; Van de Moortele, P F; MacLeod, P; Le Bihan, D; Faurion, A

    2001-05-01

    The present study has investigated interaction at the cortical level in the human between two major components of flavor perception, pure chemical gustatory and lingual somatosensory perception. Twelve subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study and tasted six stimuli, applied on the whole tongue, among which four were pure gustatory stimuli (NaCl, aspartame, quinine and HCl, pH 2.4 or 2.2) and two were both taste and lingual somatosensory stimuli, i.e. somato-gustatory stimuli (HCl, pH 1.6 or 1.5, and aluminum potassium sulfate). Functional images were acquired with an echo planar sequence on a 3 T system and were individually processed by correlation with the temporal perception profile. Both sets of stimuli showed activation in the same cortical areas, namely the insula, the rolandic operculum (base of the pre- and post-central gyri), the frontal operculum and the temporal operculum, confirming a wide overlap of taste and lingual somatosensory representations. However, the relative activation across areas and the analysis of co-activated areas across all runs for each set of stimuli allowed discrimination of taste and somatosensory modalities. Factor analysis of correspondences indicated different patterns of activation across the sub-insular and opercular regions, depending on the gustatory or somato-gustatory nature of the stimuli. For gustatory stimuli different activation patterns for the superior and inferior parts of the insula suggested a difference in function between these two insular sub-regions. Furthermore, the left inferior insula was co-activated with the left angular gyrus, a structure involved in semantic processing. In contrast, only somato-gustatory stimuli specifically produced a simultaneous and symmetrical activation of both the left and right rolandic opercula, which include a part of the sensory homunculus dedicated to the tactile representation of oral structures.

  11. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Polymorphisms Are Associated with the Somatosensory Function in Neuropathic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Tölle, Thomas R.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Berthele, Achim; Faltraco, Frank; Flor, Herta; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Haenisch, Sierk; Huge, Volker; Magerl, Walter; Maihöfner, Christian; Richter, Helmut; Rolke, Roman; Scherens, Andrea; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Ufer, Mike; Wasner, Gunnar; Zhu, Jihong; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channels are important mediators of thermal and mechanical stimuli and play an important role in neuropathic pain. The contribution of hereditary variants in the genes of transient receptor potential channels to neuropathic pain is unknown. We investigated the frequency of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, transient receptor potential melastin 8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their impact on somatosensory abnormalities in neuropathic pain patients. Within the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (Deutscher Forscbungsverbund Neuropathischer Schmerz) 371 neuropathic pain patients were phenotypically characterized using standardized quantitative sensory testing. Pyrosequencing was employed to determine a total of eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential channel genes of the neuropathic pain patients and a cohort of 253 German healthy volunteers. Associations of quantitative sensory testing parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms between and within groups and subgroups, based on sensory phenotypes, were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms frequencies did not differ between both the cohorts. However, in neuropathic pain patients transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 710G>A (rs920829, E179K) was associated with the presence of paradoxical heat sensation (p = 0.03), and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G (rs8065080, I585V) with cold hypoalgesia (p = 0.0035). Two main subgroups characterized by preserved (1) and impaired (2) sensory function were identified. In subgroup 1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G led to significantly less heat hyperalgesia, pinprick hyperalgesia and mechanical hypaesthesia (p = 0.006, p = 0.005 and p<0.001) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1103C>G (rs222747, M315I) to cold hypaesthesia (p = 0.002), but there was absence of associations in subgroup 2. In

  12. Somatosensory cortex functional connectivity abnormalities in autism show opposite trends, depending on direction and spatial scale

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sheraz; Michmizos, Konstantinos; Tommerdahl, Mark; Ganesan, Santosh; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; Zetino, Manuel; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Herbert, Martha R.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.

    2015-01-01

    Functional connectivity is abnormal in autism, but the nature of these abnormalities remains elusive. Different studies, mostly using functional magnetic resonance imaging, have found increased, decreased, or even mixed pattern functional connectivity abnormalities in autism, but no unifying framework has emerged to date. We measured functional connectivity in individuals with autism and in controls using magnetoencephalography, which allowed us to resolve both the directionality (feedforward versus feedback) and spatial scale (local or long-range) of functional connectivity. Specifically, we measured the cortical response and functional connectivity during a passive 25-Hz vibrotactile stimulation in the somatosensory cortex of 20 typically developing individuals and 15 individuals with autism, all males and right-handed, aged 8–18, and the mu-rhythm during resting state in a subset of these participants (12 per group, same age range). Two major significant group differences emerged in the response to the vibrotactile stimulus. First, the 50-Hz phase locking component of the cortical response, generated locally in the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortex, was reduced in the autism group (P < 0.003, corrected). Second, feedforward functional connectivity between S1 and S2 was increased in the autism group (P < 0.004, corrected). During resting state, there was no group difference in the mu-α rhythm. In contrast, the mu-β rhythm, which has been associated with feedback connectivity, was significantly reduced in the autism group (P < 0.04, corrected). Furthermore, the strength of the mu-β was correlated to the relative strength of 50 Hz component of the response to the vibrotactile stimulus (r = 0.78, P < 0.00005), indicating a shared aetiology for these seemingly unrelated abnormalities. These magnetoencephalography-derived measures were correlated with two different behavioural sensory processing scores (P < 0.01 and P < 0.02 for the autism

  13. Rat whisker motor cortex is subdivided into sensory-input and motor-output areas

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jared B.; Alloway, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent whisking is an exploratory behavior that can be modified by sensory feedback. Consistent with this, many whisker-sensitive cortical regions project to agranular motor [motor cortex (MI)] cortex, but the relative topography of these afferent projections has not been established. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) evokes whisker movements that are used to map the functional organization of MI, but no study has compared the whisker-related inputs to MI with the ICMS sites that evoke whisker movements. To elucidate this relationship, anterograde tracers were placed in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and in the primary somatosensory (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) cortical areas so that their labeled projections to MI could be analyzed with respect to ICMS sites that evoke whisker movements. Projections from SI and SII terminate in a narrow zone that marks the transition between the medial agranular (AGm) and lateral agranular (AGl) cortical areas, but PPC projects more medially and terminates in AGm proper. Paired recordings of MI neurons indicate that the region between AGm and AGl is highly responsive to whisker deflections, but neurons in AGm display negligible responses to whisker stimulation. By contrast, AGm microstimulation is more effective in evoking whisker movements than microstimulation of the transitional region between AGm and AGl. The AGm region was also found to contain a larger concentration of corticotectal neurons, which could convey whisker-related information to the facial nucleus. These results indicate that rat whisker MI is comprised of at least two functionally distinct subregions: a sensory processing zone in the transitional region between AGm and AGl, and a motor-output region located more medially in AGm proper. PMID:23372545

  14. Exposure to Music and Noise During Pregnancy Influences Neurogenesis and Thickness in Motor and Somatosensory Cortex of Rat Pups

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Hee; Lee, Sang-Chul; Shin, Je Wook; Chung, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Shin-Ho; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Sang-Bin; Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. Methods The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth. Results Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex. Conclusions Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders. PMID:24143288

  15. Are There Abnormalities in Peripheral and Central Components of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Puta, Christian; Franz, Marcel; Blume, Kathrin R.; Gabriel, Holger H. W.; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Weiss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) was shown to be associated with longer reflex response latencies of trunk muscles during external upper limb perturbations. One theoretical, but rarely investigated possibility for longer reflex latencies might be related to modulated somatosensory information processing. Therefore, the present study investigated somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation in CLBP patients and healthy controls (HC). Latencies of the peripheral N9 SEP component were used as the primary outcome. In addition, latencies and amplitudes of the central N20 SEP component, sensory thresholds, motor thresholds and nerve conduction velocity were also analyzed in CLBP patients and HC. There is a trend for the CLBP patients to exhibit longer N9 latencies at the ipsilateral Erb’s point compared to HC. This trend is substantiated by significantly longer N9 latencies in CLBP patients compared to normative data. None of the other parameters showed any significant difference between CLBP patients and HC. Overall, our data indicate small differences of the peripheral N9 SEP component; however, these differences cannot explain the reflex delay observed in CLBP patients. While it was important to rule out the contribution of early somatosensory processing and to elucidate its contribution to the delayed reflex responses in CLBP patients, further research is needed to find the primary source(s) of time-delayed reflexes in CLBP. PMID:27799904

  16. Voxel-based morphometry in opera singers: Increased gray-matter volume in right somatosensory and auditory cortices.

    PubMed

    Kleber, Boris; Veit, Ralf; Moll, Christina Valérie; Gaser, Christian; Birbaumer, Niels; Lotze, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to instrumental musicians, professional singers do not train on a specific instrument but perfect a motor system that has already been extensively trained during speech motor development. Previous functional imaging studies suggest that experience with singing is associated with enhanced somatosensory-based vocal motor control. However, experience-dependent structural plasticity in vocal musicians has rarely been studied. We investigated voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 27 professional classical singers and compared gray matter volume in regions of the "singing-network" to an age-matched group of 28 healthy volunteers with no special singing experience. We found right hemispheric volume increases in professional singers in ventral primary somatosensory cortex (larynx S1) and adjacent rostral supramarginal gyrus (BA40), as well as in secondary somatosensory (S2) and primary auditory cortices (A1). Moreover, we found that earlier commencement with vocal training correlated with increased gray-matter volume in S1. However, in contrast to studies with instrumental musicians, this correlation only emerged in singers who began their formal training after the age of 14years, when speech motor development has reached its first plateau. Structural data thus confirm and extend previous functional reports suggesting a pivotal role of somatosensation in vocal motor control with increased experience in singing. Results furthermore indicate a sensitive period for developing additional vocal skills after speech motor coordination has matured.

  17. Simultaneous Top-down Modulation of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex and Thalamic Nuclei during Active Tactile Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Wiest, Michael C.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The rat somatosensory system contains multiple thalamocortical loops (TCL) that altogether process, in fundamentally different ways, tactile stimuli delivered passively or actively sampled. To elucidate potential top-down mechanisms that govern TCL processing in awake, behaving animals, we simultaneously recorded neuronal ensemble activity across multiple cortical and thalamic areas while rats performed an active aperture discrimination task. Single neurons located in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the ventroposterior medial (VPM) and the posterior medial (POM) thalamic nuclei of the trigeminal somatosensory pathways exhibited prominent anticipatory firing modulations prior to the whiskers touching the aperture edges. This cortical and thalamic anticipatory firing could not be explained by whisker movements or whisker stimulation, because neither trigeminal ganglion sensory-evoked responses nor EMG activity were detected during the same period. Both thalamic and S1 anticipatory activity were predictive of the animal’s discrimination accuracy. Inactivation of the primary motor cortex (M1) with muscimol affected anticipatory patterns in S1 and the thalamus, and impaired the ability to predict the animal’s performance accuracy based on thalamocortical anticipatory activity. These findings suggest that neural processing in TCLs is launched in anticipation of whisker contact with objects, depends on top-down effects generated in part by M1 activity, and cannot be explained by the classical feedforward model of the rat trigeminal system. PMID:23447616

  18. The Tactile Window to Consciousness is Characterized by Frequency-Specific Integration and Segregation of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Julia Natascha; Ruhnau, Philipp; Leske, Sabine; Siegel, Markus; Braun, Christoph; Weisz, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    We recently proposed that besides levels of local cortical excitability, also distinct pre-stimulus network states (windows to consciousness) determine whether a near-threshold stimulus will be consciously perceived. In the present magnetoencephalography study, we scrutinised these pre-stimulus network states with a focus on the primary somatosensory cortex. For this purpose participants performed a simple near-threshold tactile detection task. Confirming previous studies, we found reduced alpha and beta power in the somatosensory region contralateral to stimulation prior to correct stimulus detection as compared to undetected stimuli, and stronger event-related responses following successful stimulus detection. As expected, using graph theoretical measures, we also observed modulated pre-stimulus network level integration. Specifically, the right primary somatosensory cortex contralateral to stimulation showed an increased integration in the theta band, and additionally, a decreased integration in the beta band. Overall, these results underline the importance of network states for enabling conscious perception. Moreover, they indicate that also a reduction of irrelevant functional connections contributes to the window to consciousness by tuning pre-stimulus pathways of information flow. PMID:26864304

  19. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  20. Dual Species NMR Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Joshua; Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Walker, Thad

    2016-05-01

    We present progress towards a dual species nuclear magnetic oscillator using synchronous spin exchange optical pumping. By applying the bias field as a sequence of alkali 2 π pulses, we generate alkali polarization transverse to the bias field. The alkali polarization is then modulated at the noble gas resonance so that through spin exchange collisions the noble gas becomes polarized. This novel method of NMR suppresses the alkali field frequency shift by at least a factor of 2500 as compared to longitudinal NMR. We will present details of the apparatus and measurements of dual species co-magnetometry using this method. Research supported by the NSF and Northrop-Grumman Corp.

  1. The embodiment of emotion: language use during the feeling of social emotions predicts cortical somatosensory activity

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Borofsky, Larissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex social emotions involve both abstract cognitions and bodily sensations, and individuals may differ on their relative reliance on these. We hypothesized that individuals’ descriptions of their feelings during a semi-structured emotion induction interview would reveal two distinct psychological styles—a more abstract, cognitive style and a more body-based, affective style—and that these would be associated with somatosensory neural activity. We examined 28 participants’ open-ended verbal responses to admiration- and compassion-provoking narratives in an interview and BOLD activity to the same narratives during subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Consistent with hypotheses, individuals’ affective and cognitive word use were stable across emotion conditions, negatively correlated and unrelated to reported emotion strength in the scanner. Greater use of affective relative to cognitive words predicted more activation in SI, SII, middle anterior cingulate cortex and insula during emotion trials. The results suggest that individuals’ verbal descriptions of their feelings reflect differential recruitment of neural regions supporting physical body awareness. Although somatosensation has long been recognized as an important component of emotion processing, these results offer ‘proof of concept’ that individual differences in open-ended speech reflect different processing styles at the neurobiological level. This study also demonstrates SI involvement during social emotional experience. PMID:22798396

  2. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex Modulates Perception of the Tendon Vibration Illusion.

    PubMed

    Huh, D C; Lee, J M; Oh, S M; Lee, J-H; Van Donkelaar, P; Lee, D H

    2016-10-01

    The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on kinesthetic perception, when applied to the somatosensory cortex, was examined. Further, the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation using different stimulation frequencies were tested. Six female (M age = 32.0 years, SD = 6.7) and nine male (M age = 32.9 years, SD = 6.6) participants were asked to perceive the tendon vibration illusion of the left wrist joint and to replicate the illusion with their right hand. When comparing changes in the corresponding movement amplitude and velocity after three different repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols (sham, 1 Hz inhibitory, and 5 Hz facilitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation), the movement amplitude was found to decrease with the inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, while the movement velocity respectively increased and decreased with the facilitatory and inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. These results confirmed the modulating effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on kinesthetic perception in a single experimental paradigm. PMID:27516411

  3. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    PubMed Central

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A.; Cavaliere, Carlo; Soddu, Andrea; Laureys, Steven; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenital blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions-of-interest (ROIs) within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille) processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross-modal reorganization in the brain and the supra-modal function of the occipital cortex in congenitally blind individuals. PMID:26190978

  4. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo; Soddu, Andrea; Laureys, Steven; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenital blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions-of-interest (ROIs) within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille) processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross-modal reorganization in the brain and the supra-modal function of the occipital cortex in congenitally blind individuals. PMID:26190978

  5. Flumazenil antagonizes the suppressive effect of midazolam on the somatosensory evoked potentials in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, N.; Hirose, Y.; Katakura, N.; Kubota, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine antagonist, on the midazolam-induced suppression of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) following strong electrical stimulation of the upper lip was investigated in Wistar albino rats. The averaged SEPs were recorded from the contralateral surface of the skull in the temporal area. Each rat received midazolam in a dose of 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Five min after midazolam injection, the relative amplitude of the P1N1 wave of the SEPs was reduced significantly. A 0.5 mg dose of flumazenil or physiological saline was injected intraperitoneally 7.5 min after midazolam injection. The P1N1 amplitude recovered rapidly to the control value in the flumazenil group but not in the physiological saline group. No significant differences were found in the latencies of the P1 and N1 peaks before or after midazolam or flumazenil injection. It is suggested that flumazenil strongly antagonizes the midazolam-induced suppression of SEPs in the rat. PMID:1809048

  6. Monitoring of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials During Spine Surgery: Intraoperative Changes and Postoperative Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the combination of muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) measured during spinal surgery can predict immediate and permanent postoperative motor deficits. Methods mMEP and SEP was monitored in patients undergoing spinal surgery between November 2012 and July 2014. mMEPs were elicited by a train of transcranial electrical stimulation over the motor cortex and recorded from the upper/lower limbs. SEPs were recorded by stimulating the tibial and median nerves. Results Combined mMEP/SEP recording was successfully achieved in 190 operations. In 117 of these, mMEPs and SEPs were stable and 73 showed significant changes. In 20 cases, motor deficits in the first 48 postoperative hours were observed and 6 patients manifested permanent neurological deficits. The two potentials were monitored in a number of spinal surgeries. For surgery on spinal deformities, the sensitivity and specificity of combined mMEP/SEP monitoring were 100% and 92.4%, respectively. In the case of spinal cord tumor surgeries, sensitivity was only 50% but SEP changes were observed preceding permanent motor deficits in some cases. Conclusion Intraoperative monitoring is a useful tool in spinal surgery. For spinal deformity surgery, combined mMEP/SEP monitoring showed high sensitivity and specificity; in spinal tumor surgery, only SEP changes predicted permanent motor deficits. Therefore, mMEP, SEP, and joint monitoring may all be appropriate and beneficial for the intraoperative monitoring of spinal surgery. PMID:27446784

  7. Tactile texture signals in primate primary somatosensory cortex and their relation to subjective roughness intensity.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Stéphanie; Dépeault, Alexandra; Meftah, El-Mehdi; Chapman, C Elaine

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that a simple intensive code, based on mean firing rate, could explain the cortical representation of subjective roughness intensity and its invariance with scanning speed. We examined the sensitivity of neurons in the cutaneous, finger representation of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to a wide range of textures [1 mm high, raised-dot surfaces; spatial periods (SPs), 1.5-8.5 mm], scanned under the digit tips at different speeds (40-115 mm/s). Since subjective roughness estimates show a monotonic increase over this range and are independent of speed, we predicted that the mean firing rate of a subgroup of S1 neurons would share these properties. Single-unit recordings were made in four alert macaques (areas 3b, 1 and 2). Cells whose discharge rate showed a monotonic increase with SP, independent of speed, were particularly concentrated in area 3b. Area 2 was characterized by a high proportion of cells sensitive to speed, with or without texture sensitivity. Area 1 had intermediate properties. We suggest that area 3b and most likely area 1 play a key role in signaling roughness intensity, and that a mean rate code, signaled by both slowly and rapidly adapting neurons, is present at the level of area 3b. Finally, the substantial proportion of neurons that showed a monotonic change in discharge limited to a small range of SPs (often independent of response saturation) could play a role in discriminating smaller changes in SP. PMID:26763776

  8. Motor Skill Acquisition and Retention after Somatosensory Electrical Stimulation in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, Menno P.; Zijdewind, Inge; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) can increase motor performance, presumably through a modulation of neuronal excitability. Because the effects of SES can outlast the period of stimulation, we examined the possibility that SES can also enhance the retention of motor performance, motor memory consolidation, after 24 h (Day 2) and 7 days (Day 7), that such effects would be scaled by SES duration, and that such effects were mediated by changes in aspects of corticospinal excitability, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Healthy young adults (n = 40) received either 20 (SES-20), 40 (SES-40), or 60 min (SES-60) of real SES, or sham SES (SES-0). The results showed SES-20 increased visuomotor performance on Day 2 (15%) and Day 7 (17%) and SES-60 increased visuomotor performance on Day 7 (11%; all p < 0.05) compared with SES-0. Specific responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) increased immediately after SES (p < 0.05) but not on Days 2 and 7. In addition, changes in behavioral and neurophysiological parameters did not correlate, suggesting that paths and structures other than the ones TMS can assay must be (also) involved in the increases in visuomotor performance after SES. As examined in the present study, low-intensity peripheral electrical nerve stimulation did not have acute effects on healthy adults' visuomotor performance but SES had delayed effects in the form of enhanced motor memory consolidation that were not scaled by the duration of SES. PMID:27014043

  9. Quantitative analysis of somatosensory cortex development in metatherians and monotremes, with comparison to the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2015-01-01

    Metatherians and monotremes are born in an immature state, followed by prolonged nurturing by maternal lactation. Quantitative analysis of isocortical sections held in the collections at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin was used to compare the pace of somatosensory cortex development relative to body size and pallial thickness between metatherian groups, monotremes, and the laboratory rat. Analysis indicated that the pace of pallial growth in the monotremes is much lower than that in the metatherians or laboratory rat, with an estimated 8.6-fold increase in parietal cortex thickness between 10 and 100 mm body length, compared to a 10- to 20-fold increase among the metatherians and the rat. It was found that aggregation of cortical plate neurons occurs at similar embryo size in the mammals studied (around 8-14 mm body length) and a similar pallial thickness (around 200 µm), but that proliferative zone involution occurs at a much higher body size and pallial thickness in the monotremes compared to the metatherians and the laboratory rat. The observations suggest that cortical development in the monotremes is slower and subject to different regulatory signals to the therians studied. The slow pace may be related to either generally slower metabolism in monotremes or less efficient nutrient supply to the offspring due to the lack of teats. PMID:25393314

  10. Quantitative analysis of somatosensory cortex development in eutherians, with a comparison with metatherians and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2015-01-01

    Extant eutherians exhibit a wide range of adult brain sizes and degree of cortical gyrification. Quantitative analysis of parietal isocortical sections held in museum collections was used to compare the pace of somatosensory cortex development relative to body size and pallial thickness among diverse eutherian embryos, foetuses, and neonates. Analysis indicated that, for most eutherians, cortical plate aggregation begins at about 6-18 mm greatest length or about 120-320 µm pallial thickness. Expansion of the proliferative compartment occurs at a similar pace in most eutherians, but exceptionally rapidly in hominoids. Involution of the pallial proliferative zones occurs over a wide range of body sizes (42 mm to over 500 mm greatest length) or when the cerebral cortex reaches a thickness of 1.2-9.8 mm depending on the eutherian group. Many of these values overlap with those for metatherians. The findings suggest that there is less evolutionary flexibility in the timing of cortical plate aggregation than in the rate of expansion of the pallial proliferative compartment and the duration of proliferative zone activity. PMID:25884290

  11. Focal physiological uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during somatosensory stimulation in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1986-02-01

    Coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) was studied using multiple sequential administrations of VO-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. In the resting state an excellent correlation between CBF and CMRO2 was found when paired measurements of CBF and CMRO2 from multiple (30-48) brain regions were tested in each of 33 normal subjects. Regional uncoupling of CBF and CMRO2 was found, however, during neuronal activation induced by somatosensory stimulation. Stimulus-induced focal augmentation of cerebral blood flow (29% mean) far exceeded the concomitant local increase in tissue metabolic rate (mean, 5%), when resting-state and stimulated-state measurements were obtained in each of 9 subjects. Stimulus duration had no significant effect on response magnitude or on the degree of CBF-CMRO2 uncoupling observed. Dynamic, physiological regulation of CBF by a mechanism (neuronal or biochemical) dependent on neuronal firing per se, but independent of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, is hypothesized.

  12. Time-frequency component analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Jun-Lin; Chan, Shing-Chow; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Hu, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Background Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) signal usually contains a set of detailed temporal components measured and identified in a time domain, giving meaningful information on physiological mechanisms of the nervous system. The purpose of this study is to measure and identify detailed time-frequency components in normal SEP using time-frequency analysis (TFA) methods and to obtain their distribution pattern in the time-frequency domain. Methods This paper proposes to apply a high-resolution time-frequency analysis algorithm, the matching pursuit (MP), to extract detailed time-frequency components of SEP signals. The MP algorithm decomposes a SEP signal into a number of elementary time-frequency components and provides a time-frequency parameter description of the components. A clustering by estimation of the probability density function in parameter space is followed to identify stable SEP time-frequency components. Results Experimental results on cortical SEP signals of 28 mature rats show that a series of stable SEP time-frequency components can be identified using the MP decomposition algorithm. Based on the statistical properties of the component parameters, an approximated distribution of these components in time-frequency domain is suggested to describe the complex SEP response. Conclusion This study shows that there is a set of stable and minute time-frequency components in SEP signals, which are revealed by the MP decomposition and clustering. These stable SEP components have specific localizations in the time-frequency domain. PMID:19203394

  13. Referral of Touch and Ownership between the Hands and the Role of the Somatosensory Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michael; Konczak, Franziska; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the feeling of body ownership can be fooled by simple visuo-tactile manipulations. Perceptual illusions have been reported in which participants sense phantom touch seen on a rubber hand (rubber hand illusion). While previous studies used homologous limbs for those experiments, we here examined an illusion where people feel phantom touch on a left rubber hand when they see it brushed simultaneously with brushes applied to their right hand. Thus, we investigated a referral of touch from the right to the left hand (across the body midline). Since it is known from animal studies that tactile illusions may alter early sensory processing, we expected a modulation of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) corresponding to this illusion. Neuromagnetic source imaging of the functional topographic organization in SI showed a shift in left SI, associated with the strength of the referral of touch. Hence, we argue that SI seems to be closely associated with this perceptual illusion. The results suggest that the transfer of tactile information across the body midline could be mediated by neurons with bilateral tactile receptive fields (most likely BA2). PMID:23300992

  14. Quantitative analysis of somatosensory cortex development in metatherians and monotremes, with comparison to the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2015-01-01

    Metatherians and monotremes are born in an immature state, followed by prolonged nurturing by maternal lactation. Quantitative analysis of isocortical sections held in the collections at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin was used to compare the pace of somatosensory cortex development relative to body size and pallial thickness between metatherian groups, monotremes, and the laboratory rat. Analysis indicated that the pace of pallial growth in the monotremes is much lower than that in the metatherians or laboratory rat, with an estimated 8.6-fold increase in parietal cortex thickness between 10 and 100 mm body length, compared to a 10- to 20-fold increase among the metatherians and the rat. It was found that aggregation of cortical plate neurons occurs at similar embryo size in the mammals studied (around 8-14 mm body length) and a similar pallial thickness (around 200 µm), but that proliferative zone involution occurs at a much higher body size and pallial thickness in the monotremes compared to the metatherians and the laboratory rat. The observations suggest that cortical development in the monotremes is slower and subject to different regulatory signals to the therians studied. The slow pace may be related to either generally slower metabolism in monotremes or less efficient nutrient supply to the offspring due to the lack of teats.

  15. Quantitative analysis of somatosensory cortex development in eutherians, with a comparison with metatherians and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2015-01-01

    Extant eutherians exhibit a wide range of adult brain sizes and degree of cortical gyrification. Quantitative analysis of parietal isocortical sections held in museum collections was used to compare the pace of somatosensory cortex development relative to body size and pallial thickness among diverse eutherian embryos, foetuses, and neonates. Analysis indicated that, for most eutherians, cortical plate aggregation begins at about 6-18 mm greatest length or about 120-320 µm pallial thickness. Expansion of the proliferative compartment occurs at a similar pace in most eutherians, but exceptionally rapidly in hominoids. Involution of the pallial proliferative zones occurs over a wide range of body sizes (42 mm to over 500 mm greatest length) or when the cerebral cortex reaches a thickness of 1.2-9.8 mm depending on the eutherian group. Many of these values overlap with those for metatherians. The findings suggest that there is less evolutionary flexibility in the timing of cortical plate aggregation than in the rate of expansion of the pallial proliferative compartment and the duration of proliferative zone activity.

  16. Somatosensory areas of manatee cerebral cortex: histochemical characterization and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Sarko, D K; Reep, R L

    2007-01-01

    A histochemical and cytoarchitectural analysis was completed for the neocortex of the Florida manatee in order to localize primary sensory areas and particularly primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Based on the location of cytochrome oxidase-dense staining in flattened cortex preparations, preliminary functional divisions were assigned for SI with the face represented laterally followed by the flipper, body and tail representations proceeding medially. The neonate exhibited four distinct patches in the frontoparietal cortex (presumptive SI), whereas juvenile and adult specimens demonstrated a distinct pattern in which cytochrome oxidase-dense staining appeared to be blended into one large patch extending dorsomedially. This differential staining between younger versus older more developed animals was also seen on coronal sections stained for cytochrome oxidase, myelin, or Nissl bodies. These were systematically analyzed in order to accurately localize the laminar and cytoarchitectural extent of cytochrome oxidase staining. Overall, SI appears to span seven cytoarchitectural areas to which we have assigned presumptive functional representations based on the relative locations of cytochrome oxidase-dense staining. PMID:16912474

  17. Morphometric analysis of feedforward pathways from the primary somatosensory area (S1) of rats.

    PubMed

    Sá, A L de; Bahia, C P; Correa, V C; Dias, I A; Batista, C; Gomes-Leal, W; Pinho, A L S; Houzel, J C; Picanço-Diniz, C W; Pereira, A

    2016-01-01

    We used biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to anterogradely label individual axons projecting from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to four different cortical areas in rats. A major goal was to determine whether axon terminals in these target areas shared morphometric similarities based on the shape of individual terminal arbors and the density of two bouton types: en passant (Bp) and terminaux (Bt). Evidence from tridimensional reconstructions of isolated axon terminal fragments (n=111) did support a degree of morphological heterogeneity establishing two broad groups of axon terminals. Morphological parameters associated with the complexity of terminal arbors and the proportion of beaded Bp vs stalked Bt were found to differ significantly in these two groups following a discriminant function statistical analysis across axon fragments. Interestingly, both groups occurred in all four target areas, possibly consistent with a commonality of presynaptic processing of tactile information. These findings lay the ground for additional work aiming to investigate synaptic function at the single bouton level and see how this might be associated with emerging properties in postsynaptic targets. PMID:27191604

  18. Being watched: the effect of social self-focus on interoceptive and exteroceptive somatosensory perception.

    PubMed

    Durlik, Caroline; Cardini, Flavia; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-04-01

    We become aware of our bodies interoceptively, by processing signals arising from within the body, and exteroceptively, by processing signals arising on or outside the body. Recent research highlights the importance of the interaction of exteroceptive and interoceptive signals in modulating bodily self-consciousness. The current study investigated the effect of social self-focus, manipulated via a video camera that was facing the participants and that was either switched on or off, on interoceptive sensitivity (using a heartbeat perception task) and on tactile perception (using the Somatic Signal Detection Task (SSDT)). The results indicated a significant effect of self-focus on SSDT performance, but not on interoception. SSDT performance was not moderated by interoceptive sensitivity, although interoceptive sensitivity scores were positively correlated with false alarms, independently of self-focus. Together with previous research, our results suggest that self-focus may exert different effects on body perception depending on its mode (private versus social). While interoception has been previously shown to be enhanced by private self-focus, the current study failed to find an effect of social self-focus on interoceptive sensitivity, instead demonstrating that social self-focus improves exteroceptive somatosensory processing.

  19. The embodiment of emotion: language use during the feeling of social emotions predicts cortical somatosensory activity.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Borofsky, Larissa A; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2013-10-01

    Complex social emotions involve both abstract cognitions and bodily sensations, and individuals may differ on their relative reliance on these. We hypothesized that individuals' descriptions of their feelings during a semi-structured emotion induction interview would reveal two distinct psychological styles-a more abstract, cognitive style and a more body-based, affective style-and that these would be associated with somatosensory neural activity. We examined 28 participants' open-ended verbal responses to admiration- and compassion-provoking narratives in an interview and BOLD activity to the same narratives during subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Consistent with hypotheses, individuals' affective and cognitive word use were stable across emotion conditions, negatively correlated and unrelated to reported emotion strength in the scanner. Greater use of affective relative to cognitive words predicted more activation in SI, SII, middle anterior cingulate cortex and insula during emotion trials. The results suggest that individuals' verbal descriptions of their feelings reflect differential recruitment of neural regions supporting physical body awareness. Although somatosensation has long been recognized as an important component of emotion processing, these results offer 'proof of concept' that individual differences in open-ended speech reflect different processing styles at the neurobiological level. This study also demonstrates SI involvement during social emotional experience. PMID:22798396

  20. Selectivity of conditioned fear of touch is modulated by somatosensory precision.

    PubMed

    Harvie, Daniel S; Meulders, Ann; Reid, Emily; Camfferman, Danny; Brinkworth, Russell S A; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-06-01

    Learning to initiate defenses in response to specific signals of danger is adaptive. Some chronic pain conditions, however, are characterized by widespread anxiety, avoidance, and pain consistent with a loss of defensive response specificity. Response specificity depends on ability to discriminate between safe and threatening stimuli; therefore, specificity might depend on sensory precision. This would help explain the high prevalence of chronic pain in body areas of low tactile acuity, such as the lower back, and clarify why improving sensory precision may reduce chronic pain. We compared the acquisition and generalization of fear of pain-associated vibrotactile stimuli delivered to either the hand (high tactile acuity) or the back (low tactile acuity). During acquisition, tactile stimulation at one location (CS+) predicted the noxious electrocutaneous stimulation (US), while tactile stimulation at another location (CS-) did not. Responses to three stimuli with decreasing spatial proximity to the CS+ (generalizing stimuli; GS1-3) were tested. Differential learning and generalization were compared between groups. The main outcome of fear-potentiated startle responses showed differential learning only in the hand group. Self-reported fear and expectancy confirmed differential learning and limited generalization in the hand group, and suggested undifferentiated fear and expectancy in the back group. Differences in generalization could not be inferred from the startle data. Specificity of fear responses appears to be affected by somatosensory precision. This has implications for our understanding of the role of sensory imprecision in the development of chronic pain. PMID:26950514

  1. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex Modulates Perception of the Tendon Vibration Illusion.

    PubMed

    Huh, D C; Lee, J M; Oh, S M; Lee, J-H; Van Donkelaar, P; Lee, D H

    2016-10-01

    The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on kinesthetic perception, when applied to the somatosensory cortex, was examined. Further, the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation using different stimulation frequencies were tested. Six female (M age = 32.0 years, SD = 6.7) and nine male (M age = 32.9 years, SD = 6.6) participants were asked to perceive the tendon vibration illusion of the left wrist joint and to replicate the illusion with their right hand. When comparing changes in the corresponding movement amplitude and velocity after three different repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols (sham, 1 Hz inhibitory, and 5 Hz facilitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation), the movement amplitude was found to decrease with the inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, while the movement velocity respectively increased and decreased with the facilitatory and inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. These results confirmed the modulating effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on kinesthetic perception in a single experimental paradigm.

  2. Design of a New Somatosensory Stimulus Delivery Device for Measuring Laryngeal Mechanosensory Detection Thresholds in Humans

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Laryngeal control is essential for airway protection, breathing, deglutition, speech, and voice. Unfortunately, integration of laryngeal sensory assessment in research and clinical practice is limited by technical and practical limitations of commercially available technology. A commercial device is available, but reported limitations include procedural complexity requiring two or three individuals to operate, limited stimulus dynamic range, device generated noise, and questionable stimulus reproducibility. The objective of this study was to design a new laryngeal somatosensory stimulus delivery device that provides direct, reliable control over the timing, duration, and dynamic range of stimulus presentation, and test the device in individuals who may manifest a laryngeal sensory deficit. The new device operates silently and has more than four times greater stimulus dynamic range than the commercial device. Testing with the new device revealed laryngeal mechanosensory detection thresholds in an individual with Parkinson’s disease that were seven times higher than those of healthy controls. These data would have otherwise gone undetected due to limited stimulus dynamic range in the commercial device. The new design resulted in a new assessment instrument that is simple to use for routine clinical assessment, yet sufficiently versatile for integration within rigorous clinical research protocols. PMID:19272888

  3. [Variations in the configuration of somatosensory evoked potentials following stimulation of the median nerve].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1989-09-01

    The variants of waveform patterns of cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation at the wrist were analysed in 86 normal subjects aged 15 to 71 years. In cervical SEP recordings the components N13, N14 and the trough-shaped variant of P17 showed the highest short-term stability. Immediate changes of the amplitude proportions of subcomponents within the potential, i.e. a lack of uniformity in waveforms, have to be considered normal. Significant associations were found between the occurrence of components N14 and an arm length of more than 68 cm and between the appearance of a plateau configuration of P17 and an age of at least 40 years. Considering definite criteria the latency of P17 can be used as an additional reliable parameter. In cortical SEP recordings the combination of an initial V-shaped pattern and a following bifid W-configuration appeared as the most frequent waveform profile. All parts of the potential but the positive waves of the primary complex revealed a high intraindividual stability. PMID:2507276

  4. The embodiment of emotion: language use during the feeling of social emotions predicts cortical somatosensory activity.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Borofsky, Larissa A; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2013-10-01

    Complex social emotions involve both abstract cognitions and bodily sensations, and individuals may differ on their relative reliance on these. We hypothesized that individuals' descriptions of their feelings during a semi-structured emotion induction interview would reveal two distinct psychological styles-a more abstract, cognitive style and a more body-based, affective style-and that these would be associated with somatosensory neural activity. We examined 28 participants' open-ended verbal responses to admiration- and compassion-provoking narratives in an interview and BOLD activity to the same narratives during subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Consistent with hypotheses, individuals' affective and cognitive word use were stable across emotion conditions, negatively correlated and unrelated to reported emotion strength in the scanner. Greater use of affective relative to cognitive words predicted more activation in SI, SII, middle anterior cingulate cortex and insula during emotion trials. The results suggest that individuals' verbal descriptions of their feelings reflect differential recruitment of neural regions supporting physical body awareness. Although somatosensation has long been recognized as an important component of emotion processing, these results offer 'proof of concept' that individual differences in open-ended speech reflect different processing styles at the neurobiological level. This study also demonstrates SI involvement during social emotional experience.

  5. Correlation of fingertip shear force direction with somatosensory cortical activity in monkey.

    PubMed

    Fortier-Poisson, Pascal; Langlais, Jean-Sébastien; Smith, Allan M

    2016-01-01

    To examine the activity of somatosensory cortex (S1) neurons to self-generated shear forces on the index and thumb, two monkeys were trained to grasp a stationary metal tab with a key grip and exert forces without the fingers slipping in one of four orthogonal directions for 1 s. A majority (∼85%) of slowly adapting and rapidly adapting (RA) S1 neurons had activity modulated with shear force direction. The cells were recorded mainly in areas 1 and 2 of the S1, although some area 3b neurons also responded to shear direction or magnitude. The preferred shear vectors were distributed in every direction, with tuning arcs varying from 50° to 170°. Some RA neurons sensitive to dynamic shear force direction also responded to static shear force but within a narrower range, suggesting that the direction of the shear force may influence the adaptation rate. Other neurons were modulated with shear forces in diametrically opposite directions. The directional sensitivity of S1 cortical neurons is consistent with recordings from cutaneous afferents showing that shear direction, even without slip, is a powerful stimulus to S1 neurons. PMID:26467520

  6. Somatosensory evoked potentials and neuraxial blood flow in central nervous system decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Leitch, D R; Hallenbeck, J M

    1984-10-01

    Seven adult, conditioned dogs were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and prepared for measurement of upper lumbar, mid-thoracic and lower cervical spinal evoked potentials (SEPs), cortical evoked potential (CEP), and aortic, right ventricular, and cerebrospinal fluid pressures. Following preparation, one animal was monitored by means of repeated evoked potentials for 2 h, at which time a [14C]iodoantipyrine autoradiographic blood flow study was performed. The 6 other animals were exposed to simulated dives in a compression chamber while anesthesia was maintained through a chamber penetration. These animals developed decompression sickness (DCS) of varying severity upon returning to the surface, and the corresponding decrements in neuronal function of the cord and the brain were measured by means of serial SEP and CEP recording. Following this evoked potential recording, [14C]iodoantipyrine autoradiographic blood flow studies were performed. The results indicated that clear reductions in SEP and CEP amplitude were associated with very low blood flows, which were in the 'neuron-disabling' range. Spinal and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials provide a valuable index with which to monitor and manage a model of spinal cord DCS. PMID:6498488

  7. Effects of anesthesia on BOLD signal and neuronal activity in the somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Daniil P; Li, Limin; Miller, Michael J; Iordanescu, Gheorghe; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2015-11-01

    Most functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) animal studies rely on anesthesia, which can induce a variety of drug-dependent physiological changes, including depression of neuronal activity and cerebral metabolism as well as direct effects on the vasculature. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of anesthesia on the BOLD signal and neuronal activity. Simultaneous fMRI and electrophysiology were used to measure changes in single units (SU), multi-unit activity (MUA), local field potentials (LFP), and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response in the somatosensory cortex during whisker stimulation of rabbits before, during and after anesthesia with fentanyl or isoflurane. Our results indicate that anesthesia modulates the BOLD signal as well as both baseline and stimulus-evoked neuronal activity, and, most significantly, that the relationship between the BOLD and electrophysiological signals depends on the type of anesthetic. Specifically, the behavior of LFP observed under isoflurane did not parallel the behavior of BOLD, SU, or MUA. These findings suggest that the relationship between these signals may not be straightforward. BOLD may scale more closely with the best measure of the excitatory subcomponents of the underlying neuronal activity, which may vary according to experimental conditions that alter the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the cortex.

  8. Somatosensory evoked potentials during natural and learning rearrangements of posture accompanied by limb elevation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gavrilenko, T; Frolov, A G; Ioffe, M E; Ganchev, G N; Aleksandrov, A V; Pavlova, O G

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the functional state of the sensorimotor cortex associated with reorganization of the natural pattern of postural rearrangement before limb elevation (the "diagonal" patten and of an artificial rearrangement (the "unilateral" pattern) were studied in dogs. The state of cortical structures on postural rearrangement was assessed in terms of the pattern of somatosensory evoked potentials produced in response to stimulation of the forelimb during postural preparation of the animal for elevating the hindlimb (acquired avoidance response to a sound signal). Evoked potentials during the natural postural preparation (the "diagonal" pattern) were compared with those during the altered pattern of postural preparation (the "unilateral" pattern), this preparation taking place prior to elevation of the limb. Controls consisted of evoked potentials in the resting state. Decreases were seen in the latencies and amplitudes of most components of evoked potentials during postural rearrangement. In general, changes in evoked potentials were less marked in the "unilateral" pattern than in the "diagonal" pattern, though the differences were significant only for the amplitude of the first negative component. Changes in evoked potentials were similar regardless of whether the supporting forces of the limb to which the test stimulus was applied increased or decreased during postural rearrangement. It is suggested that differences in evoked potentials may reflect changes in the interaction between neuronal populations within the sensorimotor cortex during reorganization of the pattern of postural rearrangement associated with learning.

  9. [Somatosensory evoked potentials during natural and learned patterns of postural adjustment, accompanying limb movements in dogs].

    PubMed

    Gavrilenko, T; Frolov, A G; Ioffe, M E; Ganchev, G N; Aleksandrov, A V; Pavlova, O G

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the study was to investigate cortical reorganization corresponding to inhibition of innate motor patterns during motor learning. Functional changes in the sensorimotor cortex during learned rearrangement of the natural diagonal pattern of postural adjustment (PA) accompanying a hindlimb movement into a new one, the so-called unilateral pattern, were studied in dogs by testing somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) in response to stimulation of a forelimb during PA immediately before the limb movement onset. During PA the latency and the amplitude of several SEP components decreased. In general, changes in SEP were less pronounced in the learned unilateral pattern of postural adjustment in comparison with the innate diagonal pattern, but the difference was significant only for some SEP components. The SEP late positivity in the learned postural pattern was replaced by a negativity. The SEP changes were similar independently of whether the test stimulus was applied on the forelimb loaded or unloaded during postural adjustment. The data suggest that changes in interrelations between different neuronal populations in the sensorimotor cortex during formation and realization of a learned motor program can be reflected in SEP changes.

  10. Laminar Differences in Dendritic Structure of Pyramidal Neurons in the Juvenile Rat Somatosensory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Concepción; Leguey, Ignacio; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Pyramidal cell structure varies between different cortical areas and species, indicating that the cortical circuits that these cells participate in are likely to be characterized by different functional capabilities. Structural differences between cortical layers have been traditionally reported using either the Golgi method or intracellular labeling, but the structure of pyramidal cells has not previously been systematically analyzed across all cortical layers at a particular age. In the present study, we investigated the dendritic architecture of complete basal arbors of pyramidal neurons in layers II, III, IV, Va, Vb, and VI of the hindlimb somatosensory cortical region of postnatal day 14 rats. We found that the characteristics of basal dendritic morphologies are statistically different in each cortical layer. The variations in size and branching pattern that exist between pyramidal cells of different cortical layers probably reflect the particular functional properties that are characteristic of the cortical circuit in which they participate. This new set of complete basal dendritic arbors of 3D-reconstructed pyramidal cell morphologies across each cortical layer will provide new insights into interlaminar information processing in the cerebral cortex.

  11. Postural control in down syndrome: the use of somatosensory and visual information to attenuate body sway.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Matheus M; Barela, José A

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual and somatosensory information on body sway in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Nine adults with DS (19-29 years old) and nine control subjects (CS) (19-29 years old) stood in the upright stance in four experimental conditions: no vision and no touch; vision and no touch; no vision and touch; and vision and touch. In the vision condition, participants looked at a target placed in front of them; in the no vision condition, participants wore a black cotton mask. In the touch condition, participants touched a stationary surface with their right index finger; in the no touch condition, participants kept their arms hanging alongside their bodies. A force plate was used to estimate center of pressure excursion for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. MANOVA revealed that both the individuals with DS and the control subjects used vision and touch to reduce overall body sway, although individuals with DS still oscillated more than did the CS. These results indicate that adults with DS are able to use sensory information to reduce body sway, and they demonstrate that there is no difference in sensory integration between the individuals with DS and the CS.

  12. Roll rotation cues influence roll tilt perception assayed using a somatosensory technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Sukyung; Gianna-Poulin, Claire; Black, F Owen; Wood, Scott; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    We investigated how the nervous system processes ambiguous cues from the otolith organs by measuring roll tilt perception elicited by two motion paradigms. In one paradigm (tilt), eight subjects were sinusoidally tilted in roll with the axis of rotation near ear level. Stimulus frequencies ranged from 0.005 to 0.7 Hz, and the peak amplitude of tilt was 20 degrees . During this paradigm, subjects experienced a sinusoidal variation of interaural gravitational force with a peak of 0.34 g. The second motion paradigm (translation) was designed to yield the same sinusoidal variation in interaural force but did not include a roll canal cue. This was achieved by sinusoidally translating the subjects along their interaural axis. For the 0.7-Hz translation trial, the subjects were simply translated from side to side. A centrifuge was used for the 0.005- to 0.5-Hz translation trials; the subjects were rotated in yaw at 250 degrees /s for 5 min before initiating sinusoidal translations yielding an interaural otolith stimulus composed of both centrifugal and radial acceleration. Using a somatosensory task to measure roll tilt perception, we found substantial differences in tilt perception during the two motion paradigms. Because the primary difference between the two motion paradigms was the presence of roll canal cues during roll tilt trials, these perceptual differences suggest that canal cues influence tilt perception. Specifically, rotational cues provided by the semicircular canals help the CNS resolve ambiguous otolith cues during head tilt, yielding more accurate tilt perception.

  13. Psychosocial and Somatosensory Factors in Women with Chronic Migraine and Painful Temporomandibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grande-Alonso, Mónica; La Touche, Roy; Lara-Lara, Manuel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Psychosocial and somatosensory factors are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic migraine (CM) and chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Objective. To compare and assess the relationship between pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia in patients with CM or chronic TMD. Method. Cross-sectional study of 20 women with CM, 19 with chronic TMD, and 20 healthy volunteers. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were assessed. The level of education, pain intensity, and magnitude of temporal summation of stimuli in the masseter (STM) and tibialis (STT) muscles were also evaluated. Results. There were significant differences between the CM and chronic TMD groups, compared with the group of asymptomatic subjects, for all variables (p < .05) except kinesiophobia when comparing patients with CM and healthy women. Moderate correlations between kinesiophobia and catastrophizing (r = 0.46; p < .01) were obtained, and the strongest association was between kinesiophobia and magnification (r = 0.52; p < .01). The strongest associations among physical variables were found between the STM on both sides (r = 0.93; p < .01) and between the left and right STT (r = 0.76; p < .01). Conclusion. No differences were observed in pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia between women with CM and with chronic TMD. Women with CM or chronic TMD showed higher levels of pain catastrophizing than asymptomatic subjects.

  14. Parallel pathways from motor and somatosensory cortex for controlling whisker movements in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Varun; Karmakar, Kajari; Rijli, Filippo M; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-01-01

    Mice can gather tactile sensory information by actively moving their whiskers to palpate objects in their immediate surroundings. Whisker sensory perception therefore requires integration of sensory and motor information, which occurs prominently in the neocortex. The signalling pathways from the neocortex for controlling whisker movements are currently poorly understood in mice. Here, we delineate two pathways, one originating from primary whisker somatosensory cortex (wS1) and the other from whisker motor cortex (wM1), that control qualitatively distinct movements of contralateral whiskers. Optogenetic stimulation of wS1 drove retraction of contralateral whiskers while stimulation of wM1 drove rhythmic whisker protraction. To map brainstem pathways connecting these cortical areas to whisker motor neurons, we used a combination of anterograde tracing using adenoassociated virus injected into neocortex and retrograde tracing using monosynaptic rabies virus injected into whisker muscles. Our data are consistent with wS1 driving whisker retraction by exciting glutamatergic premotor neurons in the rostral spinal trigeminal interpolaris nucleus, which in turn activate the motor neurons innervating the extrinsic retractor muscle nasolabialis. The rhythmic whisker protraction evoked by wM1 stimulation might be driven by excitation of excitatory and inhibitory premotor neurons in the brainstem reticular formation innervating both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Our data therefore begin to unravel the neuronal circuits linking the neocortex to whisker motor neurons. PMID:25476605

  15. Detection of Position-Related Sciatic Nerve Dysfunction by Somatosensory Evoked Potentials During Spinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kent; Scott, Andrew; Guyot, Anne

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are sensitive to plexus and peripheral nerve dysfunction related to malpositioning of patients during spinal surgery. While most reports focus on upper extremity nerve or brachial plexus effects, there is very little on detection of sciatic nerve compromise. Recording of the SSEP at the popliteal fossa is a common strategy to aid in troubleshooting stimulus-related problems or distal peripheral tibial nerve failure; yet position-related sciatic nerve effects may not be realized by changes in the popliteal fossa response. Three posterior lumbar surgeries are reviewed in which there was evidence of proximal lower extremity peripheral nerve dysfunction related to positioning. Loss of posterior tibial nerve SSEPs with preservation of the peripheral popliteal fossa response recording occurred in the absence of critical surgical manipulations. Efforts at repositioning and release of tension on the lower limbs promptly resulted in recovey of lost responses. Two of the three cases involved patients in a kneeling position with a tight strap across the posterior thigh. Standard SSEP recordings used in intraoperative neuromonitoring do not specifically localize intraoperative changes to the sciatic nerve; thus, such changes affecting SSEPs above the popliteal fossa mimic iatrogenic changes occurring at the surgical site. These case reports show that when the stage of surgery does not support iatrogenic changes, malpositioning affecting sciatic nerve should be considered, especially for patients placed in a kneeling position on an Andrews frame.

  16. Laminar Differences in Dendritic Structure of Pyramidal Neurons in the Juvenile Rat Somatosensory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Concepción; Leguey, Ignacio; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Pyramidal cell structure varies between different cortical areas and species, indicating that the cortical circuits that these cells participate in are likely to be characterized by different functional capabilities. Structural differences between cortical layers have been traditionally reported using either the Golgi method or intracellular labeling, but the structure of pyramidal cells has not previously been systematically analyzed across all cortical layers at a particular age. In the present study, we investigated the dendritic architecture of complete basal arbors of pyramidal neurons in layers II, III, IV, Va, Vb, and VI of the hindlimb somatosensory cortical region of postnatal day 14 rats. We found that the characteristics of basal dendritic morphologies are statistically different in each cortical layer. The variations in size and branching pattern that exist between pyramidal cells of different cortical layers probably reflect the particular functional properties that are characteristic of the cortical circuit in which they participate. This new set of complete basal dendritic arbors of 3D-reconstructed pyramidal cell morphologies across each cortical layer will provide new insights into interlaminar information processing in the cerebral cortex. PMID:26762857

  17. Long-term stability of sensitivity to intracortical microstimulation of somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callier, Thierri; Schluter, Erik W.; Tabot, Gregg A.; Miller, Lee E.; Tenore, Francesco V.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. The dexterous manipulation of objects depends heavily on somatosensory signals from the limb. The development of anthropomorphic robotic arms and of algorithms to decode intended movements from neuronal signals has stimulated the need to restore somatosensation for use in upper-limb neuroprostheses. Without touch and proprioception, patients have difficulty controlling prosthetic limbs to a level that justifies the required invasive surgery. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) through chronically implanted electrode arrays has the potential to provide rich and intuitive sensory feedback. This approach to sensory restoration requires, however, that the evoked sensations remain stable over time. Approach. To investigate the stability of ICMS-evoked sensations, we measured the ability of non-human primates to detect ICMS over experimental sessions that spanned years. Main results. We found that the performance of the animals remained highly stable over time, even when they were tested with electrodes that had experienced extensive stimulation. Significance. Given the stability of the sensations that it evokes, ICMS may thus be a viable approach for sensory restoration.